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Shaping WIPO's Future
WIPO's workforce is the human capital of the Organization and its greatest asset. This brochure shows a detailed picture of staffing at WIPO in 2018, offering a breakdown of the workforce by category, sector, funding, type of staff appointment, geographical representation and gender balance. It also reports on organizational performance, learning and development, and organizational conflict management.
Publication year: 2018
Case study: IP Management and the Commercialization of Publicly Funded Research Outcomes in South Africa
This paper begins by presenting an overview of enabling frameworks for the protection and commercialization of publicly funded R&D outcomes. Subsequently it analyses the policies that South Africa has adopted to this effect since the transition to democracy. The paper then looks at the impact on the South African NSI of these policies, in particular the IPR Act, which has been in force since August 2010. It presents new data that indicate encouraging progress in patenting and other aspects of commercialization involving public research organizations (PROs)2 in South Africa, before setting forth a summary of the analysis as well as conclusions.
Global Innovation Index 2018
Energizing the World with Innovation
The Global Innovation Index 2018 provides detailed metrics about the innovation performance of 126 countries and economies around the world. Its 80 indicators explore a broad vision of innovation, including political environment, education, infrastructure and business sophistication. The GII 2018 analyses the energy innovation landscape of the next decade and identifies possible breakthroughs in fields such as energy production, storage, distribution, and consumption. It also looks at how breakthrough innovation occurs at the grassroots level and describes how small-scale renewable systems are on the rise.
A Guide to Intellectual Property Issues in Access and Benefit-sharing Agreements
An essential complement to the WIPO Database of Access and Benefit-sharing Agreements, this guide offers users and providers of genetic resources an accessible overview of intellectual property issues in access and benefit-sharing agreements.
Technology and Innovation Support Centers (TISCs) Report 2017
This Annual Report highlights key trends and milestones of the TISC program since its launch in 2009, with a focus on the main achievements and developments in 2017.
Celebrating 20 years of the WIPO Academy
Economic Research Working Paper No. 51
Companies use trademarks to protect their brands from outright imitation or competition by confusingly similar products. However, publication of trademark filings by the trademark office discloses information about a firm's new product or service. This creates a trade-off between legal protection and disclosure of information. We analyze the trade-off through the lens of “submarine trademarks” in the U.S. – submarine trademarks are trademarks whose publication and hence disclosure to the public is strategically delayed. This is achieved through a particular international filing strategy that is often combined with the use of shell companies to further conceal the trademark filing. These submarine strategies allow companies to benefit from legal trademark protection while reducing the risk of inadvertent disclosure of information. We provide the first systematic evidence of submarine trademarks and explore both their determinants and their effectiveness in reducing the disclosure of information.
Spreading the message, building respect
This brochure highlights a few of the tools we produce to raise awareness about key intellectual property issues, from outreach publications for children to support communications campaigns by IP offices.
Unpacking predictors of income and income satisfaction for artists
Economic Research Working Paper No. 50
The stereotype of the “starving artist” is pervasive in modern Western culture, but previous research on artists and income is mixed. The goal of this study is to explore how several demographic variables, along with self-reported behaviors and artistic activities associated with non-monetary and monetary motivators, predict income and income satisfaction for artists.Using unique survey data on current working artists in the United States, we provide empirical evidence on substantial reputational rewards and rewards from altruistic behaviors as important sources of artists' utility and, arguably, sources of their motivation to create new works. Moreover, we find that the evidence on “procedural” utility from working in the arts is less straightforward, and we find that many artists are pooling and diversifying financial risks on household levels. Overall, quantitative findings indicate that artists may have different criteria and conceptualizations when it comes to income, and they may derive value from their work in a variety of ways aside from income.
Creators' Income Situation in the Digital Age
Economic Research Working Paper No. 49
The digital transformation imposes both opportunities and risks for creativity and for creative employment, with implications for trends in income levels and the distribution of income. First, we consider skill-biased technological change as a determinant of income and labor market outcomes in the arts. Arguably, the IT revolution has changed the demand for certain skills, with creative occupations being more in demand than general employment. Second, we consider declines in the costs of generating new works and artistic experimentation due to digital technologies, and their effect on the barriers to entry in labor markets. Third, we touch upon the rise of online contract labor in certain creative professions as a determinant of income. Here, online platforms can change creators' access to work opportunities and it may alter the way income is distributed. We find that wage trends for creative workers in the digital age outperform general trends in the population: based on various data sources and various ways to identify creators, we see creators losing less or even gaining a better income position in relative terms. From a policy perspective, results do not lend support to the idea that creators' income situation has systematically worsened with the rise of the internet and its intermediaries. Evidence on changing distributions of income is ambiguous as trends differ from one country to the next.