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Creators' Income Situation in the Digital Age
Economic Research Working Paper No. 49
The digital transformation imposes both opportunities and risks for creativity and for creative employment, with implications for trends in income levels and the distribution of income. First, we consider skill-biased technological change as a determinant of income and labor market outcomes in the arts. Arguably, the IT revolution has changed the demand for certain skills, with creative occupations being more in demand than general employment. Second, we consider declines in the costs of generating new works and artistic experimentation due to digital technologies, and their effect on the barriers to entry in labor markets. Third, we touch upon the rise of online contract labor in certain creative professions as a determinant of income. Here, online platforms can change creators' access to work opportunities and it may alter the way income is distributed. We find that wage trends for creative workers in the digital age outperform general trends in the population: based on various data sources and various ways to identify creators, we see creators losing less or even gaining a better income position in relative terms. From a policy perspective, results do not lend support to the idea that creators' income situation has systematically worsened with the rise of the internet and its intermediaries. Evidence on changing distributions of income is ambiguous as trends differ from one country to the next.
Publication year: 2018
Intellectual Property and Folk, Arts and Cultural Festivals
This Guide provides general information about intellectual property (IP) and cultural interests. It identifies the main IP challenges faced by festival organizers and outlines some practical elements of an effective IP management strategy, following a step-by-step approach.
The economic analysis of patent litigation data
Economic Research Working Paper No. 48
Enforceability of patent rights is the backbone of the patent system. We review differences in the way patent litigation systems are designed across jurisdictions. We also discuss challenges in collecting and accessing patent litigation data as well as their economic analysis. We provide some descriptive analysis of patent litigation in the U.S. and UK for the period 2010-2016 and 2007-2013, respectively. We also analyze administrative post-grant validity challenges in form of the inter partes review in the U.S. and oppositions at the EPO.
Intellectual property use in middle income countries: the case of Chile
Economic Research Working Paper No. 43
We analyze the use of intellectual property (IP) by firms in Chile over the decade 1995-2005 as the then middle-income country experienced rapid economic growth of 4.7 percent per year. We use a novel dataset that contains a combination of detailed firm-level information from the annual manufacturing census, information on firms' innovative activities from Chile's innovation surveys, and firms' patent, industrial design, and trademark filings with the Chilean IP office. We use these data to look at how IP use by companies has changed over time and analyze the determinants of IP use, in particular first-time use. We find that sales growth prompts first-time use of patents and trademarks, though such use does not change the growth trajectory of firms nor does it improve their total factor productivity. We also find that trademark use is associated with new-to-the-world product innovation, which suggests that branding may be an important mechanism to appropriate returns to innovation in a middle-income country like Chile.
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Enhancing Innovation in the Ugandan Agri-Food Sector: Robusta Coffee Planting Material & Tropical Fruit Processing
Economic Research Working Paper No. 42
Uganda's innovation performance in recent years has consistently outpaced other low-income and Sub-Saharan African countries. Though encouraging, this nascent progress will only benefit the broader Ugandan population if policy makers address specific constraints in the innovation systems of the critical agri-food sector, which is hampered by low productivity and profitability. In this report, we explore these constraints using an agricultural value chains framework with particular focus on the Robusta Coffee Planting Material Pipeline and tropical fruit processing.