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Decree No. 165/1994 of February 3, 1994, setting out the Legal Framework of Protection for the Different Expressions of Works of Software and Databases, and their Various Means of Reproduction, Argentina

Latest Version in WIPO Lex
Details Details Year of Version 1994 Dates Entry into force: February 16, 1994 Adopted: February 3, 1994 Type of Text Implementing Rules/Regulations Subject Matter Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights), IP Regulatory Body Notes This Decree defines the works of software as referred in Article 1 of Law No. 11.723 (Copyright Law), and especially includes provisions on the database works.
It sets out basis rules on the copyright protection of software and databases, which have not been defined and foreseen in the Law No. 11.723.

Article 2 of the Civil Code stipulates: “Laws shall not be binding until after their publication, and as of the stated day. If no day is stated, they shall be binding eight days following their official publication.”
This Decree was published in the Official Gazette on February 8, 1994 (B.O. 08/02/94), with no specific date of entry into force; based on Article 2 of the Civil Code it entered into force eight days after its publication.

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Main text(s) Main text(s) Spanish Decreto N° 165/1994 de 3 de febrero de 1994 que precisa un marco legal de protección para las diferentes expresiones de las obras de software y base de datos, así como sus diversos medios de reproducción         English Decree No. 165/1994 of February 3, 1994, setting out the Legal Framework of Protection for the Different Expressions of Works of Software and Databases, and their Various Means of Reproduction        

Translated from Spanish

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Courtesy translation provided by WIPO, © 2011

Decree No. 165/94

Setting out a legal framework of protection for the different expressions of works of software and databases, and their various means of reproduction.

Buenos Aires, February 3, 1994

HAVING REGARD to the provisions of Law No. 11.723 and Decrees Nos. 41.233/4 an 31.964/39, and


that technological advances in computer hardware require the setting-out of a legal framework of protection which ensures respect for the intellectual property rights in works produced in that field.

that consequently, it is appropriate to specify the different expressions of works of software and databases, and their various means of reproduction for effective enforcement of the Law on Intellectual Property.

that the peculiar characteristics of this class of works, with respect to the frequent change of versions, physical volume of information and data confidentiality, require a special regime for its registration with the NATIONAL DIRECTORATE OF COPYRIGHT.

that this Decree is issued using the powers conferred by Article 86(2) of the NATIONAL CONSTITUTION




Article 1 -- For the purposes of administering this Decree and other current legislation on the matter:

(a) Works of software, included among the works of Article 1 of Law No. 11.723, and the productions consisting of one or more of the following expressions, shall mean:

I. designs, both general and detailed, of the logical flow of data in a computer system;

II. Computer programs, both in their ‘source’ version, principally for human readers, and in their ‘target’ version, principally aimed at being executed by a computer;

III. Technical documentation, for such purposes as explanation, support or training, for the development, use or maintenance of software.

(b) Database works shall mean those works included in the category of literary works, productions consisting of an organized set of interrelated data, compiled with a view to its storage, processing and recovery by means of computer technologies and systems.

(c) Suitable procedures for reproducing works of software or databases shall include written media or diagrams directly or indirectly perceptible to the human senses, as well as recordings made by means of any technology, directly or indirectly readable by means of information processing hardware.

Translated from Spanish

(d) A work of software or database shall be considered to have been published when it has been made available to the general public, whether by means of its reproduction on multiple copies distributed commercially or by means of the widespread provision of its remote transmission for final use.

(e) A work of software or database shall be considered to be unpublished when its author, owner or right holder does not disclose it or negotiates the assignment of its intellectual property rights by entering into contracts with interested parties.

Article 2 –– To register published database works, for use via remote transmission, extensive extracts of its contents and a written record of its structure and organization, as well as its principal features, shall be deposited, which in the applicant’s view and at his/her risk sufficiently individualize the work and provide the most faithful possible meaning of its contents.

Article 3 –– To register works of software or databases which are unpublished, the applicant shall include in sealed and signed envelopes all those expressions of the work which he deems advisable and sufficient to identify his creation and to guarantee that his secret information remains undisclosed.

Article 4 –– For communication, publication and submission to the National Directorate of the Official Registry and for recording.

MENEM. -- Jorge L. Maiorano.


Decreto 165/94

Precisase un marco legal de protección para las diferentes expresiones de las obras de software y base de datos, así como sus diversos medios de reproducción.

Bs. As., 3/ 2/ 94

VISTO, lo dispuesto por la Ley Nº 11.723 y los Decretos Nros. 41.233/4 y 31.964/39, y


Que los avances tecnológicos que se han producido en materia informática, hacen necesario precisar un marco legal de protección que contribuya a asegurar el respeto de los derechos de propiedad intelectual sobre las obras producidas en ese campo.

Que para ello, resulta conveniente especificar las diferentes expresiones de las obras de software y base de datos, así como sus diversos medios de reproducción para una eficaz aplicación de la Ley de Propiedad Intelectual

Que las características singulares de esta clase de obras, en cuanto a su frecuente cambio de versiones, volumen físico de información y confidencialidad de los datos, hacen necesario un régimen especial para su registro en la DIRECCIÓN NACIONAL DEL DERECHO DE AUTOR.

Que el presente se dicta en uso de las facultades conferidas por el artículo 86, inciso 2 de la CONSTITUCIÓN NACIONAL

Por ello,



Artículo1º –– A los efectos de la aplicación del presente decreto y de la demás normativa vigente en la materia:

a) Se entenderá por obras de software, incluidas entre las obras del artículo 1º de la ley 11.723, a las producciones constituidas por una o varias de las siguientes expresiones:

I. Los diseños, tanto generales como detallados, del flujo lógico de los datos en un sistema de computación;

II. Los programas de computación, tanto en su versión "fuente", principalmente destinada al lector humano, como en su versión "objeto", principalmente destinada a ser ejecutada por el computador;

III. La documentación técnica, con fines tales como explicación, soporte o entrenamiento, para el desarrollo, uso o mantenimiento de software.

b) Se entenderá por obras de base de datos, incluidas en la categoría de obras literarias, a las producciones constituidas por un conjunto organizado de datos interrelacionados, compilado con miras a su almacenamiento, procesamiento y recuperación mediante técnicas y sistemas informáticos.

c) Se considerarán procedimientos idóneos para reproducir obras de software o de base de datos a los escritos o diagramas directa o indirectamente perceptibles por los sentidos humanos, así como a los registros realizados mediante cualquier técnica, directa o indirectamente procesables por equipos de procesamiento de información.

d) Se considerará que una obra de software o de base de datos tiene el carácter de publicada cuando ha sido puesta a disposición del público en general, ya sea mediante su reproducción sobre múltiples ejemplares distribuidos comercialmente o mediante la oferta generalizada de su transmisión a distancia con fines de explotación.

e) Se considerará que una obra de software o de base de datos tiene el carácter de inédita, cuando su autor, titular o derechohabiente la mantiene en reserva o negocia la cesión de sus derechos de propiedad intelectual contratando particularmente con los interesados.

Art. 2º –– Para proceder al registro de obras de base de datos publicadas, cuya explotación se realice mediante su transmisión a distancia, se depositarán amplios extractos de su contenido y relación escrita de su estructura y organización, así como de sus principales características, que permitan a criterio y riesgo del solicitante individualizar suficientemente la obra y dar la noción más fiel posible de su contenido.

Art. 3º –– Para proceder al registro de obras de software o de base de datos que tengan el carácter de inéditas, el solicitante incluirá bajo sobre lacrado y firmado todas las expresiones de la obra que juzgue convenientes y suficientes para identificar su creación y garantizar la reserva de su información secreta.

Art. 4º –– Comuníquese, publíquese dése la dirección nacional de Registro Oficial y archívese –– MENEM. –– Jorge L. Maiorano.

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