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Copyright and Related Rights
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WIPO/PUB/ECONSTAT/WP/83

The Evolution of the Two-Wheeler Industry: A Comparative Study of Italy, Japan, and India

Economic Research Working Paper No.83

This study leverages secondary data to provide a comprehensive outlook on the origin and evolution of the two-wheeler industry in Italy, Japan, and India. The study reveals how different technological, design, and manufacturing capabilities, combined with specific economic and social features in the historical contexts, have contributed to determine different trajectories in the evolution of these national industries. Recent trends towards digital transformation, electric mobility, connected driving are discussed. Three main takeaways emerge from our analysis. Firstly, the local capabilities play a crucial role in shaping both the origin and progression of the technology and the industry. Secondly, the two-wheeler industry displays patterns and trajectories that mimic the automotive industry, which can thus be used to interpret and forecast past, present, and future of motorcycles. Thirdly, the two-wheeler industry has been uniquely influenced by other industries, which has enhanced the complexity and effectiveness of its products and introduced novel elements which are reshaping the international demand for two-wheelers.

Publication year: 2024

WIPO/PUB/ECONSTAT/WP/82

Innovation Complexity in AgTech: The case of Brazil, Kenya and the United States of America?

Economic Research Working Paper No.82

This paper illustrates successful policies and incentives that build on local innovation capabilities across three agricultural innovation hubs at different income levels and across different geographical regions. It makes the case for how countries highly complex innovation ecosystems, which refer to the diversity and sophistication of local innovators and the types of innovation they produce, tend to have more opportunities to shift their technological path to the frontier. The paper focuses on three agricultural hubs across different income levels and geography to illustrate how smart policies that focus on building local capabilities can help countries diversify and create their own agricultural technological paths. These hubs include: São Paulo in Brazil, Nairobi in Kenya and Colorado in the United States of America.

Publication year: 2024

WIPO/PUB/ECONSTAT/WP/81

Can we map innovation capabilities?

Economic Research Working Paper No.81

Recent years have witnessed a resurgence of industrial policies globally. Through various industrial policy instruments, governments make critical scientific and technological choices that shape innovation paths and resource allocations. Our paper explores innovation capabilities as essential drivers of competitive outcomes, spanning science, technology, and production domains. Based on the economic complexity literature, we propose a methodological framework to measure the innovation capabilities empirically, leveraging data on scientific publications, patents, and trade. Our findings highlight the multidimensional nature of innovation capabilities and underscore the importance of understanding both the specialization and quality of these capabilities. Our results are in line with the complexity literature, as we also find: (i) positive correlations between the innovation complexity and economic growth; and, (ii) the predictive power of existing innovation capabilities for fostering new ones. Based on these findings, we propose novel indicators informing innovation policymaking on the innovation potential across science, technology, and production fields of an ecosystem. We suggest that innovation policymaking needs to be informed by deeper insights into innovation capabilities that are crucial for long-term growth and competitiveness improvement.

Publication year: 2024

WIPO/PUB/ECONSTAT/WP/80

Global Trends in Innovation Patterns: A Complexity Approach

Economic Research Working Paper No.80

Technological know-how in a country shapes its growth potential and competitiveness. Scientific publications, patents, and international trade data offer complementary insights into how ideas from science, technology, and production evolve, combine, and are transformed into capabilities. Analyzing their trajectories enables a more comprehensive and multifaceted understanding of the whole innovation process, from generating ideas to internationally commercializing products. We analyze the production patterns in these three domains, documenting the differences between advanced and emerging market economies. We find that future income, patenting, and publishing growth correlate with the economic complexity indices calculated from these domains. Capabilities embedded in the country also shape future diversification opportunities and make the innovation process path dependent. Lastly, we also show that diversification opportunities can be inferred across innovation domains.

Publication year: 2024

WIPO/PUB/ECONSTAT/WP/79

Innovation Policies Under Economic Complexity

Economic Research Working Paper No.79

Recent geopolitical challenges have revived the implementation of industrial and innovation policies. Ongoing discussions focus on supporting cutting-edge industries and strategic technologies but hardly pay attention to their impact on economic growth. In light of this, we discuss the design of innovation policies to address current development challenges while considering the complex nature of productive activities. Our approach conceives economic development and technological progress as a process of accumulation and diversification of knowledge. This process is limited by the tacit nature of knowledge and by countries' binding constraints to growth. Consequently, effective innovation policies should be place-based and multidimensional, leveraging countries' existing capabilities and addressing countries' current problems. This contrasts policies that lead to economic efficiencies, such as copying other countries' solutions to problems that countries do not currently have.

Publication year: 2024

WIPO/PUB/ECONSTAT/WP/78

Access to science and innovation in the developing world

Economic Research Working Paper No.78

We examine the implications of lowering barriers to online access to scientific publications for science and innovation in developing countries. We investigate whether and how free or low-cost access to scientific publications through the UN-led Research For Life (R4L) initiative leads to more scientific publications and clinical trials of authors affiliated with research institutions in developing countries. We find that free or reduced-fee access to the health science literature through Hinari (WHO-led subprogramme) increases the scientific publication output and clinical trials output of institutions in developing countries. In contrast, once we control for selection bias, we do not find empirical support for a positive Hinari effect on knowledge spillovers and local institutions' research input into global patenting, as measured by paper citations in patent documents. Main findings can be generalized to other R4L subprogrammes and are likely to also apply to the WIPO-led Access to Research for Development and Innovation (ARDI) programme.

Publication year: 2024

WIPO/PUB/1064/2023

The Global Publishing Industry in 2021

This report provides a global overview of the publishing industry in 2021, covering both trade and education. Data is compiled by WIPO in collaboration with Centro Regional para el Fomento del Libro en América Latina y el Caribe (CERLALC), the Federation of European Publishers (FEP), the International ISBN Agency, the International Publishers Association (IPA), and the Nielsen Company. The survey focuses on published materials with an ISBN or DOI. It aims to make industry data accessible and highlight challenges in reporting consistent data.

Publication year: 2023

WIPO/PUB/855/22

Collective Management of Copyright and Related Rights

Third edition

This third edition of Collective Management of Copyright and Related Rights presents an in-depth revision with invaluable updates on the different systems, legislative options and best practices of CMOs worldwide. As with previous editions, the book is written to reach a wide audience, with a special focus on questions that might emerge for governments as they prepare, adopt and apply collective management norms and regulations. The edition also sheds light on new copyright and related rights developments, including digital, technological and business trends, from all over the world. Additionally, there is detailed discussion on topics such as aspects of competition, national treatment, and different models of collective management.

Publication year: 2022

WIPO/PUB/891

Guide to the Copyright and Related Rights Treaties Administered by WIPO and Glossary of Copyright and Related Rights Terms

This Guide seeks to clarify and explain the legal principles enshrined in the copyright and related rights treaties administered by WIPO, and their relationship with policy, economic, cultural and technological considerations. It will be particularly helpful to governments, creators, businesses, the legal profession, academics, consumers and students in all WIPO Member States.

Publication year: 2004

WIPO/PUB/1001

Managing Intellectual Property for Museums

Guide

This Guide, prepared by Rina Elster Pantalony, was recently updated to reflect the tremendous developments since it was first published in 2007, in particular Digital Rights Management, the role of social media as a business opportunity and traditional knowledge. The two-part Guide first describes IP issues relevant to museums then reviews existing business models that could provide museums with appropriate opportunities to create sustainable funding, and deliver on their stated objectives.

Publication year: 2013