World Intellectual Property Organization

Ireland

Jurisdiction of Courts and Enforcement of Judgments Act, 1998.

 

 

Jurisdiction of Courts and Enforcement of Judgments Act, 1998.

 

 

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Number 52 of 1998

 

 


 

 

JURISDICTION OF COURTS AND ENFORCEMENT OF JUDGMENTS ACT, 1998

 

 


 

 

ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS

 

 

PART I

 

 

Preliminary and General

 

 

Section

 

1.

Short title and commencement.

2.

Interpretation.

3.

Texts of Conventions and Protocols.

 

 

PART II

 

 

The 1968 Convention and the Accession Conventions

 

 

4.

Interpretation of this Part.

5.

Conventions to have force of law.

6.

Interpretation of Conventions.

7.

Applications for recognition and enforcement of Community judgments.

8.

Enforcement of Community judgments by the High Court.

9.

Enforcement of Community maintenance orders by the District Court.

10.

Provisions in enforcement orders for payment of interest on judgments and payment of costs.

11.

Currency of payments under Community maintenance orders.

12.

Proof and admissibility of certain judgments, documents and related translations.

 

 

13.

Provisional, including protective, measures.

14.

Provision of certain documents by courts in the State to interested parties.

15.

Domicile for purposes of 1968 Convention and this Part.

16.

Venue for certain proceedings in Circuit Court or District Court.

 

 

PART III

 

 

The Lugano Convention

 

 

17.

Interpretation of this Part.

18.

Convention to have force of law.

19.

Interpretation of Convention.

20.

Application of certain provisions of Part II.

 

 

PART IV

 

 

Amendments and Repeals

 

 

21.

�Act of 1994�.

22.

Amendment of Act of 1994.

23.

Repeals.

 

 

FIRST SCHEDULE

 

 

Text (in the English and Irish languages) of the 1968 Convention as amended by the 1978 Accession Convention, the 1982 Accession Convention, the 1989 Accession Convention and the 1996 Accession Convention.

 

 

SECOND SCHEDULE

 

 

Text (in the English and Irish languages) of the 1971 Protocol as amended by the 1978 Accession Convention, the 1982 Accession Convention, the 1989 Accession Convention and the 1996 Accession Convention.

 

 

THIRD SCHEDULE

 

 

Text (in the English language) of Titles V and VI of the 1978 Accession Convention as amended by the 1989 Accession Convention.

 

 

FOURTH SCHEDULE

 

 

Text (in the English language) of Titles V and VI of the 1982 Accession Convention.

 

 

FIFTH SCHEDULE

 

 

Text (in the English language) of Titles VI and VII of the 1989 Accession Convention.

 

 

SIXTH SCHEDULE

 

 

Text (in the English language) of Titles V and VI of the 1996 Accession Convention.

 

 

SEVENTH SCHEDULE

 

 

Text (in the English language) of the Lugano Convention.

 

 

EIGHTH SCHEDULE

 

 

Text (in the English language) of Protocol I.

 

 

NINTH SCHEDULE

 

 

Domicile

 

 


 

 

Acts Referred to

Building Societies Act, 1989

1989, No. 17

Central Bank Acts, 1942 to 1998

 

Courts (Supplemental Provisions) Acts, 1961 to 1998

 

Defence Act, 1954

1954, No. 18

European Communities Act, 1972

1972, No. 27

Enforcement of Court Orders Act, 1940

1940, No. 23

Family Law Act, 1995

1995, No. 26

Family Law (Divorce) Act, 1996

1996, No. 33

Family Law (Maintenance of Spouses and Children) Act, 1976

1976, No. 11

Jurisdiction of Courts and Enforcement of Judgments Act, 1993

1993, No. 9

Jurisdiction of Courts and Enforcement of Judgments Acts, 1988 and 1993

 

Jurisdiction of Courts and Enforcement of Judgments (European Communities) Act, 1988

1988, No. 3

Maintenance Act, 1994

1994, No. 28

Status of Children Act, 1987

1987, No. 26

Trustee Savings Banks Act, 1989

1989, No 21

 

 

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Number 52 of 1998

 

 


 

 

JURISDICTION OF COURTS AND ENFORCEMENT OF JUDGMENTS ACT, 1998

 

 


 

 

AN ACT TO CONSOLIDATE THE JURISDICTION OF COURTS AND ENFORCEMENT OF JUDGMENTS ACTS, 1988 AND 1993, TO GIVE THE FORCE OF LAW TO THE CONVENTION SIGNED AT BRUSSELS ON THE 29TH DAY OF NOVEMBER, 1996 ON THE ACCESSION OF THE REPUBLIC OF AUSTRIA, THE REPUBLIC OF FINLAND AND THE KINGDOM OF SWEDEN TO THE CONVENTION ON JURISDICTION AND THE ENFORCEMENT OF JUDGMENTS IN CIVIL AND COMMERCIAL MATTERS AND TO THE PROTOCOL ON ITS INTERPRETATION BY THE COURT OF JUSTICE OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES WITH THE ADJUSTMENTS MADE TO THEM BY THE CONVENTION ON THE ACCESSION OF THE KINGDOM OF DENMARK, OF IRELAND AND OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, BY THE CONVENTION ON THE ACCESSION OF THE HELLENIC REPUBLIC AND BY THE CONVENTION ON THE ACCESSION OF THE KINGDOM OF SPAIN AND THE PORTUGUESE REPUBLIC AND TO PROVIDE FOR RELATED MATTERS. [23rd December, 1998]

 

 

BE IT ENACTED BY THE OIREACHTAS AS FOLLOWS:

 

 

PART I

Preliminary and General

 

Short title and commencement.

1.(1) This Act may be cited as the Jurisdiction of Courts and Enforcement of Judgments Act, 1998.

 

 

(2) This Act shall come into operation on such day or days as, by order or orders made by the Minister, may be fixed either generally or with reference to any particular purpose or provision, and different days may be so fixed for different purposes and different provisions.

 

Interpretation.

2.(1) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires�

 

 

the Accession Conventions� means the 1978 Accession Convention, the 1982 Accession Convention, the 1989 Accession Convention and the 1996 Accession Convention;

 

 

the 1978 Accession Convention� means the Convention on the accession to the 1968 Convention and the 1971 Protocol of the State, Denmark and the United Kingdom, signed at Luxembourg on the 9th day of October, 1978;

 

 

the 1982 Accession Convention� means the Convention on the accession to the 1968 Convention and the 1971 Protocol (as amended in each case by the 1978 Accession Convention) of the Hellenic Republic, signed at Luxembourg on the 25th day of October, 1982;

 

 

the 1989 Accession Convention� means the Convention on the accession to the 1968 Convention and the 1971 Protocol (as amended in each case by the 1978 Accession Convention and the 1982 Accession Convention) of the Kingdom of Spain and the Portuguese Republic, signed at San Sebastian on the 26th day of May, 1989;

 

 

the 1996 Accession Convention� means the Convention on the accession to the 1968 Convention and the 1971 Protocol (as amended in each case by the 1978 Accession Convention, the 1982 Accession Convention and the 1989 Accession Convention) of the Republic of Austria, the Republic of Finland and the Kingdom of Sweden, signed at Brussels on the 29th day of November, 1996;

 

 

the 1968 Convention� means the Convention on jurisdiction and the enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters (including the protocol annexed to that Convention), signed at Brussels on the 27th day of September, 1968;

 

 

court� includes a tribunal;

 

 

the European Communities� has the same meaning as in section 1 of the European Communities Act, 1972 ;

 

 

the European Court� means the Court of Justice of the European Communities;

 

 

the Lugano Convention� means the Convention on jurisdiction and the enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters, signed at Lugano on the 16th day of September, 1988, and includes Protocol 1;

 

 

the Minister� means the Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform;

 

 

the 1971 Protocol� means the Protocol on the interpretation of the 1968 Convention by the European Court, signed at Luxembourg on the 3rd day of June, 1971;

 

 

Protocol 1� means the protocol on certain questions of jurisdiction, procedure and enforcement, signed at Lugano on the 16th day of September, 1988.

 

 

(2) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires, a reference to, or to any provision of, the 1968 Convention or the 1971 Protocol is to the 1968 Convention, the 1971 Protocol or the provision, as amended by�

 

 

(a) the 1978 Accession Convention,

 

 

(b) the 1982 Accession Convention,

 

 

(c) the 1989 Accession Convention, and

 

 

(d) the 1996 Accession Convention in so far as it is in force between the State and a state respecting which it has entered into force in accordance with Article 16 of that Convention.

 

 

(3) In this Act�

 

 

(a) a reference to a section, a Part or a Schedule is to a section or a Part of, or a Schedule to, this Act unless it is indicated that a reference to some other enactment is intended,

 

 

(b) a reference to a subsection or paragraph is to the subsection or paragraph of the provision in which the reference occurs unless it is indicated that a reference to some other provision is intended, and

 

 

(c) a reference to an enactment is to that enactment as amended or modified by any other enactment including this Act.

 

 

(4) The collective citation �the Courts (Supplemental Provisions) Acts, 1961 to 1998� shall include sections 7 to 10 , 13 , 14 and 16 of this Act, and those Acts and those sections shall be construed together as one Act.

 

Texts of Conventions and Protocols.

3.�(1) For convenience of reference, the following texts are set out in the Schedules:

 

 

(a) in the First Schedule , the 1968 Convention as amended by�

 

 

(i) Titles II and III of the 1978 Accession Convention,

 

 

(ii) Titles II and III of the 1982 Accession Convention,

 

 

(iii) Titles II and III of, and Annex 1 to, the 1989 Accession Convention, and

 

 

(iv) Titles II and III of the 1996 Accession Convention;

 

 

(b) in the Second Schedule , the 1971 Protocol as amended by�

 

 

(i) Title IV of the 1978 Accession Convention,

 

 

(ii) Title IV of the 1982 Accession Convention,

 

 

(iii) Title IV of the 1989 Accession Convention, and

 

 

(iv) Title IV of the 1996 Accession Convention;

 

 

(c) in the Third Schedule , Titles V and VI of the 1978 Accession Convention as amended by the 1989 Accession Convention;

 

 

(d) in the Fourth Schedule , Titles V and VI of the 1982 Accession Convention;

 

 

(e) in the Fifth Schedule , Titles VI and VII of the 1989 Accession Convention;

 

 

(f) in the Sixth Schedule , Titles V and VI of the 1996 Accession Convention;

 

 

(g) in the Seventh Schedule , the Lugano Convention;

 

 

(h) in the Eighth Schedule , Protocol 1.

 

 

(2) The texts set out in the Schedules are prepared from�

 

 

(a) in the case of the First Schedule and the Second Schedule , the authentic texts, in the English and Irish languages, referred to in Articles 37 and 41 of the 1978 Accession Convention, Article 17 of the 1982 Accession Convention, Article 34 of the 1989 Accession Convention and Article 18 of the 1996 Accession Convention, and

 

 

(b) in the case of the remaining Schedules, the authentic texts, in the English language, referred to in the Articles mentioned in paragraph (a) and in Article 68 of the Lugano Convention.

 

 

PART II

The 1968 Convention and the Accession Conventions

 

Interpretation of this Part.

4.(1) In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires�

 

 

Contracting State� means a state�

 

 

(a) which is�

 

 

(i) one of the original parties to the 1968 Convention (Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands), or

 

 

(ii) one of the parties acceding to the 1968 Convention under any of the Accession Conventions (the State, Denmark, the United Kingdom, the Hellenic Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Portuguese Republic, the Republic of Austria, the Republic of Finland and the Kingdom of Sweden), and

 

 

(b) respecting which�

 

 

(i) the 1978 Accession Convention has entered into force in accordance with Article 39 of that Convention,

 

 

(ii) the 1982 Accession Convention has entered into force in accordance with Article 15 of that Convention,

 

 

(iii) the 1989 Accession Convention has entered into force in accordance with Article 32 of that Convention, or

 

 

(iv) the 1996 Accession Convention has entered into force in accordance with Article 16 of that Convention,

 

 

as the case may be;

 

 

the Conventions� means the 1968 Convention, the 1971 Protocol and the Accession Conventions;

 

 

enforceable maintenance order� means�

 

 

(a) a maintenance order respecting all of which an enforcement order has been made, or

 

 

(b) if an enforcement order has been made respecting only part of a maintenance order, the maintenance order to the extent to which it is so ordered to be enforced;

 

 

enforcement order� means an order for the recognition or enforcement of all or part of a judgment where the order�

 

 

(a) is made by the Master of the High Court under section 7 , or

 

 

(b) is made or varied on appeal from a decision of the Master of the High Court under section 7 or from a decision of the High Court relating to the Master�s decision;

 

 

judgment� means a judgment or order (by whatever name called) that is a judgment for the purposes of the 1968 Convention, and, except in sections 10 , 12 and 14 , includes�

 

 

(a) an instrument or settlement referred to in Title IV of the 1968 Convention, and

 

 

(b) an arrangement relating to maintenance obligations concluded with or authenticated by an administrative authority, as referred to in Article 10 of the 1996 Accession Convention;

 

 

maintenance� means maintenance within the meaning of the Conventions;

 

 

maintenance creditor� means, in relation to a maintenance order, the person entitled to the payments for which the order provides;

 

 

maintenance debtor� means, in relation to a maintenance order, the person liable to make payments under the order;

 

 

maintenance order� means a judgment relating to maintenance.

 

 

(2) The Minister for Foreign Affairs may, by order, declare�

 

 

(a) that any state specified in the order is a Contracting State, or

 

 

(b) that a declaration has been made pursuant to Article IV of the 1968 Convention, or a communication has been made pursuant to Article VI of that Convention, to the Secretary General of the Council of the European Communities.

 

 

(3) The text of a declaration or communication referred to in subsection (2)(b) shall be set out in the order declaring that the declaration or communication has been made.

 

 

(4) An order that is in force under subsection (2) is�

 

 

(a) if made under subsection (2)(a), evidence that any state to which the declaration relates is a Contracting State, and

 

 

(b) if made under subsection (2)(b), evidence that the declaration pursuant to Article IV or the communication pursuant to Article VI was made and evidence of its contents.

 

 

(5) The Minister for Foreign Affairs may, by order, amend or revoke an order made under subsection (2) or this subsection.

 

Conventions to have force of law.

5.The Conventions shall have the force of law in the State and judicial notice shall be taken of them.

 

Interpretation of Conventions.

6.(1) Judicial notice shall be taken of�

 

 

(a) a ruling or decision of, or expression of opinion by, the European Court on any question about the meaning or effect of a provision of the Conventions, and

 

 

(b) the reports listed in subsection (2).

 

 

(2) When interpreting a provision of the Conventions, a court may consider the following reports (which are reproduced in the Official Journal of the European Communities) and shall give them the weight that is appropriate in the circumstances:

 

 

(a) the reports by Mr. P. Jenard on the 1968 Convention and the 1971 Protocol1 ;

 

 

(b) the report by Professor Peter Schlosser on the 1978 Accession Convention2 ;

 

 

(c) the report by Professor Demetrios Evrigenis and Professor K. D. Kerameus on the accession of the Hellenic Republic to the 1968 Convention and the 1971 Protocol3 ;

 

 

(d) the report by Mr. Almeida Cruz, Mr. Desantes Real and Mr. P. Jenard on the 1989 Accession Convention4 .

 

Applications for recognition and enforcement of Community judgments.

7.(1) An application under the Conventions for the recognition or enforcement in the State of a judgment shall�

 

 

(a) be made to the Master of the High Court, and

 

 

(b) be determined by the Master by order in accordance with the Conventions.

 

 

(2) An order made by the Master of the High Court under subsection (1) may include an order for the recognition or enforcement of only part of a judgment.

 

Enforcement of Community judgments by the High Court.

8.(1) Subject to section 10 (4) and to the restrictions on enforcement contained in Article 39 of the 1968 Convention, if an enforcement order has been made respecting a judgment�

 

 

(a) the judgment shall, to the extent to which its enforcement is authorised by the enforcement order, be of the same force and effect as a judgment of the High Court, and

 

 

(b) the High Court has the same powers respecting enforcement of the judgment, and proceedings may be taken on the judgment, as if it were a judgment of that Court.

 

 

(2) Subject to subsections (3) and (6), subsection (1) shall apply only to a judgment other than a maintenance order.

 

 

(3) On application by the maintenance creditor under an enforceable maintenance order, the Master of the High Court may, by order, declare that the following shall be regarded as being payable under a judgment referred to in subsection (1):

 

 

(a) sums which were payable under the maintenance order as periodic payments but were not paid before the relevant enforcement order was made;

 

 

(b) a lump sum (not being a sum referred to in paragraph (a)) which is payable under the enforceable maintenance order.

 

 

(4) A declaration shall not be made under subsection (3) unless the Master of the High Court considers that by doing so the enforceable maintenance order would be more effectively enforced respecting any sums or sum referred to in that subsection.

 

 

(5) If a declaration is made under subsection (3), the sums or sum to which the declaration relates shall be deemed, for the purposes of this Part, to be payable under a judgment referred to in subsection (1) and not otherwise.

 

 

(6) A maintenance order shall be regarded as a judgment referred to in subsection (1) if the District Court does not have jurisdiction to enforce the order under section 9 (7).

 

Enforcement of Community maintenance orders by the District Court.

9.(1) Subject to section 10 (4) and to the restrictions on enforcement contained in Article 39 of the 1968 Convention, the District Court shall have jurisdiction to enforce an enforceable maintenance order.

 

 

(2) An enforceable maintenance order shall, from the date on which the maintenance order was made, be deemed for the purposes of�

 

 

(a) subsection (1),

 

 

(b) section 98 (1) of the Defence Act, 1954 , and

 

 

(c) subject to the 1968 Convention, the variation or discharge of that order under section 6 of the Family Law (Maintenance of Spouses and Children) Act, 1976 , as amended by the Status of Children Act, 1987 ,

 

 

to be an order made by the District Court under section 5 or section 5A or 21A (inserted by the Status of Children Act, 1987 ) of the Family Law (Maintenance of Spouses and Children) Act, 1976 , as may be appropriate.

 

 

(3) Subsections (1) and (2) shall apply even though an amount payable under the enforceable maintenance order exceeds the maximum amount the District Court has jurisdiction to award under the appropriate enactment mentioned in subsection (2).

 

 

(4) Where an enforceable maintenance order is varied by a court in a Contracting State other than the State and an enforcement order has been made respecting all or part of the enforceable maintenance order as so varied, or respecting all or part of the order effecting the variation, the enforceable maintenance order shall, from the date on which the variation takes effect, be enforceable in the State only as so varied.

 

 

(5) Where an enforceable maintenance order is revoked by a court in a Contracting State other than the State and an enforcement order has been made respecting the order effecting the revocation, the enforceable maintenance order shall, from the date on which the revocation takes effect, cease to be enforceable in the State except in relation to any sums under the order that were payable, but were not paid, on or before that date.

 

 

(6) Subject to section 8 (3) to (5) of this Act, the following shall be regarded as being payable pursuant to an order made under section 5 or section 5A or 21A (inserted by the Status of Children Act, 1987 ) of the Family Law (Maintenance of Spouses and Children) Act, 1976 :

 

 

(a) any sums that were payable under an enforceable maintenance order but were not paid before the date of the making of the relevant enforcement order;

 

 

(b) any costs of or incidental to the application for the enforcement order that are payable under section 10 (2) of this Act.

 

 

(7) The jurisdiction vested in the District Court by this section may be exercised by the judge of that Court for the time being assigned to�

 

 

(a) if the maintenance debtor under an enforceable maintenance order resides in the State, the district court district in which the debtor resides or carries on any profession, business or occupation, or

 

 

(b) if the maintenance debtor under an enforceable maintenance order does not reside in the State but is in the employment of an individual residing or having a place of business in the State or of a corporation or association having its seat in the State, the district court district in which that individual resides or that corporation or association has its seat.

 

 

(8) Despite anything to the contrary in an enforceable maintenance order, the maintenance debtor shall pay any sum payable under that order to�

 

 

(a) in the case referred to in subsection (7)(a), the district court clerk for the district court district in which the debtor for the time being resides, or

 

 

(b) in a case referred to in subsection (7)(b), a district court clerk specified by the District Court,

 

 

for transmission to the maintenance creditor under the order or, if a public authority has been authorised by the creditor to receive that sum, to that authority.

 

 

(9) If a sum payable under an enforceable maintenance order is not duly paid and if the maintenance creditor under the order so requests in writing, the district court clerk concerned shall make an application respecting that sum under�

 

 

(a) section 10 (which relates to the attachment of certain earnings) of the Family Law (Maintenance of Spouses and Children) Act, 1976 , or

 

 

(b) section 8 (which relates to the enforcement of certain maintenance orders) of the Enforcement of Court Orders Act, 1940 .

 

 

(10) For the purposes of subsection (9)(b), a reference in section 8 of the Enforcement of Court Orders Act, 1940 (other than in subsections (4) and (5) of that section) to an applicant shall be construed as a reference to the district court clerk.

 

 

(11) Nothing in this section shall affect the right of a maintenance creditor under an enforceable maintenance order to institute proceedings for the recovery of a sum payable to a district court clerk under subsection (8).

 

 

(12) Section 8 (7) of the Enforcement of Court Orders Act, 1940 , does not apply to proceedings for the enforcement of an enforceable maintenance order.

 

 

(13) The maintenance debtor under an enforceable maintenance order shall give notice to the district court clerk for the district court area in which the debtor has been residing of any change of address.

 

 

(14) A person who, without reasonable excuse, contravenes subsection (13) shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding �1,000.

 

 

(15) If there are two or more district court clerks for a district court area, a reference in this section to a district court clerk shall be construed as a reference to any of those clerks.

 

 

(16) For the purposes of this section, the Dublin Metropolitan Area shall be deemed to be a district court area.

 

Provisions in enforcement orders for payment of interest on judgments and payment of costs.

10.(1) Where, on application for an enforcement order respecting a judgment, it is shown�

 

 

(a) that the judgment provides for the payment of a sum of money, and

 

 

(b) that, in accordance with the law of the Contracting State in which the judgment was given, interest on that sum is recoverable under the judgment at a particular rate or rates and from a particular date or time,

 

 

the enforcement order, if made, shall provide that the person liable to pay that sum shall also be liable to pay that interest, apart from any interest on costs recoverable under subsection (2), in accordance with the particulars noted in the order, and the interest shall be recoverable by the applicant as though it were part of that sum.

 

 

(2) An enforcement order may, at the discretion of the court concerned or the Master of the High Court, as may be appropriate, provide for the payment to the applicant by the respondent of the reasonable costs of or incidental to the application for the enforcement order.

 

 

(3) A person required by an enforcement order to pay costs shall be liable to pay interest on the costs as if they were the subject of an order for the payment of costs made by the High Court on the date the enforcement order was made.

 

 

(4) Interest shall be payable on a sum referred to in subsection (1) only as provided for in this section.

 

Currency of payments under Community maintenance orders.

11.(1) An amount payable in the State under a maintenance order by virtue of an enforcement order shall be paid in the currency of the State.

 

 

(2) If the amount referred to in subsection (1) is stated in the maintenance order in a currency other than that of the State, the payment shall be made on the basis of the exchange rate prevailing, on the date the enforcement order is made, between the currency of the State and the other currency.

 

 

(3) For the purposes of this section, a certificate purporting to be signed by an officer of an authorised institution and to state the exchange rate prevailing on a specified date between a specified currency and the currency of the State shall be admissible as evidence of the facts stated in the certificate.

 

 

(4) In this section, �authorised institution� means any of the following:

 

 

(a) a body licensed under the Central Bank Acts, 1942 to 1998, or authorised under regulations made under the European Communities Act, 1972 , to carry on banking business;

 

 

(b) a building society incorporated or deemed to be incorporated under section 10 of the Building Societies Act, 1989 ;

 

 

(c) a society licensed under section 10 of the Trustee Savings Banks Act, 1989 , to carry on the business of a trustee savings bank;

 

 

(d) An Post;

 

 

(e) ACC Bank public limited company;

 

 

(f) ICC Bank public limited company.

 

Proof and admissibility of certain judgments, documents and related translations.

12.(1) For the purposes of the Conventions�

 

 

(a) a document that is duly authenticated and purports to be a copy of a judgment given by a court of a Contracting State other than the State shall, without further proof, be deemed to be a true copy of the judgment, unless the contrary is shown, and

 

 

(b) the original or any copy of a document mentioned in Article 46.2 or 47 of the 1968 Convention shall be admissible as evidence of any matter to which the document relates.

 

 

(2) A document purporting to be a copy of a judgment given by a court of a Contracting State, shall, for the purposes of this Act, be regarded as being duly authenticated if it purports�

 

 

(a) to bear the seal of that court, or

 

 

(b) to be certified by a judge or officer of that court to be a true copy of a judgment given by that court.

 

 

(3) A document shall be admissible as evidence of a translation if�

 

 

(a) it purports to be the translation of�

 

 

(i) a judgment given by a court of a Contracting State other than the State,

 

 

(ii) a document mentioned in Article 46.2, 47 or 50 of the 1968 Convention, or

 

 

(iii) a document containing a settlement referred to in Article 51 of the 1968 Convention or containing an arrangement referred to in Article 10 of the 1996 Accession Convention, and

 

 

(b) it is certified as correct by a person competent to do so.

 

Provisional, including protective, measures.

13.(1) On application pursuant to Article 24 of the 1968 Convention, the High Court may grant any provisional, including protective, measures of any kind that the Court has power to grant in proceedings that, apart from this Act, are within its jurisdiction, if�

 

 

(a) proceedings have been or are to be commenced in a Contracting State other than the State, and

 

 

(b) the subject matter of the proceedings is within the scope of the 1968 Convention as determined by Article 1 (whether or not that Convention has effect in relation to the proceedings).

 

 

(2) On an application under subsection (1), the High Court may refuse to grant the measures sought if, in its opinion, the fact that, apart from this section, that Court does not have jurisdiction in relation to the subject matter of the proceedings makes it inexpedient for it to grant those measures.

 

 

(3) Subject to Article 39 of the 1968 Convention, an application to the Master of the High Court for an enforcement order respecting a judgment may include an application for any protective measures the High Court has power to grant in proceedings that, apart from this Act, are within its jurisdiction.

 

 

(4) Where an enforcement order is made, the Master of the High Court shall grant any protective measures referred to in subsection (3) that are sought in the application for the enforcement order.

 

Provision of certain documents by courts in the State to interested parties.

14.If a judgment is given by a court in the State, the registrar or clerk of that court shall, at the request of an interested party and subject to any conditions that may be specified by rules of court, give to the interested party�

 

 

(a) a duly authenticated copy of the judgment,

 

 

(b) a certificate signed by the registrar or clerk of the court stating�

 

 

(i) the nature of the proceedings,

 

 

(ii) the grounds, pursuant to the 1968 Convention, on which the court assumed jurisdiction,

 

 

(iii) the date on which the time for lodging an appeal against the judgment will expire or, if it has expired, the date on which it expired,

 

 

(iv) whether notice of appeal against, or, if the judgment was given in default of appearance, notice to set aside, the judgment has been entered,

 

 

(v) if the judgment is for the payment of a sum of money, the rate of interest, if any, payable on the sum and the date from which interest is payable, and

 

 

(vi) any other particulars that may be specified by rules of court, and

 

 

(c) if the judgment was given in default of appearance, the original or a copy, certified by the registrar or clerk of the court to be a true copy, of a document establishing that notice of the institution of proceedings was served on the person in default.

 

Domicile for purposes of 1968 Convention and this Part.

15.(1) In order to determine for the purposes of the 1968 Convention and this Part whether an individual is domiciled in the State, in a place in the State or in a state other than a Contracting State, the following provisions shall apply:

 

 

(a) Part I of the Ninth Schedule , in relation to the text in the English language of the 1968 Convention;

 

 

(b) Part II of the Ninth Schedule , in relation to the text in the Irish language of the 1968 Convention.

 

 

(2) The seat of a corporation or association shall be treated as its domicile and in order to determine for the purposes of Article 53 of the 1968 Convention and this Part whether a corporation or association has its seat in the State, in a place in the State or in a state other than a Contracting State, the following provisions shall apply:

 

 

(a) Part III of the Ninth Schedule , in relation to the text in the English language of the 1968 Convention;

 

 

(b) Part IV of the Ninth Schedule , in relation to the text in the Irish language of the 1968 Convention.

 

 

(3) In order to determine for the purposes of the 1968 Convention and this Part whether a trust is domiciled in the State the following provisions shall apply:

 

 

(a) Part V of the Ninth Schedule , in relation to the text in the English language of the 1968 Convention;

 

 

(b) Part VI of the Ninth Schedule , in relation to the text in the Irish language of the 1968 Convention.

 

 

(4) In this section�

 

 

association� means an unincorporated body of persons;

 

 

corporation� means a body corporate.

 

Venue for certain proceedings in Circuit Court or District Court.

16.(1) Subject to Title II of the 1968 Convention, the jurisdiction of the Circuit Court respecting proceedings that may be instituted in the State by virtue of Article 2, 8.1, 11, 14 or 16(1)(b) of that Convention shall be exercised by the judge of that Court for the time being assigned to the circuit where the defendant, or one of the defendants, ordinarily resides or carries on any profession, business or occupation.

 

 

(2) Subsection (1) shall apply where, apart from that subsection, the Circuit Court's jurisdiction would be determined by reference to the place where the defendant resides or carries on business.

 

 

(3) The jurisdiction of the Circuit Court or District Court respecting proceedings that may be instituted in the State by virtue of Article 14 of the 1968 Convention by a plaintiff domiciled in the State may be exercised as follows:

 

 

(a) in the case of the Circuit Court, by the judge of the Circuit Court for the time being assigned to the circuit where the plaintiff or one of the plaintiffs ordinarily resides or carries on any profession, business or occupation;

 

 

(b) in the case of the District Court, by the judge of the District Court for the time being assigned to the district court district in which the plaintiff or one of the plaintiffs ordinarily resides or carries on any profession, business or occupation.

 

 

PART III

The Lugano Convention

 

Interpretation of this Part.

17.(1) For the purposes of this Part, unless the context otherwise requires�

 

 

Contracting State� means a state respecting which the Lugano Convention has entered into force in accordance with Article 61 or 62 of that Convention;

 

 

enforceable maintenance order� means�

 

 

(a) a maintenance order respecting all of which an enforcement order has been made, or

 

 

(b) if an enforcement order has been made respecting only part of a maintenance order, the maintenance order to the extent to which it is so ordered to be enforced;

 

 

enforcement order� means an order for the recognition or enforcement of all or part of a judgment where the order�

 

 

(a) is made by the Master of the High Court under section 7 as applied by this section, or

 

 

(b) is made or varied on appeal from a decision of the Master of the High Court under section 7 as applied by this Part or from a decision of the High Court relating to the Master�s decision;

 

 

judgment� means a judgment or order (by whatever name called) that is a judgment for the purposes of the Lugano Convention, and, except in sections 10 , 12 and 14 as applied by this Part, includes an instrument or settlement referred to in Title IV of that Convention;

 

 

maintenance� means maintenance within the meaning of the Lugano Convention;

 

 

maintenance creditor� means, in relation to a maintenance order, the person entitled to the payments for which the order provides;

 

 

maintenance debtor� means, in relation to a maintenance order, the person liable to make payments under the order;

 

 

maintenance order� means a judgment relating to maintenance.

 

 

(2) The Minister for Foreign Affairs may, by order, declare�

 

 

(a) that any state specified in the order is a Contracting State, or

 

 

(b) that�

 

 

(i) a denunciation has been made pursuant to Article 64 of the Lugano Convention,

 

 

(ii) a declaration has been made pursuant to Article Ia, Ib, or IV of Protocol 1, or

 

 

(iii) a communication has been made pursuant to Article 63 of the Lugano Convention or Article VI of Protocol 1.

 

 

(3) The text of a denunciation, declaration or communication referred to in subsection (2)(b) shall be set out in the order declaring that the denunciation, declaration or communication has been made.

 

 

(4) An order that is in force under subsection (2) shall be�

 

 

(a) if made under subsection (2)(a), evidence that any state to which the declaration relates is a Contracting State, and

 

 

(b) if made under subsection (2)(b), evidence that the denunciation, declaration or communication, the text of which is set out in the order, was made and evidence of its contents.

 

 

(5) The Minister for Foreign Affairs may, by order, amend or revoke an order made under subsection (2) or this subsection.

 

 

(6) The definition of �judgment� in subsection (1) shall not be construed to limit the effect of Article 54b of the Lugano Convention.

 

Convention to have force of law.

18.The Lugano Convention shall have the force of law in the State and judicial notice shall be taken of it.

 

Interpretation of Convention.

19.(1) Judicial notice shall be taken of relevant decisions delivered by courts of other Contracting States concerning the provisions of the Lugano Convention, and a court shall, when interpreting and applying those provisions, pay due account to the principles laid down in those decisions.

 

 

(2) Judicial notice shall be taken of the report prepared by Mr. P. Jenard and Mr. G. M�ller on the Lugano Convention1 , and, when interpreting any provision of that Convention, a court may consider that report and shall give it the weight that is appropriate in the circumstances.

 

Application of certain provisions of Part II .

20.(1) Sections 7 to 16 apply in relation to the application of the Lugano Convention in the State pursuant to section 18 as they apply in relation to the application, pursuant to section 5 , of the Conventions (as defined in section 4 ) with�

 

 

(a) the modifications set out in subsection (2), and

 

 

(b) any other necessary modifications.

 

 

(2) For the purposes of subsection (1),

 

 

(a) a reference in sections 7 to 16 to a numbered Article or Title of the 1968 Convention shall be construed as a reference to the corresponding Article or Title of the Lugano Convention,

 

 

(b) a reference in sections 7 to 16 to an instrument or settlement shall be construed as a reference to an instrument or settlement referred to in Title IV of the Lugano Convention, and

 

 

(c) a reference in sections 7 to 16 to a term defined in section 17 shall be construed in accordance with that section.

 

 

PART IV

Amendments and Repeals

 

�Act of 1994�.

21.In this Part, �the Act of 1994� means the Maintenance Act, 1994 .

 

Amendment of Act of 1994.

22.(1) Section 3 (1) of the Act of 1994 is hereby amended by the substitution of the following definition for the definitions of �the Act of 1988� and �the Act of 1993�:

��the Act of 1998� means the Jurisdiction of Courts and Enforcement of Judgments Act, 1998;�.

 

 

(2) Section 4 (2) of the Act of 1994 (as amended by section 45 (b) of the Family Law Act, 1995 , and section 53 (b) of the Family Law (Divorce) Act, 1996 ) is hereby amended by the substitution of the following paragraph for paragraph (a):

(a) For the purposes of section 8 of the Enforcement of Court Orders Act, 1940 , the Act of 1976, the Act of 1995, the Act of 1996, the Act of 1998 and this Act, the Central Authority shall have authority to act on behalf of a maintenance creditor or of a claimant, as defined in section 13 (1), and references in those enactments to a maintenance creditor or to such a claimant shall be construed as including references to the Central Authority.�.

 

 

(3) Section 5 of the Act of 1994 is hereby amended by the substitution of �Jurisdiction of Courts and Enforcement of Judgments Act, 1998� for �Jurisdiction of Courts and Enforcement of Judgments Acts, 1988 and 1993�.

 

 

(4) Section 6 of the Act of 1994 is hereby amended�

 

 

(a) in subsection (1) by the substitution of the following definitions for the definitions of �the Brussels Convention�, and �the Lugano Convention� respectively:

��the Brussels Convention� means�

��the Lugano Convention� has the meaning assigned to it by the Act of 1998;�,

 

 

(a) the 1968 Convention, and

 

 

(b) the Accession Conventions,

 

 

as defined in the Act of 1998, and a reference to an Article of the Brussels Convention shall be construed as including a reference to the corresponding Article of the Lugano Convention;�,

 

 

(b) in subsection (1) in the definition of �reciprocating jurisdiction�, by the substitution of �the Act of 1998� for �the Acts of 1988 and 1993�, and

 

 

(c) in subsection (2)(a), by the substitution of �the Act of 1998� for �the Acts of 1988 and 1993�.

 

 

(5) Section 7 (1) of the Act of 1994 is hereby amended by the substitution of �in accordance with section 7 of the Act of 1998� for �in accordance with section 5 of the Act of 1988�.

 

 

(6) Section 14 of the Act of 1994 is hereby amended�

 

 

(a) in subsection (1), by the substitution of the following for paragraph (a):

�(a) if the request is accompanied by an order of a court in a Contracting State (as defined in the Act of 1998), transmit the request to the Master of the High Court for determination in accordance with section 7 of the Act of 1998 and Part II of this Act, and the other provisions of the Act of 1998 shall apply accordingly, with any necessary modifications,�,

 

 

(b) in subsection (2), by the substitution of the following for paragraphs (a) and (b):

�(a) the order of the District Court shall be deemed to be an enforceable maintenance order as defined in the Act of 1998, and

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(b) sections 8, 9 and 10 of that Act shall apply in relation to that order, with any necessary modifications.�,

 

 

and

 

 

(c) by the insertion of the following subsection after subsection (9):

(9A) In subsections (1) (a) and (9) a reference to an order of, or made by, a court shall be construed as including a reference to�

 

 

(a) an instrument or settlement within the meaning of the Brussels Convention as defined in Part II, and

 

 

(b) an arrangement relating to maintenance obligations concluded with or authenticated by an administrative authority, as referred to in Article 10 of the 1996 Accession Convention as defined in section 2 of the Act of 1998.�.

 

 

(7) Section 20 (1) of the Act of 1994 is hereby amended by the substitution of �the Act of 1998� for �the Act of 1988�.

 

Repeals.

23.The following are hereby repealed:

 

 

(a) the Jurisdiction of Courts and Enforcement of Judgments (European Communities) Act, 1988 ;

 

 

(b) the Jurisdiction of Courts and Enforcement of Judgments Act, 1993 ;

 

 

(c) sections 7 (7) and 9 to 12 of the Act of 1994.

 

 

FIRST SCHEDULE

Text of the 1968 Convention as amended by the 1978 Accession Convention, the 1982 Accession Convention, the 1989 Accession Convention and the 1996 Accession Convention1

 

 

CONVENTION

 

 

on jurisdiction and the enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters

 

 

PREAMBLE

 

 

THE HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES TO THE TREATY ESTABLISHING THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY,

 

 

DESIRING to implement the provisions of Article 220 of that Treaty by virtue of which they undertook to secure the simplification of formalities governing the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments of courts or tribunals;

 

 

ANXIOUS to strengthen in the Community the legal protection of persons therein established;

 

 

CONSIDERING that it is necessary for this purpose to determine the international jurisdiction of their courts, to facilitate recognition and to introduce an expeditious procedure for securing the enforcement of judgments, authentic instruments and court settlements;

 

 

HAVE DECIDED to conclude this Convention and to this end have designated as their Plenipotentiaries:

 

 

[Plenipotentiaries designated by the Member States]

 

 

WHO, meeting within the Council, having exchanged their full powers, found in good and due form,

 

 

HAVE AGREED AS FOLLOWS:

 

 

Title I

 

 

SCOPE

 

 

Article 1

 

 

This Convention shall apply in civil and commercial matters whatever the nature of the court or tribunal. It shall not extend, in particular, to revenue, customs or administrative matters.

 

 

The Convention shall not apply to:

 

 

1. the status or legal capacity of natural persons, rights in property arising out of a matrimonial relationship, wills and succession;

 

 

2. bankruptcy, proceedings relating to the winding-up of insolvent companies or other legal persons, judicial arrangements, compositions and analogous proceedings;

 

 

3. social security;

 

 

4. arbitration.

 

 

Title II

 

 

JURISDICTION

 

 

SECTION 1

 

 

General Provisions

 

 

Article 2

 

 

Subject to the provisions of this Convention, persons domiciled in a Contracting State shall, whatever their nationality, be sued in the courts of that State.

 

 

Persons who are not nationals of the State in which they are domiciled shall be governed by the rules of jurisdiction applicable to nationals of that State.

 

 

Article 3

 

 

Persons domiciled in a Contracting State may be sued in the courts of another Contracting State only by virtue of the rules set out in Sections 2 to 6 of this Title.

 

 

In particular the following provisions shall not be applicable as against them:

 

 

in Belgium: Article 15 of the civil code (Code civilBurgerlijk Wetboek) and Article 638 of the judicial code (Code judiciaireGerechtelijk Wetboek),

 

 

in Denmark: Article 246 (2) and (3) of the law on civil procedure (Lov om rettens pleje),

 

 

in the Federal Republic of Germany: Article 23 of the code of civil procedure (Zivilprozeβordnung),

 

 

in Greece: Article 40 of the code of civil procedure (Kώδικας Πoλιτικής Δικoνoμίας),

 

 

in France: Articles 14 and 15 of the civil code (Code civil),

 

 

in Ireland: the rules which enable jurisdiction to be founded on the document instituting the proceedings having been served on the defendant during his temporary presence in Ireland,

 

 

in Italy: Articles 2 and 4, Nos 1 and 2 of the code of civil procedure (Codice di procedura civile),

 

 

in Luxembourg: Articles 14 and 15 of the civil code (Code civil),

 

 

in Austria: Article 99 of the Law on Court Jurisdiction (Jurisdiktionsnorm),

 

 

in the Netherlands: Articles 126 (3) and 127 of the code of civil procedure (Wetbook van Burgerlijke Rechtsvordering),

 

 

in Portugal: Article 65 (1)(c), Article 65 (2) and Article 65A (c) of the code of civil procedure (C�digo de Processo Civil) and Article 11 of the code of labour procedure (C�digo de Processo de Trabalho),

 

 

in Finland: the second, third and fourth sentences of the first paragraph of Section 1 of Chapter 10 of the Code of Judicial Procedure (oikeudenk�ymiskaari/r�tteg�ngsbalken),

 

 

in Sweden: the first sentence of the first paragraph of Section 3 of Chapter 10 of the Code of Judicial Procedure (r�tteg�ngsbalken),

 

 

in the United Kingdom: the rules which enable jurisdiction to be founded on:

 

 

(a) the document instituting the proceedings having been served on the defendant during his temporary presence in the United Kingdom; or

 

 

(b) the presence within the United Kingdom of property belonging to the defendant; or

 

 

(c) the seizure by the plaintiff of property situated in the United Kingdom.

 

 

Article 4

 

 

If the defendant is not domiciled in a Contracting State, the jurisdiction of the courts of each Contracting State shall, subject to the provisions of Article 16, be determined by the law of that State.

 

 

As against such a defendant, any person domiciled in a Contracting State may, whatever his nationality, avail himself in that State of the rules of jurisdiction there in force, and in particular those specified in the second paragraph of Article 3, in the same way as the nationals of that State.

 

 

SECTION 2

 

 

Special Jurisdiction

 

 

Article 5

 

 

A person domiciled in a Contracting State may, in another Contracting State, be sued:

 

 

1. in matters relating to a contract, in the courts for the place of performance of the obligation in question; in matters relating to individual contracts of employment, this place is that where the employee habitually carries out his work, or if the employee does not habitually carry out his work in any one country, the employer may also be sued in the courts for the place where the business which engaged the employee was or is now situated;

 

 

2. in matters relating to maintenance, in the courts for the place where the maintenance creditor is domiciled or habitually resident or, if the matter is ancillary to proceedings concerning the status of a person, in the court which, according to its own law, has jurisdiction to entertain those proceedings, unless that jurisdiction is based solely on the nationality of one of the parties;

 

 

3. in matters relating to tort, delict or quasi-delict, in the courts for the place where the harmful event occurred;

 

 

4. as regards a civil claim for damages or restitution which is based on an act giving rise to criminal proceedings, in the court seised of those proceedings, to the extent that that court has jurisdiction under its own law to entertain civil proceedings;

 

 

5. as regards a dispute arising out of the operations of a branch, agency or other establishment, in the courts for the place in which the branch, agency or other establishment is situated;

 

 

6. as settlor, trustee or beneficiary of a trust created by the operation of a statute, or by a written instrument, or created orally and evidenced in writing, in the courts of the Contracting State in which the trust is domiciled;

 

 

7. as regards a dispute concerning the payment of remuneration claimed in respect of the salvage of a cargo or freight, in the court under the authority of which the cargo or freight in question:

 

 

(a) has been arrested to secure such payment,

 

 

or

 

 

(b) could have been so arrested, but bail or other security has been given;

 

 

provided that this provision shall apply only if it is claimed that the defendant has an interest in the cargo or freight or had such an interest at the time of salvage.

 

 

Article 6

 

 

A person domiciled in a Contracting State may also be sued:

 

 

1. where he is one of a number of defendants, in the courts for the place where any one of them is domiciled;

 

 

2. as a third party in an action on a warranty or guarantee or in any other third party proceedings, in the court seised of the original proceedings, unless these were instituted solely with the object of removing him from the jurisdiction of the court which would be competent in his case;

 

 

3. on a counterclaim arising from the same contract or facts on which the original claim was based, in the court in which the original claim is pending;

 

 

4. in matters relating to a contract, if the action may be combined with an action against the same defendant in matters relating to rights in rem in immovable property, in the court of the Contracting State in which the property is situated.

 

 

Article 6a

 

 

Where by virtue of this Convention a court of a Contracting State has jurisdiction in actions relating to liability from the use or operation of a ship, that court, or any other court substituted for this purpose by the internal law of that State, shall also have jurisdiction over claims for limitation of such liability.

 

 

SECTION 3

 

 

Jurisdiction in Matters Relating to Insurance

 

 

Article 7

 

 

In matters relating to insurance, jurisdiction shall be determined by this Section, without prejudice to the provisions of Article 4 and 5.5.

 

 

Article 8

 

 

An insurer domiciled in a Contracting State may be sued:

 

 

1. in the courts of the State where he is domiciled, or

 

 

2. in another Contracting State, in the courts for the place where the policy-holder is domiciled, or

 

 

3. if he is a co-insurer, in the courts of a Contracting State in which proceedings are brought against the leading insurer.

 

 

An insurer who is not domiciled in a Contracting State but has a branch, agency or other establishment in one of the Contracting States shall, in disputes arising out of the operations of the branch, agency or establishment, be deemed to be domiciled in that State.

 

 

Article 9

 

 

In respect of liability insurance or insurance of immovable property, the insurer may in addition be sued in the courts for the place where the harmful event occurred. The same applies if movable and immovable property are covered by the same insurance policy and both are adversely affected by the same contingency.

 

 

Article 10

 

 

In respect of liability insurance, the insurer may also, if the law of the court permits it, be joined in proceedings which the injured party had brought against the insured.

 

 

The provisions of Articles 7, 8 and 9 shall apply to actions brought by the injured party directly against the insurer, where such direct actions are permitted.

 

 

If the law governing such direct actions provides that the policy-holder or the insured may be joined as a party to the action, the same court shall have jurisdiction over them.

 

 

Article 11

 

 

Without prejudice to the provisions of the third paragraph of Article 10, an insurer may bring proceedings only in the courts of the Contracting State in which the defendant is domiciled, irrespective of whether he is the policy-holder, the insured or a beneficiary.

 

 

The provisions of this Section shall not affect the right to bring a counterclaim in the court in which, in accordance with this Section, the original claim is pending.

 

 

Article 12

 

 

The provisions of this Section may be departed from only by an agreement on jurisdiction:

 

 

1. which is entered into after the dispute has arisen, or

 

 

2. which allows the policy-holder, the insured or a beneficiary to bring proceedings in courts other than those indicated in this Section, or

 

 

3. which is concluded between a policy-holder and an insurer, both of whom are domiciled in the same Contracting State, and which has the effect of conferring jurisdiction on the courts of that State even if the harmful event were to occur abroad, provided that such an agreement is not contrary to the law of that State, or

 

 

4. which is concluded with a policy-holder who is not domiciled in a Contracting State, except in so far as the insurance is compulsory or relates to immovable property in a Contracting State, or

 

 

5. which relates to a contract of insurance in so far as it covers one or more of the risks set out in Article 12a.

 

 

Article 12a

 

 

The following are the risks referred to in Article 12.5:

 

 

1. Any loss of or damage to:

 

 

(a) sea-going ships, installations situated offshore or on the high seas, or aircraft, arising from perils which relate to their use for commercial purposes;

 

 

(b) goods in transit other than passengers� baggage where the transit consists of or includes carriage by such ships or aircraft;

 

 

2. Any liability, other than for bodily injury to passengers or loss of or damage to their baggage:

 

 

(a) arising out of the use or operation of ships, installations or aircraft as referred to in 1. (a) above in so far as the law of the Contracting State in which such aircraft are registered does not prohibit agreements on jurisdiction regarding insurance of such risks;

 

 

(b) for loss or damage caused by goods in transit as described in 1.(b) above;

 

 

3. Any financial loss connected with the use or operation of ships, installations or aircraft as referred to in 1.(a) above, in particular loss of freight or charter-hire;

 

 

4. Any risk or interest connected with any of those referred to in 1. to 3. above.

 

 

SECTION 4

 

 

Jurisdiction over Consumer Contracts

 

 

Article 13

 

 

In proceedings concerning a contract concluded by a person for a purpose which can be regarded as being outside his trade or profession, hereinafter called �the consumer�, jurisdiction shall be determined by this Section, without prejudice to the provisions of Articles 4 and 5.5, if it is:

 

 

1. a contract for the sale of goods on instalment credit terms; or

 

 

2. a contract for a loan repayable by instalments, or for any other form of credit, made to finance the sale of goods; or

 

 

3. any other contract for the supply of goods or a contract for the supply of services, and

 

 

(a) in the State of the consumer�s domicile the conclusion of the contract was preceded by a specific invitation addressed to him or by advertising; and

 

 

(b) the consumer took in that State the steps necessary for the conclusion of the contract.

 

 

Where a consumer enters into a contract with a party who is not domiciled in a Contracting State but has a branch, agency or other establishment in one of the Contracting States, that party shall, in disputes arising out of the operations of the branch, agency or establishment, be deemed to be domiciled in that State.

 

 

This Section shall not apply to contracts of transport.

 

 

Article 14

 

 

A consumer may bring proceedings against the other party to a contract either in the courts of the Contracting State in which that party is domiciled or in the courts of the Contracting State in which he is himself domiciled.

 

 

Proceedings may be brought against a consumer by the other party to the contract only in the courts of the Contracting State in which the consumer is domiciled.

 

 

These provisions shall not affect the right to bring a counter-claim in the court in which, in accordance with this Section, the original claim is pending.

 

 

Article 15

 

 

The provisions of this Section may be departed from only by an agreement:

 

 

1. which is entered into after the dispute has arisen; or

 

 

2. which allows the consumer to bring proceedings in courts other than those indicated in this Section; or

 

 

3. which is entered into by the consumer and the other party to the contract, both of whom are at the time of conclusion of the contract domiciled or habitually resident in the same Contracting State, and which confers jurisdiction on the courts of that State, provided that such an agreement is not contrary to the law of that State.

 

 

SECTION 5

 

 

Exclusive Jurisdiction

 

 

Article 16

 

 

The following courts shall have exclusive jurisdiction, regardless of domicile:

 

 

1. (a) in proceedings which have as their object rights in rem in immovable property or tenancies of immovable property, the courts of the Contracting State in which the property is situated;

 

 

(b) however, in proceedings which have as their object tenancies of immovable property concluded for temporary private use for a maximum period of six consecutive months, the courts of the Contracting State in which the defendant is domiciled shall also have jurisdiction, provided that the landlord and the tenant are natural persons and are domiciled in the same Contracting State;

 

 

2. in proceedings which have as their object the validity of the constitution, the nullity or the dissolution of companies or other legal persons or associations of natural or legal persons, or the decisions of their organs, the courts of the Contracting State in which the company, legal person or association has its seat;

 

 

3. in proceedings which have as their object the validity of entries in public registers, the courts of the Contracting State in which the register is kept;

 

 

4. in proceedings concerned with the registration or validity of patents, trade marks, designs, or other similar rights required to be deposited or registered, the courts of the Contracting State in which the deposit or registration has been applied for, has taken place or is under the terms of an international convention deemed to have taken place;

 

 

5. in proceedings concerned with the enforcement of judgments, the courts of the Contracting State in which the judgment has been or is to be enforced.

 

 

SECTION 6

 

 

Prorogation of Jurisdiction

 

 

Article 17

 

 

If the parties, one or more of whom is domiciled in a Contracting State, have agreed that a court or the courts of a Contracting State are to have jurisdiction to settle any disputes which have arisen or which may arise in connection with a particular legal relationship, that court or those courts shall have exclusive jurisdiction. Such an agreement conferring jurisdiction shall be either:

 

 

(a) in writing or evidenced in writing; or

 

 

(b) in a form which accords with practices which the parties have established between themselves; or

 

 

(c) in international trade or commerce, in a form which accords with a usage of which the parties are or ought to have been aware and which in such trade or commerce is widely known to, and regularly observed by, parties to contracts of the type involved in the particular trade or commerce concerned.

 

 

Where such an agreement is concluded by parties, none of whom is domiciled in a Contracting State, the courts of other Contracting States shall have no jurisdiction over their disputes unless the court or courts chosen have declined jurisdiction.

 

 

The court or courts of a Contracting State on which a trust instrument has conferred jurisdiction shall have exclusive jurisdiction in any proceedings brought against a settlor, trustee or beneficiary, if relations between these persons or their rights or obligations under the trust are involved.

 

 

Agreements or provisions of a trust instrument conferring jurisdiction shall have no legal force if they are contrary to the provisions of Articles 12 or 15, or if the courts whose juridiction they purport to exclude have exclusive jurisdiction by virtue of Article 16.

 

 

If an agreement conferring jurisdiction was concluded for the benefit of only one of the parties, that party shall retain the right to bring proceedings in any other court which has jurisdiction by virtue of this Convention.

 

 

In matters relating to individual contracts of employment an agreement conferring jurisdiction shall have legal force only if it is entered into after the dispute has arisen or if the employee invokes it to seise courts other than those for the defendant�s domicile or those specified in Article 5.1.

 

 

Article 18

 

 

A part from jurisdiction derived from other provisions of this Convention, a court of a Contracting State before whom a defendant enters an appearance shall have jurisdiction. This rule shall not apply where appearance was entered solely to contest the jurisdiction, or where another court has exclusive jurisdiction by virtue of Article 16.

 

 

SECTION 7

 

 

Examination as to Jurisdiction and Admissibility

 

 

Article 19

 

 

Where a court of a Contracting State is seised of a claim which is principally concerned with a matter over which the courts of another Contracting State have exclusive jurisdiction by virtue of Article 16, it shall declare of its own motion that it has no jurisdiction.

 

 

Article 20

 

 

Where a defendant domiciled in one Contracting State is sued in a court of another Contracting State and does not enter an appearance, the court shall declare of its own motion that it has no jurisdiction unless its jurisdiction is derived from the provisions of the Convention.

 

 

The court shall stay the proceedings so long as it is not shown that the defendant has been able to receive the document instituting the proceedings or an equivalent document in sufficient time to enable him to arrange for his defence, or that all necessary steps have been taken to this end.

 

 

The provisions of the foregoing paragraph shall be replaced by those of Article 15 of the Hague Convention of 15 November 1965 on the service abroad of judicial and extrajudicial documents in civil or commercial matters, if the document instituting the proceedings or notice thereof had to be transmitted abroad in accordance with that Convention.

 

 

SECTION 8

 

 

Lis Pendens � Related Actions

 

 

Article 21

 

 

Where proceedings involving the same cause of action and between the same parties are brought in the courts of different Contracting States, any court other than the court first seised shall of its own motion stay its proceedings until such time as the jurisdiction of the court first seised is established.

 

 

Where the jurisdiction of the court first seised is established, any court other than the court first seised shall decline jurisdiction in favour of that court.

 

 

Article 22

 

 

Where related actions are brought in the courts of different Contracting States, any court other than the court first seised may, while the actions are pending at first instance, stay its proceedings.

 

 

A court other than the court first seised may also, on the application of one of the parties, decline jurisdiction if the law of that court permits the consolidation of related actions and the court first seised has jurisdiction over both actions.

 

 

For the purposes of this Article, actions are deemed to be related where they are so closely connected that it is expedient to hear and determine them together to avoid the risk of irreconcilable judgments resulting from separate proceedings.

 

 

Article 23

 

 

Where actions come within the exclusive jurisdiction of several courts, any court other than the court first seised shall decline jurisdiction in favour of that court.

 

 

SECTION 9

 

 

Provisional, including Protective Measures

 

 

Article 24

 

 

Application may be made to the courts of a Contracting State for such provisional, including protective, measures as may be available under the law of that State, even if, under this Convention, the courts of another Contracting State have jurisdiction as to the substance of the matter.

 

 

Title III

 

 

RECOGNITION AND ENFORCEMENT

 

 

Article 25

 

 

For the purposes of this Convention, �judgment� means any judgment given by a court or tribunal of a Contracting State, whatever the judgment may be called, including a decree, order, decision or writ of execution, as well as the determination of costs or expenses by an officer of the court.

 

 

SECTION 1

 

 

Recognition

 

 

Article 26

 

 

A judgment given in a Contracting State shall be recognized in the other Contracting States without any special procedure being required.

 

 

Any interested party who raises the recognition of a judgment as the principal issue in a dispute may, in accordance with the procedures provided for in Sections 2 and 3 of this Title, apply for a decision that the judgment be recognized.

 

 

If the outcome of proceedings in a court of a Contracting State depends on the determination of an incidental question of recognition, that court shall have jurisdiction over that question.

 

 

Article 27

 

 

A judgment shall not be recognized:

 

 

1. if such recognition is contrary to public policy in the State in which recognition is sought;

 

 

2. where it was given in default of appearance, if the defendant was not duly served with the document which instituted the proceedings or with an equivalent document in sufficient time to enable him to arrange for his defence;

 

 

3. if the judgment is irreconcilable with a judgment given in a dispute between the same parties in the State in which recognition is sought;

 

 

4. if the court of the State of origin, in order to arrive at its judgment, has decided a preliminary question concerning the status or legal capacity of natural persons, rights in property arising out of a matrimonial relationship, wills or succession in a way that conflicts with a rule of the private international law of the State in which the recognition is sought, unless the same result would have been reached by the application of the rules of private international law of that State;

 

 

5. if the judgment is irreconcilable with an earlier judgment given in a non-contracting State involving the same cause of action and between the same parties, provided that this latter judgment fulfils the conditions necessary for its recognition in the State addressed.

 

 

Article 28

 

 

Moreover, a judgment shall not be recognized if it conflicts with the provisions of Sections 3, 4 or 5 of Title II, or in a case provided for in Article 59.

 

 

In its examination of the grounds of jurisdiction referred to in the foregoing paragraph, the court or authority applied to shall be bound by the findings of fact on which the court of the State of origin based its jurisdiction.

 

 

Subject to the provisions of the first paragraph, the jurisdiction of the court of the State of origin may not be reviewed; the test of public policy referred to in Article 27.1 may not be applied to the rules relating to jurisdiction.

 

 

Article 29

 

 

Under no circumstances may a foreign judgment be reviewed as to its substance.

 

 

Article 30

 

 

A court of a Contracting State in which recognition is sought of a judgment given in another Contracting State may stay the proceedings if an ordinary appeal against the judgment has been lodged.

 

 

A court of a Contracting State in which recognition is sought of a judgment given in Ireland or the United Kingdom may stay the proceedings if enforcement is suspended in the State of origin, by reason of an appeal.

 

 

SECTION 2

 

 

Enforcement

 

 

Article 31

 

 

A judgment given in a Contracting State and enforceable in that State shall be enforced in another Contracting State when, on the application of any interested party, it has been declared enforceable there.

 

 

However, in the United Kingdom, such a judgment shall be enforced in England and Wales, in Scotland, or in Northern Ireland when, on the application of any interested party, it has been registered for enforcement in that part of the United Kingdom.

 

 

Article 32

 

 

1. The application shall be submitted:

 

 

in Belgium, to the tribunal de premi�re instance or rechtbank van eerste aanleg,

 

 

in Denmark, to the byret,

 

 

in the Federal Republic of Germany, to the presiding judge of a chamber of the Landgericht,

 

 

in Greece, to the Moνoμελές Πρωτoδικε�o,

 

 

in Spain, to the Juzgado de Primera Instancia,

 

 

in France, to the presiding judge of the tribunal de grande instance,

 

 

in Ireland, to the High Court,

 

 

in Italy, to the corte d'appello,

 

 

in Luxembourg, to the presiding judge of the tribunal d'arrondissement,

 

 

in Austria, to the Bezirksgericht,

 

 

in the Netherlands, to the presiding judge of the arrondissementsrechtbank,

 

 

in Portugal, to the Tribunal Judicial de C�rculo,

 

 

in Finland, to the K�r�j�oikeus/tingsr�tt,

 

 

in Sweden, to the Svea hovr�tt,

 

 

in the United Kingdom:

 

 

1. in England and Wales, to the High Court of Justice, or in the case of a maintenance judgment to the Magistrates�Court on transmission by the Secretary of State;

 

 

2. in Scotland, to the Court of Session, or in the case of a maintenance judgment to the Sheriff Court on transmission by the Secretary of State;

 

 

3. in Northern Ireland, to the High Court of Justice, or in the case of a maintenance judgment to the Magistrates�Court on transmission by the Secretary of State.

 

 

2. The jurisdiction of local courts shall be determined by reference to the place of domicile of the party against whom enforcement is sought. If he is not domiciled in the State in which enforcement is sought, it shall be determined by reference to the place of enforcement.

 

 

Article 33

 

 

The procedure for making the application shall be governed by the law of the State in which enforcement is sought.

 

 

The applicant must give an address for service of process within the area of jurisdiction of the court applied to. However, if the law of the State in which enforcement is sought does not provide for the furnishing of such an address, the applicant shall appoint a representative ad litem.

 

 

The documents referred to in Articles 46 and 47 shall be attached to the application.

 

 

Article 34

 

 

The court applied to shall give its decision without delay; the party against whom enforcement is sought shall not at this stage of the proceedings be entitled to make any submissions on the application.

 

 

The application may be refused only for one of the reasons specified in Articles 27 and 28.

 

 

Under no circumstances may the foreign judgment be reviewed as to its substance.

 

 

Article 35

 

 

The appropriate officer of the court shall without delay bring the decision given on the application to the notice of the applicant in accordance with the procedure laid down by the law of the State in which enforcement is sought.

 

 

Article 36

 

 

If enforcement is authorized, the party against whom enforcement is sought may appeal against the decision within one month of service thereof.

 

 

If that party is domiciled in a Contracting State other than that in which the decision authorizing enforcement was given, the time for appealing shall be two months and shall run from the date of service, either on him in person or at his residence. No extension of time may be granted on account of distance.

 

 

Article 37

 

 

1. An appeal against the decision authorizing enforcement shall be lodged in accordance with the rules governing procedure in contentious matters:

 

 

in Belgium, with the tribunal de premi�re instance or rechtbank van eerste aanleg,

 

 

in Denmark, with the landsret,

 

 

in the Federal Republic of Germany, with the Oberlandesgericht,

 

 

in Greece, with the Eϕετε�o,

 

 

in Spain, with the Audiencia Provincial,

 

 

in France, with the cour d'appello,

 

 

in Ireland, with the High Court,

 

 

in Italy, with the corte d'appello,

 

 

in Luxembourg, with the Cour sup�rieure de justice sitting as a court of civil appeal,

 

 

in Austria, with the Bezirksgericht,

 

 

in the Netherlands, with the arrondissementsrechtbank,

 

 

in Portugal, with the Tribunal da Rela��o,

 

 

in Finland, with the hovioikeus / hovr�tt,

 

 

in Sweden, with the Svea hovr�tt,

 

 

in the United Kingdom:

 

 

(a) in England and Wales, with the High Court of Justice, or in the case of a maintenance judgment with the Magistrates' Court;

 

 

(b) in Scotland, with the Court of Session, or in the case of a maintenance judgment with the Sheriff Court;

 

 

(c) in Northern Ireland, with the High Court of Justice, or in the case of a maintenance judgment with the Magistrates' Court.

 

 

2. The judgment given on the appeal may be contested only:

 

 

in Belgium, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Luxembourg and in the Netherlands, by an appeal in cassation,

 

 

in Denmark, by an appeal to the h�jesteret, with the leave of the Minister of Justice,

 

 

in the Federal Republic of Germany, by a Rechtsbeschwerde,

 

 

in Austria, in the case of an appeal, by a Revisionsrekurs and, in the case of opposition proceedings, by a Berufung with the possibility of a revision,

 

 

in Ireland, by an appeal on a point of law to the Supreme Court,

 

 

in Portugal, by an appeal on a point of law,

 

 

in Finland, by an appeal to korkein oikeus/h�gsta domstolen,

 

 

in Sweden, by an appeal to H�gsta domstolen,

 

 

in the United Kingdom, by a single further appeal on a point of law.

 

 

Article 38

 

 

The court with which the appeal under Article 37 (1) is lodged may, on the application of the appellant, stay the proceedings if an ordinary appeal has been lodged against the judgment in the State of origin or if the time for such an appeal has not yet expired; in the latter case, the court may specify the time within which such an appeal is to be lodged.

 

 

Where the judgment was given in Ireland or the United Kingdom, any form of appeal available in the State of origin shall be treated as an ordinary appeal for the purposes of the first paragraph.

 

 

The court may also make enforcement conditional on the provision of such security as it shall determine.

 

 

Article 39

 

 

During the time specified for an appeal pursuant to Article 36 and until any such appeal has been determined, no measures of enforcement may be taken other than protective measures taken against the property of the party against whom enforcement is sought.

 

 

The decision authorizing enforcement shall carry with it the power to proceed to any such protective measures.

 

 

Article 40

 

 

1. If the application for enforcement is refused, the applicant may appeal:

 

 

in Belgium, to the cour d'appel or hofvan beroep,

 

 

in Denmark, to the landsret,

 

 

in the Federal Republic of Germany, to the Oberlandesgericht,

 

 

in Greece, to the Eϕετε�o,

 

 

in Spain, to the Audiencia Provincial,

 

 

in France, to the cour d'appel,

 

 

in Ireland, to the High Court,

 

 

in Italy, to the corte d'appello,

 

 

in Luxembourg, to the Cour sup�rieure de justice sitting as a court of civil appeal,

 

 

in Austria, to the Bezirksgericht,

 

 

in the Netherlands, to the gerechtshof,

 

 

in Portugal, to the Tribunal da Rela��o,

 

 

in Finland, to hovioikeus/hovr�tten,

 

 

in Sweden, to the Svea hovr�tt,

 

 

in the United Kingdom:

 

 

(a) in England and Wales, to the High Court of Justice, or in the case of a maintenance judgment to the Magistrates� Court;

 

 

(b) in Scotland, to the Court of Session, or in the case of a maintenance judgment to the Sheriff Court;

 

 

(c) in Northern Ireland, to the High Court of Justice, or in the case of a maintenance judgment to the Magistrates�Court.

 

 

2. The party against whom enforcement is sought shall be summoned to appear before the appellate court. If he fails to appear, the provisions of the second and third paragraphs of Article 20 shall apply even where he is not domiciled in any of the Contracting States.

 

 

Article 41

 

 

A judgment given on an appeal provided for in Article 40 may be contested only:

 

 

in Belgium, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Luxembourg and in the Netherlands, by an appeal in cassation,

 

 

in Denmark, by an appeal to the h�jesteret, with the leave of the Minister of Justice,

 

 

in the Federal Republic of Germany, by a Rechtsbeschwerde,

 

 

in Ireland, by an appeal on a point of law to the Supreme Court,

 

 

in Austria, by a Revisionsrekurs,

 

 

in Portugal, by an appeal on a point of law,

 

 

in Finland, by an appeal to korkein oikeus/h�gsta domstolen,

 

 

in Sweden, by an appeal to H�gsta domstolen,

 

 

in the United Kingdom, by a single further appeal on a point of law.

 

 

Article 42

 

 

Where a foreign judgment has been given in respect of several matters and enforcement cannot be authorized for all of them, the court shall authorize enforcement for one or more of them.

 

 

An applicant may request partial enforcement of a judgment.

 

 

Article 43

 

 

A foreign judgment which orders a periodic payment by way of a penalty shall be enforceable in the State in which enforcement is sought only if the amount of the payment has been finally determined by the courts of the State of origin.

 

 

Article 44

 

 

An applicant who, in the State of origin, has benefited from complete or partial legal aid or exemption from costs or expenses, shall be entitled, in the procedures provided for in Articles 32 to 35, to benefit from the most favourable legal aid or the most extensive exemption from costs or expenses provided for by the law of the State addressed.

 

 

However, an applicant who requests the enforcement of a decision given by an administrative authority in Denmark in respect of a maintenance order may, in the State addressed, claim the benefits referred to in the first paragraph if he presents a statement from the Danish Ministry of Justice to the effect that he fulfils the economic requirements to qualify for the grant of complete or partial legal aid or exemption from costs or expenses.

 

 

Article 45

 

 

No security, bond or deposit, however described, shall be required of a party who in one Contracting State applies for enforcement of a judgment given in another Contracting State on the ground that he is a foreign national or that he is not domiciled or resident in the State in which enforcement is sought.

 

 

SECTION 3

 

 

Common Provisions

 

 

Article 46

 

 

A party seeking recognition or applying for enforcement of a judgment shall produce:

 

 

1. a copy of the judgment which satisfies the conditions necessary to establish its authenticity;

 

 

2. in the case of a judgment given in default, the original or a certified true copy of the document which establishes that the party in default was served with the document instituting the proceedings or with an equivalent document.

 

 

Article 47

 

 

A party applying for enforcement shall also produce:

 

 

1. documents which establish that, according to the law of the State of origin, the judgment is enforceable and has been served;

 

 

2. where appropriate, a document showing that the applicant is in receipt of legal aid in the State of origin.

 

 

Article 48

 

 

If the documents specified in Articles 46.2 and 47.2 are not produced, the court may specify a time for their production, accept equivalent documents or, if it considers that it has sufficient information before it, dispense with their production.

 

 

If the court so requires, a translation of the documents shall be produced; the translation shall be certified by a person qualified to do so in one of the Contracting States.

 

 

Article 49

 

 

No legalization or other similar formality shall be required in respect of the documents referred to in Articles 46 or 47 or the second paragraph of Article 48, or in respect of a document appointing a representative ad litem.

 

 

Title IV

 

 

AUTHENTIC INSTRUMENTS AND COURT SETTLEMENTS

 

 

Article 50

 

 

A document which has been formally drawn up or registered as an authentic instrument and is enforceable in one Contracting State shall, in another Contracting State, be declared enforceable there, on application made in accordance with the procedures provided for in Article 31 et seq. The application may be refused only if enforcement of the instrument is contrary to public policy in the State addressed.

 

 

The instrument produced must satisfy the conditions necessary to establish its authenticity in the State of origin.

 

 

The provision of Section 3 of Title III shall apply as appropriate.

 

 

Article 51

 

 

A settlement which has been approved by a court in the course of proceedings and is enforceable in the State in which it was concluded shall be enforceable in the State addressed under the same conditions as authentic instruments.

 

 

Title V

 

 

GENERAL PROVISIONS

 

 

Article 52

 

 

In order to determine whether a party is domiciled in the Contracting State whose courts are seised of a matter, the Court shall apply its internal law.

 

 

If a party is not domiciled in the State whose courts are seised of the matter then, in order to determine whether the party is domiciled in another Contracting State, the court shall apply the law of that State.

 

 

Article 53

 

 

For the purposes of this Convention, the seat of a company or other legal person or association of natural or legal persons shall be treated as its domicile. However, in order to determine that seat, the court shall apply its rules of private international law.

 

 

In order to determine whether a trust is domiciled in the Contracting State whose courts are seised of the matter, the court shall apply its rules of private international law.

 

 

Title VI

 

 

TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS

 

 

Article 54

 

 

The provisions of this Convention shall apply only to legal proceedings instituted and to documents formally drawn up or registered as authentic instruments after its entry into force in the State of origin and, where recognition or enforcement of a judgment or authentic instrument is sought, in the State addressed.

 

 

However, judgments given after the date of entry into force of this Convention between the State of origin and the State addressed in proceedings instituted before that date shall be recognized and enforced in accordance with the provisions of Title III if jurisdiction was founded upon rules which accorded with those provided for either in Title II of this Convention or in a convention concluded between the State of origin and the State addressed which was in force when the proceedings were instituted.

 

 

If the parties to a dispute concerning a contract had agreed in writing before 1 June 1988 for Ireland or before 1 January 1987 for the United Kingdom that the contract was to be governed by the law of Ireland or of a part of the United Kingdom, the courts of Ireland or of that part of the United Kingdom shall retain the right to exercise jurisdiction in the dispute.

 

 

Article 54a

 

 

For a period of three years from 1 November 1986 for Denmark and from 1 June 1988 for Ireland, jurisdiction in maritime matters shall be determined in these States not only in accordance with the provisions of Title II, but also in accordance with the provisions of paragraphs 1 to 6 following. However, upon the entry into force of the International Convention relating to the arrest of sea-going ships, signed at Brussels on 10 May 1952, for one of these States, these provisions shall cease to have effect for that State.

 

 

1. A person who is domiciled in a Contracting State may be sued in the courts of one of the States mentioned above in respect of a maritime claim if the ship to which the claim relates or any other ship owned by him has been arrested by judicial process within the territory of the latter State to secure the claim, or could have been so arrested there but bail or other security has been given, and either:

 

 

(a) the claimant is domiciled in the latter State; or

 

 

(b) the claim arose in the latter State; or

 

 

(c) the claim concerns the voyage during which the arrest was made or could have been made; or

 

 

(d) the claim arises out of a collision or out of damage caused by a ship to another ship or to goods or persons on board either ship, either by the execution or non-execution of a manoeuvre or by the non-observance of regulations; or

 

 

(e) the claim is for salvage; or

 

 

(f) the claim is in respect of a mortgage or hypothecation of the ship arrested.

 

 

2. A claimant may arrest either the particular ship to which the maritime claim relates, or any other ship which is owned by the person who was, at the time when the maritime claim arose, the owner of the particular ship. However, only the particular ship to which the maritime claim relates may be arrested in respect of respect of the maritime claims set out in subparagraphs (o), (p) or (q) of paragraph 5 of this Article.

 

 

3. Ships shall be deemed to be in the same ownership when all the shares therein are owned by the same person or persons.

 

 

4. When in the case of a charter by demise of a ship the charterer alone is liable in respect of a maritime claim relating to that ship, the claimant may arrest that ship or any other ship owned by the charterer, but no other ship owned by the owner may be arrested in respect of such claim. The same shall apply to any case in which a person other than the owner of a ship is liable in respect of a maritime claim relating to that ship.

 

 

5. The expression �maritime claim� means a claim arising out of one or more of the following:

 

 

(a) damage caused by any ship either in collision or otherwise;

 

 

(b) loss of life or personal injury caused by any ship or occurring in connection with the operation on any ship;

 

 

(c) salvage;

 

 

(d) agreement relating to the use or hire of any ship whether by charterparty or otherwise;

 

 

(e) agreement relating to the carriage of goods in any ship whether by charterparty or otherwise;

 

 

(f) loss of or damage to goods including baggage carried in any ship;

 

 

(g) general average;

 

 

(h) bottomry;

 

 

(i) towage;

 

 

(j) pilotage;

 

 

(k) goods or materials wherever supplied to a ship for her operation or maintenance;

 

 

(l) construction, repair or equipment of any ship or dock charges and dues;

 

 

(m) wages of masters, officers or crew;

 

 

(n) master�s disbursements, including disbursements made by shippers, charterers or agents on behalf of a ship or her owner;

 

 

(o) dispute as to the title to or ownership of any ship;

 

 

(p) disputes between co-owners of any ship as to the ownership, possession, employment or earnings of that ship;

 

 

(q) the mortgage or hypothecation of any ship.

 

 

6. In Denmark, the expression �arrest� shall be deemed as regards the maritime claims referred to in subparagraphs (o) and (p) of paragraph 5 of this Article, to include a �forbud�, where that is the only procedure allowed in respect of such a claim under Articles 646 to 653 of the law on civil procedure (lov om rettens pleje).

 

 

Title VII

 

 

RELATIONSHIPS TO OTHER CONVENTIONS

 

 

Article 55

 

 

Subject to the provisions of the second subparagraph of Article 54, and of Article 56, this Convention shall, for the States which are parties to it, supersede the following conventions concluded between two or more of them:

 

 

the Convention between Belgium and France on jurisdiction and the validity and enforcement of judgments, arbitration awards and authentic instruments, signed at Paris on 8 July 1899,

 

 

the Convention between Belgium and the Netherlands on jurisdiction, bankruptcy, and the validity and enforcement of judgments, arbitration awards and authentic instruments, signed at Brussels on 28 March 1925,

 

 

the Convention between France and Italy on the enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters, signed at Rome on 3 June 1930,

 

 

the Convention between the United Kingdom and the French Republic providing for the reciprocal enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters, with Protocol, signed at Paris on 18 January 1934,

 

 

the Convention between the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Belgium providing for the reciprocal enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters, with Protocol, signed at Brussels on 2 May 1934,

 

 

the Convention between Germany and Italy on the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters, signed at Rome on 9 March 1936,

 

 

the Convention between the Kingdom of Belgium and Austria on the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments and authentic instruments relating to maintenance obligations, signed at Vienna on 25 October 1957,

 

 

the Convention between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Kingdom of Belgium on the mutual recognition and enforcement of judgments, arbitration awards and authentic instruments in civil and commercial matters, signed at Bonn on 30 June 1958,

 

 

the Convention between the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Italian Republic on the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters, signed at Rome on 17 April 1959,

 

 

the Convention between the Federal Republic of Germany and Austria on the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments, settlements and authentic instruments in civil and commercial matters, signed at Vienna on 6 June 1959,

 

 

the Convention between the Kingdom of Belgium and Austria on the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments, arbitral awards and authentic instruments in civil and commercial matters, signed at Vienna on 16 June 1959,

 

 

the Convention between the United Kingdom and the Federal Republic of Germany for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters, signed at Bonn on 14 July 1960,

 

 

the Convention between the United Kingdom and Austria providing for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters, signed at Vienna on 14 July 1961, with amending Protocol signed at London on 6 March 1970,

 

 

the Convention between the Kingdom of Greece and the Federal Republic of Germany for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments, settlements and authentic instruments in civil and commercial matters, signed in Athens on 4 November 1961,

 

 

the Convention between the Kingdom of Belgium and the Italian Republic on the recognition and enforcement of judgments and other enforceable instruments in civil and commercial matters, signed at Rome on 6 April 1962,

 

 

the Convention between the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Federal Republic of Germany on the mutual recognition and enforcement of judgments and other enforceable instruments in civil and commercial matters, signed at The Hague on 30 August 1962,

 

 

the Convention between the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Austria on the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments and authentic instruments in civil and commercial matters, signed at The Hague on 6 February 1963,

 

 

the Convention between France and Austria on the recognition and enforcement of judgments and authentic instruments in civil and commercial matters, signed at Vienna on 15 July 1966,

 

 

the Convention between the United Kingdom and the Republic of Italy for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters, signed at Rome on 7 February 1964, with amending Protocol signed at Rome on 14 July 1970,

 

 

the Convention between the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of the Netherlands providing for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil matters, signed at The Hague on 17 November 1967,

 

 

the Convention between Spain and France on the recognition and enforcement of judgments and arbitration awards in civil and commercial matters, signed at Paris on 28 May 1969,

 

 

the Convention between Luxembourg and Austria on the recognition and enforcement of judgments and authentic instruments in civil and commercial matters, signed at Luxembourg on 29 July 1971,

 

 

the Convention between Italy and Austria on the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters, of judicial settlements and of authentic instruments, signed at Rome on 16 November 1971,

 

 

the Convention between Spain and Italy regarding legal aid and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters, signed at Madrid on 22 May 1973,

 

 

the Convention between Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Denmark on the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil matters, signed at Copenhagen on 11 October 1977,

 

 

the Convention between Austria and Sweden on the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil matters, signed at Stockholm on 16 September 1982,

 

 

the Convention between Spain and the Federal Republic of Germany on the recognition and enforcement of judgments, settlements and enforceable authentic instruments in civil and commercial matters, signed at Bonn on 14 November 1983,

 

 

the Convention between Austria and Spain on the recognition and enforcement of judgments, settlements and enforceable authentic instruments in civil and commercial matters, signed at Vienna on 17 February 1984,

 

 

the Convention between Finland and Austria on the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil matters, signed at Vienna on 17 November 1986,

 

 

and, in so far as it is in force:

 

 

the Treaty between Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg on jurisdiction, bankruptcy, and the validity and enforcement of judgments, arbitration awards and authentic instruments, signed at Brussels on 24 November 1961.

 

 

Article 56

 

 

The Treaty and the conventions referred to in Article 55 shall continue to have effect in relation to matters to which this Convention does not apply.

 

 

They shall continue to have effect in respect of judgments given and documents formally drawn up or registered as authentic instruments before the entry into force of this Convention.

 

 

Article 57

 

 

1. This Convention shall not affect any conventions to which the Contracting States are or will be parties and which in relation to particular matters, govern jurisdiction or the recognition or enforcement of judgments.

 

 

2. With a view to its uniform interpretation, pargraph 1 shall be applied in the following manner:

 

 

(a) this Convention shall not prevent a court of a Contracting State which is a party to a convention on a particular matter from assuming jurisdiction in accordance with that Convention, even where the defendant is domiciled in another Contracting State which is not a party to that Convention. The court hearing the action shall, in any event, apply Article 20 of this Convention;

 

 

(b) judgments given in a Contracting State by a court in the exercise of jurisdiction provided for in a convention on a particular matter shall be recognized and enforced in the other Contracting State in accordance with this Convention.

 

 

Where a convention on a particular matter to which both the State of origin and the State addressed are parties lays down conditions for the recognition or enforcement of judgments, those conditions shall apply. In any event, the provisions of this Convention which concern the procedure for recognition and enforcement of judgments may be applied.

 

 

3. This Convention shall not affect the application of provisions which, in relation to particular matters, govern jurisdiction or the recognition or enforcement of judgments and which are or will be contained in acts of the institutions of the European Communities or in national laws harmonized in implementation of such acts.

 

 

Article 58

 

 

Until such time as the Convention on jurisdiction and the enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters, signed at Lugano on 16 September 1988, takes effect with regard to France and the Swiss Confederation, this Convention shall not affect the rights granted to Swiss nationals by the Convention between France and the Swiss Confederation on jurisdiction and enforcement of judgments in civil matters, signed at Paris on 15 June 1869.

 

 

Article 59

 

 

This Convention shall not prevent a Contracting State from assuming, in a convention on the recognition and enforcement of judgments, an obligation towards a third State not to recognize judgments given in other Contracting States against defendants domiciled or habitually resident in the third State where, in cases provided for in Article 4, the judgment could only be founded on a ground of jurisdiction specified in the second paragraph of Article 3.

 

 

However, a Contracting State may not assume an obligation towards a third State not to recognize a judgment given in another Contracting State by a court basing its jurisdiction on the presence within that State of property belonging to the defendant, or the seizure by the plaintiff of property situated there:

 

 

1. if the action is brought to assert or declare proprietary or possessory rights in that property, seeks to obtain authority to dispose of it, or arises from another issue relating to such property, or

 

 

2. if the property constitutes the security for a debt which is the subject-matter of the action.

 

 

Title VIII

 

 

FINAL PROVISIONS

 

 

Article 60

 

 

[deleted]

 

 

Article 61

 

 

This Convention shall be ratified by the signatory States. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the Council of the European Communities.

 

 

Article 62

 

 

This Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the third month following the deposit of the instrument of ratification by the last signatory State to take this step.

 

 

Article 63

 

 

The Contracting States recognize that any State which becomes a member of the European Economic Community shall be required to accept this Convention as a basis for the negotiations between the Contracting States and that State necessary to ensure the implementation of the last paragraph of Article 220 of the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community.

 

 

The necessary adjustments may be the subject of a special convention between the Contracting States of the one part and the new Member States of the other part.

 

 

Article 64

 

 

The Secretary-General of the Council of the European Communities shall notify the signatory States of:

 

 

(a) the deposit of each instrument of ratification;

 

 

(b) the date of entry into force of this Convention;

 

 

(c) [deleted]

 

 

(d) any declaration received pursuant to Article IV of the Protocol;

 

 

(e) any communication made pursuant to Article VI of the Protocol.

 

 

Article 65

 

 

The Protocol annexed to this Convention by common accord of the Contracting States shall form an integral part thereof.

 

 

Article 66

 

 

This Convention is concluded for an unlimited period.

 

 

Article 67

 

 

Any Contracting State may request the revision of this Convention. In this event, a revision conference shall be convened by the President of the Council of the European Communities.

 

 

Article 68

 

 

This Convention, drawn up in a single original in the Dutch, French, German and Italian languages, all four texts being equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Secretariat of the Council of the European Communities. The Secretary-General shall transmit a certified copy to the Government of each signatory State.

 

 

[Signatures of the designated plenipotentiaries]

 

 

PROTOCOL

 

 

The High Contracting Parties have agreed upon the following provisions, which shall be annexed to the Convention:

 

 

Article I

 

 

Any person domiciled in Luxembourg who is sued in a court of another Contracting State pursuant to Article 5 (1) may refuse to submit to the jurisdiction of that court. If the defendant does not enter an appearance the court shall declare of its own motion that it has no jurisdiction.

 

 

An agreement conferring jurisdiction, within the meaning of Article 17, shall be valid with respect to a person domiciled in Luxembourg only if that person has expressly and specifically so agreed.

 

 

Article II

 

 

Without prejudice to any more favourable provisions of national laws, persons domiciled in a Contracting State who are being prosecuted in the criminal courts of another Contracting State of which they are not nationals for an offence which was not intentionally committed may be defended by persons qualified to do so, even if they do not appear in person.

 

 

However, the court seised of the matter may order appearance in person; in the case of failure to appear, a judgment given in the civil action without the person concerned having had the opportunity to arrange for his defence need not be recognized or enforced in the other Contracting States.

 

 

Article III

 

 

In proceedings for the issue of an order for enforcement, no charge, duty or fee calculated by reference to the value of the matter in issue may be levied in the State in which enforcement is sought.

 

 

Article IV

 

 

Judicial and extrajudicial documents drawn up in one Contracting State which have to be served on persons in another Contracting State shall be transmitted in accordance with the procedures laid down in the conventions and agreements concluded between the Contracting States.

 

 

Unless the State in which service is to take place objects by declaration to the Secretary-General of the Council of the European Communities, such documents may also be sent by the appropriate public officers of the State in which the document has been drawn up directly to the appropriate public officers of the State in which the addressee is to be found. In this case the officer of the State of origin shall send a copy of the document to the officer of the State applied to who is competent to forward it to the addressee. The document shall be forwarded in the manner specified by the law of the State applied to. The forwarding shall be recorded by a certificate sent directly to the officer of the State of origin.

 

 

Article V

 

 

The jurisdiction specified in Articles 6 (2) and 10 in actions on a warranty or guarantee or in any other third-party proceedings may not be resorted to in the Federal Republic of Germany or in Austria. Any person domiciled in another Contracting State may be sued in the courts:

 

 

of the Federal Republic of Germany, pursuant to Articles 68, 72, 73 and 74 of the code of civil procedure (Zivilprozessordnung) concerning third-party notices,

 

 

of Austria, pursuant to Article 21 of the code of civil procedure (Zivilprozessordnung) concerning third-party notices.

 

 

Judgments given in the other Contracting States by virtue of Article 6 (2) or 10 shall be recognized and enforced in the Federal Republic of Germany and in Austria in accordance with Title III. Any effects which judgments given in those States may have on third parties by application of the provisions in the preceding paragraph shall also be recognized in the other Contracting States.

 

 

Article Va

 

 

In matters relating to maintenance, the expression �court� includes the Danish administrative authorities.

 

 

In Sweden, in summary proceedings concerning orders to pay (betalningsf�rel�ggande) and assistance (handr�ckning), the expression �court� includes the �Swedish enforcement service� (kronofogdemyndighet).

 

 

Article Vb

 

 

In proceedings involving a dispute between the master and a member of the crew of a sea-going ship registered in Denmark, in Greece, in Ireland or in Portugal, concerning remuneration or other conditions of service, a court in a Contracting State shall establish whether the diplomatic or consular officer responsible for the ship has been notified of the dispute. It shall stay the proceedings so long as he has not been notified. It shall of its own motion decline jurisdiction if the officer, having been duly notified, has exercised the powers accorded to him in the matter by a consular convention, or in the absence of such a convention has, within the time allowed, raised any objection to the exercise of such jurisdiction.

 

 

Article Vc

 

 

Articles 52 and 53 of this Convention shall, when applied by Article 69 (5) of the Convention for the European patent for the common market, signed at Luxembourg on 15 December 1975, to the provisions relating to �residence� in the English text of that Convention, operate as if �residence� in that text were the same as �domicile� in Articles 52 and 53.

 

 

Article Vd

 

 

Without prejudice to the jurisdiction of the European Patent Office under the Convention on the grant of European patents, signed at Munich on 5 October 1973, the courts of each Contracting State shall have exclusive jurisdiction, regardless of domicile, in proceedings concerned with the registration or validity of any European patent granted for that State which is not a Community patent by virtue of the provisions of Article 86 of the Convention for the European patent for the common market, signed at Luxembourg on 15 December 1975.

 

 

Article Ve

 

 

Arrangements relating to maintenance obligations concluded with administrative authorities or authenticated by them shall also be regarded as authentic instruments within the meaning of the first paragraph of Article 50 of the Convention.

 

 

Article VI

 

 

The Contracting States shall communicate to the Secretary-General of the Council of the European Communities the text of any provisions of their laws which amend either those articles of their laws mentioned in the Convention or the lists of courts specified in Section 2 of Title III of the Convention.

 

 

[Signatures of the designated plenipotentiaries]

 

 

Text in the Irish language of the 1968 Convention as amended by the 1978 Accession Convention, the 1982 Accession Convention, the 1989 Accession Convention and the 1996 Accession Convention1

 

 

COINBHINSI�N

 

 

ar dhl�nse agus ar fhorghn�omh� breithi�nas in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�cht�la

 

 

BROLLACH

 

 

T� NA hARDPH�IRTITHE CONARTHACHA SA CHONRADH AG BUN� CHOMHPHOBAL EACNAMA�OCHTA NA hEORPA,

 

 

�S MIAN LEO go gcuirfear i ngn�omh na for�lacha in Airteagal 220 den Chonradh sin ar ghabh siad orthu f�in d� mbua a �irithi� go simpleofa� na foirmi�lachta� a bhaineann le breithi�nais � ch�irteanna n� � bhins� a aithint agus a fhorghn�omh� go c�mhalartach;

 

 

�S � A MIANGAS go neart�far sa Chomhphobal an chosaint dhl�thi�il ar dhaoine at� bunaithe ann;

 

 

DE BHR� gur g� chun na cr�che sin dl�nse idirn�isi�nta a gc�irteanna a chinneadh, aithint a �asc� agus n�s imeachta gasta a thabhairt isteach chun a �irithi� go bhforghn�omh�far breithi�nais, ionstraim� bar�nt�la agus socra�ochta� c�irte;

 

 

TAR �IS CINNEADH ar an gCoinbhinsi�n seo a chur i gcr�ch agus cuige sin tar �is na daoine seo a leanas a cheapadh mar L�nchumhachtaigh:

 

 

(L�nchumhachtaigh arna gceapadh ag na Ballst�it)

 

 

NOCH A RINNE, i dtion�l na Comhairle, tar �is d�ibh a l�nchumhachta�, agus iad i bhfoirm cheart chu�, a thabhairt ar aird d�ch�ile,

 

 

COMHAONT� MAR A LEANAS:

 

 

TEIDEAL I

 

 

RAON FEIDHME

 

 

Airteagal 1

 

 

Beidh feidhm leis an gCoinbhinsi�n seo in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�cht�la, cib� cine�l c�irte n� binse a bheidh i gceist. Eisiatar �nar�im, go h�irithe, c�rsa� ioncaim, custaim agus riarach�in.

 

 

Eisiatar � fheidhm an Choinbhinsi�in:

 

 

1. st�das n� inni�lacht dhl�thi�il daoine n�d�rtha, maoin-chearta de bhua c�ngais ph�sta, uachtanna agus comharbais;

 

 

2. f�imheacht, imeachta� maidir le foirceannadh cuideachta� d�cmhainneacha n� daoine dl�theanacha eile at� d�cmhainn-each, comhshocra�ochta� breithi�nacha, imshocra�ochta� agus imeachta� cos�il leo sin;

 

 

3. sl�nd�il sh�isialta;

 

 

4. eadr�in.

 

 

TEIDEAL II

 

 

DL�NSE

 

 

ROINN 1

 

 

For�lacha Ginear�lta

 

 

Airteagal 2

 

 

Faoi r�ir fhor�lacha an Choinbhinsi�in seo, beidh daoine a bhfuil sainch�na� orthu i St�t Conarthach inagartha, cib� n�isi�ntacht at� acu, i gc�irteanna an St�it sin.

 

 

Daoine nach n�isi�naigh den St�t ina bhfuil sainch�na� orthu, beidh siad faoi rial� ag na rialacha dl�nse a bhaineann le n�isi�naigh an St�it sin.

 

 

Airteagal 3

 

 

Daoine a bhfuil sainch�na� orthu i St�t Conarthach, n� f�idir iad a agairt i gc�irteanna St�it Chonarthaigh eile ach amh�in de bhua na rialacha at� leagtha s�os i Ranna 2 go 6 den Teideal seo.

 

 

Go h�irithe n� bheidh na for�lacha seo a leanas infheidhme ina gcoinne:

 

 

sa Bheilg: Airteagal 15 den ch�d sibhialta (Code civilBurgerlijk Wetboek) agus Airteagal 638 den ch�d breithi�nach (Code judiciaireGerechtelijk Wetboek),

 

 

sa Danmhairg: Airteagal 246(2) agus (3) den dl� ar n�s imeachta sibhialta (lov om rettens pleje),

 

 

i bPoblacht Ch�naidhme na Gearm�ine: Airteagal 23 de ch�d an n�s imeachta shibhialta (Zivilprozeβordnung),

 

 

sa Ghr�ig: Airteagal 40 de ch�d an n�s imeachta shibhialta (Kώδικαζ Πoλιτικήζ Δικoνoμ�αζ)

 

 

sa Fhrainc: Airteagail 14 agus 15 den ch�d sibhialta (Code civil),

 

 

in �irinn: na rialacha � chumas� dl�nse a bhun� ar dhoicim�ad tionscanta na n-imeachta� a bheith arna sheirbhe�il ar an gcosant�ir le linn d� bheith in �irinn go sealadach,

 

 

san Iod�il: Airteagal 2 agus Airteagal 4, Uimh. 1 agus 2, de ch�d an n�s imeachta shibhialta (Codice di procedura civile),

 

 

i Lucsamburg: Airteagail 14 agus 15 den ch�d sibhialta (Code civil),

 

 

san Ostair: Airteagal 99 den Dl� ar Dhl�nse Ch�irte (Jurisdiktionsnorm),

 

 

san �silt�r: Airteagal 126(3) agus Airteagal 127 de ch�d an n�s imeachta shibhialta (Wetboek van Burgerlijke Rechtsvordering),

 

 

sa Phortaing�il: Airteagail 65(1)(c), 65(2) agus 65A(c) de ch�d an n�s imeachta shibhialta (C�digo de Processo Civil) agus Airteagal 11 de ch�d an n�s imeachta saothair (C�digo de Processo de Trabalho),

 

 

san Fhionlainn: an dara, an tr�� agus an ceathr� habairt den ch�ad mh�r de Roinn 1 de Chaibidil 10 de Ch�d an N�s Imeachta Bhreithi�naigh (oikeudenk�ymiskaari/r�tteg�ngsbalken),

 

 

sa tSualainn: an ch�ad abairt den ch�ad m�r de Roinn 3 de Chaibidil 10 de Ch�d an N�s Imeachta Bhreithi�naigh (r�tteg�ngsbalken),

 

 

sa R�ocht Aontaithe: na rialacha � chumas� dl�nse a bhun�:

 

 

(a) ar dhoicim�ad tionscanta na n-imeachta� a bheith arna sheirbhe�il ar an gcosant�ir le linn d� bheith sa R�ocht Aontaithe go sealadach; n�

 

 

(b) ar mhaoin leis an gcosant�ir a bheith sa R�ocht Aontaithe; n�

 

 

(c) ar urghabh�il ag an ngear�na� ar mhaoin sa R�ocht Aontaithe.

 

 

Airteagal 4

 

 

Mura bhfuil sainch�na� i St�t Conarthach ar an gcosant�ir, rial�far dl�nse na gc�irteanna i ngach St�t Conarthach de r�ir dhl� an St�it sin, faoi r�ir fhor�lacha Airteagal 16.

 

 

Aon duine a bhfuil sainch�na� air i St�t Conarthach, cib� n�isi�ntacht at� aige, f�adfaidh s�, ar n�s n�isi�naigh an St�it sin, leas a bhaint sa St�t sin, i gcoinne an chosant�ra sin, as na rialacha dl�nse at� i bhfeidhm ann agus go h�irithe as na cinn a fhor�iltear sa dara m�r d'Airteagal 3.

 

 

ROINN 2

 

 

Dl�nse speisialta

 

 

Airteagal 5

 

 

Duine a bhfuil sainch�na� air i St�t Conarthach, f�adfar � a agairt i St�t Conarthach eile:

 

 

1. in �bhair a bhaineann le conradh, sna c�irteanna don �it i gcomhair chomhl�onadh na hoibleag�ide �irithe; in �bhair a bhaineann le conartha� fosta�ochta aonair, is � an �itina nd�anann an fosta� a chuid oibre de ghn�th; m�s rud � nach nd�anann an fosta� a chuid oibre in aon t�r amh�in de ghn�th, f�adfar an fost�ir a agairt freisin sna c�irteanna don �it ina bhfuil n� ina raibh an �it ghn� tr�nar earca�odh an fosta�;

 

 

2. in �bhair a bhaineann le cothabh�il, sna c�irteanna don �it ina bhfuil sainch�na� n� gn�thch�na� ar an gcreidi�na� cothabh�la n�, m�s �bhar � at� coimhdeach le himeachta� i dtaobh st�dais duine, sa ch�irt ag a bhfuil, de r�ir a dl� f�in, dl�nse chun na himeachta� sin a thriail, mura rud � nach bhfuil de bhonn faoin dl�nse sin ach n�isi�ntacht cheann de na p�irtithe;

 

 

3. in �bhair a bhaineann le tort, m�ghn�omh n� samhail mh�ghn�mh, sna c�irteanna don �it inar tharla an teagmhas d�obh�lach;

 

 

4. i gc�s �ileamh sibhialta chun dam�ist� n� ais�oca�ocht a ghn�th� mar gheall ar sh�r� ba shiocair le himeachta� coiri�la, su ch�irt ar tugadh na himeachta� sin faoina br�id, sa mh�id go bhfuil dl�nse ag an gc�irt sin faoina dl� f�in glacadh le himeachta� sibhialta;

 

 

5. i gc�s d�osp�ide a �ir�onn as oibr�ochta� brainse, gn�omhaireachta n� buna�ochta eile, sna c�irteanna don �it ina bhfuil an brainse, an ghn�omhaireacht n� an bhuna�ocht eile;

 

 

6. ina ch�il mar shocraitheoir, iontaobha� n� tairbh� i leith iontaobhais a buna�odh de bhun reachta n� le hionstraim i scr�bhinn n� a buna�odh de bhriathra b�il agus a fiana�odh i scr�bhinn, i gc�irteanna an St�it Chonarthaigh a bhfuil sainch�na� an iontaobhais ann;

 

 

7. i gc�s d�osp�ide maidir le h�oc luach saothair a �il�odh as last n� lucht a tharrth�il, sa ch�irt ar faoina h�dar�s:

 

 

(a) a gabhadh an last n� an lucht �irithe chun an �oca�ocht sin a urr�; n�

 

 

(b) a bhf�adfa� � a ghabh�il amhlaidh, ach gur tugadh banna� n� urr�s eile;

 

 

ar an gcoinn�oll nach mbeidh feidhm leis an bhfor�il seo ach amh�in nuair a �il�tear go bhfuil leas ag an gcosant�ir sa last n� sa lucht n� go raibh leas den s�rt sin aige tr�th na tarrth�la.

 

 

Airteagal 6

 

 

F�adfar duine a bhfuil sainch�na� air i St�t Conarthach a agairt freisin:

 

 

1. m�s duine de l�on cosant�ir� �, sna c�irteanna don �it a bhfuil sainch�na� ar dhuine ar bith d�obh;

 

 

2. mar thr�� p�irt� i gcaingean ar bhar�ntas n� r�tha�ocht n� in aon imeachta� eile tr�� p�irt�, sa ch�irt inar tionscna�odh na himeachta� bunaidh, mura rud � gur tionscna�odh iad sin d'aon toisc chun � a thabhairt amach as dl�nse na c�irte ab iomchu�ina ch�s;

 

 

3. i gc�s frith�ilimh a thig den chonradh c�anna n� de na f�orais ch�anna ab fhoras don �ileamh bunaidh, sa ch�irt ina bhfuil an t-�ileamh bunaidh ar feitheamh.

 

 

4. i gc�s �bhar a bhaineann le conradh, m�s f�idir an chaingean a dhl�th� le caingean i gcoinne an chosant�ra ch�anna in �bhair a bhaineann le cearta in rem ar mhaoin dhochorraithe, i gc�irt an St�it Chonarthaigh ina bhfuil an mhaoin.

 

 

Airteagal 6a

 

 

M�s rud � de bhua an Choinbhinsi�in seo go bhfuil dl�nse ag c�irt St�it Chonarthaigh i gcaingne maidir le dliteanas a thig as �s�id n� oibri� loinge, beidh dl�nse freisin ag an gc�irt sin, n� ag aon ch�irt eile a bheidh curtha ina hionad chun na cr�che sin le dl� int�re an St�it sin, i gc�s �ilimh chun an dliteanas sin a theorann�.

 

 

ROINN 3

 

 

Dl�nse in �bhair a bhaineann le h�rachas

 

 

Airteagal 7

 

 

In �bhair a bhaineann le h�rachas, cinnfear dl�nse de r�ir na Roinne seo, gan dochar d'fhor�lacha Airteagail 4 agus 5(5).

 

 

Airteagal 8

 

 

F�adfar �rach�ir ar a bhfuil sainch�na� i St�t Conarthach a agairt:

 

 

1. i gc�irteanna an St�it ina bhfuil sainch�na� air, n�

 

 

2. i St�t Conarthach eile, sna c�irteanna don �it ina bhfuil sainch�na� ar shealbh�ir an pholasa� �rachais, n�

 

 

3. m�s comh�rach�ir �, i gc�irteanna St�it Chonarthaigh ina dtionscna�tear imeachta� i gcoinne an phr�omh�rach�ra.

 

 

�rach�ir nach bhfuil sainch�na� air i St�t Conarthach ach a bhfuil brainse n� gn�omhaireacht n� buna�ocht eile aige i gceann de na St�it Chonarthacha, measfar, i gc�s d�osp�id� a thiocfaidh ar barr de dhroim oibr�ochta� an bhrainse n� na gn�omhaireachta n� na buna�ochta, sainch�na� a bheith air sa St�t sin.

 

 

Airteagal 9

 

 

F�adfar fairis sin an t-�rach�ir a agairt sna c�irteanna don �it inar tharla an teagmhas d�obh�lach m�s � a bh�onn i gceist �rachas i leith dliteanais n� �rachas ar mhaoin dhochorraithe. Is � an d�la c�anna � m� chumhda�tear maoin shochorraithe agus maoin dhochorraithe leis an bpolasa� c�anna �rachais agus go dt�ann an teagmhas c�anna chun dochair d�ibh araon.

 

 

Airteagal 10

 

 

I gc�s �rachais i leith dliteanais, f�adfar mar an gc�anna, m� cheada�onn dl� na c�irte �, an t-�rach�ir a uamadh in imeachta� a thionscain an duine d�obh�laithe i gcoinne an �racha�.

 

 

Beidh feidhm le for�lacha Airteagail 7, 8 agus 9 i gc�s caingne a thionscain an duine d�obh�laithe go d�reach i gcoinne an �rach�ra, m� cheada�tear na caingne d�reacha sin.

 

 

M� fhor�lan an dl� maidir leis na caingne d�reacha sin go bhf�adfar sealbh�ir an pholasa� n� an t-�racha� a uamadh mar ph�irt� sa chaingean, beidh dl�nse ag an gc�irt ch�anna ina leith.

 

 

Airteagal 11

 

 

Gan dochar d'fhor�lacha an tr�� m�r d'Airteagal 10, n� f�idir leis an �rach�ir imeachta� a thionscnamh ach amh�in i gc�irteanna an St�it Chonarthaigh ina bhfuil sainch�na� ar an gcosant�ir, cib� acu sealbh�ir an pholasa� n� an t-�racha� n� tairbh� �.

 

 

N� dh�anfaidh for�lacha na Roinne seo difear don cheart chun frith�ileamh a thabhairt sa ch�irt ina bhfuil an t-�ileamh bunaidh ar feitheamh, de r�ir na Roinne seo.

 

 

Airteagal 12

 

 

N� f�idir imeacht � fhor�lacha na Roinne seo ach amh�in tr� chomhaont� i dtaobh dl�nse:

 

 

1. a dh�anfar tar �is an d�osp�id a theacht ar barr, n�

 

 

2. a chead�idh do shealbh�ir an pholasa�, don �racha� n� do thairbh� imeachta� a thionscnamh i gc�irteanna seachas na cinn a luaitear sa Roinn seo, n�

 

 

3. a chuirfear i gcr�ch idir sealbh�ir polasa� agus �rach�ir, a bhfuil sainch�na� n� gn�thch�na� orthu araon sa St�t Conarthach c�anna tr�th an chonartha a chur i gcr�ch agus arb � is �ifeacht d� dl�nse a thabhairt do ch�irteanna an St�it sin fi� i gc�s an teagmhas d�obh�lach a tharl� ar an gcoigr�och, ar an gcoinn�oll nach bhfuil an comhaont� sin contr�rtha le dl� an St�it sin, n�

 

 

4. a dh�anfar le sealbh�ir polasa� nach bhfuil sainch�na� air i St�t Conarthach, ach amh�in sa mh�id gurb �rachas �igeantach at� ann n� �rachas a bhaineann le maoin dhochorraithe i St�t Conarthach, n�

 

 

5. a bhainfidh le conradh �rachais sa mh�id go gcumhda�onn s� fiontar n� fiontair a luaitear in Airteagal 12a.

 

 

Airteagal 12a

 

 

Is iad seo a leanas na fiontair d� dtagra�tear in Airteagal 12(5):

 

 

1. aon chailleadh n� dam�iste a bhainfidh:

 

 

(a) do longa farraige, do ch�racha amach �n gcladach n� ar muir, n� d'aer�rtha�, de dhroim guaiseanna a bhaineann lena n-�s�id chun cr�och tr�cht�la;

 

 

(b) d'earra� faoi bhealach, seachas bag�iste paisin�ir�, agus iad � n-iompar go bun a mbealaigh n� ar chuid d� mbealach ag na longa n� na haer�rtha� sin;

 

 

2. aon dliteanas, seachas dliteanas i leith d�obh�la coirp do phaisin�ir� n� i leith cailleadh n� dam�iste a bhaint d� mbag�iste:

 

 

(a) a thig as �s�id n� oibri� long, c�racha n� aer�rtha� mar a luaitear in 1(a) thuas sa mh�id nach gcuireann dl� an St�it Chonarthaigh a bhfuil na haer�rtha� sin cl�raithe ann toirmeasc le comhaontuithe ar dhl�nse maidir le h�rach� na bhfiontar sin;

 

 

(b) i leith cailleadh n� dam�iste a tharl�idh tr� bh�thin earra� faoi bhealach mar a luaitear in 1(b) thuas;

 

 

3. aon chailleadh airgid i nd�il le h�s�id n� oibri� long, c�racha n� aer�rtha� mar a luaitear in 1(a) thuas, go h�irithe cailleadh last-t�ill� n� �oca�ochta as cairthfhost�;

 

 

4. aon fhiontar n� leas a ghabhann leo sin a luaitear in 1 go 3 thuas.

 

 

ROINN 4

 

 

Dl�nse ar chonartha� tomhaltais

 

 

Airteagal 13

 

 

In imeachta� maidir le conradh a chuir duine i gcr�ch chun cr�che a fh�adfar a mheas a bheith lasmuigh d� thr�d�il n� d� ghairm, d� ngairtear an �tomhalt�ir� anseo feasta, cinnfear dl�nse leis an Roinn seo, gan dochar d'fhor�lacha Airteagail 4 agus 5(5), m�s �ard �:

 

 

1. conradh chun earra� a dh�ol ar th�arma� creidmheasa tr�thchoda, n�

 

 

2. conradh le haghaidh iasacht is in�octha i dtr�thchodanna, n� le haghaidh aon fhoirm eile chreidmheasa, arna dh�anamh chun d�olach�n earra� a mhaoini�, n�

 

 

3. aon chonradh eile chun earra� a shol�thar n� conradh chun seirbh�s� a shol�thar, agus

 

 

(a) go ndearnadh, i St�t shainch�na� an tomhalt�ra, cuireadh sonrach a dh�ri� chuige n� f�gra�ocht sular cuireadh an conradh i gcr�ch, agus

 

 

(b) go ndearna an tomhalt�ir sa St�t sin na bearta ba gh� chun an conradh a chur i gcr�ch.

 

 

I gc�s tomhalt�ir do dhul i gconradh le p�irt� nach bhfuil sainch�na� air i St�t Conarthach ach go bhfuil brainse n� gn�omhaireacht n� buna�ocht eile aige i gceann de na St�it Chonarthacha, measfar sainch�na� a bheith ar an bp�irt� sin sa St�t sin i gc�s d�osp�id� a thiocfaidh ar barr de dhroim oibriochta� an bhrainse n� na gn�omhaireachta n� na buna�ochta.

 

 

N� bhainfidh an Roinn seo le conartha� iompair.

 

 

Airteagal 14

 

 

F�adfaidh tomhalt�ir imeachta� a thabhairt in aghaidh an ph�irt� eile i gconradh i gc�irteanna an St�it Chonarthaigh ina bhfuil sainch�na� ar an bp�irt� sin n� i gc�irteanna an St�it Chonarthaigh ina bhfuil sainch�na� air f�in.

 

 

N� f�idir le p�irt� eile sa chonradh imeachta� a thabhairt i gcoinne tomhalt�ra ach amh�in i gc�irteanna an St�it Chonarthaigh ina bhfuil sainch�na� ar an tomhalt�ir.

 

 

N� dh�anfaidh na for�lacha sea difear don cheart chun frith�ileamh a thabhairt sa ch�irt ina bhfuil an t-�ileamh bunaidh ar feitheamh, de r�ir na Roinne seo.

 

 

Airteagal 15

 

 

N� f�idir imeacht � fhor�lacha na Roinne seo ach amh�in tr� chomhaont�:

 

 

1. a dh�anfar tar �is d�osp�id a theacht ar barr, n�

 

 

2. a chead�idh don tomhalt�ir imeachta� a thionscnamh i gc�irteanna seachas na cinn a luaitear sa Roinn seo, n�

 

 

3. a dh�anfaidh an tomhalt�ir agus an p�irt� eile sa chonradh, agus sainch�na� n� gn�thch�na� orthu araon sa St�t Conarthach c�anna tr�th an chonartha a chur i gcr�ch, agus a thabharfaidh dl�nse do ch�irteanna an St�it sin, ar an gcoinn�oll nach bhfuil an comhaont� sin contr�rtha le dl� an St�it sin.

 

 

ROINN 5

 

 

Dl�nse eisiach

 

 

Airteagal 16

 

 

Beidh dl�nse eisiach ag na c�irteanna seo a leanas, ar neamhchead do shainch�na�:

 

 

1. (a) in imeachta� arb � is cusp�ir d�ibh cearta in rem ar mhaoin dhochorraithe n� tion�ntachta� maoine dochorraithe, c�irteanna an St�it Chonarthaigh ina bhfuil an mhaoin;

 

 

(b) ach, in imeachta� arb � is cusp�ir d�ibh tion�ntachta� maoine dochorraithe arna gcur i gcr�ch le haghaidh �s�ide pr�obh�id� sealada� go ceann tr�imhse nach faide n� s� mh� as a ch�ile, beidh dl�nse freisin ag c�irteanna an St�it Chonarthaigh ina bhfuil sainch�na� ar an gcosant�ir, ar an gcoinn�oll gur daoine n�d�rtha iad an tiarna tal�n agus an tion�nta agus go bhfuil sainch�na� orthu sa St�t Conarthach c�anna;

 

 

2. in imeachta� arb � is cusp�ir d�ibh bail�ocht chomhdh�anamh, neamhni� n� d�scaoileadh cuideachta� n� daoine dl�theanacha eile n� comhlachas de dhaoine n�d�rtha n� dl�theanacha, n� cinnt� a thug org�in d� gcuid, c�irteanna an St�it Chonarthaigh ina bhfuil su�omh na cuideachta, an duine dhl�theanaigh n� an chomhlachais;

 

 

3. in imeachta� arb � is cusp�ir d�ibh bail�ocht taifead i gcl�ir phoibl�, c�irteanna an St�it Chonarthaigh ina bhfuil an cl�r � choime�d;

 

 

4. in imeachta� a bhaineann le cl�r� n� le bail�ocht paitinn�, tr�dmharcanna, deartha�, n� le cearta eile d� leith�id sin is g� a thaisceadh n� a chl�r�, c�irteanna an St�it Chonarthaigh inar iarradh an taisceadh n� an cl�r�, n� arb ann a rinneadh n� a mheastar faoi th�arma� coinbhinsi�in idirn�isi�nta go ndearnadh �;

 

 

5. in imeachta� a bhaineann le breithi�nais a fhorghn�omh�, c�irteanna an St�it Chonarthaigh ina ndearnadh, n� ina nd�anfar, an breithi�nas a fhorghn�omh�.

 

 

ROINN 6

 

 

Dl�nse a iarchur

 

 

Airteagal 17

 

 

M�s rud � go ndearna na p�irtithe, a bhfuil sainch�na� ar ph�irt� n� p�irtithe d�obh i St�t Conarthach, combaont� chun dl�nse a bheith ag c�irt n� c�irteanna de chuid St�it Chonarthaigh aon d�osp�id� a r�iteach a tharla n� a tharl�idh i nd�il le comhbhaint dhl�thi�il �irithe, beidh dl�nse eisiach ag an gc�irt n� ag na c�irteanna sin. N� fol�ir comhaont� den s�rt sin a thugann dl�nse:

 

 

(a) a bheith i scr�bhinn n� arna fhian� i scr�bhinn; n�

 

 

(b) a bheith i bhfoirm at� de r�ir cleachtas a bhunaigh na p�irtithe eatarthu f�in; n�

 

 

(c) i dtr�d�il n� tr�cht�il idirn�isi�nta, a bheith i bhfoirm at� de r�ir gn�thaimh ar a bhfuil eolas n� ar ar cheart go mbeadh eolas ag na p�irtithe agus a bhfuil aithne fhorleathan air sa tr�d�il n� sa tr�cht�il sin agus a leantar go rialta � i measc p�irtithe i gconartha� den saghas a bhaineann leis an tr�d�il n� an tr�cht�il �irithe at� i gceist.

 

 

I gc�s comhaont� den s�rt sin a bheith d�anta ag p�irtithe nach bhfuil sainch�na� ar aon ph�irt� d�obh i St�t Conarthach, n� bheidh aon dl�nse ag c�irteanna St�t Conarthach eile ar a nd�osp�id� mura rud � go mbeidh di�ltaithe do dhl�nse ag an gc�irt n� ag na c�irteanna a roghna�odh.

 

 

An ch�irt n� na c�irteanna de chuid St�it Chonarthaigh d� dtugann ionstraim iontaobhais dl�nse, beidh dl�nse eisiach aici n� acu in aon imeachta� a thabharfar i gcoinne socraitheora, iontaobha� n� tairbh�, m� bh�onn comhbhaint i gceist idir na daoine sin n� a gcearta n� a n-oibleag�id� faoin iontaobhas.

 

 

N� bheidh aon fheidhm dhl�thi�il ag comhaontuithe n� for�lacha ionstraime iontaobhais a thugann dl�nse m� bh�onn siad contr�rtha le for�lacha Airteagal 12 n� 15, n� m� bh�onn dl�nse eisiach de bhua Airteagal 16 ag na c�irteanna a bhfuil airbheartaithe acu a ndl�nse a eisiamh.

 

 

M�s ar mhaithe le haon cheann amh�in de na p�irtithe a rinneadh an comhaont� chun dl�nse a thabhairt, beidh ag an bp�irt� sin i gc�na� an ceart chun imeachta� a thabhairt in aon ch�irt eile a bhfuil dl�nse aici de bhua an Choinbhinsi�in seo.

 

 

In �bhair a bhaineann le conartha� fosta�ochta aonair n� bheidh feidhm dhl�thi�il ag comhaont� chun dl�nse a thabhairt ach amh�in m� rinneadh � tar �is don d�osp�id tarl� n� m� bhaineann an fosta� leas as chun an c�s a thabhairt os comhair c�irteanna seachas na c�irteanna don �it ina bhfuil sainch�na� ar an gcosant�ir n� na c�irteanna d� dtagra�tear in Airteagal 5(1).

 

 

Airteagal 18

 

 

Amach � na c�sanna ina bhfuil dl�nse aici de bhua for�lacha eile den Choinbhinsi�n seo, beidh dl�nse ag c�irt St�it Chonarthaigh a dtaifeadfaidh cosant�ir l�ithreas os a comhair. N� bheidh feidhm leis an riail seo m�s consp�id na dl�nse ba chusp�ir don l�ithreas a thaifeadadh, n� m� bh�onn dl�nse eisiach ag c�irt eile ann de bhua Airteagal 16.

 

 

ROINN 7

 

 

F�or� ar dhl�nse agus ar inghlacthacht

 

 

Airteagal 19

 

 

C�irt de chuid St�it Chonarthaigh a dtabharfar os a comhair �ileamh a bhaineann go pr�omha le h�bhar a bhfuil dl�nse eisiach ina leith ag c�irteanna St�it Chonarthaigh eile de bhua Airteagal 16, dearbh�idh s� uaithi f�in nach bhfuil aon dl�nse aici.

 

 

Airteagal 20

 

 

M� dh�ntar cosant�ir a bhfuil sainch�na� air i St�t Conarthach amh�in a agairt i gc�irt de chuid St�it Chonarthaigh eile agus nach dtaifeadfaidh s� l�threas, dearbh�idh an ch�irt uaithi f�in nach bhfuil aon dl�nse aici at� bunaithe ar fhor�lacha an Choinbhinsi�in seo.

 

 

Cuirfidh an ch�irt bac ar na himeachta� fad a bheifear gan a shu�omh go raibh caoi ag an gcosant�ir doicim�ad tionscanta na n-imeachta� n� doicim�ad comhionann a fh�il in am tr�tha chun socr� a dh�anamh � f�in a chosaint, n� go nedearnadh gach d�cheall chuige sin.

 

 

Cuirfear in ionad fhor�lacha na m�re roimhe seo for�lacha Airteagal 15 de Choinbhinsi�n na H�ige dar d�ta 15 Samhain 1965 ar sheirbhe�il doicim�ad dl�thi�il agus seachdhl�thi�il in �bhair shibhialta n� tr�cht�la ar an gcoigr�och, m� ba gh� doicim�ad tionscanta na n-imeachta�, n� f�gra ina dtaobh, a sheoladh amach ar an gcoigr�och de r�ir an Choinbhinsi�in sin.

 

 

ROINN 8

 

 

Lis pendens � Caingne gaolmhara

 

 

Airteagal 21

 

 

M� dh�antar imeachta� leis an gc�is ch�anna caingne agus idir na p�irtithe c�anna a thionscnamh i gc�irteanna St�t Conarthach �ags�il, dl�fidh c�irt ar bith seachas an ch�ad ch�irt ar tugadh os a comhair iad bac a chur ar a himeachta�, uaithi f�in, go dt� go su�fear dl�nse na ch�ad ch�irte ar tugadh os a comhair iad.

 

 

M� shuitear dl�nse na ch�ad ch�irte ar tugadh na himeachta� os a comhair, dl�fidh c�irt ar bith seachas an ch�ad ch�irt ar tugadh os a comhair iad dl�nse a dhi�lt� i bhfabhar na ch�ad ch�irte sin.

 

 

Airteagal 22

 

 

M� thionscna�tear caingne gaolmhara i gc�irteanna St�t Conarthach �ags�il, f�adfaidh c�irt ar bith seachas an ch�ad ch�irt artugadh os a comhair iad, le linn na caingne a bheith ar feitheamh ag an gc�ad ch�im, bac a chur ar a himeachta�.

 

 

F�adfaidh c�irt seachas an ch�ad ch�irt ar tugadh na caingne os a comhair dl�nse a dhi�lt� freisin, ar iarratas � cheann de na p�irtithe, m� cheada�onn dl� na c�irte sin caingne gaolmhara a dhl�th� agus go bhfuil dl�nse i leith an d� chaingean ag an gc�ad ch�irt ar tugadh os a comhair iad.

 

 

Chun cr�ocha an Airteagail seo, meastar caingne a bheith gaolmhar m� bh�onn baint chomh dl�th sin acu le ch�ile go bhfuil s�f�irsteanach iad a �isteacht agus breith a thabhairt orthu i dteannta a ch�ile ionas go seachn�fa� breithi�nais bunoscionn le ch�ile mar ab fh�idir a theacht d'imeachta� ar leithligh.

 

 

Airteagal 23

 

 

M� thagann caingne faoi dhl�nse eisiach ch�irteanna �ags�la, dl�fidh c�irt ar bith seachas an ch�ad ch�irt ar tugadh os a comhair iad dl�nse a dhi�lt� i bhfabhar na ch�ad ch�irta sin.

 

 

ROINN 9

 

 

Bearta sealadacha lena n-�ir�tear bearta consantacha

 

 

Airteagal 24

 

 

F�adfar cib� bearta sealadacha, lena n-�ir�tear bearta cosantacha, a bheidh ar f�il faoi dhl� St�it Chonarthaigh a iarraidh ar ch�irteanna an St�it sin, fi� m�s rud �, faoin gCoinbhinsi�n seo, go bhfuil dl�nse ag c�irteanna St�it Chonarthaigh eile maidir le substaint an �bhair.

 

 

TEIDEAL III

 

 

AITHINT AGUS FORGHN�OMH�

 

 

Airteagal 25

 

 

Chun cr�ocha an Choinbhinsi�in seo, cialla�onn �breithi�nas� aon bhreithi�nas arna thabhairt ag c�irt n� binse de chuid St�it Chonarthaigh, cib� ainm a thugtar ar an mbreithi�nas, lena n-�ir�tear foraithne, ord�, breith, n� eascaire fhorghn�omhaithe, mar aon le cinn-eadh ar chostais n� caiteachais ag oifigeach en ch�irt.

 

 

ROINN 1

 

 

Aithint

 

 

Airteagal 26

 

 

Gheobhaidh breithi�nas a tugadh i St�t Conarthach aithint sna St�it Chonarthacha eile gan aon n�s imeachta speisialta a bheith riachtanach chuige sin.

 

 

Aon ph�irt� leasmhar a thabharfaidh aithint bhreithi�nais faoi thr�cht mar phr�omhshaincheist i gconsp�id, f�adfaidh s�, de r�ir an n�s imeachta d� bhfor�iltear i Ranna 2 agus 3 den Teideal seo, iarratas a dh�anamh ar bhreith go ndlitear an breithi�nas a aithint.

 

 

M� bh�onn toradh imeachta� i gc�irt de chuid St�it Chonarthaigh a brath ar cheist theagmhasach aithinte a chinneadh, beidh dl�nse ag an gc�irt sin ar an gceist sin.

 

 

Airteagal 27

 

 

N� aithneofar breithi�nas:

 

 

1. m� bh�onn an aithint sin contr�rtha leis an ord poibl� sa St�t ina n-iarrtar an eithint;

 

 

2. m�s d'�agmais l�ithris a tugadh an breithi�nas, mura ndearnadh doicim�ad tionscanta na n-imeachta� n� doicim�ad comhionann a sheirbhe�il go cu� ar an gcosant�ir in am tr�tha chun socr� a dh�anamh � f�in a chosaint;

 

 

3. m� bh�onn an breithi�nas bunoscionn le breithi�nas a tugadh i nd�osp�id idir na p�irtithe c�anna sa St�t ina n-iarrtar an aithint;

 

 

4. m� rinne c�irt an St�it tionscnaimh, d'fhonn teacht ar a breithi�nas, r�amhcheist maidir le st�das n� le hinni�lacht dhl�thi�il daoine n�d�rtha, le maoin-chearta de thoradh c�ngais ph�sta, le huachtanna n� le comharbas, a chinneadh ar dh�igh at� contr�rtha le riail de dhl� indirn�isi�nta pr�obh�ideach an St�it ina n-iarrtar an aithint, mura rud � gurb � an toradh c�nna a thioc-fadh de rialacha dl� idirn�isi�nta phr�obh�idigh an St�it sin a chur chun feidhme;

 

 

5. m� bh�onn an breithi�nas bunoscionn le breithi�nas a tugadh roimhe sin i St�t neamhchonarthach agus � ag baint leis an gc�is ch�anna caingne agus idir na p�irtithe c�anna, nuair a chomhl�onnann an breithi�nas deireanach seo na coinn�ollacha is g� chun � a aithint sa St�t chun a nd�antar an t-iarratas.

 

 

Airteagal 28

 

 

Ina theannta sin, n� aithneofar breithi�nas m� bh�onn s� contr�rtha le for�lacha Roinn 3, 4 n� 5 de Theideal II, n� i gcas d� bhfor�iltear in Airteagal 59.

 

 

Nuair a bheidh na forais dl�nse a luaitear sa mh�r roimhe seo faoi bhreithni� aige n� aici, beidh an t-�dar�s n� an ch�irt chun a ndearn-adh an t-iarratas faoi cheangal ag na cinnt� f�orais a ndearna c�irt an St�it tionscnaimh a dl�nse a bhun� orthu.

 

 

Faoi r�ir fhor�lacha na ch�ad mh�re, n� f�idir dl�nse ch�irt an St�it tionscnaimh a athbhreithni�; n� bheidh a fhor�il i dtaobh ord poibl� d� dtagra�tear in Airteagal 27(1) inchurtha chun feidhme ar na riala-cha maidir le dl�nse.

 

 

Airteagal 29

 

 

N� f�idir i gc�s ar bith breithi�nas coigr�che a athbhreithi� � thaobh a shubstainte.

 

 

Airteagal 30

 

 

F�adfaidh c�irt i St�t Conarthach ar a n-iarrfar aithint bhreith-i�nais a tugadh i St�t Conarthach eile bac a chur ar na himeachta� m� taisceadh gn�thachomharc i gcoinne an bhreithi�nais sin.

 

 

F�adfaidh c�irt i St�t Conarthach ina n-iarrfar aithint do bhreith-i�nas a tugadh in �irinn n� sa R�ocht Aontaithe bac a chur ar na himeachta� m� bh�onn forghn�omh� curtha ar fionra�, mar gheall ar achomharc, sa St�t tionscnaimh.

 

 

ROINN 2

 

 

Forghn�omh�

 

 

Airteagal 31

 

 

D�anfar breithi�nas a tugadh i St�t Conarthach agus is infhorghn�-omhaithe sa St�t sin a fhorghn�omh� i St�t Conarthach eile nuair a bheidh s� dearbhaithe, ar iarratas � aon ph�irt� leasmhar, go bhfuil s� infhorghn�omhaithe sa St�t eile sin.

 

 

Sa R�ocht Aontaithe, �fach, d�anfar breithi�nas den s�rt sin a fhorghn�omh� i Sasana agus sa Bhreatain Bheag, in Albain, n� i dTuaisceart �ireann nuair a bheidh s� cl�raithe, ar iarratas � aon ph�irt� leasmhar, lena fhorghn�omh� sa chuid sin den R�ocht Aontaithe.

 

 

Airteagal 32

 

 

Is chucu seo a bheidh an t-iarratas le d�anamh:

 

 

sa Bheilg, an tribunal de premi�re instance n� rechtbank van eerste aanleg,

 

 

sa Danmhairg, an byret,

 

 

i bPoblacht Ch�naidhme na Gearm�ine, uachtar�n dl�sheomra den Landgericht,

 

 

sa Ghr�ig, an Movoμελέζ Πρωτoδικε�o,

 

 

sa Sp�inn, an Juzgado de Primera Instancia,

 

 

sa Fhrainc, uachtar�n an tribunal de grande instance,

 

 

in �irinn, an Ard-Ch�irt,

 

 

san Iod�il, an corte d'appello,

 

 

i Lucsamburg, uachtar�n an tribunal d'arrondissement,

 

 

san Ostair, an Bezirksgericht,

 

 

san �silt�r, uachtar�n an arrondissementsrechtbank,

 

 

sa Phortaing�il, an Tribunal Judicial de C�rculo,

 

 

san Fhionlainn, k�r�j�oikeus/tingsr�tt,

 

 

sa tSualainn, an Svea hovr�tt,

 

 

sa R�ocht Aontaithe,

 

 

(a) i Sasana agus sa Bhreatain Bheag, an High Court of Justice n�, i gc�s breithi�nais chothabh�la, an Magistrates� Court tr�d an Secretary of State;

 

 

(b) in Albain, an Court of Session n�, i gc�s breithi�nais chothabh�la, an Sheriff Court tr�d an Secretary of State;

 

 

(c) i dTuaisceart �ireann, an High Court of Justice n�, i gc�s breithi�nais chothabh�la, an Magistrates� Court tr�d an Secretary of State.

 

 

Cinnfear dl�nse c�irteanna �iti�la de r�ir na h�ite a bhfuil sain-ch�na� ar an bp�irt� a n-iarrtar forghn�omh� ina choinne. Mura bhfuil sainch�na� air sa St�t a n-iarrtar an forghn�omh� ann, cinnfear � de r�ir �it fhorghn�omhaithe.

 

 

Airteagal 33

 

 

Is de r�ir dhl� an St�it a n-iarrtar forghn�omh� ann a rial�far an n�s imeachta maidir leis an iarratas a thaisceadh.

 

 

N� fol�ir don iarratas�ir seoladh a thabhairt le haghaidh seirbhe�la pr�ise i limist�ar dl�nse na c�irte chun a nd�antar an t-iarratas. Ach m�s rud � nach bhfor�lann dl� an St�it a n-iarrtar forghn�omh� ann seoladh mar sin a bheith le tabhairt, ceapfaidh an t-iarratas�ir ion-ada� ad litem.

 

 

N� fol�ir na doicim�id a luaitear in Airteagail 46 agus 47 a bheith i gceangal leis an iarratas.

 

 

Airteagal 34

 

 

Tabharfaidh an ch�irt chun a nd�antar an t-iarratas a breith ar an iarratas gan mhoill agus n� fh�adfaidh an p�irt� a n-iarrtar forghn�omh� ina choinne aon aighneachta� a dh�anamh maidir leis an iarratas ag an gc�im seo de na himeachta�.

 

 

N� f�idir di�lt� don iarratas ach ar ch�is d� bhfor�iltear in Airteagail 27 agus 28.

 

 

N� f�idir i gc�s ar bith an breithi�nas coigr�che a athbhreithni� � thaobh a shubstainte.

 

 

Airteagal 35

 

 

D�anfaidh oifigeach iomchu� na cu�rte, gan mhoill, an bhreith a tugadh ar an iarratas a chur in i�l don iarratas�ir, de r�ir an n�s imeachta a leagadh s�os le dl� an St�it a n-iarrtar forghn�omh� ann.

 

 

Airteagal 36

 

 

M� �dara�tear forghn�omh�, f�adfaidh an p�irt� ar iarradh forghn�omh� ina choinne achomharc a dh�anamh i gcoinne na brei-the laistigh de mh� � l� seirbhe�la.

 

 

M� t� sainch�na� ar an bp�irt� sin i St�t Conarthach seachas an ceann inar tugadh an bhreith a d'�daraigh forghn�omh�, beidh tr�-imhse dh� mh� ann le haghaidh achomhairc agus rithfidh s� � l� na seirbhe�la air f�in go pearsante n� ag a ionad c�naithe. N� f�idir cur leis an tr�imhse sin mar gheall ar fhad sl� � bhaile.

 

 

Airteagal 37

 

 

1. D�anfar achomharc i gcoinne na breithe a d'�daraigh forghn�omh� a thaisceadh de r�ir rialacha an n�s imeachta in �bhair chointinneacha:

 

 

sa Bheilg, sa tribunal de premi�re instance n� rechtbank van eerste aanleg;

 

 

sa Danmhairg, sa landsret;

 

 

i bPoblacht Ch�naidhme na Gearm�ine, san Oberlan-desgericht;

 

 

sa Ghr�ig, san Eϕετείo;

 

 

sa Sp�inn, san Audiencia Provincial;

 

 

sa Fhrainc, sa cour d'appel;

 

 

in �irinn, san Ard-Ch�irt;

 

 

san Iod�il, sa corte d'appello;

 

 

i Lucsamburg, sa Cour sup�rieure de justice ina su� di mar ch�irt achomhairc shibhialta;

 

 

san Ostair, sa Bezirksgericht;

 

 

san �silt�r, san arrondissementsrechtbank;

 

 

sa Phortaing�il, sa Tribunal da Rela��o;

 

 

san Fhionlainn, i hovioikeus/hovr�tt;

 

 

sa tSualainn, sa Svea hovr�tt;

 

 

sa R�ocht Aontaithe:

 

 

(a) i Sasana agus sa Bhreatain Bheag, sa High Court of Justice n�, i gc�s breithi�nais chothabh�la, sa Magistrates� Court;

 

 

(b) in Albain, sa Court of Session n�, i gc�s breithi�nais chothabh�la, sa Sheriff Court;

 

 

(c) i dTuaisceart �ireann, sa High Court of Justice n�, i gc�s breithi�nais chothabh�la, sa Magistrates� Court.

 

 

2. N� f�idir an breithi�nas a tugadh ar an achomharc a chonsp�id ach amh�in:

 

 

sa Bheilg, sa Ghr�ig, sa Sp�inn, sa Fhrainc, san Iod�il, i Luc-samburg agus san Isilt�r, tr� achomharc en cassation;

 

 

sa Danmhairg, tr� achomharc chuig an h�jesteret, le cead �n Aire Dl� agus Cirt;

 

 

i bPoblacht Ch�naidhme na Gearm�ine, tr� Rechtsbeschwerde;

 

 

san Ostair, i gc�s achomhairc, tr� Revisionsrekurs agus, i gc�s imeachta� freas�ra, tr� Berufung lena ngabhann deis athbhreithnithe;

 

 

in �irinn, tr� achomharc ar phointe dl� chuig an gC�irt Uachtarach;

 

 

sa Phortaing�il, tr� achomharc ar phointe dl�;

 

 

san Fhionlainn, tr� achomharc chuig korkein oikeus/h�gsta domstolen;

 

 

sa tSualainn, tr� achomharc chuig H�gsta domstolen;

 

 

sa R�ocht Aontaithe, tr� aon achomharc amh�in eile ar phointe dl�.

 

 

Airteagal 38

 

 

F�adfaidh an ch�irt ar tugadh an t-achomharc faoin gc�ad mh�r d' Airteagal 37 os a comhair, m� iarrann an t-achomharc�ir �, bac a chur leis na himeachta� i gc�s gn�thachomharc i gcoinne an bhrei-thi�nais a bheith taiscthe sa St�t tionscnaimh n� mura bhfuil an tr�-imhse le haghaidh achomhairc den s�rt sin dulta in �ag f�s; sa ch�s deiridh sin, f�adfaidh an ch�irt a shonr� cad � an tr�imhse le haghaidh achomharc den s�rt sin a thaisceadh.

 

 

M�s in �irinn n� sa R�ocht Aontaithe a tugadh an breithiunas, measfar aon chine�l achomhairc is ind�anta sa St�t tionscnaimh a bheith ina ghn�thachomharc chun cr�ocha na ch�ad mh�re.

 

 

F�adfaidh an ch�irt freisin � a chur de choinn�oll leis an bhforghn�-omh� go dtabharfar don ch�irt cib� urr�s a chinnfidh s�.

 

 

Airteagal 39

 

 

Le linn na tr�imhse a shonra�tear le haghaidh achomhairc de bhun Airteagal 36 agus go dt� go mbeidh breith tugtha ar aon achomharc den s�rt sin, n� f�idir a dh�anamh maidir leis an bhforghn�omh� ach amh�in bearta cosanta in aghaidh mhaoin an ph�irt� a n-iarrtar forghn�omh� ina choinne.

 

 

Gabhfaidh �dar�s chun aon bhearta cosanta den s�rt sin a ghla-cadh leis an mbreith a �dar�idh forghn�omh�.

 

 

Airteagal 40

 

 

1. M� dhi�lta�tear don iarratas ar fhorghn�omh�, f�adfaidh an t-iarratas�ir achomharc a dh�anamh:

 

 

sa Bheilg, chuig an cour d'appel n� hof van beroep;

 

 

sa Danmhairg, chuig an landsret;

 

 

i bPoblacht Ch�naidhme na Gearm�ine, chuig an Oberlan-desgericht;

 

 

sa Ghr�ig, chuig an Eϕετείo;

 

 

sa Sp�inn, chuig an Audiencia Provincial;

 

 

sa Fhrainc, chuig an cour d'appel;

 

 

in �irinn, chuig an Ard-Ch�irt;

 

 

san Iod�il, chuig an corte d'appello;

 

 

i Lucsamburg, chuig an Cour sup�rieure de justice, ina su� di mar ch�irt achomhairc shibhialta;

 

 

san Ostair, chuig an Bezirksgericht;

 

 

san �silt�r, chuig an gerechtshof;

 

 

sa Phortaing�il, chuig an Tribunal da Rela��o;

 

 

san Fhionlainn, chuig hovioikeus/hovr�tten;

 

 

sa tSualainn, chuig an Svea hovr�tt;

 

 

sa R�ocht Aontaithe:

 

 

(a) i Sasana agus sa Bhreatain Bheag, chuig an High Court of Justice n�, i gc�s breithi�nais chothabh�la, chuig an Magistrates� Court;

 

 

(b) in Albain, chuig an Court of Session n�, i gc�s breithi�nais chothabh�la, chuig an Sheriff Court;

 

 

(c) i dTuaisceart �ireann, chuig an High Court of Justice n�, i gc�s breithi�nais chothabh�la, chuig an Magistrates�s Court.

 

 

2. Cuirfear toghairm ar an bp�irt� a n-iarrtar forghn�omh� ina cho-inne � cheangal air l�ithri� os comhair na c�irte achomhairc. Mura l�ithreoidh s�, beidh for�lacha an dara agus an tr�� m�r d'Airteagal 20 infheidhme, fi� mura bhfuil sainch�na� air in aon cheann de na St�it Chonarthacha.

 

 

Airteagal 41

 

 

N� f�idir breithi�nas a tugadh ar achomharc d� bhfor�iltear in Airteagal 40 a chonsp�id ach amh�in:

 

 

sa Bheilg, sa Ghr�ig, sa Sp�inn, sa Fhrainc, san Iod�il, i Lucsamburg agus san �silt�r, tr� achomharc en cassation;

 

 

sa Danmhairg, tr� achomharc chuig an h�jesteret, le cead �n Aire Dl� agus Cirt;

 

 

i bPoblacht Ch�naidhme na Gearm�ine, tr� Rechtsbeschwerde;

 

 

in �irinn, tr� achomharc ar phointe dl� chuig an gC�irt Uachtarach;

 

 

san Ostair, tr� Revisionsrekurs;

 

 

sa Phortaing�il, tr� achomharc ar phointe dl�;

 

 

san Fhionlainn, tr� achomharc chuig korkein oikeus/h�gsta domstolen;

 

 

sa tSualainn, tr� achomharc chuig H�gsta domstolen;

 

 

sa R�ocht Aontaithe, tr� aon achomharc amh�in eile ar phointe dl�.

 

 

Airteagal 42

 

 

M� bh�onn breithi�nas coigr�che tugtha i leith �bhar �ags�il agus nach f�idir forghn�omh� a �dar� ina dtaobh go l�ir, d�anfaidh an ch�irt forghn�omh� a �dar� i gc�s �bhair amh�in n� n�os m� d�obh.

 

 

F�adfaidh iarratas�ir forghn�omh� p�irteach ar bhreithi�nas a iarraidh.

 

 

Airteagal 43

 

 

N� fh�adfar breithi�nas coigr�che a d'ordaigh �ocai�ocht phion�sach thr�imhsi�il a fhorghn�omh� sa St�t a n-iarrtar forghn�omh� ann mura mbeidh m�id na h�oca�ochta arna chinneadh go cr�ochnai-theach ag c�irteanna an St�it tionscnaimh.

 

 

Airteagal 44

 

 

Iarratas�ir ar tugadh d� go hioml�n n� go p�irteach, sa St�t tionscnaimh, c�namh dl�thi�il n� d�ol�ine � chostais n� � chaitea-chais, beidh teideal aige, sna n�sanna imeachta d� bhfor�iltear in Airteagail 32 go 35, chun tairbhi� den ch�namh dl�thi�il is fabhra� n� den dl�ol�ine is fairsinge � chostais n� � chaiteachais a fhor�iltear le dl� an St�it chun a nd�antar an t-iarratas.

 

 

Ach f�adfaidh iarratas�ir a iarrfaidh forghni�mh� ar bhreith a thug �dar�s riarach�in sa Danmhairg i leith ord� cothabh�la �ileamh a dh�anamh, sa St�t chun a nd�antar an t-iarratas, ar na tairbh� d� dtagra�tear sa ch�ad mh�r m� thugann s� ar aird r�iteas � Aireacht Dl� agus Cirt na Danmhairge � r� go gcomhl�onann s� na ceanglais eacnama�ocha is g� chun bheith c�ilithe le haghaidh c�naimh dhl�th-i�il n� d�olu�ine � chostais n� � chaiteachais go hioml�n n� go p�irteach.

 

 

Airteagal 45

 

 

N� f�idir urr�s, banna n� taisce, de chine�l ar bith, a �ileamh ar ph�irt� a iarrfaidh forghn�omh� i St�t Conarthach amh�in ar bhreithi�nas a tugadh i St�t Conarthach eile ar an bhforas gur n�isi�nach eachtrach � n� ar an bhforas nach bhfuil sainch�na� n� gn�thch�na� air sa St�t a n-iarrtar an forghniomh� ann.

 

 

ROINN 3

 

 

For�lacha comhchoiteanna

 

 

Airteagal 46

 

 

Dlifidh p�irt� a iarrfaidh aithint n� forghn�omh� ar bhreithi�nas na nithe seo a leanas a thabhairt ar aird:

 

 

1. c�ip den bhreithi�nas a sh�s�didh na coinn�ollacha is g� chun a bar�nt�lacht a shu�omh;

 

 

2. i gc�s breithi�nais mhainneachtana, an ch�ip bhunaidh n� c�ip dh�lis dheimhnithe den doicim�ad � shu�omh gur seirbhe�ladh doicim�d tionscanta na n-imeachta� n� doicim�ad comhionann ar an bp�irt� mainneachtnach.

 

 

Airteagal 47

 

 

Dl�fidh p�irt� a iarrfaidh forghn�omh� na nithe seo a leanas a thabhairt ar aird freisin:

 

 

1. doicim�id � shu�omh go bhfuil an breithi�nas infhorghn�omhaithe, agus gur sierbhe�ladh �, de r�ir dhl� an St�it tionscnaimh;

 

 

2. m�s cu�, doicim�ad � thaispe�int go bhfuil c�namh dl�thi�il � fh�il ag an iarratas�ir sa St�t tionscnaimh.

 

 

Airteagal 48

 

 

Mura dtugtar ar aird na doicim�id a luaitear in Airteagal 46(2) agus in Airteagal 47(2), f�adfaidh an ch�irt tr�imhse a shonr� chun iad a thabhairt ar aird, n� glacadh le doicim�id chomhionanna, n� d�anamh d'�agmais na ndoicim�ad m� mheasann s� go bhfuil a s�ith faisn�ise os a comhair.

 

 

D�anfar aistri�ch�n ar na doicim�id a thabhairt ar aird m� �il�onn an ch�irt �; n� fol�ir an t-aistri�ch�n a bheith deimhnithe ag duine at� c�ilithe chuige sin i gceann de na St�it Chonarthacha.

 

 

Airteagal 49

 

 

N� g� aon dl�thi�il�ocht n� aon fhoirmi�lacht d� samhail i leith na ndoicim�ad a luaitear in Airteagal 46 n� 47 n� sa dara m�r d'Airtea-gal 48, n� i leith doicim�ad ag ceapadh ionada� ad litem.

 

 

TEIDEAL IV

 

 

IONSTRAIM� BAR�NT�LA AGUS SOCRA�OCHTA� C�IRTE

 

 

Airteagal 50

 

 

Doicim�ad a tarraing�odh suas go foirmi�il n� a cl�ra�odh mar ionstraim bhar�nt�il agus is infhorghn�omhaithe i St�t Conarthach amh�in, d�anfar, arna iarraidh sin de r�ir an nos imeachta d� bhfor�iltear in Airteagal 31 et seq, a dhearbh�, i St�t Conarthach eile, go bhfuil s� infhorgn�omhaithe ann. N� f�idir di�lt� don iarratas ach amh�in i gc�s forghn�omh� na hionstraime a bheith contr�rtha leis an ord poibl� sa St�t chun a nd�antar an t-iarratas.

 

 

N� fol�ir an ionstraim a thabharfar ar aird a bheith de r�ir na gco-inn�ollacha is g� chun a bar�nt�lacht sa St�it tionscnaimh a shu�omh.

 

 

Beidh feidhm le for�lacha Roinn 3 de Theideal III de r�ir mar is cu�.

 

 

Airteagal 51

 

 

Socra�ocht ar tugadh formheas uirthi sa ch�irt i gc�rsa imeachta� agus is infhorghn�omhaithe sa St�t inar tugadh i gcr�ch � f�adfar � a fhorghn�omh� sa St�t chun a nd�antar an t-iarratas, faoi na coinn�oll-acha c�anna le hionstraim� bar�nt�la.

 

 

TEIDEAL V

 

 

FOR�LACHA GINEAR�LTA

 

 

Airteagal 52

 

 

Chun a chinneadh an bhfuil sainch�na� ar ph�irt� i St�t Conarthach ar tugadh �bhar os comhair a ch�irtecanna, cuirfidh an ch�irt a dl� inmhe�nach chun feidhme.

 

 

Mura bhfuil sainch�na� ar ph�irt� sa St�t ar tugadh an t-�bhar os comhair a ch�irteanna, d�anfaidh an ch�irt, chun a chinneadh an bhfuil sainch�na� i St�t Conarthach eile ar an bp�irt�, dl� an St�it sin a chur chun feidhme.

 

 

Airteagal 53

 

 

Chun cr�ocha an Choinbhinsi�in seo, measfar sainch�a� a bheith ar chuideachta n� ar dhuine dl�theanach n� ar chomhlachas de dhao-ine n�d�rtha n� dl�theanacha san �it a bhfuil a su�omh. Ach chun an su�omh sin a chinneadh cuirfidh an ch�irt rialacha a dl� idirn�isi�nta phr�obh�idigh chun feidhme.

 

 

Chun a chinneadh an bhfuil sainch�na� ar iontaobhas sa St�t Conarthach a bhfuil an t-�bhar os comhair a ch�irteanna, cuirfidh an ch�irt rialacha a dl� idirn�isi�nta phr�obh�idigh chun feidhme.

 

 

TEIDEAL VI

 

 

FOR�LACHA IDIRTHR�IMHSEACHA

 

 

Airteagal 54

 

 

N� bhainfidh for�lacha an Choinbhinsi�in seo ach le himeachta� dl�thi�la a thionscn�far agus le doicim�id a tharraingeofar suas go foirmi�il n� a chl�r�far mar ionstraim� bar�nt�la �is a theachta i bhfeidhm sa St�t tionscnaimh agus, m� iarrtar aithint n� forghn�omh� breithi�nais n� ionstraime bar�nt�la, sa St�t chun a nd�antar an t-iarratas.

 

 

D�anfar, �fach, breithi�nais a thabharfar tar �is d�ta an Choinbhinsi�in seo a theacht i bhfeidhm idir an St�t tionscnaimh agus an St�t chun a nd�antar an t-iarratas, i gc�s imeachta� a tionscna�odh roimh an d�ta sin, a aithint agus a fhorghn�omh� de r�ir fhor�lacha Theideal III m� bh� dl�nse bunaithe ar rialacha i gcomhr�ir leis na rialacha d� bhfor�iltear i dTeideal II den Choinbhinsi�n seo n� i gcoinbhinsi�n a cuireadh i gcr�ch idir an St�t tionscnaimh agus an St�t chun a nd�antar an t-iarratas agus a raibh feidhm aige nuair a tionscna�odh na himeachta�.

 

 

M� bh� na p�irtithe i nd�osp�id i dtaobh conartha tar �is comh-aont� a dh�annamh i scr�bhinn, roimh an 1 Meitheamh 1988 i gc�s na h�ireann agus an 1 Ean�ir 1987 i gc�s na R�ochta Aontaithe, go mbeadh an conradh fao� rial� ag dl� na h�ireann n� ag dl� cuid den R�ocht Aontaithe, coinneoidh c�irteanna na h�ireann n� na coda sin den R�ocht Aontaithe an ceart chun dl�nse a fheidhmi� sa d�osp�id.

 

 

Airteagal 54a

 

 

Go ceann tr�imhse tr� bliana �n 1 Samhain 1986 i gc�s na Danmhairge agus �n 1 Meitheamh 1988 i gc�s na h�ireann, d�anfar dl�nse in �bhair mhuir� a chinneadh sna St�it sin de r�ir fhor�lacha Theideal II, i dteannta fhor�lacha phoint� 1 go 6 anseo th�os. Ach nuair a thiocfaidh an Coinbhinsi�n Idirn�isi�nta maidir le longa farr-aige a ghabh�il, a s�n�odh sa Bhruis�il ar an 10 Bealtaine 1952, i bhfeidhm i gc�s ceann de na St�it sin, scoirfidh na for�lacha seo d'�ifeacht a bheith acu i gc�s an St�it sin.

 

 

1. F�adfar duine ar a bhfuil sainch�na� i St�t Conarthach a agairt i gc�irteanna ceann de na St�it thuasluaite maidir le h�ileamh muir� m�s rud � go ndearnadh an long lena mbaineann an t-�ileamh, n� aon long eile leis an duine sin, a ghabh�il tr� phr�is dl� i gcr�och an St�it is d�ana� at� luaite chun an t-�ile amh a urr�, n� go bhf�adfa� � a ghabh�il ann amhlaidh ach gur tugadh banno n� urr�s eile, sna c�sanna seo a leanas:

 

 

(a) m� t� sainch�na� sa St�t deireanach sin ar an �ilitheoir; n�

 

 

(b) m�s sa St�t deireanach sin a d'�irigh an t-�ileamh; n�

 

 

(c) m� bhaineann an t-�ileamh leis an aistear ar lena linn a rinneadh an ghabh�il n� a d'fh�adfa� � a dh�anamh; n�

 

 

(d) m� thig an t-�ileamh as imbhualadh n� as dam�iste a rinne long do long eile n� d'earra� n� do dhaoine ar bord ceach-tar long, tr� chor inl�ochta a dh�anamh n� gan � a dh�anamh n� tr� neamhchomhl�onadh rialach�n; n�

 

 

(e) m�s �ileamh ar tharrth�las at� ann; n�

 

 

(f) m�s �ileamh i leith mhorg�isti� na loinge a gabhadh n� i leith a curtha i ngeall at� ann.

 

 

2. F�adfaidh �ilitheoir an long �irithe a mbaineann an t-�ileamh muir� l�i a ghabh�il, n� aon long eile leis an duine arbh � �in�ir na loinge �irithe � an tr�th a d'�irigh an t-�ileamh muir�. Ach i gc�s na n-�ileamh muir� at� leagtha amach in 5(o), (p) n� (q) den Airteagal seo, n� f�idir a ghabh�il ach an long �irithe a mbaineann an t-�ileamh muir� l�i.

 

 

3. Measfar longa a bheith san �in�ireacht ch�anna nuair is leis an duine n� na daoine c�anna na scaireanna go l�ir iontu.

 

 

4. I gc�s cairthost� loinge tr�na forl�asadh, m�s � an cairtfhost�ir amh�in at� faoi dhliteanas i leith �ilimh mhuir� a bhaineann leis an long sin, f�adhaidh an t-�ilitheoir an long sin n� aon long eile leis an gcairtfhost�ir a ghabh�il, ach n� fh�adfar aon long eile is lies an �in�ir a ghabh�il i leith an �ilimh mhuir� sin. Is mar sin a bheidh freisin in aon ch�s ina mbeidh duine seachas �in�ir loinge faoi dhliteanas i leith �ilimh mhuir� a bhaineann leis an long sin.

 

 

5. Cialla�onn an abairt ��ileamh muir� �ileamh a thig as n� n� nithe d�obh seo a leanas:

 

 

(a) dam�iste ar bith a raibh long ina c�is leis, tr� imbhualadh n� ar dh�igh eile;

 

 

(b) b�s duine n� d�obh�il do dhuine a raibh long ar bith ina c�is leis n� a tharla i nd�il le hoibri� loinge ar bith;

 

 

(c) tarrth�las;

 

 

(d) comhaont� maidir le h�s�id n� le fruili� loinge ar bith, cib� acu tr� chonradh fostaithe n� ar dh�igh eile �;

 

 

(e) comhaont� maidir le hiompar earra� in aon long cib� acu tr� chonradh fostaithe n� ar dh�igh eile �;

 

 

(f) cailleadh n� dam�isti� earra�, lena n-�ir�tear bag�iste, a bh� � n-iompar i long ar bith;

 

 

(g) caillroinnt ilph�irteach;

 

 

(h) longmhorg�iste;

 

 

(i) tu�il;

 

 

(j) p�ol�ta�ocht;

 

 

(k) earra� n� �bhair a sol�thra�odh in �it ar bith do long chun � a oibri� n� a choime�ad i dtreo;

 

 

(l) d�anam, deisi� n� trealmh� loinge ar bith n� t�ill� agus dleachtanna duga;

 

 

(m) p� m�istr�, oifigeach n� foirne;

 

 

(n) eis�oca�ochta� m�istir, lena n-�ir�tear eis�oca�ocha� a rinne seolad�ir�, caitfhost�ir� n� gn�omhair� thar ceann loinge n� thar ceann a h�in�ara;

 

 

(o) d�osp�id i dtaobh an teidil chun loinge ar bith n� i dtaobh a h�in�ireachta;

 

 

(p) d�osp�id� idir comh�in�ir� loinge ar bith i dtaobh �in�ireacht, sheibh, �s�id n� thuilleamh na loinge sin;

 

 

(q) morg�isti� loinge ar bith n� a cur i ngeall.

 

 

6. Sa Danmhairg, measfar, maidir leis na h�ilimh mhuir� d� dtagra�tear in 5(o) agus (p) den Airteagal seo, go bhfola�onn an focal �gabh�il� (�forbud�) i gc�s inarb � sin an t-aon n�s imeachta amh�in a cheada�tear i leith �ilimh den s�rt sin faoi Airteagail 646 go 653 den Acht i dtaobh an n�s imeachta shibhialta (lov om rettens pleje).

 

 

TEIDEAL VII

 

 

GAOL LE COINBHINSI�IN EILE

 

 

Airteagal 55

 

 

Faoi r�ir fhor�lacha an dara m�r d'Airteagal 54, agus Airteagal 56, gabhfaidh an Coinbhinsi�n seo, i gc�s na St�t is p�irtithe ann, ionad na gCoinbhinsi�n seo a leanas a tugadh i gcr�ch idir dh� cheann n� n�os m� d�obh:

 

 

an Coinbhinsi�n idir an Bheilg agus an Fhrainc ar dhl�nse agus bail�ocht agus forghn�omh� breithi�nas, d�mhachtaint� eadr�na agus ionstraim� bar�nt�la, a s�n�odh i bP�ras ar an 8 I�il 1899,

 

 

an Coinbhinsi�n idir an Bheilg agus an �silt�r ar dhl�nse, ar sh�imheacht, agus ar bhail�ocht agus forghn�omh� breithi�nas, d�mhachtaint� eadr�na agus ionstraim� bar�nt�la, a s�n�odh sa Bhruis�il ar an 28 M�rta 1925,

 

 

an Coinbhinsi�n idir an Fhrainc agus an Iod�il ar fhorghn�omh� breithi�nas in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�cht�la, a s�n�odh sa R�imh ar an 3 Meitheamh 1930,

 

 

an Coinbhinsi�n idir an R�ocht Aontaithe agus Poblacht na Fraince ag d�anamh socr� d'fhorghn�omh� c�mhalartach breithi�nas in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�cht�la, maille le Pr�tacal, a s�n�odh i bP�ras ar an 18 Ean�ir 1934,

 

 

an Coinbhini�n idir an R�ocht Aontaithe agus R�ocht na Beilge ag d�anamh socr� d'fhorghn�omh� c�mhalartach breithi�as in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�ch�la, maille le Pr�tacal, a siniodh sa Bhruiseil ar an 2 Bealtaine 1934,

 

 

an Coinbhinsi�n idir an Ghearm�in agus an Iod�il ar aithint agus forghn�omh� breithi�nas in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�cht�la, a s�n�odh sa R�imh ar an 9 M�rta 1936,

 

 

an Coinbhinsi�n idir R�ocht na Beilge agus an Ostair ar aithint agus forghn�omh� c�mhalartach breithi�nas agus ionstraim� bar�nt�la maidir le hoibleag�id� cothabh�la, a s�n�odh i V�n an 25 Deireadh F�mhair 1957,

 

 

an Coinbhinsi�n idir Poblacht Ch�naidhme na Gearm�ine agus R�ocht na Beilge ar aithint agus forghn�omh� breithi�nas, d�mhachtaint� eadr�na agus ionstraim� bar�nt�la go frithp�irteach in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�cht�la, a s�n�odh in Bonn ar an 30 Meitheamh 1958,

 

 

an Coinbhinsi�n idir R�ocht na h�silt�re agus Poblacht na hlod�ile ar aithint agus forghn�omh� breithi�nas in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�cht�la, a s�n�odh sa R�imh ar an 17 Aibre�n 1959,

 

 

an Coinbhinsi�n idir Poblacht Ch�naidhme na Gearm�ine agus an Ostair ar aithint agus forghn�omh� c�mhalartach breithi�nas, socra�ochta� agus ionstraim� bar�nt�la in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�cht�la, a s�n�odh i V�n ar an 6 Meitheamh 1959,

 

 

an Coinbhinsi�n idir R�ocht na Beilge agus an Ostair ar aithint agus forghn�omh� c�mhalartach breithi�nas, d�mhachtaint� eadr�na agus ionstraim� bar�nt�la in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�cht�la, a s�n�odh i V�n an 16 Meitheamh 1959,

 

 

an Coinbhinsi�n idir an R�ocht Aontaithe agus Poblacht Ch�naidhme na Gearm�ine le haghaidh aithint agus forghn�omh� breithi�nas go c�mhalartach in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�cht�la, a s�n�odh in Bonn ar an 14 I�il 1960,

 

 

an Coinbhinsi�n idir an R�ocht Aontaithe agus an Ostair le haghaidh aithint agus forghn�omh� c�mhalartach breithi�nas in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�cht�la, a s�n�odh i V�n an 14 I�il 1961, maille le Pr�tacal leasaitheach a s�n�odh i Londain an 6 M�rta 1970,

 

 

an Coinbhinsi�n idir R�ocht na Gr�ige agus Poblacht Ch�naidhme na Gearm�ine le haghaidh aithint agus forghn�omh� breithi�nas, socra�ochta� agus ionstraim� bar�nt�la go c�mhalartach in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�cht�la, a s�n�odh san Aithin ar an 4 Samhain 1961,

 

 

an Coinbhinsi�n idir R�ocht na Beilge agus Poblacht na hlod�ile ar aithint agus forghn�omh� breithi�nas agus ionstraim� infhorghn�omhaithe eile in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�cht�la, a s�n�odh sa R�imh ar an 6 Aibre�n 1962,

 

 

an Coinbhinsi�n idir R�ocht na h�silt�re agus Poblacht Ch�naidhme na Gearmaine ar aithint agus forghn�omh� breithi�nas agus ionstraim� infhorghn�omhaithe eile go frithph�irteach in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�cht�la, a s�n�odh sa H�ig ar an 30 L�nasa 1962,

 

 

an Coinbhinsi�n idir R�ocht na h�silt�re agus an Ostair le haghaidh aithint agus forghn�omh� c�mhalartach breithi�nas agus ionstraim� bar�nt�la in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�chtala, a s�n�odh sa H�ig ar an 6 Feabhra 1963,

 

 

an Coinbhinsi�n idir an Fhrainc agus an Ostair ar aithint agus forghn�omh� breithi�nas agus ionstraim� bar�nt�la in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�cht�la, a s�n�odh i V�n ar an 15 I�il 1966,

 

 

an Coinbhinsi�n idir an R�ocht Aontaithe agus R�ocht na h�silt�re ag d�anamh socr� d'aithint agus d'fhorghniomh� breithi�nas go c�mhalartach in �bhair shibhialta, a s�n�odh sa H�ig ar an 17 Samhain 1967,

 

 

an Coinbhinsi�n idir an Sp�inn agus an Fhrainc ar aithint agus ar fhorghn�omh� breithi�nas agus d�mhachtaint� eadr�na in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�cht�la, a s�n�odh i bP�ras ar an 28 Bealtaine 1969,

 

 

an Coinbhinsi�n idir an R�ocht Aontaithe agus Poblacht na hIod�ile le haghaidh aithint agus forghn�omh� breithi�nas go c�mhalartach in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�cht�la, a s�n�odh sa R�imh ar an 7 Feabhra 1964, maille le Protacal leasaitheach a s�n�odh sa R�imh ar an 14 Ii�l 1970,

 

 

an Coinbhinsi�n idir Lucsamburg agus an Ostair ar aithint agus forghn�omh� breithi�nas agus ionstraim� bar�nt�la in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�cht�la, a s�n�odh i Lucsamburg an 29 Ii�l 1971,

 

 

an Coinbhinsi�n idir an Iod�il agus an Ostair ar aithint agus forghn�omh� breithi�nas in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�cht�la, socra�ochta� c�irte agus ionstraim� bar�nt�la, a s�n�odh sa R�imh an 16 Samhain 1971,

 

 

an Coinbhinsi�n idir an Sp�inn agus an Iod�il ar chiinamh dl�thi�il agus ar aithint agus forghn�omh� breithi�nas in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�cht�la, a s�n�odh i Maidrid ar an 22 Bealtaine 1973,

 

 

an Coinbhinsi�n idir an Fhionlainn, an �oslainn, an Iorua, an tSualainn agus an Danmhairg ar aithint agus forghn�omh� breithi�nas in �bhair shibhialta, a s�n�odh i gC�banh�van an 11 Deireadh F�mhair 1977,

 

 

an Coinbhinsi�n idir an Ostair agus an tSualainn ar aithint agus forghniomh� breithi�nas in �bhair shibhialta, a s�n� �dh i St� � 1m an 16 Me�n F�mhair 1982,

 

 

an Coinbhinsi�n idir an Sp�inn agus Poblacht Ch�naidhme na Gearm�ine ar aithint agus forghn�omh� breithi�nas agus socra�ochta� c�irte agus ionstraim� bar�nt�la infhorghn�omhaithe in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�cht�la, a s�n�odh in Bonn ar an 14 Samhain 1983,

 

 

an Coinbhinsi�n idir an Ostair agus an Sp�inn ar aithint agus forghn�omh� breithi�nas, socra�ochta� agus ionstraim� bar�nt�la infhorghn�omhaithe in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�cht�la, a s�n�odh i V�n an 17 Feabhra 1984,

 

 

an Coinbhinsi�n idir an Fhionlainn agus an Ostair ar aithint agus forghniomh� breithi�nas in �bhair shibhialta, a s�n�odh i V�n an 17 Samhain 1986,

 

 

agus, se mh�id go bhfuil s� i bhfeidhm,

 

 

an Conradh idir an Bheilg, an �silt�r agus Lucsamburg ar dhl�nse, ar fh�imheacht, agus ar bhail�ocht agus forghn�omh� breithi�nas, d�mhachtaint� eadr�na agus ionstraim� bar�nt�la, a s�n�odh sa Bhruis�il ar an 24 Samhain 1961.

 

 

Airteagal 56

 

 

Leanfaidh na Conartha� agus na Coinbhinsi�in a luaitear in Airteagal 55 d'�ifeacht a bheith acu maidir le h�bhair nach mbaineann an Coinbhinsi�n seo leo.

 

 

Leanfaidh siad d'�ifeacht a bheith acu i leith breithi�nas a tugadh agus doicim�ad a tarraing�odh suas go foirmi�il n� a cl�ra�odh mar ionstraim� bar�nt�la roimh theacht i bhfeidhm don Choinbhinsi�n seo.

 

 

Airteagal 57

 

 

1. N� dh�anfaidh an Coinbhinsi�n seo difear d'aon choinbhinsi�in a bhfuil n� a mbeidh na St�it Chonarthacha ina bp�irtithe iontu agus a riala�onn, i nd�il le h�bhair �irithe, dl�nse n� aithint n� forghn�omh� breithi�nas.

 

 

2. Chun a �irithi� go nd�anfar l�iri� comhionann uirthi, cuirfear m�r 1 chun feidhme mar a leanas:

 

 

(a) N� choiscfidh an Coinbhinsi�n seo ar chi�rt de chuid St�it Chonarthaigh is p�irt� i gcoinbhinsi�n maidir le h�bhar �iri the dl�nse a ghlacadh de r�ir an choinbhinsi�in sin, fi� m� bh�onn sainch�na� ar an gcosant�ir i St�t Conarthach nach p�irt� sa choinbhinsi�n sin. Ar aon sl�, cuirfidh an chi�rt a �istfidh an chaingean Airteagal 20 den Choinbhinsi�n seo chun feidhme.

 

 

(b) D�anfar breithi�nais a thabharfaidh c�irt i St�t Conarthach i bhfeidhmi� dl�nse d� bhfor�iltear i gcoinbhinsi�n maidir le h�bhar �irithe a aithint agus a fhorghn�omh� sna St�it Chonarthacha eile de r�ir an Choinbhinsi�in seo.

 

 

Nuair a dh�anann coinbhinsi�n maidir le h�bhar �irithe inar p�irtithe an St�t tionscnaimh agus an St�t chun a nd� antar an t-iarratas araon coinn�ollacha a leagan s�os le haghaidh breithi�nais a aithint n� a fhorghn�omh�, beidh fiedhm ag na coinniollacha sin. Ar aon sl�, f�adfar for�lacha an Choinbhinsi�in seo a bhaineann leis na n�sanna imeachta le haghaidh breithi�nais a aithint agus a fhorghn�omh� a chur chun feidhme.

 

 

3. N� dheanfaidh an Coinbhinsi�n seo difear d'fheidhmi� for�lacha a riala�onn, maidir le h�bhair �irithe, dl�nse n� aithint n�forghn�omh� breithi�nas agus at� n� a bheidh leagtha s�os in ionstraim� na gComhphobal Eorpach n� i reachta�ocht n�isi�nta arna comhchuibhi� de dhroim na n-ionstraim� sin.

 

 

Airteagal 58

 

 

Go dt� go dtiocfaidh an Coinbhinsi�n ar dhl�nse agus ar fhorghn�omh� breithi�nas in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�cht�la a s�n�odh in Lugano ar an 16 Me�n F�mhair 1988 i bhfeidhm i leith na Fraince agus na C�naidhme Eilv�is�, n� dh�anfaidh for�lacha an Choinbhinsi�in seo difear do na cearta a deona�odh do n�isi�naigh Eilv�iseacha leis an gCoinbhinsi�n idir an Fhrainc agus an Ch�naidhm Eilv�iseach ar dhl�nse agus ar fhorghn�omh� breithi�nas in �bhair shibhialta, a s� n� odh i bP�ras ar an 15 Meitheamh 1869.

 

 

Airteagal 59

 

 

N� choiscfidh an Coinbhinsi�n seo ar St�t Conarthach a ghabh�il d'oibleag�id air f�in i leith tr�� St�t, i gcoinbhinsi�n um aithint agus forghn�omh� breithi�nas, gan breithi�nais a aithint a tugadh i St�it Chonarthacha eile i gcoinne cosant�ir� a raibh sainch�na� n� gn�thch�na� orthu sa tr�� St�t m�s rud �, i gc�sanna d� bhfor�iltear in Airteagal 4, n�rbh fh�idir an breithi�nas a bhun� ach amh�in ar fhoras dl�nse a shonra�tear sa dara m�r d'Airteagal 3.

 

 

N� fh�adfaidh Stat Conarthach, �fach, � a ghabh�il d'oibleag�id air f�in i leith tr� � St�t gan breithi�nas a aithint a bheidh tugtha i St�t Conarthach eile ag ci�rt ar buna�odh a dl�nse ar mhaoin leis an gcosant�ir a bheith sa St�t sin, n� ar urghabh�il ag an ngear�na� ar mhaoin at� sa St�t sin, m�s rud �:

 

 

1. gur tionscna�odh an chaingean chun cearta d�lse�naigh n� cearta seilbhe ar an maoin sin a fh�gairt n� a dhearbh� n� chun �dar�s a fh�il � a dhi�scairt, no gur as saincheist eile a bhaineann leis an maoin sin a thig an chaingean; n�

 

 

2. gurb � an mhaoin sin an t-urr�s i leith fiach is �bhar don chaingean.

 

 

TEIDEAL VIII

 

 

FOR�LACHA CR�OCHNAITHEACHA

 

 

Airteagl 60

 

 

[scriosta]

 

 

Airteagal 61

 

 

D�anfaidh St�it a sh�nithe daingni� ar an gCoinbhinsi�n seo. Taiscfear na hionstraim� daingni�ch�in le hArdr�na� Chomhairle na gComhphobal Eorpach.

 

 

Airteagal 62

 

 

Tiocfaidh an Coinbhinsi�n seo i bhfeidhm ar an gc�ad l� den tr� � m� i ndiaidh thaisceadh na hionstraime daingni�ch�in ag an gceann is d�ana� de St�it a sh�nithe a dh�anfaidh an taisceadh sin.

 

 

Airteagal 63

 

 

Aithn�onn na St�it Chonarthacha go ndl�fidh aon St�t a thiocfaidh chun bheith ina chomhalta de Chomhphobal Eacnama�ochta na hEorpa glacadh leis an gChoinbhinsi�n seo mar bhonn do na caibidl� is g� idir na St�it Chonarthacha agus an St�t sin chun a �irithi� go bhfeidhmeofar an fhomh�r dheireanach d'Airteagal 220 den Chonradh ag bun� Chomhphobal Eacnama�ochta na hEorpa.

 

 

Is f�idir na hoiri�nuithe is g� a bheith ina n-�bhar do choinbhinsi�n speisialta idir na St�it Chonarthacha de ph�irt agus an Ballst�t nua den ph�irt eile.

 

 

Airteagal 64

 

 

Cuirfidh Ardr�na� Chomhairle na gComhphobal Eorpach in i�l do na St�it a sh�neoidh an Coinbhinsi�n seo:

 

 

(a) taisceadh gach ionstraime daingni�ch�in;

 

 

(b) d�ta an Choinbhinsi�in seo a theacht i bhfeidhm;

 

 

(c) [scriosta];

 

 

(d) aon dearbh� a fuarthas de bhun Airteagal IV den Phr�tacal;

 

 

(e) aon t�acsanna a fuarthas de bhun Airteagal VI den Phr�tacal.

 

 

Airteagal 65

 

 

Is cuid dh�lis den Choinbhinsi�n seo an Pr�tacal at� curtha i gceangal leis de chomhthoil na St�t Conarthach.

 

 

Airteagal 66

 

 

T� an Coinbhinsi�n seo tugtha i gcr�ch go ceann tr�imhse gan teorainn.

 

 

Airteagal 67

 

 

F�adfaidh St�t Conarthach ar bith athbhreithni� ar an gCoinbhinsi�n seo a iarraidh. Sa ch�s sin, com�rfaidh Uachtar�n Chomhairle na gComhphobal Eorpach comhdh�il lena athbhreithni�.

 

 

Airteagal 68

 

 

Tarraing�odh an Coinbhinsi�n seo suas i scr�bhinn bhunaidh amh�in sa Fhraincis, sa Ghearm�inis, san Iod�ilis agus san Ollainnis, agus comh�dar�s ag gach ceann de na ceithre th�acs; taiscfear � i gcartlann R�na�ocht Chomhairle na gComhphobal Eorpach, agus cuirfidh an tArdr�na� c�ip dheimhnithe chuig Rialtas gach ceann de St�it a sh�nithe.

 

 

[S�nithe na L�nchumhachtach a ceapadh.]

 

 

PR�TACAL

 

 

T� na hArdph�irtithe Conarthacha tar �is comhaont� ar na for�lacha seo a leanas, a chuirfear i gceangal leis an gCoinbhinsi�n:

 

 

Airteagal I

 

 

Aon duine ina shainch�na� i Lucsamburg a agr�far i gc�irt St�it Chonarthaigh eile de bhun Airteagal 5(1), f�adfaidh s� di�lt� g�illeadh do dhl�nse na c�irte sin. Mura dtaifeadfaidh an cosant�ir l�ithreas, dearbh�idh an ch�irt, uaithi f�in, nach bhfuil dl�nse aici.

 

 

Beidh comhaont� chun dl�nse a thabhairt, de r�ir bhr� Airteagal 17, gan bhail�ocht i leith duine a bhfuil sainch�na� air i Lucsamburg murar aontaigh an duine sin leis go sainr�ite agus go speisialta.

 

 

Airteagal II

 

 

Gan dochar d'aon fhor�lacha n�os fabhra� i ndl�the n�isi�nta, m� bh�onn daoine a bhfuil sainch�na� orthu i St�t Conarthach � n-ion-ch�iseamh mar gheall ar chion neamhthoili�il i gc�irteanna coiri�la St�it Chonarthaigh eile nach n�isi�naigh d� chuid iad, f�adfaidh daoine at� c�ilithe chuige sin feidhmi� ar a son lena gcosaint, fi� gan iad a bheith i l�thair go pearsanta.

 

 

Ach f�adfaidh an ch�irt ar tugadh an t-�bhar os a comhair a ord� do dhuine l�ithri� go pearsanta; mura ndearnadh l�ithri�, n�l s� riachtanach aithint a thabhairt n� forghn�omh� a dh�anamh sna St�it Chonarthacha eile ar bhreithi�nas a tugadh sa chaingean shibhialta gan caoi a bheith ag an duine a c�is�odh socr� a dh�anamh chun � f�in a chosaint.

 

 

Airteagal III

 

 

In imeachta� chun ord� forghn�omhaithe a eisi�int, n� dh�anfar muirear, dleacht n� c�in ar bith, arna r�omh de r�ir luach an �bhair i saincheist, a thobhach sa St�t a n-iarrtar an forghn�omh� ann.

 

 

Airteagal IV

 

 

Doicim�id dhl�thi�la n� sheachdhl�thi�la a tarraing�odh suas i St�t Conarthach amh�in agus a dhl�fear a sheirbhe�il ar dhaoine i St�t Conarthach eile, tarchuirfear iad de r�ir an n�s imeachta d� bhfor�iltear sna coinbhinsi�in agus sna comhaontuithe a cuireadh i gcr�ch idir na St�it Chonarthacha.

 

 

Mura nd�anfaidh an St�t a bhfuil siad le seirbhe�il ann ag�id ina choinne sin tr� dhearbh� d'Ardr�na� Chomhairle na gComhphobal Eorpach, is f�idir freisin d'oifigigh phoibl� iomchu� an St�it inar tarraing�odh suas an doicim�ad � a chur go d�reach chuig oifigigh phoibl� iomchu� an St�it ina bhfuil seola� an doicim�id le f�il. Sa ch�s sin, d�anfaidh oifigeach an St�it tionscnaimh c�ip den doicim�ad a chur chuig an oifigeach de chuid an St�it chun a nd�antar an t-iar-ratas a bhfuil �dar�s aige � a chur ar aghaidh chuig an seola�. Cuirgear an doicim�ad ar aghaidh ar an modh a shonra�tear le dl� an St�it chun a nd�antar an t-iarratas. Dearbh�far go ndearnadh amhlaidh i ndeimhni� a chuirfear go d�reach go dt� oifigeach an St�it tionscnaimh.

 

 

Airteagal V

 

 

I bPoblacht Ch�naidhme na Gearm�ine agus i bPoblacht na hOstaire, n� f�idir feidhm a bhaint as an dl�nse a shonra�tear in Airteagail 6(2) agus 10 i gcaingne ar bhar�ntas n� ar r�tha�ocht n� in aon imeachta� eile tr�� p�irt�. F�adfar aon duine a bhfuil sainch�na� air i St�t Conarthach eile a agairt i gc�irteanna:

 

 

Phoblacht Ch�naidhme na Gearm�ine, de bhun Airteagail 68, 72 agus 74 de ch�d an n�s imeachta shibhialta (Zivilprozessordnung) maidir le f�gra� tr�� p�irt�;

 

 

Phoblacht na hOstaire, de bhun Airteagal 21 de ch�d an n�s imeachta shibhialta (Zivilprozessordnung) maidir le f�gra� tr�� p�irt�.

 

 

D�anfar breithi�nais a tugadh sna St�it Chonarthacha eile de bhua Airteagal 6(2), n� Airteagal 10 a aithint agus a fhorghn�omh� i bPoblacht Ch�naidhme na Gearm�ine agus i bPoblacht na hOstaire, de r�ir Theideal III. Aithneofar mar an gc�anna sna St�it Chonarthacha eile aon �ifeachta� a bheadh ag breithi�nais a tugadh sna St�it sin ar thr�� p�irtithe, de bhun na for�lacha at� luaite sa mh�r sin roimhe seo a chur i bhfeidhm.

 

 

Airteagal Va

 

 

In �bhair a bhaineann le cothabh�il, fola�onn an focal �breitheamh�, �c�irt� agus �dl�nse� �dar�is riarach�in na Danmhairge.

 

 

Sa tSualainn, in imeachta� achoimre maidir le horduithe �oca�ochta (betalningsf�rel�ggande) agus c�iteamh (handr�ckning), fola�onn an focal �c�irt� seirbh�s forghn�omhaithe na Sualainne (kronofogdemyndighet).

 

 

Airteagal Vb

 

 

In imeachta� a bhaineann le d�osp�id idir m�istir loinge farraige at� cl�raithe sa Danmhairg, sa Ghr�ig, in �irinn n� sa Phortaing�il, agus duine d� fhoireann, maidir le luach saothair n� le coinn�ollacha eile seirbh�se, cinnteoidh c�irt i St�t Conarthach c� acu a cuireadh n� n�r cuireadh an d�osp�id i bhfios don oifigeach taidhleoireachta n� consalach ar a bhfuil c�ram na loinge. Cuirfidh s� bac ar na himeachta� fad a bheidh an d�osp�id gan cur i bhfios don oifigeach. D�anfaidh s�, uaithi f�in, dl�nse a dhi�lt� m�s rud �, arna cur i bhfios go cu� don oifigeach, gur fheidhmigh s� na cumhachta� a tugadh d� san �bhar le coinbhinsi�n consalach n�, in �agmais coinbhinsi�in den s�rt sin, go ndearna s�, laistigh den tr�imhse cheaptha, aon ag�id in aghaidh fheidhmi� na dl�nse sin.

 

 

Airteagal Vc

 

 

Nuair a dh�anfar faoi chuimsi� Airteagal 69(5) den Choinbhinsi�n maidir leis an bPaitinn Eorpach don ch�mhargadh, a s�n�odh i Lucsamburg ar an 15 Nollaig 1975, Airteagail 52 agus 53 den Choinbhinsi�n seo a chur chun feidhme ar na for�lacha a bhaineann le �residence� i dt�acs B�arla an ch�ad Choinbhinsi�in sin, is tuigthe tagairt do �residence� sa t�acs sin a bheith ina tagairt do shainch�na� in Airteagail 52 agus 53 thuasluaite.

 

 

Airteagal Vd

 

 

Gan dochar do dhl�nse Oifig na bPaitinn� Eorpacha faoin gCoinbhinsi�n chun paitinn� Eorpacha a dheon� a s�n�odh in M�nchen ar an 5 Deireadh F�mhair 1973, beidh dl�nse eisiach ag c�irteanna gach St�it Chonarthaigh, ar neamhchead do shainch�na�, in imeachta� a bhaineann le cl�r� n� bail�ocht aon phaitinne Eorpa� a deona�odh le haghaidh an St�it sin nach paitinn Chomhphobail de bhua fhor�lacha Airteagal 86 den Choinbhinsi�n maidir leis an bPaitinn Eorpach don ch�mhargadh, a s�n�odh i Lucsamburg ar an 15 Nollaig 1975.

 

 

Airteagal Ve

 

 

Measfar freisin gur ionstraim� bar�nt�la de r�ir bhr� Airteagal 50(1) den Choinbhinsi�n coinbhinsi�in maidir le hoibleag�id� cothabh�la arna dtabhairt i gcr�ch os comhair na n-�dar�s riarach�in n� arna bhf�ordheimhni� acu.

 

 

Airteagal VI

 

 

Cuirfidh na St�it Chonarthacha in i�l d'Ardr�na� Chomhairle na gComhphobal Eorpach t�acsanna aon fhor�lacha ina ndl�the a dh�anann leas� ar na for�lacha sin d� ndl�the a luaitear sa Choinbhinsi�n n� ar liosta na gc�irteanna a shonra�tear i Roinn 2 de Theideal III den Choinbhinsi�n.

 

 

[S�nithe na L�nchumhachtach arna gceapadh.]

 

 

SECOND SCHEDULE

Text of the 1971 Protocol as amended by the 1978 Accession Convention, the 1982 Accession Convention, the 1989 Accession Convention and the 1996 Accession Convention1

 

 

PROTOCOL

 

 

on the interpretation by the Court of Justice of the Convention of 27 September 1968 on jurisdiction and the enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters

 

 

Article 1

 

 

The Court of Justice of the European Communities shall have jurisdiction to give rulings on the interpretation of the Convention on jurisdiction and the enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters and of the Protocol annexed to that Convention, signed at Brussels on 27 September 1968, and also on the interpretation of the present Protocol.

 

 

The Court of Justice of the European Communities shall also have jurisdiction to give rulings on the interpretation of the Convention on the accession of the Kingdom of Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the Convention of 27 September 1968 and to this Protocol.

 

 

The Court of Justice of the European Communities shall also have jurisdiction to give rulings on the interpretation of the Convention on the accession of the Hellenic Republic to the Convention of 27 September 1968 and to this Protocol, as adjusted by the 1978 Convention.

 

 

The Court of Justice of the European Communities shall also have jurisdiction to give rulings on the interpretation of the Convention on the accession of the Kingdom of Spain and the Portuguese Republic to the Convention of 27 September 1968 and to this Protocol, as adjusted by the 1978 Convention and the 1982 Convention.

 

 

The Court of Justice of the European Communities shall also have jurisdiction to give rulings on the interpretation of the Convention on the accession of the Republic of Austria, the Republic of Finland and the Kingdom of Sweden to the Convention of 27 September 1968 and to this Protocol, as adjusted by the 1978 Convention, the 1982 Convention and the 1989 Convention.

 

 

Article 2

 

 

The following courts may request the Court of Justice to give preliminary rulings on questions of interpretation:

 

 

1.�in Belgium: la Cour de Cassationhet Hof van Cassatie and le Conseil d'Etat � de Raad van State,

 

 

in Denmark: h�jesteret,

 

 

in the Federal Republic of Germany: die obersten Gerichtsh�fe des Bundes,

 

 

in Greece: the ανώτατα δικαστήαια,

 

 

in Spain: el Tribunal Supremo,

 

 

in France: la Cour de Cassation and le Conseil d'�tat,

 

 

in Ireland: the Supreme Court,

 

 

in Italy: la Corte Suprema di Cassazione,

 

 

in Luxembourg: la Cour sup�rieure de Justice when sitting as Cour de Cassation,

 

 

in Austria, the Oberste Gerichtshof, the Verwaltungsgerichtshof and the Verfassungsgerichtshof,

 

 

in the Netherlands: de Hoge Raad,

 

 

in Portugal: o Supremo Tribunal de Justi�a and o Supremo Tribunal Administrativo,

 

 

in Finland, korkein oikeus/h�gsta domstolen and korkein hallintooikeus/h�gsta f�rvaltningsdomstolen,

 

 

in Sweden, H�gsta domstolen, Regeringsr�tten, Arbetsdomstolen and Marknadsdomstolen,

 

 

in the United Kingdom: the House of Lords and courts to which appliction has been made under the second paragraph of Article 37 or under Article 41 of the Convention;

 

 

2. the courts of the Contracting States when they are sitting in an appellate capacity;

 

 

3. in the cases provided for in Article 37 of the Convention, the courts referred to in that Article.

 

 

Article 3

 

 

1. Where a question of interpretation of the Convention or of one of the other instruments referred to in Article 1 is raised in a case pending before one of the courts listed in Article 2.1, that court shall, if it considers that a decision on the question is necessary to enable it to give judgment, request the Court of Justice to give a ruling thereon.

 

 

2. Where such a question is raised before any court referred to in Article 2.2 or 2.3, that court may, under the conditions laid down in paragraph 1, request the Court of Justice to give a ruling thereon.

 

 

Article 4

 

 

1. The competent authority of a Contracting State may request the Court of Justice to give a ruling on a question of interpretation of the Convention or of one of the other instruments referred to in Article 1 if judgments given by courts of that State conflict with the interpretation given either by the Court of Justice or in a judgment of one of the courts of another Contracting State referred to in Article 2.1 or 2.2. The provisions of this paragraph shall apply only to judgments which have become res judicata.

 

 

2. The interpretation given by the Court of Justice in response to such a request shall not affect the judgments which gave rise to the request for interpretation.

 

 

3. The Procurators-General of the Courts of Cassation of the Contracting States, or any other authority designated by a Contracting State, shall be entitled to request the Court of Justice for a ruling on interpretation in accordance with paragraph 1.

 

 

4. The Registrar of the Court of Justice shall give notice of the request to the Contracting States, to the Commission and to the Council of the European Communities; they shall then be entitled within two months of the notification to submit statements of case or written observations to the Court.

 

 

5. No fees shall be levied or any costs or expenses awarded in respect of the proceedings provided for in this Article.

 

 

Article 5

 

 

1. Except where this Protocol otherwise provides, the provisions of the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community and those of the Protocol on the Statute of the Court of Justice annexed thereto, which are applicable when the Court is requested to give a preliminary ruling, shall also apply to any proceedings for the interpretation of the Convention and the other instruments referred to in Article 1.

 

 

2. The Rules of Procedure of the Court of Justice shall, if necessary, be adjusted and supplemented in accordance with Article 188 of the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community.

 

 

Article 6

 

 

[deleted]

 

 

Article 7

 

 

This Protocol shall be ratified by the signatory States. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the Council of the European Communities.

 

 

Article 8

 

 

This Protocol shall enter into force on the first day of the third month following the deposit of the instrument of ratification by the last signatory State to take this step; provided that it shall at the earliest enter into force at the same time as the Convention of 27 September 1968 on jurisdiction and the enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters.

 

 

Article 9

 

 

The Contracting States recognize that any State which becomes a member of the European Economic Community, and to which Article 63 of the Convention on jurisdiction and the enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters applies, must accept the provisions of this Protocol, subject to such adjustments as may be required.

 

 

Article 10

 

 

The Secretary-General of the Council of the European Communities shall notify the signatory States of:

 

 

(a) the deposit of each instrument of ratification;

 

 

(b) the date of entry into force of this Protocol;

 

 

(c) any designation received pursuant to Article 4 (3);

 

 

(d) [deleted]

 

 

Article 11

 

 

The Contracting States shall communicate to the Secretary-General of the Council of the European Communities the texts of any provisions of their laws which necessitate an amendment to the list of courts in Article 2.1.

 

 

Article 12

 

 

This Protocol is concluded for an unlimited period.

 

 

Article 13

 

 

Any Contracting State may request the revision of this Protocol. In this event, a revision conference shall be convened by the President of the Council of the European Communities.

 

 

Article 14

 

 

This Protocol, drawn up in a single original in the Dutch, French, German and Italian languages, all four texts being equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Secretariat of the Council of the European Communities. The Secretary-General shall transmit a certified copy to the Government of each signatory State

 

 

(Signatures of the plenipotentiaries)

 

 

Text in the Irish language of the 1971 Protocol as amended by the 1978 Accession Convention, the 1982 Accession Convention, the 1989 Accession Convention and the 1996 Accession Convention1

 

 

PR�TACAL

 

 

ar l�iri� ag an gC�irt Bhreithi�nais ar Choinbhinsi�n an 27 Me�n F�mhair 1968 ar dhl�nse agus ar fhorghn�omh� breithi�nas in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�cht�la

 

 

Airteagal 1

 

 

Beidh dl�nse ag C�irt Bhreithi�nais na gComhphobal Eorpach chun rial� a thabhairt i dtaobh l�iri� an Choinbhinsi�in ar dhl�nse agus ar fhorghn�omh� breithi�nas in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�cht�la agus an Phr�tacail at� i gceangal leis an gCoinbhinsi�in sin, a s�n�odh sa Bhruis�il ar an 27 Me�n F�mhair 1968, agus f�s i dtaobh l�iri� an Phr�tacail seo.

 

 

Beidh dl�nse freisin ag C�irt Bhreithi�nais na gComhphobal Eorpach chun rial� a thabhairt i dtaobh l�iri� an Choinbhinsi�in ar aont� R�ocht na Danmhairge, na h�ireann agus R�ocht Aontaithe na Breataine M�ire agus Thuaisceart �ireann do Choinbhinsi�n an 27 Me�n F�mhair 1968 agus don Phr�tacal seo.

 

 

Beidh dl�nse freisin ag C�irt Bhreithi�nais na gComhphobal Eorpach chun rial� a thabhairt i dtaobh l�iri� an Choinbhinsi�in ar aont� na Poblachta Heill�ana� do Choinbhinsi�n an 27 Me�n F�mhair 1968 agus don Phr�tacal seo, arna n-oiri�n� le Coinbhinsi�n 1978.

 

 

Beidh dl�nse freisin ag C�irt Bhreithi�nais na gComhphobal Eorpach chun rial� a thabhairt i dtaobh l�iri� an Choinbhinsi�in ar aont� R�ocht na Sp�inne agus Phoblacht na Portaing�ile do Choinbhinsi�n an 27 Me�n F�mhair 1968 agus don Phr�tacal seo, arna n-oiri�n� le Coinbhinsi�n 1978 agus Coinbhinsi�n 1982.

 

 

Beidh dl�nse freisin ag C�irt Bhreithi�nais na gComhphobal Eorpach chun rial� a thabhairt i dtaobh l�iri� an Choinbhinsi�in ar aont� Phoblacht na hOstaire, Phoblacht na Fionlainne agus R�ocht na Sualainne do Choinbhinsi�n an 27 Me�n F�mhair 1968 agus don Phr�tacal seo, mar at� arna n-oiri�n� le Coinbhinsi�in 1978, 1982 agus 1989.

 

 

Airteagal 2

 

 

F�adfaidh na c�irteanna seo a leanas a iarraidh ar an gC�irt Bhreithi�nais r�amhrial� a thabhairt ar cheisteanna l�iri�ch�in:

 

 

1.� sa Bheilg: la Cour de Cassation � het Hof van Cassatie agus le Conseil d'�tat � de Raad van State,

 

 

sa Danmhairg: h�jesteret,

 

 

i bPoblacht Ch�naidhme na Gearm�ine: die obersten Gerichtsh�fe des Bundes,

 

 

sa Ghr�ig: τα ανώτατα δικαστήαια,

 

 

sa Sp�inn: el Tribunal Supremo,

 

 

sa Fhrainc: la Cour de Cassation agus le Conseil d'�tat,

 

 

in �irinn: an Ch�irt Uachtarach,

 

 

san Iod�il: la Corte Suprema de Cassazione,

 

 

i Lucsamburg: la Cour sup�rieure de justice ina su� di mar Cour de Cassation,

 

 

san Ostair: an Oberste Gerichtshof, an Verwaltungsgerichtshof agus an Verfassungsgerichtshof,

 

 

san �silt�r: de Hoge Raad,

 

 

sa Phortaing�il: o Supremo Tribunal de Justi�a agus o Supremo Tribunal Administrativo,

 

 

san Fhionlainn: korkein oikeus/h�gsta domstolen agus korkein hallintooikeus/h�gsta f�rvaltningsdomstolen,

 

 

sa tSualainn, H�gsta domstolen, Regeringsr�tten, Arbetsdomstolen agus Marknadsdomstolen,

 

 

sa R�ocht Aontaithe: an House of Lords agus c�irteanna a ndearnadh iarratas chucu faoin dara m�r d'Airteagal 37 n� faoi Airteagal 41 den Choinbhinsi�n,

 

 

2. c�irteanna na St�t Conarthach ina su� d�ibh i gc�il achomharcach;

 

 

3. sna c�sanna d� bhfor�iltear in Airteagal 37 den Choinbhinsi�n, na c�irteanna a luaitear san Airteagal sin.

 

 

Airteagal 3

 

 

1. Nuair a dh�anfar ceist i dtaobh l�iri� an Choinbhinsi�in n� ionstraime eile a luaitear in Airteagal 1 a tharraingt anuas i gc�s a bheidh ar feitheamh os comhair c�irte d� dtagra�tear in Airteagal 2(1), iarrfaidh an ch�irt sin ar an gC�irt Bhreithi�nais, m� mheasann s� gur g� breith ar an gceist ionas go bhf�adfaidh s� breithi�nas a thabhairt, rial� a thabhairt ar an gceist sin.

 

 

2. M� tharraing�tear ceist mar sin anuas os comhair aon ch�irte d� dtagra�tear in Airteagal 2(2) n� (3), f�adfaidh an ch�irt sin, ar na coinn�ollacha at� leagtha s�os i m�r 1, a iarraidh ar an gC�irt Bhreithi�nais rial� a thabhairt uirthi.

 

 

Airteagal 4

 

 

1. F�adfaidh �dar�s inni�il St�it Chonarthaig a iarraidh ar an gC�irt Bhreithi�nais rial� a thabhairt ar cheist i dtaob l�iri� an Choinbhinsi�in n� i dtaobh l�iri� ceann de na hionstraim� eile a luaitear in Airteagal 1 m� bh�onn breithi�nais � ch�irteanna sa St�t sin ar neamhr�ir leis an l�iri� a thug an Ch�irt Bhreithi�nais n� a tugadh i mbreithi�nas � ch�irt de chuid St�it Chonarthaigh eile a luaitear in Airteagal 2(1) n� (2). N� bhainfidh for�lacha na m�re seo ach le breithi�nais a bhfuil �ifeacht res judicata leo.

 

 

2. N� dh�anfaidh an l�iri� a dh�anfaidh an Ch�irt Bhreithi�nais de bhun iarratais den s�rt sin difear do na breithi�nais be bhun leis an l�iri� sin a iarraidh.

 

 

3. Beidh Ionch�isitheoir� Ginear�lta na gC�irteanna Uachtaracha Achomhairc sna St�it Chonarthacha, n� �dar�s ar bith eile a bheidh ainmnithe chuige sin ag St�t Conarthach, i dteideal rial� ar an l�iri� a iarraidh ar an gC�irt Bhreithi�nais de r�ir mh�r 1.

 

 

4. Tabharfaidh Cl�raitheoir na C�irte Breithi�nais f�gra faoin iaratas do na St�it Chonarthacha, don Choimisi�n agus do Chomhairle na gComhphobal Eorpach; beidh siadsan i dteideal ansin, laistigh de dh� mh� tar �is an f�gra a fh�il, sonruithe c�is n� tuairim� i scr�bhinn a chur faoi bhr�id na C�irte.

 

 

5. N� fh�adfar aon t�ill� a thobhach n� aon chostais n� caiteachas a dh�mhachtain i leith na n-imeachta� d� bhfor�iltear san Airteagal seo.

 

 

Airteagal 5

 

 

1. Na for�lacha sin den Chonradh ag bun� Chomhphobal Eacnama�ochta na hEoropa, agus na cinn sin den Phr�tacal ar Reacht na C�irte Breithi�nais at� i gceangal leis, is infheidhme nuair a iarrtar ar an gC�irt r�amhrial� a thabhairt, beidh feidhm acu mar an gc�anna, ach amh�in mura bhfor�iltear a mhalairt leis an bPr�tacal seo, ar an n�s imeachta maidir le l�iri� an Choinbhinsi�in agus na n-ionstraim� eile a luaitear in Airteagal 1.

 

 

2. D�anfar, m�s g�, Rialacha N�s Imeachta na C�irte Breithi�nais a oiri�n� agus a chomhl�n� de r�ir Airteagal 188 den Chonradh ag bun� Chomhphobal Eacnama�ochta na hEorpa.

 

 

Airteagal 6

 

 

[scriosta]

 

 

Airteagal 7

 

 

D�anfaidh St�it a sh�nithe daingni� ar an bPr�tacal seo. Taiscfear na hionstraim� daingni�ch�in le hArdr�na� Chomhairle na gComhphobal Eorpach.

 

 

Airteagal 8

 

 

Tiocfaidh an Pr�tacal seo i bhfeidhm ar an gc�ad l� den tr�� m� i ndiaidh thaisceadh na hionstraime daingni�ch�in ag an gceann is d�ana� de St�it a sh�nithe a dh�anfaidh an taisceadh sin; ach n� thiocfaidh s� i bhfeidhm tr�th is luaithe n� teacht i bhfeidhm Choinbhinsi�n an 27 Me�n F�mhair 1968 ar dhl�nse agus ar fhorghn�omh� breithi�nas in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�cht�la.

 

 

Airteagal 9

 

 

Aithn�onn na St�it Chonarthacha go ndl�fidh gach St�t a thiocfaidh chun bheith ina chomhalta de Chomhphobal Eacnama�ochta na hEorpa, agus a mbainfidh Airteagal 63 den Choinbhinsi�n ar dhl�nse agus ar fhorghn�omh� breithi�nas in �bhair shibhialta agus tr�cht�la leis, glacadh le for�lacha an Phr�tacail seo, faoi r�ir cib� oiri�nuithe is g�.

 

 

Airteagal 10

 

 

Cuirfidh Ardr�na� Chomhairle na gComhphobal Eorpach in i�l do na St�t a sh�neoidh an Pr�tacal seo:

 

 

(a) taisceadh gach ionstraime daingni�ch�in;

 

 

(b) d�ta an Phr�tacail seo a theacht i bhfeidhm;

 

 

(c) aon dearbh� a fuarthas de bhun Airteagal 4(3);

 

 

(d) [scriosta].

 

 

Airteagal 11

 

 

Cuirfidh na St�it Chonarthacha in i�l d'Ardr�na� Chomhairle na gComhpobal Eorpach t�acsanna aon fhor�lacha ina ndl�the a bheireann gur g� liosta na gc�irteanna in Airteagal 2(1) a leas�.

 

 

Airteagal 12

 

 

T� an Pr�tacal seo tugtha i gcr�ch go ceann tr�imhse gan teorainn.

 

 

Airteagal 13

 

 

F�adfaidh St�t Conarthach ar bith athbhreithni� ar an bPr�tacal seo a iarraidh. Sa ch�s sin, com�rfaidh Uachtar�n Chomhairle na gComhphobal Eorpach comhdh�il lena athbhreithni�.

 

 

Airteagal 14

 

 

Tarraing�odh an Pr�tacal seo suas i scr�bhinn bhunaidh amh�in sa Fhraincis, sa Ghearm�inis, san Iod�ilis agus san Ollainnis, agus comh�dar�s ag gach ceann de na ceithre th�acs; taiscfear � i gcartlann R�na�ocht Chomhairle na gComhphobal Eorpach, agus cuirfidh an tArdr�na� c�ip dheimhnithe chuig Rialtas gach ceann de St�it a sh�nithe.

 

 

THIRD SCHEDULE

Titles V and VI of the 1978 Accession Convention1 as amended by the 1989 Accession Convention2

 

 

Title V

 

 

TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS

 

 

Article 34

 

 

1. The 1968 Convention and the 1971 Protocol, with the amendments made by this Convention, shall apply only to legal proceedings instituted and to authentic instruments formally drawn up or registered after the entry into force of this Convention in the State of origin and, where recognition or enforcement of a judgment or authentic instrument is sought, in the State addressed.

 

 

2. However, as between the six Contracting States to the 1968 Convention, judgments given after the date of entry into force of this Convention in proceedings instituted before that date shall be recognised and enforced in accordance with the provisions of Title III of the 1968 Convention as amended.

 

 

3. Moreover, as between the six Contracting States to the 1968 Convention and the three States mentioned in Article 1 of this Convention, and as between those three States, judgments given after the date of entry into force of this Convention between the State of origin and the State addressed in proceedings instituted before that date shall also be recognised and enforced in accordance with the provisions of Title III of the 1968 Convention as amended if jurisdiction was founded upon rules which accorded with the provisions of Title II, as amended, or with provisions of a convention concluded between the State of origin and the State addressed which was in force when the proceedings were instituted.

 

 

Article 35

 

 

[deleted]

 

 

Article 36

 

 

[deleted]

 

 

Title VI

 

 

FINAL PROVISIONS

 

 

Article 37

 

 

The Secretary-General of the Council of the European Communities shall transmit a certified copy of the 1968 Convention and of the 1971 Protocol in the Dutch, French, German and Italian languages to the Governments of the Kingdom of Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

 

 

The texts of the 1968 Convention and the 1971 Protocol, drawn up in the Danish, English and Irish languages, shall be annexed to this Convention. The texts drawn up in the Danish, English and Irish languages shall be authentic under the same conditions as the original texts of the 1968 Convention and the 1971 Protocol.

 

 

Article 38

 

 

This Convention shall be ratified by the signatory States. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the Council of the European Communities.

 

 

Article 39

 

 

This Convention shall enter into force, as between the States which shall have ratified it, on the first day of the third month following the deposit of the last instrument of ratification by the original Member States of the Community and one new Member State.

 

 

It shall enter into force for each new Member State which subsequently ratifies it on the first day of the third month following the deposit of its instrument of ratification.

 

 

Article 40

 

 

The Secretary-General of the Council of the European Communities shall notify the signatory States of:

 

 

(a) the deposit of each instrument of ratification,

 

 

(b) the dates of entry into force of this Convention for the Contracting States.

 

 

Article 41

 

 

This Convention, drawn up in a single original in the Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Irish and Italian languages, all seven texts being equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Secretariat of the Council of the European Communities. The Secretary-General shall transmit a certified copy to the Government of each signatory State.

 

 

FOURTH SCHEDULE

Titles V and VI of the 1982 Accession Convention1

 

 

Title V

 

 

TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS

 

 

Article 12

 

 

1. The 1968 Convention and the 1971 Protocol, as amended by the 1978 Convention and this Convention, shall apply only to legal proceedings instituted and to authentic instruments formally drawn up or registered after the entry into force of this Convention in the State of origin and, where recognition or enforcement of a judgment or authentic instrument is sought, in the State addressed.

 

 

2. However, judgments given after the date of entry into force of this Convention between the State of origin and the State addressed in proceedings instituted before that date shall be recognized and enforced in accordance with the provisions of title III of the 1968 Convention, as amended by the 1978 Convention and this Convention, if jurisdiction was founded upon rules which accorded with the provisions of Title II of the 1968 Convention, as amended, or with the provisions of a convention which was in force between the State of origin and the State addressed when the proceedings were instituted.

 

 

Title VI

 

 

FINAL PROVISIONS

 

 

Article 13

 

 

The Secretary-General of the Council of the European Communities shall transmit a certified copy of the 1968 Convention, of the 1971 Protocol and of the 1978 Convention in the Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Irish and Italian languages to the Government of the Hellenic Republic.

 

 

The texts of the 1968 Convention, of the 1971 Protocol and of the 1978 Convention, drawn up in the Greek language, shall be annexed to this Convention. The texts drawn up in the Greek language shall be authentic under the same conditions as the other texts of the 1968 Convention, the 1971 Protocol and the 1978 Convention.

 

 

Article 14

 

 

This Convention shall be ratified by the signatory States. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the Council of the European Communities.

 

 

Article 15

 

 

This Convention shall enter into force, as between the States which have ratified it, on the first day of the third month following the deposit of the last instrument of ratification by the Hellenic Republic and those States which have put into force the 1978 Convention in accordance with Article 39 of that Convention.

 

 

It shall enter into force for each Member State which subsequently ratifies it on the first day of the third month following the deposit of its instrument of ratification.

 

 

Article 16

 

 

The Secretary-General of the Council of the European Communities shall notify the signatory States of:

 

 

(a) the deposit of each instrument of ratification;

 

 

(b) the dates of entry into force of this Convention for the Contracting States.

 

 

Article 17

 

 

This Convention, drawn up in a single original in the Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Greek, Irish and Italian languages, all eight texts being equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the General Secretariat of the Council of the European Communities. The Secretary-General shall transmit a certified copy to the Government of each signatory State.

 

 

FIFTH SCHEDULE

Titles VI and VII of the 1989 Accession Convention1

 

 

Title VI

 

 

TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS

 

 

Article 29

 

 

1. The 1968 Convention and the 1971 Protocol, as amended by the 1978 Convention, the 1982 Convention and this Convention, shall apply only to legal proceedings instituted and to authentic instruments formally drawn up or registered after the entry into force of this Convention in the State of origin and, where recognition or enforcement of a judgment or authentic instrument is sought, in the State addressed.

 

 

2. However, judgments given after the date of entry into force of this Convention between the State of origin and the State addressed in proceedings instituted before that date shall be recognized and enforced in accordance with the provisions of Title III of the 1968 Convention, as amended by the 1978 Convention, the 1982 Convention and this Convention, if jurisdiction was founded upon rules which accorded with the provisions of Title II of the 1968 Convention, as amended, or with the provisions of a convention which was in force between the State of origin and the State addressed when the proceedings were instituted.

 

 

Title VII

 

 

FINAL PROVISIONS

 

 

Article 30

 

 

1. The Secretary-General of the Council of the European Communities shall transmit a certified copy of the 1968 Convention, of the 1971 Protocol, of the 1978 Convention and of the 1982 Convention in the Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Greek, Irish and Italian languages to the Governments of the Kingdom of Spain and of the Portuguese Republic.

 

 

2. The texts of the 1968 Convention, of the 1971 Protocol, of the 1978 Convention and of the 1982 Convention, drawn up in the Portuguese and Spanish languages, are set out in Annexes II, III, IV and V to this Convention. The texts drawn up in the Portuguese and Spanish languages shall be authentic under the same conditions as the other texts of the 1968 Convention, the 1971 Protocol, the 1978 Convention and the 1982 Convention.

 

 

Article 31

 

 

This Convention shall be ratified by the signatory States. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the Council of the European Communities.

 

 

Article 32

 

 

1. This Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the third month following the date on which two signatory States, of which one is the Kingdom of Spain or the Portuguese Republic, deposit their instruments of ratification.

 

 

2. This Convention shall take effect in relation to any other signatory State on the first day of the third month following the deposit of its instrument of ratification.

 

 

Article 33

 

 

The Secretary-General of the Council of the European Communities shall notify the signatory States of:

 

 

(a) the deposit of each instrument of ratification;

 

 

(b) the dates of entry into force of this Convention for the Contracting States.

 

 

Article 34

 

 

This Convention, drawn up in a single original in the Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Greek, Irish, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish languages, all 10 texts being equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the General Secretariat of the Council of the European Communities. The Secretary-General shall transmit a certified copy to the Government of each signatory State.

 

 

SIXTH SCHEDULE

Titles V and VI of the 1996 Accession Convention1

 

 

Title V

 

 

TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS

 

 

Article 13

 

 

1. The 1968 Convention and the 1971 Protocol, as amended by the 1978 Convention, the 1982 Convention, the 1989 Convention and by this Convention, shall apply only to legal proceedings instituted and to authentic instruments formally drawn up or registered after the entry into force of this Convention in the State of origin and, where recognition or enforcement of a judgment or authentic instrument is sought, in the State addressed.

 

 

2. However, judgments given after the date of entry into force of this Convention between the State of origin and the State addressed in proceedings instituted before that date shall be recognized and enforced in accordance with the provisions of Title III of the 1968 Convention, as amended by the 1978 Convention, the 1982 Convention, the 1989 Convention and this Convention, if jurisdiction was founded upon rules which accorded with the provisions of Title II, as amended, of the 1968 Convention, or with the provisions of a convention which was in force between the State of origin and the State addressed when the proceedings were instituted.

 

 

Title VI

 

 

FINAL PROVISIONS

 

 

Article 14

 

 

1. The Secretary-General of the Council of the European Union shall transmit a certified copy of the 1968 Convention, of the 1971 Protocol, of the 1978 Convention, of the 1982 Convention and of the 1989 Convention in the Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Greek, Irish, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese languages to the Governments of the Republic of Austria, the Republic of Finland and the Kingdom of Sweden.

 

 

2. The texts of the 1968 Convention, of the 1971 Protocol, of the 1978 Convention, of the 1982 Convention and of the 1989 Convention, drawn up in the Finnish and Swedish languages, shall be authentic under the same conditions as the other texts of the 1968 Convention, the 1971 Protocol, the 1978 Convention, the 1982 Convention and the 1989 Convention.

 

 

Article 15

 

 

This Convention shall be ratified by the signatory States. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the Council of the European Union.

 

 

Article 16

 

 

1. This Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the third month following the date on which two signatory States, one of which is the Republic of Austria, the Republic of Finland or the Kingdom of Sweden, deposit their instruments of ratification.

 

 

2. This Convention shall produce its effects for any other signatory State on the first day of the third month following the deposit of its instrument of ratification.

 

 

Article 17

 

 

The Secretary-General of the Council of the European Union shall notify the signatory States of:

 

 

(a) the deposit of each instrument of ratification;

 

 

(b) the dates of entry into force of this Convention for the Contracting States.

 

 

Article 18

 

 

This Convention, drawn up in a single original in the Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Irish, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and Swedish languages, all 12 texts being equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the General Secretariat of the Council of the European Union. The Secretary-General shall transmit a certified copy to the Government of each signatory State.

 

 

SEVENTH SCHEDULE

Text of the Lugano Convention1

 

 

CONVENTION

 

 

on jurisdiction and the enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters

 

 

PREAMBLE

 

 

THE HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES TO THIS CONVENTION,

 

 

ANXIOUS to strengthen in their territories the legal protection of persons therein established,

 

 

CONSIDERING that it is necessary for this purpose to determine the international jurisdiction of their courts, to facilitate recognition and to introduce an expeditious procedure for securing the enforcement of judgments, authentic instruments and court settlements,

 

 

AWARE of the links between them, which have been sanctioned in the economic field by the free trade agreements concluded between the European Economic Community and the States members of the European Free Trade Association,

 

 

TAKING INTO ACCOUNT the Brussels Convention of 27 September 1968 on jurisdiction and the enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters, as amended by the Accession Conventions under the successive enlargements of the European Communities,

 

 

PERSUADED that the extension of the principles of that Convention to the States parties to this instrument will strengthen legal and economic cooperation in Europe,

 

 

DESIRING to ensure as uniform an interpretation as possible of this instrument,

 

 

HAVE in this spirit DECIDED to conclude this Convention and

 

 

HAVE AGREED AS FOLLOWS:

 

 

Title I

 

 

SCOPE

 

 

Article 1

 

 

This Convention shall apply in civil and commercial matters whatever the nature of the court or tribunal. It shall not extend, in particular, to revenue, customs or administrative matters.

 

 

The Convention shall not apply to:

 

 

1. the status or legal capacity of natural persons, rights in property arising out of a matrimonial relationship, wills and succession;

 

 

2. bankruptcy, proceedings relating to the winding-up of insolvent companies or other legal persons, judicial arrangements, compositions and analogous proceedings;

 

 

3. social security;

 

 

4. arbitration.

 

 

Title II

 

 

JURISDICTION

 

 

SECTION 1

 

 

General Provisions

 

 

Article 2

 

 

Subject to the provisions of this Convention, persons domiciled in a Contracting State shall, whatever their nationality, be sued in the courts of that State.

 

 

Persons who are not nationals of the State in which they are domiciled shall be governed by the rules of jurisdiction applicable to nationals of that State.

 

 

Article 3

 

 

Persons domiciled in a Contracting State may be sued in the courts of another Contracting State only by virtue of the rules set out in Sections 2 to 6 of this Title.

 

 

In particular the following provisions shall not be applicable as against them:

 

 

in Belgium: Article 15 of the civil code (Code civil�Burgerlijk Wetboek) and Article 638 of the judicial code (Code judiciaire�Gerechtelijk Wetboek),

 

 

in Denmark: Article 246 (2) and (3) of the law on civil procedure (Lov om rettens pleje),

 

 

in the Federal Republic of Germany: Article 23 of the code of civil procedure (Zivilprozeβordnung),

 

 

in Greece: Article 40 of the code of civil procedure (Kωδιχαζ πoλιτιχήζ σιχoνoμ�αζ),

 

 

in France: Articles 14 and 15 of the civil code (Code civil),

 

 

in Ireland: the rules which enable jurisdiction to be founded on the document instituting the proceedings having been served on the defendant during his temporary presence in Ireland,

 

 

in Iceland: Article 77 of the Civil Proceedings Act (l�g um meδferδ einkam�la � h�raδi),

 

 

in Italy: Articles 2 and 4, Nos 1 and 2 of the code of civil procedure (Codice di procedura civile),

 

 

in Luxembourg: Articles 14 and 15 of the civil code (Code civil),

 

 

in the Netherlands: Articles 126 (3) and 127 of the code of civil procedure (Wetboek van Burgerlijke Rechtsvordering),

 

 

in Norway: Section 32 of the Civil Proceedings Act (tvistem�lsloven),

 

 

in Austria: Article 99 of the Law on Court Jurisdiction (Jurisdiktionsnorm),

 

 

in Portugal: Articles 65 (1) (c), 65 (2) and 65A (c) of the code of civil procedure (C�digo de Processo Civil) and Article 11 of the code of labour procedure (C�digo de Processo de Trabalho),

 

 

in Switzerland: le for du lieu du s�questre/Gerichtsstand des Arrestortes/foro del luogo del sequestro within the meaning of Article 4 of the loi f�d�rale sur le droit international priv�/Bundesgesetz �ber das internationale Privatrecht/legge federale sul diritto internazionale privato,

 

 

in Finland: the second, third and fourth sentences of Section 1 of Chapter 10 of the Code of Judicial Procedure (oikeudenk�ymiskaari/r�tteg�ngsbalken),

 

 

in Sweden: the first sentence of Section 3 of Chapter 10 of the Code of Judicial Procedure (R�tteg�ngsbalken),

 

 

in the United Kingdom: the rules which enable jurisdiction to be founded on:

 

 

(a) the document instituting the proceedings having been served on the defendant during his temporary presence in the United Kingdom; or

 

 

(b) the presence within the United Kingdom of property belonging to the defendant; or

 

 

(c) the seizure by the plaintiff of property situated in the United Kingdom.

 

 

Article 4

 

 

If the defendant is not domiciled in a Contracting State, the jurisdiction of the courts of each Contracting State shall, subject to the provisions of Article 16, be determined by the law of that State.

 

 

As against such a defendant, any person domiciled in a Contracting State may, whatever his nationality, avail himself in that State of the rules of jurisdiction there in force, and in particular those specified in the second paragraph of Article 3, in the same way as the nationals of that State.

 

 

SECTION 2

 

 

Special Jurisdiction

 

 

Article 5

 

 

A person domiciled in a Contracting State may, in another Contracting State, be sued:

 

 

1. in matters relating to a contract, in the courts for the place of performance of the obligation in question; in matters relating to individual contracts of employment, this place is that where the employee habitually carries out his work, or if the employee does not habitually carry out his work in any one country, this place shall be the place of business through which he was engaged;

 

 

2. in matters relating to maintenance, in the courts for the place where the maintenance creditor is domiciled or habitually resident or, if the matter is ancillary to proceedings concerning the status of a person, in the court which, according to its own law, has jurisdiction to entertain those proceedings, unless that jurisdiction is based solely on the nationality of one of the parties;

 

 

3. in matters relating to tort, delict or quasi-delict, in the courts for the place where the harmful event occurred;

 

 

4. as regards a civil claim for damages or restitution which is based on an act giving rise to criminal proceedings, in the court seised of those proceedings, to the extent that that court has jurisdiction under its own law to entertain civil proceedings;

 

 

5. as regards a dispute arising out of the operations of a branch, agency or other establishment, in the courts for the place in which the branch, agency or other establishment is situated;

 

 

6. in his capacity as settlor, trustee or beneficiary of a trust created by the operation of a statute, or by a written instrument, or created orally and evidenced in writing, in the courts of the Contracting State in which the trust is domiciled;

 

 

7. as regards a dispute concerning the payment of remuneration claimed in respect of the salvage of a cargo or freight, in the court under the authority of which the cargo or freight in question:

 

 

(a) has been arrested to secure such payment,

 

 

or

 

 

(b) could have been so arrested, but bail or other security has been given;

 

 

provided that this provision shall apply only if it is claimed that the defendant has an interest in the cargo or freight or had such an interest at the time of salvage.