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Ars longa, vita brevis: The death of the creator and the impact on exhibitions and auction markets
Economic Research Working Paper No.76
This paper studies the death effect on artists' exhibitions and commercial success in the secondary art market. Based on a random sample of 1'000 popular artists born after the turn of the 20th century, we construct a novel panel data set of their worldwide exhibition history and auction transactions. By applying a regression discontinuity and event study design, we find an overall negative effect of artist death on the number of exhibitions. However, this post mortem effect disappears in longer term. Roughly ten years after death, exhibitions are back to pre-death levels. Arguably, transaction cost and higher auction prices after death also temporarily increase the average cost of exhibiting artworks, e.g. higher market valuation raises (unobserved) insurance cost for exhibitions. Hedonic auction price models confirm this intuition and suggest a significant price premium posthumously. We find substantial heterogeneity in the treatment depending on the age and reputation of the artist at death. Overall findings explain important mechanisms for the post mortem value of artistic work and have important policy implications for the creative sectors and the design of legacy stewardship rules, including a possible justification for rights granted post mortem such as copyright.
Publication year: 2023
Digitization and Availability of Artworks in Online Museum Collections
Economic Research Working Paper No.75
We provide quantitative evidence from museum collections about how copyright status affects the availability of digital images of artworks. The paper applies a regression discontinuity and differences-in-differences design to estimate online availability of artworks from U.S. collections on digital platforms. We find a strong increase in the availability of digital surrogates when copyright is perceived to expire and original artworks are likely to transition to the public domain. Moreover, artworks and surrogates made available see a large number of downstream reuses based on google image search data, which indicates online availability is of commercial and public value independent of right status. Notably, we show that upstream surrogates of public domain artworks made available by museums are positively correlated with higher image resolution quality as compared to digitized artworks still protected under copyright laws. At the same time, it seems expressed industry norms can help encourage U.S. museums to also make low-resolution surrogates of copyrighted artworks available.
Collective Management of Text and Image-Based Works
Collective Management of Text and Image-Based Works offers a general description of collective management of copyright in the text and image sector. It provides insight into the legislative framework and national operational systems in different parts of the world.
IP assets and film finance - a primer on standard practices in the U.S.
Economic Research Working Paper No. 74
This research summarizes the basic economics of film finance and standard practices in the U.S. movie industry. It shows how risk and uncertainty around new film finance are managed by the private sector and what market-based solutions have been developed to mitigate risk in the sector. Based on a series of expert interviews and exploratory data analysis, the research presents the most common types of financial deals on the ground and reoccurring funding practices for new film production and distribution in the past twenty years, including a discussion of most recent trends and digital changes in the sector. In particular, the research highlights the prominent role of intellectual property (IP) in financial transactions of the movie industry and it discusses policy options in the U.S. and beyond to better leverage IP assets for financing purposes.
Creative Expression: An Introduction to Copyright and Related Rights for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises
Creative Expression in the "Intellectual Property for Business” series of guides provides an introduction to copyright and related rights for business managers and entrepreneurs, explaining in simple language those aspects of copyright law and practice that affect the business strategies of enterprises. This revised and updated version has added content on some of the pressing issues of the day arising from the digital revolution; on levy systems, cloud storage, etc., as well as updated information on the new WIPO treaties such as the rights of performers in audiovisual performances in the Beijing Treaty on Audiovisual Performances and access to the visually impaired under the Marrakesh treaty.
The Global Publishing Industry in 2021
This report provides a global overview of the publishing industry in 2021, covering both trade and education. Data is compiled by WIPO in collaboration with Centro Regional para el Fomento del Libro en América Latina y el Caribe (CERLALC), the Federation of European Publishers (FEP), the International ISBN Agency, the International Publishers Association (IPA), and the Nielsen Company. The survey focuses on published materials with an ISBN or DOI. It aims to make industry data accessible and highlight challenges in reporting consistent data.
Collective Management of Copyright and Related Rights
This third edition of Collective Management of Copyright and Related Rights presents an in-depth revision with invaluable updates on the different systems, legislative options and best practices of CMOs worldwide. As with previous editions, the book is written to reach a wide audience, with a special focus on questions that might emerge for governments as they prepare, adopt and apply collective management norms and regulations. The edition also sheds light on new copyright and related rights developments, including digital, technological and business trends, from all over the world. Additionally, there is detailed discussion on topics such as aspects of competition, national treatment, and different models of collective management.
Publication year: 2022
World Intellectual Property Indicators 2022
This authoritative report analyzes IP activity around the globe. Drawing on 2021 filing, registration and in force statistics from national and regional IP offices, it covers patents, utility models, trademarks, industrial designs, microorganisms, plant variety protection and geographical indications. The report also draws on survey data and industry sources to give a picture of activity in the creative economy.
The Global Publishing Industry in 2020
This report provides an overview of the global publishing industry in 2020, covering the trade and educational sectors. It is based on data compiled by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in partnership with the Centro Regional para el Fomento del Libro en América Latina y el Caribe (CERLALC), the Federation of European Publishers (FEP), the International Publishers Association (IPA) and the Nielsen Company. The scope of the publishing industry survey is published materials (i.e., books, monographs, and so on) issued with an ISBN, a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) or any other book identifier. This report aims to make publishing industry data available to the user community and highlight the challenges producers of statistics face in reporting consistent and comparable data.
Rights, Camera, Action! Intellectual property rights and the filmmaking process
Rights, Camera, Action! offers professionals in the audiovisual industry guidance on how to use intellectual property protection to generate business opportunities. The reader is taken through the different stages from securing finance to distribution to ensure a successful audiovisual production. With practical advice and enriching case studies from developing countries “Rights, Camera, Action!” will help individual filmmakers and distributors monetize their creative content.