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Second World War and the direction of medical innovation
Economic Research Working Paper No. 70
This paper provides an overview of the role of the United States of America (U.S.) Second World War research effort on the direction of innovation, with a particular focus on medical research. It provides an overview of the U.S. wartime research program, reviews quantitative evidence on the effects of the overall wartime research shock on postwar patenting, describes the wartime medical research effort, and summarizes case studies of five major wartime medical research programs (penicillin, antimalarials, vaccines, blood substitutes, and hormones) and their effects on postwar R&D. It concludes by drawing out implications for crisis innovation and the direction of innovation in general, discussing mechanisms through which crises may have long-run effects, and highlighting hypotheses warranting further investigation.
Publication year: 2022
Direction of innovation in developing countries and its driving forces
Economic Research Working Paper No. 69
Innovation is a major driving force of long-term economic growth and sustainable development. Direction of innovation matters because technical change is not neutral and hence bears significant social, economic and environmental development implications. This paper contributes to the literature through a systematic examination of the direction of innovation in developing and emerging economies and its driving forces. It shows that innovation in the global South exhibits a vibrant and diverse landscape when we do not confine ourselves with traditional research and innovation indicators. While emerging economies are accelerating their pace in inventive activities in fields such as ICTs, biotech and engineering, low-income countries (LICs) are also found to be active in learning-based, incremental “under-the-radar innovations” (URIs). These URIs that are introduced through international technology transfer and indigenous innovative efforts. Indigenous sources of URIs play a primary role in LICs, contributed by localised learning-by-doing, close interaction with customers and embeddedness in regional production networks and clusters. However, insufficient role of the state, a low science and technology intensity and a lack of university-industry linkage limit the potential of URIs. International technology transfer is another important driver of technical change in developing countries. However, its strengthen varies across countries due to differences in host country policy, absorptive capacity, and the type of foreign economic engagement that they have as well as the inappropriateness of transferred foreign technologies mostly from Global North. Given the status of direction of innovation and its driving forces in developing countries, this report argues that the unfolding 4th industrial revolution poses both challenges and opportunities to LICs. Policy implications are discussed.
Calculating private and social returns to COVID-19 vaccine innovation
Economic Research Working Paper No. 68
What is the return to COVID-19 vaccine innovation? This paper seeks to quantify both private and social returns, using available data on commercialized vaccines and certain assumptions about the pandemic's epidemiological path as well as the economic costs of containment measures. The calculations reveal high returns to innovation. In the baseline scenario, the social benefit of vaccine innovation amounts to 70.5 trillion United States (U.S.) dollars globally, exceeding its private benefit by a factor of 887. The calculations bear on the private and public incentives to invest in vaccine innovation.
World Intellectual Property Report 2022
The Direction of Innovation
What is the direction of innovation? As the world looks to rebuild from the pandemic, innovation has a crucial role to play in opening up new growth possibilities and creating much needed solutions to the common challenges we face. Decisions on innovation may be complex, but, as this report highlights, it is vital that they are understood.
Guide to the International Patent Classification (2022)
This Guide provides information on the objectives, history and reform of the International Patent Classification (IPC) as well as assistance in the use of the IPC.
Hague Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Industrial Designs
Common Regulations (as in force on January 1, 2022) / Administrative Instructions (as in force on April 1, 2022)
The Hague System for the International Registration of Industrial Designs provides a practical business solution for registering up to 100 designs in any of its contracting parties, through the filing of a single international application with WIPO. Management of the resulting international registration is a single-step procedure. The Hague Agreement governs the Hague System.
Sharing Knowledge, Building IP Skills – The WIPO Academy Year in Review 2020
This report presents the Academy's achievements in 2020 and highlights the latest developments across programs, including new partnerships and course offerings.
Publication year: 2021
WIPO GREEN – Year in Review 2020
The WIPO GREEN Year in Review 2020 provides a snapshot of last year's activities and achievements. Some highlights include the regional innovation acceleration project in Latin America, WIPO GREEN strategic activities, and the establishment of new partner and donor relationships.
Guide to the International Registration of Marks under the Madrid Protocol
This Guide is primarily intended for applicants for, and holders of, international registrations of marks, as well as officials of the competent administrations of the members of the Madrid Union. It covers the various steps of the international registration procedure and explains the essential provisions of the Protocol Relating to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks and the Regulations under the Protocol.
Protocol Relating to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks; Regulations; Administrative Instructions; Schedule of Fees.
The present publication contains the texts of the Protocol Relating to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks (hereinafter referred to as the “Protocol”) (1989), as amended in 2006 and in 2007, the Regulations under the Protocol Relating to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks, the Administrative Instructions for the Application of the Protocol and the Schedule of Fees.