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Resolution No. 12/97 of June 10, 1997, on Approval of the Mozambique's Cultural Policy and the Strategy for its Implementation, Mozambique

Latest Version in WIPO Lex
Details Details Year of Version 1997 Dates Entry into force: June 10, 1997 Issued: June 10, 1997 Type of Text Implementing Rules/Regulations Subject Matter Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights), Traditional Cultural Expressions, Traditional Knowledge (TK) Subject Matter (secondary) Enforcement of IP and Related Laws

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Main text(s) Main text(s) Portuguese Resolução n° 12/97 de 10 de Junho de 1997 aprova o Política Cultural de Moçambique e Estratégia da sua Implementaçâo      English Resolution No. 12/97 of June 10, 1997, on Approval of the Mozambique's Cultural Policy and the Strategy for its Implementation        





Tuesday June 10, 1997 SERIES I ­­­ Number 23

[Emblem of Mozambique] BULLETIN OF THE





Council of Ministers:

Resolution No. 12/97:

Approving the Cultural Policy and its Implementation Strategy,



Resolution No. 12/97

of June 10, 1997

Courtesy translation provided by WIPO © 2013

It being necessary to establish the principles of and strategy for our cultural development and

within the framework of the implementation of the Government’s Five­Year Plan, the Council of

Ministers, exercising the powers conferred on it by Article 153(1)(e) of the Constitution of the

Republic, orders that:

Sole paragraph. The Cultural Policy and its Implementation Strategy, annexed hereto and forming

an integral part of this Resolution, are hereby approved.

Approved by the Council of Ministers.

Let it be published.

The Prime Minister, Pascoal Manuel Mocumbi.

Translator’s Note: Official Government Gazette. 1

Cultural Policy of Mozambique and corresponding Implementation Strategy

1. Definition

The Constitution of the Republic of Mozambique establishes the principle whereby the State shall

promote the development of the character and culture of Mozambique and shall guarantee free

expression of the traditions and values of Mozambican society. The Government’s Five­Year Plan

reaffirms the value of culture and the need to create the conditions for greater creative, free,

democratic participation by each individual and by civil society as a whole, together with respect for

the diversity of religious beliefs and ethnic origins.

Culture may be defined as a complex set of ways of being, behaving and relating from birth to

death, including the rituals that mark the main stages in the process of social integration and

socialization. Culture encompasses the following: creative aspects; the visual and performing arts;

material aspects: clothing, architecture and work tools; institutional aspects: economic, social,

political and military structures; philosophical aspects: ideas, beliefs and values. All these aspects are

continually interacting with new situations and experiences. Culture must therefore be understood as

the totality of the way of life of a people or a community.

The Government acknowledges the role of culture as a decisive factor in the character of

Mozambican people and considers its development to be a fundamental element in the consolidation

of national unity and of individual and group identity.

State intervention in terms of cultural development shall be guided by a Cultural Policy based on

the presuppositions reflected in the Constitution of the Republic, the Cultural Heritage Law, the

recommendations of the First National Conference on Culture and the Government’s Five­Year Plan

for the cultural sector, as well as in experiences of governance in Mozambique and throughout the


The Cultural Policy is a tool that regulates the activities of the Government with regard to its links

with the other actors involved in the promotion and development of culture.

The aim of the Cultural Policy is to guide the activities of all in contributing to the cohesion and

the psychological and social equilibrium of communities, as well as to the integration of their

members. The Government’s Cultural Policy constitutes a contribution to the definition of what it

means to be Mozambican as reflected in the heritage of all our citizens.

2. Principles and goals of the Cultural Policy

2.1. Principles

The Cultural Policy is based on the acceptance and application of the following principles:

a) economic and social development shall have culture as a mandatory and fixed point of departure and reference point. Development will be sustainable only if it has men and

women as its primary and end beneficiaries;

b) culture is a key instrument for affirming and developing national identity;

c) all citizens have an equal right to take part in cultural life and to enjoy access to the benefits of culture and art;

d) cultural cooperation with other peoples shall be based on interdependence between States, irrespective of their political or ideological systems;

e) through international cultural cooperation, all peoples, nations and agencies shall contribute to the creation of a better world, a world of peace, wellbeing and mutual understanding and


2.2. Objectives

2.2.1. Overall objectives

The overall objectives of the Cultural Policy shall be as follows:

a) to promote the development of Mozambican culture and character and to guarantee the free expression of Mozambican values, in close cooperation with those who play an active part in


b) to promote the dissemination of Mozambican culture, both nationally and internationally, and to take steps to ensure that the Mozambican people benefit from the cultural achievements of

other peoples;

c) to promote respect for and the development and acceptance of the expressions of culture of each community;

d) to promote the identification, preservation and development of Mozambique’s cultural and artistic heritage;

e) to encourage associations, the business community, community leaders and other collective bodies and individuals to complement the State’s activities in the sphere of the promotion

and development of Mozambican culture, both at home and abroad;

f) to protect the affirmation of local cultural identities as an expression of unity in diversity;

g) to promote the assessment of the social and cultural impact of development projects and the inclusion therein of a cultural component;

h) to contribute to the education of communities and all those active in society with regard to a culture of peace, tolerance, social harmony and respect for human rights.

2.2.2. Specific objectives

The following shall be specific objectives of the Cultural Policy:

a) to establish a reference framework for all legislation and regulations governing cultural activity

and for the actions of the various bodies in this field;

b) to create an environment that is favorable to the preservation and development of national

traditions and also to the appropriation and mastery of modern science and technologies in

the interests of national development;

c) to promote the inclusion of social and cultural values in teaching curricula;

d) to foster the development of patriotism, liberty, public spiritedness, work, democracy and social

solidarity in the life and work of Mozambican people;

e) to encourage actions that promote equal access for citizens to the benefits of culture and art;

f) to improve and consolidate the foundations for a cultural administration based on

decentralization, participation by the people and the development and support of cultural

associations and local initiatives;

g) to encourage and support research on and development of Mozambique’s history and cultural


h) to establish the specific duties of the State and to create spaces for the involvement of civil

society in the promotion of cultural development;

i) to lay down the fundamental principles for coordinating and harmonizing the efforts of the

main actors involved in cultural activities;

j) to encourage the constant improvement of the quality of Mozambique’s artistic output;

k) to develop intellectual artistic creators and to establish the principles underlying the protection

of intellectual property;

l) to establish the basic principles for providing funding and support for cultural activity;

m) to encourage cultural exchange between the country’s various regions and cultural cooperation

and exchange with other peoples.

3. Priorities in terms of cultural development

The Government shall prioritize the following areas:

— social and cultural research

— the preservation and dissemination of cultural heritage;

— artistic creation and performance;

— cultural associations;

— artistic and professional training;

— grass­roots participation;

— the development of networks of cultural institutions;

— international cooperation and exchange.

3.1. Social and cultural research

The promotion of research into and the study and dissemination of Mozambican culture is

essential in order to understand lines of continuity and create cultural interlinkages. Knowledge of the

cultural and social practices of communities is an important resource in terms of governance and

planning based on a better understanding of the reality of the situation.

Universities and research institutes, both public and private, shall be responsible for promoting

scientific research into the Mozambican social and cultural spheres, such as history and the oral

tradition; social and family organization; forms of production and economic organization; traditional

authorities; rites of initiation and passage; propitiation ceremonies; magical and religious beliefs and

practices; the national languages; the performing and visual arts; the impact of the clash of

civilizations in Mozambique; the peace culture and the development of democratic institutions;

conflict and forms of reconciliation and social restructuring.

3.2. Cultural heritage

3.2.1. Historic monuments, sites and locations

Mozambique possesses evidence of human history that is important not just for local communities

but also for the rest of humankind. The Island of Mozambique (classified as a World Heritage site),

rock art, walled enclosures (the Swahili ruins, stone­walled settlements known as zimbabwes, as well

as aringas (fortified enclosures)), historic sites and areas with high biodiversity are examples of this

rich heritage that contribute to the identity of the Mozambican character and physical space. The State

and Mozambican society are duty­bound to promote and support initiatives designed to preserve and

develop these fixed assets.

In this regard, the Government shall define principles and priorities for action in the areas of

conservation, restoration, presentation, education and tourism in relation to these fixed assets.

The Government shall lay down the conditions and requirements for the declaration as national

monuments of assets the historical, archaeological, architectural, artistic or natural value of which is

such that they merit such classification.


Museums play an important role in the preservation, study and communication of collective

memory and the material and spiritual culture of both the Mozambican people and others throughout


In this context, the concept of a museum is that of a space for conservation, research and

communication of our cultural and natural heritage. In addition to conservation work, this concept

encompasses the scientific interpretation of the informative value of our natural and cultural heritage,

as well as its communication by means of documented exhibitions of interest to the community and

activities such as publications, lecture series, audiovisual sessions, workshops and other educational


The Government’s policy shall encourage the improvement and expansion of the network of

national, regional and specialized museums, whether or not they are under the administrative

supervision of the State. Moreover, one particular priority within the framework of the Government’s

Cultural Policy shall also be the institutionalization of existing museums that have not yet been

institutionalized. Efforts will also be made to support initiatives launched by the various economic

and social sectors to set up new museums and at provincial level, an information and coordination

system shall be created between the bodies which carry out activities in the field of museology, and

the standards to be upheld shall be established.

3.2.3. Archives

The function of archives is to collect, process, conserve and disseminate documents, chiefly

primary documents stored on different kinds of media.

The Government shall support the activities of the existing archives and shall encourage the

creation of other archives, both general and specialized, at the national and local levels.

3.2.4. Distinctive elements of local culture: folklore, typical costume and cuisine

Style of dress and eating habits are among the most striking of a people’s distinctive

characteristics. Owing to Mozambique’s vast expanse of territory and the intermingling of different

peoples and civilizations there over the centuries, Mozambique boasts a wide variety of costumes and

cooking styles.

The Government shall foster research on and the promotion of local costumes, and shall

encourage their use both as a source of inspiration for stylists and as a product for the national and

international markets.

The Government shall likewise encourage and support initiatives designed to develop and exploit

Mozambique’s national food and drink, including by means of their industrial production.

3.2.5. Traditional rituals, beliefs, medicine and power

Traditional medicine is an area in which therapeutic, ritual, symbolic and magical and religious

aspects interact. These practices also contribute to the maintenance and restoration of social

equilibrium. A large proportion of the population depends on these practices, often employing them in

tandem with modern medicine.

The traditional authorities, together with the priests of magical and religious cults and the holders

of knowledge concerning traditional medicine, are among the guarantors of social stability and

harmony in many communities.

The Government shall acknowledge and develop the participation of the traditional authorities in

the management of cultural heritage and shall promote research into these areas of knowledge and

their inclusion in public administration and in modern medicine.

3.2.6. National languages

National languages are an important heritage as they are the main repository of national traditions

and the main vehicle for their expression. They are the communication tool of the majority of

Mozambicans and a crucial element in the involvement of citizens in social, economic and political


The actions to be undertaken in this field, based on close cooperation between the relevant

institutions and departments, include the following: the development of the social value of languages;

supporting existing and future centers for the study of Mozambican languages; codifying and

standardizing the spelling of Mozambican languages; and selecting the languages that, in each

province or region, shall be introduced into the National Education System and into political, social

and economic life.

Incentives shall be given to projects to produce dictionaries, grammars, manuals and literary and

scientific works in national languages.

The development and expansion of the teaching of Portuguese, as the official language of

Mozambique, shall continue to be encouraged.

4. Artistic creation and performance

Artistic creation and performance are excellent ways of promoting and improving ongoing

communication and dialogue between the various strata of society. They also help to promote the

expression of a people’s identity and to project its image.

The people’s love of their country, spirit of solidarity and creative initiative can be strengthened

in part through the use of their different means of expression, forms and styles, artistic creation and


Priorities in this area include music, dance, theater and the visual arts.

4.1.Music, dance and theater

Our country has a rich heritage in the fields of music, dance and theater and has produced a

number of renowned artists.

In tandem with research into the various forms of cultural expression, the Government shall

encourage the development of artists and of music, dance and theater in Mozambique, in their various

styles and genres, and shall support their inclusion in the production of modern musical,

choreographical and theatrical works.

The Government’s policy shall encourage the promotion of festivals, competitions and prizes for

the various forms of artistic expression.

4.2. Handicrafts and visual arts

Handicrafts, as a tangible part of the history and culture of the Mozambican people, represent a

valuable heritage that must be protected and developed. The Government shall encourage the setting

up of centers for the production of handicrafts and the continual improvement of techniques and

products, with a view to exhibiting and marketing handicrafts both within and outside the country.

Drawing, painting, sculpture, ceramics and other forms of plastic arts shall also be encouraged

and supported. The Government shall therefore support initiatives to set up workshops and art and

handicraft galleries throughout the country.

5. Cultural industries

5.1. Cultural and recreational performances

Performances constitute a form of leisure and entertainment which also contributes to the civic

and patriotic education of citizens. Thus, the Government shall encourage and support the

organization of cultural and recreational performances, as well as the existence of bodies organizing

performances and promoters.

5.2. Cinema and audio visual works

The moving image is an art form and plays an important role in citizens’ education and entertainment.

It is also used as a means of recording, disseminating and conserving images of historical and cultural


The need to build a society founded on peace, harmony and moral values makes it imperative to

introduce mechanisms to limit the proliferation of films that represent an apology for violence,

promiscuity and lack of respect towards women and towards life. It shall be the responsibility of the

Government, within the framework of this Cultural Policy, to support and regulate cinematographic

production and dissemination.

Given the importance of the moving image, the Government shall encourage and support the

setting up of associations devoted to the study, criticism and dissemination of cinema and to

promoting its development.

5.3.Music recording studios

The setting up of music studios fitted with modern recording equipment will contribute to the

promotion of Mozambican music, which has advanced considerably in terms of both form and

content. Music recording studios that meet international requirements and quality standards must be

set up if Mozambican music is to be widely disseminated and accepted on the national and

international markets. Initiatives to create high­quality recording studios in Mozambique shall

therefore be encouraged and incentivized, leading to the publication of records, compact discs and

cassettes that can be marketed successfully on the national and international markets.

5.4. The manufacture of musical instruments

One basic pre­requisite of the production of music is the availability and accessibility of musical

instruments. Thus, in order to promote and develop domestic musical talent, the State shall encourage

any initiative involving the production of musical instruments in Mozambique.

6. Literature and books

6.1. Literature

Literature is both oral and written. For centuries, oral literature has been the most important

vehicle for passing on and preserving knowledge and experiences, history, myths, poems, stories,

songs, legends and proverbs down through the generations. Written literature plays an important role

in the development of creativity and in conveying Mozambican and universal ideas, experiences and


In this context, it shall be the Government’s responsibility to support the development of all forms

of literature and the identification of new talents, in addition to holding competitions and establishing


6.2. Books

The Government shall create the conditions necessary for books to be an accessible, indispensible,

object in the daily lives of Mozambicans, and to that end shall foster the emergence of a book industry

and book trade that will develop and reinforce people’s enjoyment of reading.

6.3. Libraries

Libraries, both public and private, are designed for research and for the acquisition, processing

and dissemination of bibliographic, cinematographic, iconographic and phonographic material for

consultation by interested parties for the purposes of study or pleasure.

The Government shall promote initiatives designed to improve the work of libraries through the

creation of mechanisms to facilitate the circulation of books produced within and outside of


The Government shall likewise encourage the creation of libraries in teaching establishments,

production units and social, economic, cultural and youth associations, to complement the role of the

public libraries.

7. Cultural development

7.1 Casas de Cultura (Cultural institutes) and cultural centers

The Casa de Cultura is the basic institution in terms of the carrying out of cultural work in the


The Casas de Cultura provide a venue for a variety of activities, including: initiation into and

education in the arts; catering for interested circles; organizing popular festivities and celebrating

dates of national importance; performances and concerts featuring different forms of artistic

expression; debates, competitions and festivals, and; art, handicraft, photographic and other kinds of


The State shall therefore promote and support the establishment of Casas de Cultura in provincial

capitals, the main towns in districts and major population centers.

The Government shall likewise encourage the setting up of Casas de Cultura in economic and

social and professional organizations to conduct a wide variety of activities, with the relevant local

Casa de Cultura remaining a reference point in terms of methodological guidance at the operational


Conditions and infrastructure permitting, Casas de Cultural may serve as both cultural and sports


7.2. Artistic and professional training

People are the most decisive factor in the implementation of the Government’s Cultural Policy.

The appropriate training of human resources for cultural development is therefore of the utmost


To this end, art teachers shall be trained for art schools and for the National Education System, as

shall experts in areas of special interest for cultural development such as archaeology, anthropology,

linguistics, ethno­musicology, art history, museology, cultural planning and administration,

librarianship, documentation, sociology, and so on.

Training for the development and management of these areas shall therefore fall into three main

categories, namely:

­ the training of managers to direct and administer the sector at the different levels;

­ the training of cultural organizers to foster the cultural movement within the community; and

­ the academic and professional training of artists and cultural experts in the various specialized areas.

In the context of these efforts, the improvement of conditions in terms of infra­structure and

the extension of training facilities to the provinces are of prime importance.

7.3. International cooperation and exchange

Cooperation between peoples and nations enables the exchange of experiences, better

understanding and increased mutual respect.

Cultural cooperation therefore plays a fundamental role in the expansion and development of

political and economic cooperation between countries.

Within the framework of international cultural cooperation and exchange programs, the

Government shall promote the strengthening of its ties with all countries, regardless of their political

systems or geographical location. At the same time, the Government shall pay particular attention to

strengthening ties of friendship and cooperation with other countries in the region and with

Portuguese­speaking countries.

8. Strategies for implementing the Cultural Policy

The following points stand out as the main measures and strategies to be adopted in terms of the

implementation of the aims of the Cultural Policy: the need to link the public cultural sector with the

private sector and the community; coordination with other sectors; institutional capacity­building,

and; the creation of mechanisms for the funding of cultural activities.

8.1. Linkins between the public sector and civil society

The State and civil society have a role and a responsibility in terms of cultural development and

shall act in coordination, complementing one another.

The Ministry for Culture, Youth and Sports, the central State body for directing, planning,

coordinating and developing government policies on culture, shall be responsible for coordinating the

efforts of the whole of society in the sphere of cultural development.

8.1.1. Competences of the State

In the context of the implementation of the Cultural Policy, the State shall be competent in terms


a) the drafting and approval of legislation and instruments regulating the funding of culture, the

social status of artists and creators and the operation of cultural institutions, and the

ratification of the relevant international agreements and recommendations on various

aspects of cultural life;

b) the creation of a legal framework to guide those involved in the social, cultural, political and

economic development of the country;

c) the approval of legislation for the promotion, safeguarding and preservation of the cultural

heritage and the monitoring of compliance with this legislation within the scope of the

powers of the Council of Ministers as defined in the Constitution;

d) the creation of cultural institutions such as museums, libraries, Casas de Cultura, art schools,

galleries and theaters;

e) the fostering and encouragement of the promotion of cultural exchanges between

Mozambican and foreign groups;

f) the negotiation and signing of agreements and other similar instruments on cultural exchange

with other countries, and the regulation of the running of foreign cultural centers;

g) the promotion of competitions and festivals in order to stimulate interest in cultural and

artistic expression;

h) the promotion of social and cultural and historical research;

i) the promotion of the correct spelling and pronunciation of clan names and geographical

names as a way of respecting the linguistic richness and ethnic diversity of Mozambique.

8.1.2. The role of civil society

As part of the process of implementing this Cultural Policy, civil society can contribute

towards the setting up of institutions designed to develop and promote Mozambican culture at

home and abroad, and can help organize associations and set up enterprises to disseminate,

preserve and develop Mozambican culture. It can also promote the patriotic cultural education of

citizens in such a way that they become more aware of the importance and value of our national

heritage. Civil society can also contribute to the funding of activities to train Mozambican

officials in the sphere of artistic education and cultural administration.

Civil society also has both the right and the duty to promote, sponsor and carry out cultural

initiatives in the various fields such as festivals, competitions, debates, round tables, gatherings,

concerts and exhibitions, as well as to participate in activities to coordinate and assess the impact

of cultural work in Mozambican society.

8.2. Intersectoral coordination

As a part of a multisectoral and multidisciplinary approach, the cultural sector is required to

coordinate with other institutions in order to achieve the goals set under the Cultural Policy. A

number of areas stand out in this regard, for example: education, technology, the environment and

tourism, and public administration.

8.2.1. Culture and education

The close relationship between culture and education may be expressed in simple terms by

saying that education (both formal and informal) is the vehicle par excellence for passing on

culture from one generation to the next. The family plays a decisive role in the formation of an

individual’s personality.

A number of measures have been designed to ensure the implementation of the Cultural

Policy through education, including:

­ the promotion of the development of the family and other informal mechanisms that play a part in education;

­ the introduction of aesthetic education into the National Education System and the carrying­ out of cultural activities in schools;

­ the use of national languages at certain levels of education;

­ the organization of cultural festivals and competitions in schools.

8.2.2. Culture and technology

Science and technology cannot be developed in isolation from social and cultural values, as any

kind of technology or technological innovation is a cultural phenomenon that has an impact on and

direct and indirect repercussions for the ethical and aesthetic values, lifestyle, behavior and cultural

environment of any society.

The Government shall encourage and support knowledge and the appropriation of new

technologies, which must fit in with the situation in Mozambique and contribute towards the

resolution of the country’s problems. Efforts shall be made to establish a network of research and

teaching institutions for the exchange of information in the sphere of social and cultural development.

Among the forms of technology deserving of particular attention are information technology,

including electronic communication and the worldwide communication network, the Internet, which

have already helped to allow fast access to all kinds of information and have enabled institutions the

world over, and people involved in culture, science, politics and business, to come together and make

decisions rapidly.

8.2.3. Culture, the environment and tourism

As nature and culture are inextricably linked, close coordination shall be maintained between the

bodies responsible for culture, the natural heritage and the environment in order to contribute to the

rational use of the earth, water and other renewable resources through cultural and artistic programs.

Tree­planting shall be promoted, the essential precautions to be taken shall be publicized and parks

and recreational centers shall be created in communities. At the same time, joint efforts shall be made

to research and develop cultural practices that make a positive contribution within the various

communities to the sustainable management of the environment and natural resources.

Cultural expressions, folklore, landscapes and natural parks, monuments and museums, costumes,

cuisine and traditional rituals are important elements for successful tourism.

As culture is the dynamic transfer of values from one generation to the next, tourism must be

transformed into a major vehicle for cultural exchange, both nationally and internationally, improving

mutual understanding and reducing the prejudices attached to existing differences.

Cultural and tourism bodies shall work in close cooperation to exploit Mozambique’s potential

and to develop entrepreneurship in the promotion and development of cultural tourism.

In implementing its policy in this area, the Government shall encourage the following activities:

­ the promotion of industry and markets for works of art and handicrafts;

­ the development of Mozambican cuisine, in particular in the hotel industry;

­ the production and sale of souvenirs;

­ the production of documentaries on cultural matters;

­ participation in cultural festivities.

8.2.4. Culture and public administration

Knowledge of local cultures and the social and cultural dynamics within communities are

important elements with regard to governance and the planning of national development. Educational

guidelines and programs shall therefore be established and shall be included in the training of district

administrators and other public officials at all levels.

8.3. Development and protection of authors

Artists play an important role in promoting cultural values, in the civic education of communities,

in mobilizing citizens to carry out national reconstruction and development tasks, in creating an

environment with a culture of peace, unity, social harmony, democracy and respect for human rights

and in promoting Mozambique and its cultural diversity.

Culture and art can only be successfully developed if creators and practitioners enjoy protection

and support. Action will therefore be taken to ensure the ratification of the international and regional

agreements on the protection of intellectual property and the revision of the Law on Copyright and

Related Rights.

The State shall encourage and support the creation of Mozambican societies of authors and shall

promote the measures necessary to combat all forms of piracy and the infringement of intellectual


8.4. Institutional development

In the context of institutional development, efforts will be focused on the organization of

structures for the management and administration of cultural issues. Said structures shall be supplied

with the essential resources required to enable them to carry out their mandates, as well as for the

training of officials of State bodies at all levels, dependent institutions, cultural associations and local

bodies, through a policy of decentralization.

Efforts shall likewise be made to consolidate and extend the role of the community in cultural

development, by fostering cultural associations and the participation of business and economic actors

in programs and projects in the sector. Furthermore, more culture­friendly tax policies shall be


8.5. Funding cultural activity

The main sources of funding for the implementation of the Cultural Policy shall be as follows:

a) budgetary allocations;

b) grants from the Artistic and Cultural Development Fund (FUNDAC);

c) revenue from the application of the Law on the Protection of Cultural Property and other legal

provisions on this subject;

d) contributions from non­governmental sectors, trade, industry and international and

intergovernmental organizations;

e) donations from individuals, groups and organizations and other legitimate income.


Price — MT 3,312.00


No data available.

WIPO Lex No. MZ018