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Intellectual Property and Technology Transfer for COVID-19 Vaccines: Assessment of the Record

The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)'s Global Challenges Division commissioned an independent study on the role played by intellectual property (IP) and technology transfer in the development, production and distribution of vaccines used to address the COVID-19 pandemic. The study uses a case-study approach to provide an in-depth analysis of some of the different approaches adopted by ten different global vaccine manufacturers, with respect to their funding, procurement, vaccine development and IP strategies (including licensing, technology transfer and access provisions). These experiences and lessons learnt provide practical insights to guide global policy-making on IP, health and access issues.

Publication year: 2023


Protocol Relating to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks; Regulations; Administrative Instructions; Schedule of Fees.

The present publication contains the texts of the Protocol Relating to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks (hereinafter referred to as the “Protocol”) (1989), as amended in 2006 and in 2007, the Regulations under the Protocol Relating to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks, the Administrative Instructions for the Application of the Protocol and the Schedule of Fees.

Publication year: 2023


Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources

Background Brief - No. 10

This Brief introduces intellectual property issues related to genetic resources under discussion in WIPO.

Publication year: 2023


The WIPO Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore

Background Brief - No. 2

This Brief provides background information on the WIPO Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore (IGC).

Publication year: 2023


WIPO Pulse

Global intellectual property perception survey 2023

Pulse is a path-breaking new survey of awareness of and attitudes toward intellectual property (IP) rights. The broadest survey of its kind, based on 25,000 interviews in 50 countries, WIPO Pulse is a unique snapshot of how individuals and communities think and feel about IP. This report covers the top-line findings of the survey and describes the research methodology used. It is a unique resource for policymakers, researchers, educators and others involved in promoting IP rights and raising IP awareness globally.

Publication year: 2023


Global Innovation Index 2023, 16th Edition

Innovation in the face of uncertainty

The Global Innovation Index 2023 (GII) takes the pulse of innovation against a background of an economic and geopolitical environment fraught with uncertainty. Tracking the most recent global innovation trends, the GII finds that – despite a climate of disquiet and a decline in risk capital investment – opportunities abound as a result of the incipient Digital Age and Deep Science innovation waves. At its core, the GII 2023 reveals who is leading in global innovation, ranking the innovation performance of 132 economies and highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. In addition, it identifies the world's top 100 science and technology clusters. The GII is a “tool for action” regarding innovation policy. Governments around the world have used the GII to benchmark innovation performance, perfect innovation metrics and, ultimately, to shape evidence-based innovation policymaking. In the context of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), since 2019, the GII has been recognized by the United Nations General Assembly to be a benchmark for measuring innovation, including more recently in a post-pandemic environment.

Publication year: 2023


Global Innovation Index 2023

Executive Summary

The GII 2023 Executive Summary provides key highlights and results presented in the full GII 2023: Innovation in the face of uncertainty report. The GII 2023 reveals who is leading in global innovation, ranking the innovation performance of 132 economies and highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. In addition, it identifies the world's top 100 science and technology clusters.

Publication year: 2023


World Intellectual Property Indicators 2023

This authoritative report analyzes IP activity around the globe. Drawing on 2022 filing, registration and in force statistics from national and regional IP offices, it covers patents, utility models, trademarks, industrial designs, microorganisms, plant variety protection and geographical indications. The report also draws on survey data and industry sources to give a picture of activity in the creative economy.

Publication year: 2023


Intellectual Property (IP) Education in Business Schools

A Global Perspective

How do business schools equip budding entrepreneurs and business students with the IP skills needed for a global knowledge economy? To get a more informed view of the extent of IP education in business schools, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) undertook this study in collaboration with the Global Business School Network (GBSN). The study shows that IP is taught to some degree in the vast majority of business schools surveyed, but that more can be done, reinforcing the importance of collaboration among stakeholders of the innovation ecosystem, including IP governing bodies, business and educational institutions.

Publication year: 2023


Ars longa, vita brevis: The death of the creator and the impact on exhibitions and auction markets

Economic Research Working Paper No.76

This paper studies the death effect on artists' exhibitions and commercial success in the secondary art market. Based on a random sample of 1'000 popular artists born after the turn of the 20th century, we construct a novel panel data set of their worldwide exhibition history and auction transactions. By applying a regression discontinuity and event study design, we find an overall negative effect of artist death on the number of exhibitions. However, this post mortem effect disappears in longer term. Roughly ten years after death, exhibitions are back to pre-death levels. Arguably, transaction cost and higher auction prices after death also temporarily increase the average cost of exhibiting artworks, e.g. higher market valuation raises (unobserved) insurance cost for exhibitions. Hedonic auction price models confirm this intuition and suggest a significant price premium posthumously. We find substantial heterogeneity in the treatment depending on the age and reputation of the artist at death. Overall findings explain important mechanisms for the post mortem value of artistic work and have important policy implications for the creative sectors and the design of legacy stewardship rules, including a possible justification for rights granted post mortem such as copyright.

Publication year: 2023

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