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WIPO/PUB/ECONSTAT/WP/78

Access to science and innovation in the developing world

Economic Research Working Paper No.78

We examine the implications of lowering barriers to online access to scientific publications for science and innovation in developing countries. We investigate whether and how free or low-cost access to scientific publications through the UN-led Research For Life (R4L) initiative leads to more scientific publications and clinical trials of authors affiliated with research institutions in developing countries. We find that free or reduced-fee access to the health science literature through Hinari (WHO-led subprogramme) increases the scientific publication output and clinical trials output of institutions in developing countries. In contrast, once we control for selection bias, we do not find empirical support for a positive Hinari effect on knowledge spillovers and local institutions' research input into global patenting, as measured by paper citations in patent documents. Main findings can be generalized to other R4L subprogrammes and are likely to also apply to the WIPO-led Access to Research for Development and Innovation (ARDI) programme.

Año de publicación: 2024

WIPO/PUB/ECONSTAT/WP/77

Artificial Intelligence and Intellectual Property: An Economic Perspective

Economic Research Working Paper No.77

The emergence of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has profound implications for intellectual property (IP) frameworks. While much of the discussion so far has focused on the legal implications, we focus on the economic dimension. We dissect AI's role as both a facilitator and disruptor of innovation and creativity. Recalling economic principles and reviewing relevant literature, we explore the evolving landscape of AI innovation incentives and the challenges it poses to existing IP frameworks. From patentability dilemmas to copyright conundrums, we find that there is a delicate balance between fostering innovation and safeguarding societal interests amidst rapid technological progress. We also point to areas where future economic research could offer valuable insights to policymakers.

Año de publicación: 2024

WIPO/PUB/1064/2023-2

The Global Publishing Industry in 2022

This report provides a global overview of the publishing industry in 2022, covering both trade and education. Data is compiled by WIPO in collaboration with Centro Regional para el Fomento del Libro en América Latina y el Caribe (CERLALC), the Federation of European Publishers (FEP), the International ISBN Agency, the International Publishers Association (IPA), and the Nielsen Company. The survey focuses on published materials with an ISBN or DOI. It aims to make industry data accessible and highlight challenges in reporting consistent data.

Año de publicación: 2023

WIPO/PUB/941/2023

World Intellectual Property Indicators 2023

This authoritative report analyzes IP activity around the globe. Drawing on 2022 filing, registration and in force statistics from national and regional IP offices, it covers patents, utility models, trademarks, industrial designs, microorganisms, plant variety protection and geographical indications. The report also draws on survey data and industry sources to give a picture of activity in the creative economy.

Año de publicación: 2023

WIPO/PUB/ECONSTAT/WP/76

Ars longa, vita brevis: The death of the creator and the impact on exhibitions and auction markets

Economic Research Working Paper No.76

This paper studies the death effect on artists' exhibitions and commercial success in the secondary art market. Based on a random sample of 1'000 popular artists born after the turn of the 20th century, we construct a novel panel data set of their worldwide exhibition history and auction transactions. By applying a regression discontinuity and event study design, we find an overall negative effect of artist death on the number of exhibitions. However, this post mortem effect disappears in longer term. Roughly ten years after death, exhibitions are back to pre-death levels. Arguably, transaction cost and higher auction prices after death also temporarily increase the average cost of exhibiting artworks, e.g. higher market valuation raises (unobserved) insurance cost for exhibitions. Hedonic auction price models confirm this intuition and suggest a significant price premium posthumously. We find substantial heterogeneity in the treatment depending on the age and reputation of the artist at death. Overall findings explain important mechanisms for the post mortem value of artistic work and have important policy implications for the creative sectors and the design of legacy stewardship rules, including a possible justification for rights granted post mortem such as copyright.

Año de publicación: 2023

WIPO/PUB/ECONSTAT/WP/75

Digitization and Availability of Artworks in Online Museum Collections

Economic Research Working Paper No.75

We provide quantitative evidence from museum collections about how copyright status affects the availability of digital images of artworks. The paper applies a regression discontinuity and differences-in-differences design to estimate online availability of artworks from U.S. collections on digital platforms. We find a strong increase in the availability of digital surrogates when copyright is perceived to expire and original artworks are likely to transition to the public domain. Moreover, artworks and surrogates made available see a large number of downstream reuses based on google image search data, which indicates online availability is of commercial and public value independent of right status. Notably, we show that upstream surrogates of public domain artworks made available by museums are positively correlated with higher image resolution quality as compared to digitized artworks still protected under copyright laws. At the same time, it seems expressed industry norms can help encourage U.S. museums to also make low-resolution surrogates of copyrighted artworks available.

Año de publicación: 2023

WIPO/PUB/924/2023

Collective Management of Text and Image-Based Works

Collective Management of Text and Image-Based Works offers a general description of collective management of copyright in the text and image sector. It provides insight into the legislative framework and national operational systems in different parts of the world.

Año de publicación: 2023

WIPO/PUB/ECONSTAT/WP/74

IP assets and film finance - a primer on standard practices in the U.S.

Economic Research Working Paper No. 74

This research summarizes the basic economics of film finance and standard practices in the U.S. movie industry. It shows how risk and uncertainty around new film finance are managed by the private sector and what market-based solutions have been developed to mitigate risk in the sector. Based on a series of expert interviews and exploratory data analysis, the research presents the most common types of financial deals on the ground and reoccurring funding practices for new film production and distribution in the past twenty years, including a discussion of most recent trends and digital changes in the sector. In particular, the research highlights the prominent role of intellectual property (IP) in financial transactions of the movie industry and it discusses policy options in the U.S. and beyond to better leverage IP assets for financing purposes.

Año de publicación: 2023

WIPO/PUB/918/23

Creative Expression: An Introduction to Copyright and Related Rights for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

Creative Expression in the "Intellectual Property for Business” series of guides provides an introduction to copyright and related rights for business managers and entrepreneurs, explaining in simple language those aspects of copyright law and practice that affect the business strategies of enterprises. This revised and updated version has added content on some of the pressing issues of the day arising from the digital revolution; on levy systems, cloud storage, etc., as well as updated information on the new WIPO treaties such as the rights of performers in audiovisual performances in the Beijing Treaty on Audiovisual Performances and access to the visually impaired under the Marrakesh treaty.

Año de publicación: 2023

WIPO/PUB/1064/2023

The Global Publishing Industry in 2021

This report provides a global overview of the publishing industry in 2021, covering both trade and education. Data is compiled by WIPO in collaboration with Centro Regional para el Fomento del Libro en América Latina y el Caribe (CERLALC), the Federation of European Publishers (FEP), the International ISBN Agency, the International Publishers Association (IPA), and the Nielsen Company. The survey focuses on published materials with an ISBN or DOI. It aims to make industry data accessible and highlight challenges in reporting consistent data.

Año de publicación: 2023