New Parties to WIPO Administered Treaties in 2007
During 2007, 34 instruments of accession or ratification of treaties administered by WIPO were deposited with WIPO Director General Kamil Idris.
In the field of industrial property
Paris Convention - The Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property was concluded in 1883 and is one of the pillars of the international intellectual property (IP) system. It applies to industrial property in the widest sense, including inventions, marks, industrial designs, utility models (a kind of “small patent” provided for by the laws of some countries), trade names (designations under which an industrial or commercial activity is carried on), geographical indications (indications of source and appellations of origin) and the repression of unfair competition.
- In 2007, Angola (1) adhered to the Paris Convention, bringing the total number of States to 172.
Patent Cooperation Treaty - The Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) was concluded in 1970. The PCT makes it possible to seek patent protection for an invention simultaneously in each of a large number of countries by filing an “international” patent application. Such an application may be filed by anyone who is a national or resident of a Contracting State. The Treaty regulates the formal requirements with which any international application must comply.
- In 2007, Angola and the Dominican Republic (2) adhered to the PCT bringing the total number of States to 138.
Madrid Agreement and Madrid Protocol - The Madrid System for the International Registration of Marks (the Madrid System) is governed by two treaties: the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks (Madrid Agreement) and the Protocol Relating to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks (Madrid Protocol).
The Madrid Agreement was concluded in 1891, and the Madrid Protocol was concluded in 1989 in order to introduce certain new features into the Madrid system. These address the difficulties that prevent certain countries from adhering to the Madrid Agreement by rendering the system more flexible and more compatible with the domestic legislation of these countries.
- In 2007, Azerbaijan, Oman and San Marino (3) adhered to the Madrid Protocol, bringing the total number of States/Intergovernmental Organizations to 74.
Trademark Law Treaty - The Trademark Law Treaty (TLT) was concluded in 1994 and aims to approximate and streamline national and regional trademark registration procedures through the simplification and harmonization of certain features of those procedures, thus making trademark applications and the administration of trademark registrations in multiple jurisdictions less complex and more predictable.
- In 2007, Oman (1) adhered to the TLT, bringing the total number of States to 39.
Singapore Treaty on the Law of Trademarks - The Singapore Treaty was concluded in 2006. The objective is to create a modern and dynamic international framework for the harmonization of administrative trademark registration procedures.
- In 2007, Singapore and Switzerland (2) adhered to the Singapore Treaty, bringing the total number of States to 2. The Singapore treaty will enter into force three months after ten instruments of ratification or accession by States/International Organizations have been deposited with the Director General.
Strasbourg Agreement - The Strasbourg Agreement Concerning the International Patent Classification was concluded in 1971 and establishes the International Patent Classification (IPC). The IPC divides technology into eight sections with approximately 70,000 subdivisions. Each subdivision has a symbol which is allotted by the national or regional industrial property office that publishes the patent document.
- In 2007, Argentina (1) adhered to the Strasbourg Agreement, bringing the total number of States to 58.
Nice Agreement - The Nice Agreement Concerning the International Classification of Goods and Services for the Purposes of the Registration of Marks was concluded in 1957. The Nice Agreement establishes a classification of goods and services for the purposes of registering trademarks and service marks. The Classification consists of a list of classes (based on types of products and services) of which there are 34 for goods and 11 for services and an alphabetical list of the goods and services.
- In 2007, Argentina and Malaysia (2) adhered to the Nice Agreement, bringing the total number of States to 82.
Vienna Agreement - The Vienna Agreement Establishing an International Classification of the Figurative Elements of Marks was concluded in 1973. The Vienna Agreement establishes a classification system for marks consisting of or containing figurative elements. The classification comprises 29 categories, 144 divisions and some 1,887 sections in which the figurative elements of marks are classified.
- In 2007, Malaysia (1) adhered to the Vienna Agreement, bringing the total number of States to 24.
Locarno Agreement - The Locarno Agreement Establishing an International Classification for Industrial Designs was concluded in 1968. The Locarno Agreement establishes a classification for industrial designs, which consists of 32 classes and 223 subclasses based on different types of products. It also comprises an alphabetical list of goods with an indication of the classes and subclasses into which these goods fall. The list contains some 6,600 indications of different kinds of goods.
- In 2007, Armenia (1) adhered to the Locarno Agreement, bringing the total number of States to 49.
Budapest Treaty - The Budapest Treaty on the International Recognition of the Deposit of Microorganisms for the Purposes of Patent Procedure was concluded in 1977. The main feature of the Budapest Treaty is that a Contracting State which allows or requires the deposit of microorganisms for the purposes of patent procedure must recognize, for such purposes, the deposit of a microorganism with any “international depositary authority, ” irrespective of whether such authority is on or outside the territory of the said State. This eliminates the need to deposit in each country in which protection is sought.
- In 2007, The Dominican Republic and Oman (2) adhered to the Budapest Treaty, bringing the total number of States to 68.
The Hague Agreement - The system of international registration of industrial designs is governed by the Hague Agreement Concerning the International Deposit of Industrial Designs which dates from 1925 and has been revised at various times, in particular in London (1934 Act) and the Hague (1960 Act).
The Geneva Act of the Hague Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Industrial Designs was concluded in 1999. The Act is aimed at making the system more responsive to the needs of users and facilitating adherence by countries whose industrial designs systems do not permit them to accede to the 1960 Hague Act.
- In 2007, Albania, Armenia, the European Community and Mongolia (4) adhered to the Geneva Act of the Hague Agreement, bringing the total number of States/IGOs to 25.
Patent Law Treaty -The Patent Law Treaty (PLT) was concluded in 2000. The purpose of the PLT is to harmonize and streamline formal procedures in respect of national and regional patent applications and patents. With a significant exception for the filing date requirements, the PLT provides maximum sets of requirements which the office of a contracting party may apply: the office may not lay down any other formal requirements in respect of matters dealt with by this Treaty.
- In 2007, Hungary, Oman and Sweden (3) adhered to the PLT, bringing the total number of States to 17.
In the field of copyright and related rights
Rome Convention - The Rome Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations, concluded in 1961, secures protection of performers on their performances, phonograms of producers of phonograms and broadcasts of broadcasting organizations.
- In 2007, Algeria and Vietnam (2) adhered to the Rome Convention, bringing the total number of States to 86.
WIPO Copyright Treaty - The WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT) was concluded in 1996. It recognizes copyright protection for two additional subject matters: (i) computer programs and (ii) compilations of data or other material (“databases”) in any form, which by reason of the selection or arrangement of their contents constitute intellectual creations, and it grants new rights corresponding to the new forms of exploitation of works in the digital environment.
- In 2007, Australia, Liechtenstein and the People’s Republic of China (3) adhered to the WCT, bringing the total number of States to 64.
WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty - The WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty (WPPT) was concluded in 1996. The Treaty deals with intellectual property rights of two kinds of beneficiaries: (i) performers (actors, singers, musicians, etc.), and (ii) producers of phonograms (the persons or legal entities who or which take the initiative and have the responsibility for the fixation of the sounds). They are dealt with in the same instrument because most of the rights granted by the Treaty to performers are rights connected with their fixed, purely aural performances (which are the subject matter of phonograms).
- In 2007, Australia, Liechtenstein and the People’s Republic of China (3) adhered to the WPPT, bringing the total number of States to 62.
Brussels Convention - The Brussels Convention Relating to the Distribution of Programme-Carrying Signals Transmitted by Satellite, concluded in 1974, provides for the obligation of each Contracting State to take adequate measures to prevent the unauthorized distribution on or from its territory of any programme-carrying signal transmitted by satellite. The obligation exists in respect of organizations that are nationals of a Contracting State. The provisions of this Convention are not applicable, however, where the distribution of signals is made from a direct broadcasting satellite.
- In 2007, Bahrain (1) adhered to the Brussels Convention, bringing the total number of States to 30.
Washington Treaty - The Washington treaty on Intellectual Property in respect of Integrated Circuits,concluded in 1989, provides for the obligation of each Contracting Party to secure, throughout its territory, intellectual property protection in respect of layout-designs (topographies) in accordance with this Treaty. It shall, in particular, secure adequate measures to ensure the prevention of acts considered unlawful appropriate legal remedies where such acts have been committed.
- In 2007, Bosnia and Herzegovina (1) adhered to the Washington Treaty, bringing the total number of States to 3. The treaty will enter into force three months after the fifth instrument of ratification or accession by States have been deposited with the Director General.