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Understanding the dynamics of global value chains for solar photovoltaic technologies
Economic Research Working Paper No. 40
China dominates the global solar photovoltaic (PV) value chain, while 15 years ago the demand and supply were located in few Western economies. In this process, the PV industry has seen a booming demand, drastic price decreases along the supply chain, and fierce competition among surviving companies. This paper seeks to understand how this spatial shift has occurred and its drivers, with a specific focus on the role of intangible assets and intellectual property.
Publication year: 2017
Intangible assets and value capture in global value chains: the smartphone industry
Economic Research Working Paper No. 41
This report uses data on individual smart phones as well as industry data to identify which smartphone firms capture the most value. It finds that Apple captures most of the industry profits, thanks to its high prices, large profit margins and the volume of iPhone sales worldwide. Apple's success is explained as a result of its ability to develop its own intellectual property (IP) and take advantage of IP created by suppliers through a strategy of selling only a few models at high prices compared to competitors.
The powerful role of intangibles in the coffee value chain
Economic Research Working Paper No. 39
The paper describes: a) the coffee industry and its GVC structure; b) the role that intangible assets play in value creation from both the supply and demand perspective; and c) the current and potential role of intellectual property tools in creating and retaining value, as well as providing economic upgrade options.
Intangible assets and transactions within multinational enterprises: implications for national economic accounts
Economic Research Working Paper No. 38
Transactions involving intangible assets within multinational enterprises impose challenges for national economic accountants. In light of the challenges, recent research at the United States Bureau of Economic Analysis aims to identify areas for improving the treatment of multinational enterprises in national economic accounts. This paper summarizes the work and demonstrates implications for gross domestic product – the most widely cited measure in national economic accounts – of the United States.
A missing link in the analysis of global value chains: cross-border flows of intangible assets, taxation and related measurement implications
Economic Research Working Paper No. 37
Understanding cross-border flows of disembodied knowledge, often associated with intellectual property (IP), is essential to analyzing how modern economies operate. This paper documents how available data to document these IP flows are distorted by various factors, including tax planning by multinational enterprises. It finds that tax-induced mismeasurement could be more than 35%, and greater for individual countries particularly high-tax-rate countries.
Measuring the income to intangibles in goods production: a global value chain approach
Economic Research Working Paper No. 36
Today's production processes are fragmented across countries and industries. Intangibles play an important role, but their measurement is elusive. This paper proposes a new empirical framework to measure factor incomes in production that spans industries and countries.
Geographical Indications: An Introduction
This publication provides an introduction to geographical indications, explaining their basic features, use and protection as an intellectual property right. Written for non-experts, it is a starting point for readers seeking to learn more about the topic.
WIPO - Making IP Work
WIPO is the global forum for intellectual property policy, services, information and cooperation. We are a self-funding, specialized agency of the United Nations, dedicated to making IP work for innovation and creativity. At WIPO we believe that IP and innovation go hand-in-hand. IP is about rewarding people for their ideas and original creations. It is about encouraging businesses to invest in innovations and new solutions. It is a means of enabling innovation and creativity for the benefit of all.
Access to Research for Development and Innovation (ARDI)
The Access to Research for Development and Innovation (ARDI) program is coordinated by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) together with its partners in the publishing industry with the aim to increase the availability of scientific and technical information in developing countries.