Query > Copyright and Related Rights > English
The Global Publishing Industry in 2017
This study provides an overview of the global publishing industry in 2017. Based on data from a survey by the International Publishers Association and WIPO with responses from 56 countries, the study reports on publishing revenue, the number of titles published and the number sold, and ranks the top global publishers.
Publication year: 2019
Unpacking predictors of income and income satisfaction for artists
Economic Research Working Paper No. 50
The stereotype of the “starving artist” is pervasive in modern Western culture, but previous research on artists and income is mixed. The goal of this study is to explore how several demographic variables, along with self-reported behaviors and artistic activities associated with non-monetary and monetary motivators, predict income and income satisfaction for artists.Using unique survey data on current working artists in the United States, we provide empirical evidence on substantial reputational rewards and rewards from altruistic behaviors as important sources of artists' utility and, arguably, sources of their motivation to create new works. Moreover, we find that the evidence on “procedural” utility from working in the arts is less straightforward, and we find that many artists are pooling and diversifying financial risks on household levels. Overall, quantitative findings indicate that artists may have different criteria and conceptualizations when it comes to income, and they may derive value from their work in a variety of ways aside from income.
Publication year: 2018
Creators' Income Situation in the Digital Age
Economic Research Working Paper No. 49
The digital transformation imposes both opportunities and risks for creativity and for creative employment, with implications for trends in income levels and the distribution of income. First, we consider skill-biased technological change as a determinant of income and labor market outcomes in the arts. Arguably, the IT revolution has changed the demand for certain skills, with creative occupations being more in demand than general employment. Second, we consider declines in the costs of generating new works and artistic experimentation due to digital technologies, and their effect on the barriers to entry in labor markets. Third, we touch upon the rise of online contract labor in certain creative professions as a determinant of income. Here, online platforms can change creators' access to work opportunities and it may alter the way income is distributed. We find that wage trends for creative workers in the digital age outperform general trends in the population: based on various data sources and various ways to identify creators, we see creators losing less or even gaining a better income position in relative terms. From a policy perspective, results do not lend support to the idea that creators' income situation has systematically worsened with the rise of the internet and its intermediaries. Evidence on changing distributions of income is ambiguous as trends differ from one country to the next.
Intellectual Property and Folk, Arts and Cultural Festivals
This Guide provides general information about intellectual property (IP) and cultural interests. It identifies the main IP challenges faced by festival organizers and outlines some practical elements of an effective IP management strategy, following a step-by-step approach.
Boosting Tourism Development through Intellectual Property
This publication helps non-IP specialists understand the connection between IP, tourism and culture. Through multiple case studies, it illustrates how existing and potential IP tools, in particular branding and copyright, can add value to tourism services and products. It explains how to include IP in tourism policies, product development and destination branding, and shows how different IP rights can be leveraged for fundraising purposes.
Publication year: 2021
Exclusive content and platform competition in Latin America
Economic Research Working Paper No. 63
Platforms often compete over non-price strategies such as the exclusive distribution of products. But these strategies are not always welfare-enhancing. Using rich data on audiovisuals distributed on platforms in Brazil, we find that non-exclusive distribution and availability of titles across platforms is more effective in deterring online piracy than in the single homing case. Moreover, in certain markets (TVOD), it induces higher average investment in the production of new titles upstream. We discuss options of copyright and antitrust policies in the light of these findings.
Publication year: 2020
Grand rights and opera reuse today
Economic Research Working Paper No. 62
This article studies the economic role of grand rights in the incentives to stage and reuse works from the opera canon. It complements previous research on the incentives to create new opera (Giorcelli and Moser, 2020) in the way it looks at copyright taxing availability and follow-on creativity around works. Based on a unique dataset of global opera performances, we find that changes in copyright status increase the number of total performances individual works receive on stage once copyright expires. Moreover, we provide preliminary evidence on chilling, long-term effects of status around premiering operas and revivals at the beginning of the copyright term. Based on these findings, we discuss limitations of the study and novel options for copyright policy frameworks.
Batman forever? The economics of overlapping rights
Economic Research Working Paper No. 61
When copyrighted comic characters are also protected under trademark laws, intellectual property (IP) rights can be overlapping. Arguably, registering a trademark can increase transaction costs for cross-media uses of characters, or it can help advertise across multiple sales channels. In an application to book, movie and video game publishing industries, we thus ask how creative reuse (innovation in uses) is affected in situations of overlapping rights, and whether ‘fuzzy boundaries' of right frameworks are in fact enhancing or decreasing content sales.
A Guide to Intellectual Property for Startups
This publication introduces startups to IP. Through step-by-step guidance, useful case studies and simple checklists, it illustrates how small businesses can use IP to remain competitive and manage risks. Written for startups bringing an innovative technology-based solution to market, the guide will be useful to any entrepreneur wanting to get to grips with the IP system.
How to Make a Living in the Creative Industries
This booklet explains simply and clearly how copyright helps creative people to earn money from their original works. It is designed for people who may already work in the cultural and creative industries, or who may be contemplating a career in them, as well as for individual creators, policy makers, academics, and business support agencies working in the field. It is accessible to non-specialists or newcomers to the subject of copyright and intellectual property rights.
Publication year: 2017