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Second World War and the direction of medical innovation
Economic Research Working Paper No. 70
This paper provides an overview of the role of the United States of America (U.S.) Second World War research effort on the direction of innovation, with a particular focus on medical research. It provides an overview of the U.S. wartime research program, reviews quantitative evidence on the effects of the overall wartime research shock on postwar patenting, describes the wartime medical research effort, and summarizes case studies of five major wartime medical research programs (penicillin, antimalarials, vaccines, blood substitutes, and hormones) and their effects on postwar R&D. It concludes by drawing out implications for crisis innovation and the direction of innovation in general, discussing mechanisms through which crises may have long-run effects, and highlighting hypotheses warranting further investigation.
Publication year: 2022
Direction of innovation in developing countries and its driving forces
Economic Research Working Paper No. 69
Innovation is a major driving force of long-term economic growth and sustainable development. Direction of innovation matters because technical change is not neutral and hence bears significant social, economic and environmental development implications. This paper contributes to the literature through a systematic examination of the direction of innovation in developing and emerging economies and its driving forces. It shows that innovation in the global South exhibits a vibrant and diverse landscape when we do not confine ourselves with traditional research and innovation indicators. While emerging economies are accelerating their pace in inventive activities in fields such as ICTs, biotech and engineering, low-income countries (LICs) are also found to be active in learning-based, incremental “under-the-radar innovations” (URIs). These URIs that are introduced through international technology transfer and indigenous innovative efforts. Indigenous sources of URIs play a primary role in LICs, contributed by localised learning-by-doing, close interaction with customers and embeddedness in regional production networks and clusters. However, insufficient role of the state, a low science and technology intensity and a lack of university-industry linkage limit the potential of URIs. International technology transfer is another important driver of technical change in developing countries. However, its strengthen varies across countries due to differences in host country policy, absorptive capacity, and the type of foreign economic engagement that they have as well as the inappropriateness of transferred foreign technologies mostly from Global North. Given the status of direction of innovation and its driving forces in developing countries, this report argues that the unfolding 4th industrial revolution poses both challenges and opportunities to LICs. Policy implications are discussed.
Calculating private and social returns to COVID-19 vaccine innovation
Economic Research Working Paper No. 68
What is the return to COVID-19 vaccine innovation? This paper seeks to quantify both private and social returns, using available data on commercialized vaccines and certain assumptions about the pandemic's epidemiological path as well as the economic costs of containment measures. The calculations reveal high returns to innovation. In the baseline scenario, the social benefit of vaccine innovation amounts to 70.5 trillion United States (U.S.) dollars globally, exceeding its private benefit by a factor of 887. The calculations bear on the private and public incentives to invest in vaccine innovation.
World Intellectual Property Report 2022: The Direction of Innovation
What is the direction of innovation? As the world looks to rebuild from the pandemic, innovation has a crucial role to play in opening up new growth possibilities and creating much needed solutions to the common challenges we face. Decisions on innovation may be complex, but, as this report highlights, it is vital that they are understood.
Guide to the International Patent Classification (2022)
This Guide provides information on the objectives, history and reform of the International Patent Classification (IPC) as well as assistance in the use of the IPC.
Guide to WIPO's services for country code top-level domain registries
This guide presents country code top-level domain (ccTLD) registry operators and national authorities with information on how to resolve third-party domain name disputes in a cost- and time-saving manner. It explains the main policy design features of a successful Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) system, and provides information on the WIPO-created Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP), including the possibility to tailor the UDRP for specific ccTLD requirements.
An integrated health, trade and IP approach to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic (update August 30, 2021)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic constitutes an extraordinary global public health crisis that has created a pressing need for intensified global cooperation. This updated information note maps the myriad challenges posed by the outbreak in relation to the integrated health, trade and IP policy frameworks. It provides cross-references to the relevant sections in the updated trilateral study
COVID-19-related vaccines and therapeutics
Preliminary insights on related patenting activity during the pandemic
Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic there have been remarkable research and innovation efforts to fight the SARS-COV-2 virus and the related disease. This patent landscape report provides early observations on the patenting activity which took place in the field of COVID-19 vaccines and therapeutics, and compares results with clinical trial data for related candidate vaccines and drugs.
Guidelines for producing gender analysis from innovation and IP data
Understanding how women and men can access and use the intellectual property (IP) system equally is key to ensuring that their ingenuity and creativity translates into economic, social and cultural development. This short guide summarizes best practice for producing innovation and IP gender indicators.
Technology Transfer Training Needs Assessment
Manual and Toolkit
The aim of the manual and toolkit is to enable the assessment of training needs for organizations involved with intellectual property management, technology transfer and commercialization/utilization. This manual and toolkit supports readers with limited knowledge of training needs to identify gaps in skills and competencies and to design effective training programs.