An International Guide to
Patent Case Management for Judges

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7.2.1 The Japan Patent Office

The JPO is the administrative agency of the Government of Japan responsible for the administration of industrial property laws, including the Patent Act. It is headed by a commissioner and includes examination departments, which examine patent applications,21 and a TAD, which conducts trial and appeal processes related to the validity and scope of granted patents.22

The JPO is one of the world’s largest patent offices. In terms of a global comparison, the JPO generally receives the third-highest number of patent applications per year, behind the China National Intellectual Property Administration and the United States Patent and Trademark Office.23 It also cooperates with other countries on the protection and exploitation of IP rights. For example, in 2021, the JPO issued 48,502 international search reports under the PCT as an international searching authority and 1,562 international preliminary examination reports as an international preliminary examining authority.24