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The Evolution of the Two-Wheeler Industry: A Comparative Study of Italy, Japan, and India

Economic Research Working Paper No.83

This study leverages secondary data to provide a comprehensive outlook on the origin and evolution of the two-wheeler industry in Italy, Japan, and India. The study reveals how different technological, design, and manufacturing capabilities, combined with specific economic and social features in the historical contexts, have contributed to determine different trajectories in the evolution of these national industries. Recent trends towards digital transformation, electric mobility, connected driving are discussed. Three main takeaways emerge from our analysis. Firstly, the local capabilities play a crucial role in shaping both the origin and progression of the technology and the industry. Secondly, the two-wheeler industry displays patterns and trajectories that mimic the automotive industry, which can thus be used to interpret and forecast past, present, and future of motorcycles. Thirdly, the two-wheeler industry has been uniquely influenced by other industries, which has enhanced the complexity and effectiveness of its products and introduced novel elements which are reshaping the international demand for two-wheelers.

Publication year: 2024


Innovation Complexity in AgTech: The case of Brazil, Kenya and the United States of America?

Economic Research Working Paper No.82

This paper illustrates successful policies and incentives that build on local innovation capabilities across three agricultural innovation hubs at different income levels and across different geographical regions. It makes the case for how countries highly complex innovation ecosystems, which refer to the diversity and sophistication of local innovators and the types of innovation they produce, tend to have more opportunities to shift their technological path to the frontier. The paper focuses on three agricultural hubs across different income levels and geography to illustrate how smart policies that focus on building local capabilities can help countries diversify and create their own agricultural technological paths. These hubs include: São Paulo in Brazil, Nairobi in Kenya and Colorado in the United States of America.

Publication year: 2024


Can we map innovation capabilities?

Economic Research Working Paper No.81

Recent years have witnessed a resurgence of industrial policies globally. Through various industrial policy instruments, governments make critical scientific and technological choices that shape innovation paths and resource allocations. Our paper explores innovation capabilities as essential drivers of competitive outcomes, spanning science, technology, and production domains. Based on the economic complexity literature, we propose a methodological framework to measure the innovation capabilities empirically, leveraging data on scientific publications, patents, and trade. Our findings highlight the multidimensional nature of innovation capabilities and underscore the importance of understanding both the specialization and quality of these capabilities. Our results are in line with the complexity literature, as we also find: (i) positive correlations between the innovation complexity and economic growth; and, (ii) the predictive power of existing innovation capabilities for fostering new ones. Based on these findings, we propose novel indicators informing innovation policymaking on the innovation potential across science, technology, and production fields of an ecosystem. We suggest that innovation policymaking needs to be informed by deeper insights into innovation capabilities that are crucial for long-term growth and competitiveness improvement.

Publication year: 2024


Global Trends in Innovation Patterns: A Complexity Approach

Economic Research Working Paper No.80

Technological know-how in a country shapes its growth potential and competitiveness. Scientific publications, patents, and international trade data offer complementary insights into how ideas from science, technology, and production evolve, combine, and are transformed into capabilities. Analyzing their trajectories enables a more comprehensive and multifaceted understanding of the whole innovation process, from generating ideas to internationally commercializing products. We analyze the production patterns in these three domains, documenting the differences between advanced and emerging market economies. We find that future income, patenting, and publishing growth correlate with the economic complexity indices calculated from these domains. Capabilities embedded in the country also shape future diversification opportunities and make the innovation process path dependent. Lastly, we also show that diversification opportunities can be inferred across innovation domains.

Publication year: 2024


Innovation Policies Under Economic Complexity

Economic Research Working Paper No.79

Recent geopolitical challenges have revived the implementation of industrial and innovation policies. Ongoing discussions focus on supporting cutting-edge industries and strategic technologies but hardly pay attention to their impact on economic growth. In light of this, we discuss the design of innovation policies to address current development challenges while considering the complex nature of productive activities. Our approach conceives economic development and technological progress as a process of accumulation and diversification of knowledge. This process is limited by the tacit nature of knowledge and by countries' binding constraints to growth. Consequently, effective innovation policies should be place-based and multidimensional, leveraging countries' existing capabilities and addressing countries' current problems. This contrasts policies that lead to economic efficiencies, such as copying other countries' solutions to problems that countries do not currently have.

Publication year: 2024


World Intellectual Property Report 2024

Making innovation policy work for development

Combining economic analysis with in-depth industry studies, the 2024 edition of the World Intellectual Property Report introduces a new data-driven methodology designed to help policymakers make informed decisions by leveraging existing local innovation capabilities and strengthen their national innovation ecosystems. Complementing this framework are three case studies across the agriculture technology, motorcycle and video game industries, spanning eight different countries. These studies demonstrate how countries have successfully carved out specialized trajectories within innovative and complex industries.

Publication year: 2024


How to Make a Living from Music

Creative industries - third edition

Building a successful career in music includes managing intellectual property (IP) rights. WIPO supports authors and performers in enhancing their knowledge of the intellectual property aspects involved in their professional work. Copyright and related rights can help musical authors and performers generate additional income from their talent.

Publication year: 2024


Country Perspectives: Türkiye's Journey

This report gives an account of Türkiye's Journey in the “Unlocking IP-backed Financing Series” - looking at the challenges as well as government-backed initiatives and commitments to facilitate activities supporting small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

Publication year: 2024


WIPO Magazine, Issue 1/2024

The WIPO Magazine explores intellectual property, creativity and innovation in action across the world.

Publication year: 2024


Guide to the International Patent Classification (2024)

This Guide provides information on the objectives, history and reform of the International Patent Classification (IPC) as well as assistance in the use of the IPC.

Publication year: 2024