New Contracting Parties to WIPO-administeredTreaties in 1998
Geneva, January 29, 1999
Press Updates UPD/1999/47
The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) administers twenty-one (21) treaties in the field of intellectual property, fifteen (15) of which are in the field of industrial property and six (6) in copyright. WIPO administers some twenty-one (21) treaties in the field of intellectual property. During 1998, eighty-six (86) instruments of accession to or ratification of treaties administered by WIPO were deposited with the Director General of WIPO. In 1997, sixty (60) such instruments were deposited with the Director General. The continuing adherence to WIPO-administered treaties reflects growing recognition of the importance of intellectual property rights in an era of increased globalization.
In 1998, forty-four (44) per cent of the accessions or ratifications came from developing countries, thirty-eight (38) per cent from countries in transition to a market economy and eighteen per cent (18) from developed countries. A summary of these adherences is set out below:
The Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization was signed at Stockholm on July 14, 1967, and entered into force in 1970. In 1974, WIPO became one of the 16 specialized agencies of the United Nations system of organizations. WIPO is responsible for the promotion of the protection of intellectual property throughout the world through cooperation among States, and for the administration of various multilateral treaties dealing with the legal and administrative aspects of intellectual property.
In 1998, Botswana, Dominica, Ethiopia, Grenada, Kuwait, Sao Tome and Principe (6) adhered to the WIPO Convention.
The total number of Member States of WIPO on December 31, 1998, was 171.
NEW MEMBERS OF WIPO-ADMINISTERED TREATIES IN THE FIELD OF INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY
The Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property was concluded in 1883 and is one of the pillars of the international intellectual property system as we know it today. It applies to industrial property in the widest sense, including inventions, marks, industrial designs, utility models (a kind of "small patent" provided for by the laws of some countries), trade names (designations under which an industrial or commercial activity is carried on), geographical indications (indications of source and appellations of origin) and the repression of unfair competition.
In 1998, Botswana, Cambodia, Grenada, Guatemala, India, The Lao People's Democratic Republic, Mozambique, Sao Tome and Principe (8) adhered to the Paris Convention.
The total number of Contracting States on December 31, 1998, was 151.
Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)
The Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) was concluded in 1970. The PCT makes it possible to seek patent protection for an invention simultaneously in each of a large number of countries by filing an "international" patent application. Such an application may be filed by anyone who is a national or resident of a Contracting State. The Treaty regulates the formal requirements with which any international application must comply. Since its conclusion in 1970, the PCT has enjoyed remarkable expansion.
In 1998, Croatia, Cyprus, Grenada, India, South Africa and the United Arab Emirates (6) adhered to the PCT in 1998.
The total number of Contracting States on December 31, 1998, was 100.
Madrid Agreement and Protocol
The Madrid system for the International Registration of Marks (the Madrid system) is governed by two treaties: the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks and the Protocol Relating to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks.
The Madrid Agreement was concluded in 1891. This Agreement makes it possible to protect a mark in a large number of countries by providing one international registration which has effect in each of the Contracting Parties that have been designated in the international application.
In 1998, Kenya, Lesotho, Mozambique and Swaziland (4) adhered to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks.
The total number of Contracting States on December 31, 1998, was 51.
The Madrid Protocol was concluded in 1989 in order to introduce certain new features into the Madrid system. These features address the difficulties that prevent certain countries from adhering to the Madrid Agreement by rendering the system more flexible and more compatible with the domestic legislation of these countries.
In 1998, Belgium, Estonia, Georgia, Kenya, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Mozambique, the Netherlands, Romania, Slovenia, Swaziland, Turkey and Yugoslavia (14) adhered to the Protocol.
The total number of Contracting States on December 31, 1998, was 36.
Trademark Law Treaty (TLT)
The Trademark Law Treaty was concluded in 1994. The TLT aims to make national and regional trademark registration systems more user-friendly through the simplification and harmonization of procedures.
In 1998, Australia, Denmark, Hungary, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Romania, the Russian Federation, Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, Uzbekistan and Yugoslavia (11) adhered to the TLT.
The total number of Contracting States on December 31, 1998, was 22.
The Nice Agreement Concerning the International Classification of Goods and Services for the Purposes of the Registration of Marks was concluded in 1957. The Nice Agreement establishes a classification of goods and services for the purposes of registering trademarks and service marks. The Classification consists of a list of classes (based on types of products and services) of which there are 34 for goods and 8 for services and an alphabetical list of the goods and services.
In 1998, Belarus, Greece, Kyrgyzstan, the Republic of Korea, Romania and Singapore (6) adhered to the Nice Agreement.
The total number of Contracting States on December 31, 1998, was 58.
The Locarno Agreement Establishing an International Classification for Industrial Designs was concluded in 1968. The Locarno Agreement establishes a classification for industrial designs which consists of 32 classes and 223 subclasses based on different types of products. It also comprises an alphabetical listing of goods with an indication of the classes and subclasses into which these goods fall. The list contains some 6,320 indications of different kinds of goods.
In 1998, Belarus, Cuba, Kyrgyzstan, Romania and Turkey (5) adhered to the Locarno Agreement.
The total number of Contracting States on December 31, 1998, was 35.
Strasbourg Agreement (IPC)
The Strasbourg Agreement Concerning the International Patent Classification was concluded in 1971. The Strasbourg Agreement establishes the International Patent Classification (IPC), which divides technology into 8 sections with approximately 67,000 subdivisions. Each of these subdivisions has a symbol which is alloted by the national or regional industrial property office that publishes the patent document.
In 1998, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Korea and Romania (4) adhered to the Strasbourg Agreement. The total number of Contracting States on December 31, 1998, was 43.
The Vienna Agreement Establishing an International Classification of the Figurative Elements of Marks was concluded in 1973. The Vienna Agreement establishes a classification system for marks which consist of or contain figurative elements. The classification comprises 29 categories, 144 divisions and some 1,600 sections in which the figurative elements of marks are classified.
In 1998, Kyrgyzstan and Romania (2) adhered to the Vienna Agreement.
The total number of Contracting States on December 31, 1998, was 13.
The Budapest Treaty on the International Recognition of the Deposit of Microorganisms for the Purposes of Patent Procedure was concluded in 1977. The main feature of the Budapest Treaty is that a Contracting State which allows or requires the deposit of microorganisms for the purposes of patent procedure must recognize, for such purposes, the deposit of a microorganism with any "international depositary authority", irrespective of whether such authority is on or outside the territory of the said State. This eliminates the need to deposit in each country in which protection is sought.
In 1998, Lithuania, Monaco, Slovenia and Turkey (4) adhered to the Budapest Treaty.
The total number of Contracting States on December 31, 1998, was 45.
The Nairobi Treaty on the Protection of the Olympic Symbol was concluded in 1981. All Contracting States are obliged to protect the Olympic symbol (the five interlaced rings) against use for commercial purposes (in advertisements, on goods, as a mark, etc.) without the authorization of the International Olympic Committee.
In 1998, Slovenia and Ukraine (2) adhered to the Nairobi Treaty.
The total number of Contracting States on December 31, 1998, was 39.
NEW MEMBERS OF WIPO-ADMINISTERED TREATIES IN THE FIELD OF COPYRIGHT
The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works was concluded in 1886. The Convention sets out and defines minimum standards of protection of the economic and moral rights of authors of literary and artistic works.
In 1998, Algeria, Botswana, Grenada, Mongolia, Singapore and Swaziland (6) adhered to the Berne Convention. Canada and Romania (2), who have been party to the Berne Convention since 1928 and 1927, respectively, adhered to the Paris (1971) Act of the said Convention.
The total number of Contracting States on December 31, 1998, was 133.
The Rome Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations was concluded in 1961. The Rome Convention secures protection in performances of performers, phonograms of producers of phonograms and broadcasts of broadcasting organizations. WIPO is responsible, jointly with the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), for the administration of the Rome Convention.
In 1998, Canada, Romania and The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (3) adhered to the Rome Convention.
The total number of Contracting States on December 31, 1998, was 58.
Geneva Convention (Phonograms)
The Geneva Convention for the Protection of Producers of Phonograms against Unauthorized Duplication of their Phonograms was concluded in 1971. The Geneva Convention obliges each Contracting State to protect a producer of phonograms who is a national of another Contracting State against the making of duplicates without the consent of the producer, against the importation of such duplicates, where the making or importation is for the purposes of distribution to the public, and against the distribution of such duplicates to the public.
In 1998, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Romania (2) adhered to the Geneva Convention.
The total number of Contracting States on December 31, 1998, was 57.
For more information about other WIPO-administered treaties, please contact the Section of Legal and Constitutional Matters, Office of Legal and Organization Affairs:
Tel: (+41 22) 338 82 83
Fax: (+41 22) 740 37 00