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India

The Code of Civil Procedure, 1908

 

 

The Code Of Civil Procedure, 1908 (Act No. 5 of 1908)

An Act to consolidate and amend the laws relating to the procedure of the Courts of Civil Judicature.

WHEREAS it is expedient to consolidate and amend the laws relating to the procedure of the Courts of Civil Judicature; it is hereby enacted as follows:

PART SECTIONS TITLE
1-8 PRELIMINARY
I 9-35 SUITS IN GENERAL
II 36-74 EXECUTION
III 75-78 INCIDENTAL PROCEEDINGS
IV 79-88 SUITS IN PARTICULAR CASES
V 89-93 SPECIAL PROCEEDINGS
VI 94-95 SUPPLEMENTAL PROCEEDINGS
VII 96-112 APPEALS
VIII 113-115 REFERENCE, REVIEW AND REVISION
IX 116-120 SPECIAL PROVISION RELATING TO THE HIGH COURTS NOT BEING THE COURT OF A JUDICIAL COMMISSIONER
X 121-131 RULES
XI 132-158 MISCELLANEOUS
THE FIRST SCHEDULE
PRELIMINARY

1. Short title, commencement and extent-(1) This Act may be cited as the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908.

(2)
It shall come into force on the first day of January, 1909. [2][(3) It extends to the whole of India except
(a)
the State of Jammu and Kashmir;
(b)
the State of Nagaland and the tribal areas :

Provided that the State Government concerned may, by notification in the Official Gazette, extend the provisions of this Code or any of them to the whole or part of the State of Nagaland or such tribal areas, as the case may be, with such supplemental, incidental or consequential modifications as may be specified in the notification.

Explanation-In this clause, "tribal areas" means the territories which, immediately before the 21st day of January, 1972 were included in the tribal areas of Assam as referred to in paragraph 20 of the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution.

(4) In relation to the Amindivi Islands, and the East Godavari, West Godavari and Visakhapatnam Agencies in the State of Andhra Pradesh and the Union territory of Lakshadweep, the application of this Code shall be without prejudice to the application of any rule or regulation for the time being in force in such Islands, Agencies or such Union territory, as the case may be, relating to the application of this Code.]

2. Definitions-In this Act, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context,

(1)
"Code" includes rules;
(2)
"decree" means the formal expression of an adjudication which, so far as regards the Court expressing it, conclusively determines the rights of the parties with regard to all or any of the matters in controversy in the suit and may be either preliminary or final. It shall be deemed to include the rejection of a plaint and the determination of any question within [3]* * * section 144, but shall not include
(a)
any adjudication from which an appeal lies as an appeal from an order, or
(b)
any order of dismissal for default.
Explanation-A decree is preliminary when further proceedings have to be taken before the suit can be completely disposed of. It is final when such adjudication completely disposes of the suit, it may be partly preliminary and partly final;
(3)
"decree-holder" means any person in whose favour a decree has been passed or an order capable of execution has been made;
(4)
"district" means the local limits of the jurisdiction of a principal Civil Court of original jurisdiction (hereinafter called a "District Court"), and includes the local limits of the ordinary original civil jurisdiction of a High Court;
(5)
"foreign Court" means a Court situate outside India and not established or continued by the authority of the Central Government;
(6)
"foreign judgment" means the judgment of a foreign Court;
(7)
"Government Pleader" includes any officer appointed by the State Government to perform all or any of the functions expressly imposed by this Code on the Government Pleader and also any pleader acting under the directions of the Government Pleader;

(7A) "High Court" in relation to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, means the High Court in Calcutta;

(7B) "India", except in sections 1, 29, 43, 44, 44A, 78, 79, 82, 83 and 87A, means the territory of India excluding the State of Jammu and Kashmir;

(8)
"Judge" means the presiding officer of a Civil Court;
(9)
"judgment" means the statement given by the judge of the grounds of a decree or order;
(10)
"judgment-debtor" means any person against whom a decree has been passed or an order capable of execution has been made;
(11)
"legal representative" means a person who in law represents the estate of a deceased person, and includes any person who intermeddles with the estate of the deceased and where a party sues or is sued in a representative character the person on whom the estate devolves on the death of the party so suing or sued;
(12)
"means profits" of property means those profits which the person in wrongful possession of such property actually received or might with ordinary diligence have received therefrom, together with interest on such profits, but shall not include profits due to improvements made but the person in wrongful possession;
(13)
"movable property" includes growing crops;
(14)
"order" means the formal expression of any decision of a Civil Court which is not a decree;
(15)
"pleader" means any person entitled to appear and plead for another in Court, and includes an advocate, a vakil and an attorney of a High Court;
(16)
"prescribed" means prescribed by rules :
(17)
"public officer" means a person falling under any of the following descriptions, namely:
(a)
every Judge;
(b)
every member of [4][an All-India Service];
(c)
every commissioned or gazetted officer in the military, naval or air forces of the Union while serving under the Government.
(d)
every officer of a Court of Justice whose duty it is, as such officer, to investigate or report on any matter of law or fact, or to make, authenticate or keep any document, or to take charge or dispose of any property, or to execute any judicial process, or to administer any oath, or to interpret, or to preserve order, in the court, and every person especially authorized by a Court of Justice to perform any of such duties:
(e)
every person who holds and office by virtue of which he is empowered to place or keep any person in confinement;
(f)
every officer of the Government whose duty it is, as such officer, to prevent offences to give information of offences, to bring offenders to justice, or to protect the public health, safety or convenience;
(g)
every officer whose duty it is, as such officer, to take, receive, keep or expend any property on behalf of the Government, or to make any survey, assessment or contract on behalf of the Government, or to execute any revenue process, or to investigate, or to report on, any matter affecting the pecuniary interests of the Government, or to make, authenticate or keep any document relating to the pecuniary interests of the Government, or to prevent the infraction of any law for the protection of the pecuniary interests of the Government; and
(h)
every officer in the service or pay of the Government, or remunerated by fees or commission for the performance of any public duty;
(18)
"rules" means rules and forms contained in the First Schedule or made under section 122 or section 125;
(19)
"share in a corporation" shall be deemed to include stock, debenture stock, debentures or bonds; and
(20)
"signed", save in the case of a judgment or decree, includes stamped.
  1. Subordination of Courts-For the purposes of this Code, the District Court is subordinate to the High Court, and every Civil Court of a grade inferior to that of a District Court and every Court of Small Causes is subordinate to the High Court and District Court.
  2. Savings-(1) In the absence of any specific provision to the contrary, nothing in this Code shall be deemed to limit or otherwise affect any special or local law now in force or any special jurisdiction or power conferred, or any special form of procedure prescribed, by or under any other law for the time in force.

(2) In particular and without prejudice to the generality of the proposition contained in sub-section (1) nothing in this Code shall be deemed to limit or otherwise affect any remedy which a landholder or landlord may have under any law for the time being in force for the recovery of rent of agricultural land from the produce of such land.

5. Application of the Code of Revenue Courts-(1) Where any Revenue Courts are governed by the provisions of this Code in those matters of procedure upon which any special enactment applicable to them is silent, the State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare that any portions of those provisions which are not expressly made applicable by this Code shall not apply to those Courts, or shall only apply to them with such modifications as the State Government may prescribe.

(2) "Revenue Court" in sub-section (1) means a Court having jurisdiction under any local law to entertain suits or other proceedings relating to the rent, revenue or profits of land used for agricultural purposes, but does not include a Civil Court having original jurisdiction under this Code to try such suits or proceedings as being suits or proceedings of a civil nature.

  1. Pecuniary jurisdiction-Save in so far as is otherwise expressly provided, nothing herein contained shall operate to give any Court jurisdiction over suits the amount or value of the subject-matter of which exceeds the pecuniary limits (if any) of its ordinary jurisdiction.
  2. Provincial Small Cause Courts-The following provisions shall not extend to Courts constituted under the Provincial Small Cause Courts Act, 1887 (9 of 1887) or under the Berar Small Cause Courts Laws, 1905, or to Courts exercising the jurisdiction of a Court of Small Causes under the said Act or Law or to Courts in any part of India to which the said Act does not extend exercising a corresponding jurisdiction that is to say,
(a)
so much of the body of the Code as relates to
(i)
suits excepted from the cognizance of a Court of Small Causes;
(ii)
the execution of decrees in such suits;

(iii) the execution of decrees against immovable property ; and

(b) the following sections, that is to say,

section 9,

sections 91 and 92,

sections 94 and 95 so far as they authorize or relate to

(i)
orders for the attachment of immovable property;
(ii)
injunctions,

(iii) the appointment of a receiver of immovable property, or

(iv) the interlocutory orders referred to in clause (e) of section 94 and sections 96 to 112 and 115.

8. Presidency Small Cause Courts-Save as provided in sections 24, 38 to 41, 75, clauses (a), (b) and (c), 76 [5][77, 157 and 158], and by the Presidency Small Cause Courts Act, 1882, (15 of 1882) the provisions in the body of this Code shall not extend to any suit or proceedings in any Court of Small Causes established in the towns of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay :

Provided that

(1)
the High Courts of Judicature at Fort William Madras and Bombay, as the case may be, may from time to time, by notifications in the Official Gazette, direct that any such provisions not inconsistent with the express provisions of the Presidency Small Cause Courts Act, 1882, (15 of 1882) and with such modifications and adaptation as may be specified in the notification, shall extend to suits or proceedings or any class of suits or proceedings in such Court:
(2)
all rules heretofore made by any of the said High Courts under section 9 of the Presidency Small Cause Courts Act, 1882 ( 15 of 1882) shall be deemed to have been validly made.

STATE AMENDMENTS

Gujarat-After the words Calcutta, Madras and Bombay the words "and in the City of Ahmedabad" shall be inserted.

[Gujarat Act No. XIX of 1961].

PART I-SUITS IN GENERAL

Jurisdiction of the Courts and Res judicata

9. Courts to try all civil suits unless barred— The Courts shall (subject to the provisions herein contained) have jurisdiction to try all suits of a civil nature excepting suits of which their cognizance is either expressly or impliedly barred.

[6] [Explanation I].—A suit in which the right to property or to an office is contested is a suit of a civil nature, notwithstanding that such right may depend entirely on the decision of questions as to religious rites or ceremonies.

[7] [Explanation II]. For the purposes of this section, it is immaterial whether or not any fees are attached to the office referred to in Explanation I or whether or not such office is attached to a particular place.].

STATE AMENDMENTS

Maharashtra— After section 9 insert the following section 9A.

"9A. Where at the hearing of application relating to interim relief in a suit, objection to jurisdiction is taken such issue to be decided by the court as a preliminary issue:— (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this code or any other law for the time being in force, if at the hearing of any application for granting or setting aside an order granting any interim relief, whether by way of stay, injunction, appointment of a receiver or otherwise, made in any suit, on objection to jurisdiction of the court to entertain such suit is taken by any of the parties to the suit the court shall proceed to determine at the hearing of such application the issue as to the jurisdiction as a preliminary issue before granting for setting aside the order granting the interim relief. Any such application shall be heard and disposed of by the court as expeditiously as possible and shall not in any case be adjourned to the hearing of the suit.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), at the hearing of any such application the court may grant such interim relief as it may consider necessary, pending determination by it of the preliminary issue as to the jurisdiction".

[Maharashtra Act No. 65 of 1977].

    1. Stay of suit— No Court shall proceed with the trial of any suit in which the matter in issue is also directly and substantially in issue in a previously instituted suit between the same parties, or between parties under whom they or any of them claim litigating under the same title where such suit is pending in the same or any other Court in India having jurisdiction to grant the relief claimed, or in any Court beyond the limits of India established or continued by the Central Government and having like jurisdiction, or before the Supreme Court.
    2. Explanation—The pendency of a suit in a foreign Court does not preclude the Courts in India from trying a suit founded on the same cause of action.
  1. Res judicata— No Court shall try any suit or issue in which the matter directly and substantially in issue has been directly and substantially in issue in a former suit between the same parties, or between parties under whom they or any of them claim, litigating under the same title, in a Court competent to try such subsequent suit or the suit in which such issue has been subsequently raised, and has been heard and finally decided by such Court.

Explanation I.—The expression "former suit" shall denote a suit which has been decided prior to the suit in question whether or not it was instituted prior thereto.

Explanation II.—For the purposes of this section, the competence of a Court shall be determined irrespective of any provisions as to a right of appeal from the decision of such Court.

Explanation III.—The matter above referred to must in the former suit have been alleged by one party and either denied or admitted, expressly or impliedly, by the other.

Explanation IV.—Any matter which might and ought to have been made ground of defence or attack in such former suit shall be deemed to have been a matter directly and substantially in issue in such suit.

Explanation V.—Any relief claimed in the plaint, which is not expressly granted by the decree, shall, for the purposes of this section, be deemed to have been refused.

Explanation VI.—Where persons litigate bona fide in respect of public right or of a private right claimed in common for themselves and others, all persons interested in such right shall, for the purposes of this section, be deemed to claim under the persons so litigating.

[8] [Explanation VII.—The provisions of this section shall apply to a proceeding for the execution of a decree and reference in this section to any suit, issue or former suit shall be construed as references, respectively, to proceedings for the execution of the decree, question arising in such proceeding and a former proceeding for the execution of that decree.

Explanation VIII.—An issue heard and finally decided by a Court of limited jurisdiction, competent to decide such issue, shall operate as res judicata in as subsequent suit, notwithstanding that such Court of limited jurisdiction was not competent to try such subsequent suit or the suit in which such issue has been subsequently raised.]

  1. Bar to further suit.— Where a plaintiff is precluded by rules from instituting a further suit in respect of any particular cause of action, he shall not be entitled to institute a suit in respect of such cause of action in any Court to which this Code applies.
  2. When foreign judgment not conclusive— A foreign judgment shall be conclusive as to any matter thereby directly adjudicated upon between the same parties or between parties under whom they or any of them claim litigating under the same title except—
(a)
where it has not been pronounced by a Court of competent jurisdiction;
(b)
where it has not been given on the merits of the case;
(c)
where it appears on the face of the proceedings to be founded on an incorrect view of international law or a refusal to recognise the law of India in cases in which such law is applicable;
(d)
where the proceedings in which the judgment was obtained are opposed to natural justice;
(e)
where it has been obtained by fraud;
(f)
where it sustains a claim founded on a breach of any law in force in India.
    1. Presumption as to foreign judgments.— The Court shall presume upon the production of any document purporting to be a certified copy of a foreign judgment that such judgment was pronounced by a Court of competent jurisdiction, unless the contrary appears on the record; but such presumption may be displaced by proving want of jurisdiction.
    2. Place of suing
  1. Court in which suits to be instituted— Every suit shall be instituted in the Court of the lowest grade competent to try it.
  2. Suits to be instituted where subject-matter situate— Subject to the pecuniary or other limitations prescribed by any law, suits—
(a)
for the recovery of immovable property with or without rent or profits,
(b)
for the partition of immovable property,
(c)
for foreclosure, sale or redemption in the case of a mortgage of or charge upon immovable property,
(d)
for the determination of any other right to or interest in immovable property,
(e)
for compensation for wrong to immovable property,
(f)
for the recovery of movable property actually under distraint or attachment,

shall be instituted in the Court within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the property is situate:

Provided that a suit to obtain relief respecting, or compensation for wrong to, immovable property held by or on behalf of the defendant, may where the relief sought can be entirely obtained through his personal obedience be instituted either in the Court within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the property is situate, or in the Court within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the defendant actually and voluntarily resider, or carries on business, or personally works for gain.

Explanation.— In this section "property" means property situate in India.

    1. Suits for immovable property situate within jurisdiction of different Courts— Where a suit is to obtain relief respecting, or compensation for wrong to, immovable property situate within the jurisdiction of different Court, the suit my be instituted in any Court within the local limits of whose jurisdiction any portion of the property is situate :
    2. Provided that, in respect of the value of the subject matter of the suit, the entire claim is cognizable by such Court.
  1. Place of institution of suit where local limits of jurisdiction of Courts are uncertain— (1) Where it is alleged to be uncertain within the local limits of the jurisdiction of which of two or more Courts any immovable property is situate, any one of those Courts may, if satisfied that there is ground for the alleged uncertainty, record a statement to that effect and thereupon proceed to entertain and dispose of any suit relating to that property, and its decree in the suit shall have the same effect as if the property were situate within the local limits of its jurisdiction :

Provided that the suit is one with respect to which the Court is competent as regards the nature and value of the suit to exercise jurisdiction.

(2) Where a statement has not been recorded under sub-section (1), and objection is taken before an Appellate or Revisional Court that a decree or order in a suit relating to such property was made by a Court not having jurisdiction where the property is situate, the Appellate or Revisional Court shall not allow the objection unless in its opinion there was, at the time of the institution of the suit, no reasonable ground for uncertainty as to the Court having jurisdiction with respect thereto and there has been a consequent failure of justice.

19. Suits for compensation for wrongs to person or movable— Where a suit is for compensation for wrong done to the person or to movable property, if the wrong was done within the local limits of the jurisdiction of one Court and the defendant resides, or carries on business, or personally works for gain, within the local limits of the jurisdiction of another Court, the suit may be instituted at the option of the plaintiff in either of the said Courts.

Illustrations

(a)
A, residing in Delhi, beats B in Calcutta. B may sue A either in Calcutta or in Delhi.
(b)
A, residing in Delhi, publishes in Calcutta statements defamatory of B. B may sue A either in Calcutta or in Delhi.

20. Other suits to be instituted where defendants reside or cause of action arises— Subject to the limitations aforesaid, every suit shall be instituted in Court within the local limits of whose jurisdiction—

(a)
the defendant, or each of the defendants where there are more than one, at the time of the commencement of the suit, actually and voluntarily resides, or carries on business, or personally works for gain; or
(b)
any of the defendants, where there are more than one, at the time of the commencement of the suit actually and voluntarily resides, or carries on business, or personally works for gain, provided that in such case either the leave of the Court is given, or the defendants who do not reside, or carry on business, or personally work for gain, as aforesaid, acquiesce in such institution; or
(c)
the cause of action, wholly or in part, arises.

[9] [*** *]

[10] [Explanation].—A corporation shall be deemed to carry on business at its sole or principal office in India or, in respect of any cause of action arising at any place where it has also a subordinate office, at such place.

Illustrations

(a)
A is a tradesman in Calcutta, B carries on business in Delhi. B, by his agent in Calcutta, buys goods of A and requests A to deliver them to the East Indian Railway Company. A delivers the goods accordingly in Calcutta. A may sue B for the price of the goods either in Calcutta, where the cause of action has arisen or in Delhi, where B carries on business.
(b)
A resides at Simla, B at Calcutta and C at Delhi A, B and C being together at Benaras, B and C make a joint promissory note payable on demand, and deliver it to A. A may sue B and C at Benaras, where the cause of action arose. He may also sue them at Calcutta, where B resides, or at Delhi, where C resides; but in each of these cases, if the non-resident defendant object, the suit cannot proceed without the leave of the Court.

21. Objections to jurisdiction— [11][(1)] No objection as to the place of suing shall be allowed by any appellate or Revisional Court unless such objection was taken in the Court of first instance at the earliest possible opportunity and in all cases where issues or settled at or before such settlement, and unless there has been a consequent failure of justice.

[12] [2) No objection as to the competence of a Court with reference to the pecuniary limits of its jurisdiction shall be allowed by any Appellate or Revisional Court unless such objection was taken in the Court of first instance at the earliest possible opportunity, and in all cases where issues are settled, at or before such settlement, and unless there has been a consequent failure of justice.

(3) No objection as to the competence of the executing Court with reference to the local limits of its jurisdiction shall be allowed by any Appellate or Revisional Court unless such objection was taken in the executing Court at the earliest possible opportunity, and unless there has been a consequent failure of justice.]

[13][21A. Bar on suit to set aside decree on objection as to place of suing— No suit shall lie challenging the validity of a decree passed in a former suit between the same parties, or between the parties under whom they or any of them claim, litigating under the same title, on any ground based on an objection as to the place of suing.

Explanation.—The expression "former suit" means a suit which has been decided prior to the decision in the suit in which the validity of the decree is questioned, whether or not the previously decided suit was instituted prior to the suit in which the validity of such decree is questioned].

  1. Power to transfer suits which may be instituted in more than one Court— Where a suit may be instituted in any one of two or more Courts and is instituted in one of such Courts, any defendant, after notice to the other parties, may, at the earliest possible opportunity and in all cases where issues are settled at or before such settlement, apply to have the suit transferred to another Court, and the Court to which such application is made, after considering the objections of the other parties (if any), shall determine in which of the several Courts having jurisdiction the suit shall proceed.
  2. To what Court application lies.— (1) Where the several Courts having jurisdiction are subordinate to the same Appellate Court, an application under section 22 shall be made to the Appellate Court.
(2)
Where such Courts are subordinate to different Appellate Courts but to the same High Court, the application shall be made to the said High Court.
(3)
Where such Courts are subordinate to different High Courts, the application shall be made the High Court within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the Court in which the suit is brought is situate.

24. General power of transfer and withdrawal— (1) On the application of any of the parties and after notice to the parties and after hearing such of them as desired to be heard, or of its own motion without such notice, the High Court or the District Court may at any stage—

(a)
transfer any suit, appeal or other proceeding pending before it for trial or disposal to any Court subordinate to it and competent to try or dispose of the same, or
(b)
withdraw any suit, appeal or other proceeding pending in any Court subordinate to it, and—
(i)
try or dispose of the same; or
(ii)
transfer the same for trial or disposal to any Court subordinate to it and competent to try or dispose of the same; or

(iii) retransfer the same for trial or disposal to the Court from which it was withdrawn

(2) Where any suit or proceeding has been transferred or withdrawn under sub-section (1), the Court which [14][is thereafter to try or dispose of such suit or proceeding] may, subject to any special directions in the case of any order of transfer, either retry it or proceed from the point at which it was transferred or withdrawn.

[15] [(3) For the purposes of this section,—

(a)
Courts of Additional and Assistant Judges shall be deemed to be subordinate to the District Court;
(b)
"proceeding" includes a proceeding for the execution of a decree or order.]
(4)
the Court trying any suit transferred or withdrawn under this section from a Court of Small Causes shall, for the purposes of such suit, be deemed to be a Court of Small Causes.

[16] [(5) A suit or proceeding may be transferred under this section from a Court which has no jurisdiction to try it.]

[17][25. Power of Supreme Court to transfer suits, etc.— (1) On the application of a party, and after notice to the parties, and after hearing such of them as desire to be heard, the Supreme Court may, at any stage, if satisfied that an order under this section is expedient for the ends of justice, direct that any suit, appeal or other proceeding be transferred from a High Court or other Civil Court in one State to a High Court or other Civil Court in any other State.

(2)
Every application under this section shall be made by a motion which shall be supported by an affidavit.
(3)
The Court to which such suit, appeal or other proceeding is transferred shall, subject to any special directions in the order of transfer, either retry it or proceed from the stage at which it was transferred to it.
(4)
In dismissing any application under this section, the Supreme Court may, if it is of opinion that the application was frivolous or vexatious, order the applicant to pay by way of compensation to any person who has opposed the application such sum, not exceeding two thousand rupees, as it considers appropriate in the circumstances of the case.
(5)
The law applicable to any suit, appeal or other proceeding transferred under this section shall be the law which the Court in which the suit, appeal or other proceeding was originally instituted ought to have applied to such suit, appeal or proceeding.]

Institution of suits

    1. Institution of suits— Every suit shall be instituted by the presentation of a plaint or in such other manner as may be prescribed.
    2. Summons and Discovery
  1. Summons to defendants— Where a suit has been duly instituted, a summons may be issued to the defendant to appear and answer the claim and may be served in manner prescribed.
  2. Service of summons where defendant resides in another State— (1) A summons may be sent for service in another State to such Court and in such manner as may be prescribed by rules in force in that State.

(2) The Court to which such summons is sent shall, upon receipt thereof, proceed as if it had been issued by such Court and shall then return the summons to the Court of issue together with the record (if any) of its proceedings with regard thereto.

[18] [(3) Where the language of the summons sent for service in another State is different from the language of the record referred to in sub-section (2), a translation of the record,—

(a)
in Hindi, where the language of the Court issuing the summons is Hindi, or
(b)
in Hindi or English where the language of such record is other than Hindi or English,

shall also be sent together with the record sent under that sub-section].

29. Service of foreign summonses— Summons and other processes issued by—

(a)
any Civil or Revenue Court established in any part of India to which the provisions of this Code do not extent, or
(b)
any Civil or Revenue Court established or continued by the authority of the Central Government outside India, or
(c)
any other Civil or Revenue Court outside India to which the Central Government has, by notification in the Official Gazette, declared the provisions of this section to apply,

may be sent to the Courts in the territories to which this Code extends, and served as if they were summonses issued by such Courts.

30. Power to order discovery and the like— Subject to such conditions and limitations as may be prescribed, the Court may, at any time, either of its own motion or on the application of any party,—

(a)
make such orders as may be necessary or reasonable in all matters relating to the delivery and answering of interrogatories, the admission of documents and facts, and the discovery, inspection, production, impounding and return of documents or other material objects producible as evidence;
(b)
issue summonses to persons whose attendance is required either to give evidence or to produce documents or such other objects as aforesaid;
(c)
order any fact to be proved by affidavit.
  1. Summons to witness— The provisions in sections 27, 28 and 29 shall apply to summonses to give evidence or to produce documents or other material objects.
  2. Penalty for default —The Court may compel the attendance of any person to whom a summons has been issued under section 30 and for that purpose may—
(a)
issue a warrant for his arrest;
(b)
attach and sell his property;
(c)
impose a fine upon him not exceeding five hundred rupees;
(d)
order him to furnish security for his appearance and in default commit him to the civil prison. Judgment and decree
    1. Judgment and decree— The Court, after the case has been heard, shall pronounce judgment, and on such judgment a decree shall follow.
    2. Interest
  1. Interest— (1) Where and in so far as a decree is for the payment of money, the Court may, in the decree, order interest at such rate as the Court deems reasonable to be paid on the principal sum adjudged, from the date of the suit to the date of the decree, in addition to any interest adjudged on such principal sum for any period prior to the institution of the suit, with further interest at such rate not exceeding six per cent, per annum as the Court deems reasonable on such principal sum from the date of the decree to the date of payment, or to such earlier date as the Court thinks fit :

[19] [Provided that where the liability in relation to the sum so adjudged had arisen out of a commercial transaction, the rate of such further interest may exceed six per cent, per annum, but shall not exceed the contractual rate of interest or where there is no contractual rate, the rate at which moneys are lent or advanced by nationalised banks in relation to commercial transactions.

Explanation I.—In this sub-section, "nationalised bank" means a corresponding new bank as defined in the Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act 1970 (5 of 1970).

Explanation II.—For the purposes of this section, a transaction is a commercial transaction, if it is connected with the industry, trade or business of the party incurring the liability.]

(2) Where such a decree is silent with respect to the payment of further interest on such principal sum from the date of the decree to the date of payment or other earlier date, the Court shall be deemed to have refused such interest, and a separate suit therefore shall not lie.

Costs

35. Costs— (1) Subject to such conditions and limitations as may be prescribed, and to the provisions of law for the time being in force, the costs of and incident to all suits shall be in the discretion of the Court, and the Court shall have full power to determine by whom or out of what property and to what extent such costs are to be paid, and to give all necessary directions for the purposes aforesaid. The fact that the Court has no jurisdiction to try the suit shall be no bar to the exercise of such powers.

(2)
Where the Court directs that any costs shall not follow the event, the Court shall state its reasons in writing.
35A. Compensatory costs in respect of false or vexatious claims or defenses— (1) If any suit or other proceedings including an execution proceedings but [20][excluding an appeal or a revision] any party objects to the claim of defence on the ground that the claim or defence or any part of it is, as against the objector, false or vexatious to the knowledge of the party by whom it has been put forward, and if thereafter, as against the objector, such claim or defence is disallowed, abandoned or withdrawn in whole or in part, the Court if it so thinks fit, may, after recording its reasons for holding such claim or defence to be false or vexatious, make an order for the payment to the object or by the party by whom such claim or defence has been put forward, of cost by way of compensation.
(2)
No Court shall make any such order for the payment of an amount exceeding [21][three thousand rupees] or exceeding the limits of it pecuniary jurisdiction, whichever amount is less:

Provided that where the pecuniary limits of the jurisdiction of any Court exercising the jurisdiction of a Court of Small Causes under the Provincial Small Cause Courts Act, 1887 (9 of 1887) or under a corresponding law in force in any part of India to which the said Act does not extend and not being a Court constituted under such Act or law, are less than two hundred and fifty rupees, the High Court may empower such Court to award as costs under this section any amount not exceeding two hundred and fifty rupees and not exceeding those limits by more than one hundred rupees :

Provided, further, that the High Court may limit the amount or class of Courts is empowered to award as costs under this Section.

(3)
No person against whom an order has been made under this section shall, by reason thereof, be exempted from any criminal liability in respect of any claim or defence made by him.
(4)
The amount of any compensation awarded under this section in respect of a false or vexatious claim or defence shall be taken into account in any subsequent suit for damages or compensation in respect of such claim or defence.

STATE AMENDMENTS

Uttar Pradesh— (i) For sub-section (1) of section 35A substitute the following.

"(1) If any suit or other proceedings including proceedings in execution, but not being an appeal or revision, the court finds that the claim or defence or any part thereof is false or vaxatious to the knowledge of the party by whom it has been put forward and if such claim or defence or such part is disallowed, abandoned or withdrawn in whole or in part, the court may, after recording its reasons for holding such claim or defence to be false or vexatious, make an order for the payment to the successful party or costs by way of compensation irrespective of the decisions on other issues in the case".

[U.P. Act No. 24 of 1954].

(ii) After sub-section (1) insert the following.

"(1-A) The provisions of sub-section (1) shall mutatis mutandis apply to an appeal where the appellate Court confirms the decision of the trial court and the trial court has not awarded or insufficient, compensatory cost under that subsection.

[U.P. Act No. 57 of 1976].

[22][35B. Costs for causing delay— (1) If, on any date fixed for the hearing of a suit or for taking any step therein, a party to the suit—

(a)
fails to take the step which he was required by or under this Code to take on that date, or
(b)
obtains an adjournment for taking such step or for producing evidence or on any other ground,

the Court may, for reasons to be recorded, make an order requiring such party to pay to the other party such costs as would, in the opinion of the Court, be reasonably sufficient to reimburse the other party in respect of the expenses incurred by him in attending the Court on that date, and payment of such costs, on the date next following the date of such order, shall be a condition precedent to the further prosecution of—

(a)
the suit by the plaintiff, where the plaintiff was ordered to pay such costs.
(b)
the defence by the defendant, where the defendant was ordered to pay such costs.
Explanation.—Where separate defences have been raised by the defendants or groups of defendants, payment of such costs shall be a condition precedent to the further prosecution of the defence by such defendants or groups of defendants as have been ordered by the Court to pay such costs.
(2)
The costs, ordered to be paid under sub-section (1) shall not, if paid, be included in the costs awarded in the decree passed in the suit; but, if such costs are not paid, a separate order shall be drawn up indicating the amount of such costs and the names and addresses of the persons by whom such costs are payable and the order so drawn up shall be executable against such persons.]
PART II-EXECUTION

General

[23][36. Application to orders— The provisions of this Code relating to the execution of decree (including provisions relating to payment under a decree) shall, so far as they are applicable, be deemed to apply to the execution of orders (including payment an order).]

37. Definition of Court which passed a decree— The expression "Court which passed a decree", or words to that effect, shall, in relation to the execution of decrees, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context, be deemed to include,—

(a)
where the decree to be executed has been passed in the exercise of appellate jurisdiction, the Court of first instance, and
(b)
where the Court of first instance has ceased to exist or to have jurisdiction to execute it, the Court which, if the suit wherein the decree was passed was instituted at the time of making the application for the execution of the decree, would have jurisdiction to try such suit.

[24] [Explanation.—The Court of first instance does not cease to have jurisdiction to execute a decree merely on the ground that after the institution of the suit wherein the decree was passed or after the passing of the decree, any area has been transferred from the jurisdiction of that Court to the jurisdiction of any other Court; but in every such case, such other Court shall also have jurisdiction to execute the decree, if at the time of amking the application for execution of the decree it would have jurisdiction to try the said suit.]

Courts by which decrees may be executed

  1. Court by which decree may be executed— A decree may be executed either by the court which passed it, or by the Court to which it is sent for execution.
  2. Transfer of decree— (1) The Court which passed a decree may, on the application of the decree-holder, send it for execution to another Court [25][of competent jurisdiction],—
(a)
if the person against whom the decree is passed actually and voluntarily resides or carries on business, or personally works for gain, within the local limits of the jurisdiction of such other Court, or
(b)
if such person has not property with in the local limits of the jurisdiction of the Court which passed the decree sufficient to satisfy such decree and has property within the local limits of the jurisdiction of such other Court, or
(c)
if the decree directs the sale or delivery of immovable property situate outside the local limits of the jurisdiction of the Court which passed it, or
(d)
if the Court which passed the decree considers for any other reason, which it shall record in wiring, that the decree should be executed by such other Court.
(2)
The Court which passed the decree may of its own motion send it for execution to any subordinate Court of competent jurisdiction.

[26][(3) For the purposes of this section, a Court shall be deemed to be a Court of competent jurisdiction if, at the time of making the application for the transfer of decree to it, such Court would have jurisdiction to try the suit in which such decree was passed.]

STATE AMENDMENTS

Uttar Pradesh— Sub-section (3) of section 39 shall be substituted.

"(3) For the purpose of this section, a court shall be deemed to be a court of competent jurisdiction if the amount or value of the subject matter of the suit wherein the decree was passed does not exceed the pecuniary limits if any of its ordinary jurisdiction at the time of making the application for the transfer of decree to it, notwithstanding that it had otherwise no jurisdiction to try the suit".

[U.P. Act No. 31 of 1978].

  1. Transfer of decree to Court in another State— Where a decree is sent for execution in another State, it shall be sent to such Court and executed in such manner as may be prescribed by rules in force in that State.
  2. Result of execution proceedings to be certified.— The Court to which a decree is sent for execution shall certify to the Court which passed it the fact of such execution, or where the former Court fails to execute the same the circumstances attending such failure.
  3. Powers of Court in executing transferred decree— [27][(1)] The Court executing a decree sent to it shall have the same powers in executing such decree as if it had been passed by itself. All persons disobeying or obstructing the execution of the decree shall be punishable by such Court in the same manner as if it had passed the decree. And its order in executing such decree shall be subject to the same rules in respect of appeal as if the decree had been passed by itself.

[28][(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of sub-section (1) the powers of the Court under that subsection shall include the following powers of the Court passed the decree, namely:—

(a)
power to send the decree for execution to another Court under section 39;
(b)
power to execute the decree against the legal representative of the deceased judgment-debtor under section 50;
(c)
power to order attachment of a decree.
(3)
A Court passing an order in exercise of the powers specified in sub-section (2) shall send a copy thereof to the Court which passed the decree.
(4)
Nothing in this section shall be deemed to confer on the Courts to which a decree is sent for execution any of the following powers, namely—
(a)
power to order execution at the instance of the transferee of the decree;
(b)
in the case of a decree passed against a firm, power to grant leave to execute such decree against any person other than such a person as is referred to in clause (b), or clause (c), of sub-rule (1) of rule 50 of Order XXI.]

STATE AMENDMENTS

Uttar Pradesh— Section 42 shall be substituted by following.

"42. Power of Court in executing transferred decree:— (1) The court executing a decree sent to it shall have the same powers in executing such decree as if it had been passed by itself. All persons disobeying or obstructing the decree shall be punishable by such court in the same manner as if it had passed the decree, and its order in executing such decree shall be subject to the same rules in respect of appeal as if the decree had been passed by itself.

(2)
Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of sub-section (1) the powers of the court under that sub-section shall include the following powers of the court which passed the decree, namely—
(a)
power to send the decree for execution to another court under section 39.
(b)
power to execute the decree against the legal representative of the deceased judgment debtor under section 50.
(c)
power to order attachment of a decree.
(d)
power to decide any question relating to the bar of limitation to the executability of the decree.
(e)
power to record payment or adjustment under Rule 2 of order XXI.
(f)
power to order stay of execution under Rule 29 Order XXI,
(g)
in the case of a decree passed against a firm power to grant leave to execute such decree against any person other than a person as is referred to in clause (b) or clause (c) of sub-rule (1) of Rule 50 of Order XXI.
(3)
A court passing an order in exercise of the powers specified in sub-section (2) shall send a copy there of to the court which passed the decree.
(4)
Nothing in this section shall be deemed to confer on the court to which a decree is sent for execution, the power to order execution at the instance of the transfer of a decree"

[U.P. Act No. 14 of 1970].

  1. Execution of decrees passed by Civil Courts in places to which this Code does not extend— Any decree passed by any Civil Court established in any part of India to which the provisions of this Code do not extend, or by any Court established or continued by the authority of the Central Government outside India, may, if it cannot be executed within the jurisdiction of the Court by which it was passed, be executed in the manner herein provided within the jurisdiction of any Court in the territories to which this Code extends.
  2. Execution of decrees passed by Revenue Court in places to which this Code does not extend.— The State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare that the decrees of any Revenue Court in any part of India to which the provisions of this Code do not extend or any class of such decrees, may be executed in the State as if they had been passed by Courts in that State.

44A. Execution of decrees passed by Courts in reciprocating territory— (1) Where a certified copy of decree of any of the superior Courts of any reciprocating territory has been filed in a District Court, the decree may be executed in India as if it had been passed by the District Court.

(2)
Together with the certified copy of the decree shall be filed a certificate from such superior Court stating the extent, if any, to which the decree has been satisfied or adjusted and such certificate shall, for the purposes of proceedings under this section, be conclusive proof of the extent of such satisfaction or adjustment.
(3)
The provisions of section 47 shall as from the filing of the certified copy of the decree apply to the proceedings of a District Court executing a decree under this section, and the District Court shall refuse execution of any such decree, if it is shown to the satisfaction of the Court that the decree falls within any of the exceptions specified in clauses (a) to (f) of section 13.

Explanation 1— "Reciprocating territory" means any country or territory outside India which the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare to be a reciprocating territory for the purposes of this section; and "superior Courts", with reference to any such territory, means such Courts as may be specified in the said notification.

Explanation 2.— "Decree" with reference to a superior Court means any decree or judgment of such Court under which a sum of money is payable, not being a sum payable in respect of taxes or other charges of a like nature or in respect to a fine or other penalty, but shall in no case include an arbitration award, even if such an award is enforceable as a decree or judgment.

45. Execution of decrees outside India— So much of the foregoing sections of this Part as empowers a Court to send a decree for execution to another Court shall be construed as empowering a Court in any State to send a decree for execution to any Court established by the authority of the Central Government outside India to which the State Government has by notification in the Official Gazette declared this section to apply.

STATE AMENDMENTS

Pondicherry— After section 45 insert the following:—

"45-A. Execution of decrees etc. passed or made before the Commencement of the Code in Pondicherry— Any Judgment, decree or order passed or made before the Commencement of this Code by any Civil Court in the Union Territory of Pondicherry shall for the purpose of execution be deemed to have been passed or made under this Code.

Provided that nothing contained in this section shall be construed as extending the period of limitation to which any proceeding in respect of such judgment decree or order may be subject."

[Act No. 26 of 1968].

46. Precepts— (1) Upon the application of the decree-holder the Court which passed the decree may, whenever it thinks fit, issue a precept to any other Court which would be competent to execute such decree to attach any property belonging to the judgment-debtor and specified in the precept.

(2) The Court to which a precept is sent shall proceed to attach the property in the manner prescribed in regard to the attachment of property in execution of a decree:

Provided that no attachment under a precept shall continue for more than two months unless the period of attachment is extended by an order of the Court which passed the decree or unless before the determination of such attachment the decree has been transferred to the Court by which the attachment has been made and the decree-holder has applied for an order for the sale of such property.

Questions to be determined by Court executing decree

47. Questions to be determined by the Court executing decree— (1) All questions arising between the parties to the suit in which the decree was passed, or their representatives, and relating to the execution, discharge or satisfaction of the decree, shall be determined by the Court executing the decree and not by a separate suit.

[29]* * **

(3) Where a question arises as to whether any person is or is not the representative of a party, such question shall, for the purposes of this section, be determined by the Court.

[30] [Explanation I.—For the purposes of this section, a plaintiff whose suit has been dismissed and a defendant against whom a suit has been dismissed are parties to the suit.

Explanation II.—(a) For the purposes of this section, a purchaser of property at a sale in execution of a decree shall be deemed to be a party to the suit in which the decree is passed; and

(b) all questions relating to the delivery of possession of such property to such purchaser or his representative shall be deemed to be questions relating to the execution, discharge or satisfaction of the decree within the meaning of this section.]

Limit of time for execution

    1. [Execution barred in certain cases].— Rep. by the limitation Act, 1963 (36 of 1963), s. 28 (with effect from the 1st January, 1964)
    2. Transferees and legal representatives
  1. Transferee— Every transferee of a decree shall hold the same subject to the equities (if any) which the judgment-debtor might have enforced against the original decree-holder.
  2. Legal representative— (1) Where a judgment-debtor dies before the decree has been fully satisfied, the holder of the decree may apply to the Court which passed it to execute the same against the legal representative of the deceased.

(2) Where the decree is executed against such legal representative, he shall be liable only to the extent of the property of the deceased which has come to his hands and has not been duly disposed of; and, for the purpose of ascertaining such liability, the Court executing the decree may, of its own motion or on the application of the decree-holder, compel such legal representative to produce such accounts as it thinks fit.

Procedure in execution

51. Powers of Court to enforce execution— Subject to such conditions and limitations as may be prescribed, the Court may, on the application of the decree-holder, order execution of the decree—

(a)
by delivery of any property specifically decreed;
(b)
by attachment and sale or by the sale without attachment of any property;
(c)
by arrest and detention in prison [31][for such period not exceeding the period specified in section 58, where arrest and detention is permissible under that section];
(d)
by appointing a receiver; or
(e)
in such other manner as the nature of the relief granted may require:
Provided that, where the decree is for the payment of money, execution by detention in prison shall not be ordered unless, after giving the judgment-debtor an opportunity of showing cause why he should not be committed to prison, the Court, for reasons recorded in writing, is satisfied—
(a)
that the judgment-debtor, with the object or effect of obstructing or delaying the execution of the decree,—
(i)
is likely to abscond or leave the local limits of the jurisdiction of the Court, or
(ii)
has, after the institution of the suit in which the decree was passed, dishonestly transferred, concealed, or removed any part of his property, or committed any other act of bad faith in relation to his property, or
(b)
that the judgment-debtor has, or has had since the date of the decree, the means to pay the amount of the decree or some substantial part thereof and refuses or neglects or has refused or neglected to pay the same, or
(c)
that the decree is for a sum for which the judgment-debtor was bound in a fiduciary capacity to account.

Explanation.—In the calculation of the means of the judgment-debtor for the purposes of clause (b), there shall be left out of account any property which, by or under any law or custom having the force of law for the time being in force, is exempt from attachment in execution of the decree.

STATE AMENDMENTS

Uttar Pradesh— In section 51 of the Code Clause (bb) shall be inserted after clause (b).

"(bb) by transfer other than sale by attachment or without attachment of any property"

[U.P. Act No. 24 of 1954].

52. Enforcement of decree against legal representative— (1) Where a decree is passed against a party as the legal representative of a deceased person, and the decree is for the payment of money out of the property of the deceased, it may be executed by the attachment and sale of any such property.

(2) Where no such property remains in the possession of the judgment-debtor and he fails to satisfy the Court that he has duly applied such property of the deceased as is proved to have come into his possession, the decree may be executed against the judgment-debtor to the extent of the property in respect of which he has failed so to satisfy the Court in the same manner as if the decree had been against him personally.

  1. Liability of ancestral property— For the purposes of section 50 and section 52, property in the hands of a son or other descendant which is liable under Hindu law for the payment of the debt of a deceased ancestor, in respect of which a decree has been passed, shall be deemed to be property of the deceased which has come to the hands of the son or other descendant as his legal representative.
    1. Partition of estate or separation of share— Where the decree is for the partition of an undivided estate assessed to the payment of revenue to the Government, or for the separate possession of a share of such an estate, the partition of the estate or the separation of the share shall be made by the Collector or any gazetted subordinate of the Collector deputed by him in this behalf, in accordance with the law (if any) for the time being in force relating to the partition, or the separate possession shares, of such estates.
    2. Arrest and detention
  2. Arrest and detention— (1) A judgment-debtor may be arrested in execution of a decree at any hour and on any day, and shall, as soon as practicable, be brought before the Court, and his detention may be in the civil prison of the district in which the Court ordering the detention is situate, or, where such civil prison does not afford suitable accommodation, in any other place which the State Government may appoint for the detention of persons ordered by the Courts of such district to be detained:

Provided, firstly, that, for the purpose of making an arrest under this section, no dwelling-house shall be entered after sunset and before sunrise :

Provided, secondly, that no outer door of a dwelling-house shall be broken open unless such dwelling-house is in the occupancy of the judgment-debtor and he refuses or in any way prevents access thereto, but when the officer authorised to make the arrest has duly gained access to any dwelling-house, he may break open the door of any room in which he has reason to believe the judgment-debtor is to be found :

Provided, thirdly, that, if the room is in the actual occupancy of a woman who is not the judgment-debtor and who according to the customs of the country does not appear in public, the officer authorised to make the arrest shall give notice to her that she is at liberty to withdraw, and, after allowing a reasonable time for her to withdraw and giving her reasonable facility for withdrawing, may enter the room for the purpose of making the arrest :

Provided, fourthly, that, where the decree in execution of which a judgment-debtor is arrested, is a decree for the payment of money and the judgment-debtor pays the amount of the decree and the costs of the arrest to the officer arresting him, such officer shall at once release him.

(2)
The State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare that any person or class of persons whose arrest might be attended with danger or inconvenience to the public shall not be liable to arrest in execution of a decree otherwise than in accordance with such procedure as may be prescribed by the State Government in this behalf.
(3)
Where a judgment-debtor is arrested in execution of a decree for the payment of money and brought before the Court, the Court shall inform him that he may apply to be declared an insolvent, and that he may be discharged, if he has not committed any act of bad faith regarding the subject of the application and if he complies with provisions of the law of insolvency for the time being in force.
(4)
Where a judgment-debtor express his intention to apply to be declared an insolvent and furnishes security, to the satisfaction of the Court, that he will within one month so apply, and that he will appear, when called upon, in any proceeding upon the application or upon the decree in execution of which he was arrested, the Court may release him from arrest, and, if he fails so to apply and to appear, the Court may either direct the security to be realised or commit him to the civil prison in execution of the decree.
  1. Prohibition of arrest or detention of women in execution of decree for money— Notwithstanding anything in this Part, the Court shall not order the arrest or detention in the civil prison of a woman in execution of a decree for the payment of money.
  2. Subsistence allowance— The State Government may fix scales, graduated according to rank, race and nationality, of monthly allowances payable for the subsistence of judgment-debtors.
  3. Detention and release— (1) Every person detained in the civil prison in execution of a decree shall be so detained,—

(a) where the decree is for the payment of a sum of money exceeding [32][one thousand rupees, for a period not exceeding three months, and]

[33] [(b) where the decree is for the payment of a sum of money exceeding five hundred rupees, but not exceeding one thousand rupees, for a period not exceeding six weeks :]

Provided that he shall be released from such detention before the expiration of the [34][said period of detention]—

(i)
on the amount mentioned in the warrant for his detention being paid to the officer in charge of the civil prison, or
(ii)
on the decree against him being otherwise fully satisfied, or

(iii) on the request of the person on whose application he has been so detained, or

(iv) on the omission by the person, on whose application he has been so detained, to pay subsistence allowance :

Provided, also, that he shall not be released from such detention under clause (ii) or clause (iii), without the order of the Court.

[35] [(1A) For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that no order for detention of the judgment-debtor in civil prison in execution of a decree for the payment of money shall be made, where the total amount of the decree does not exceed five hundred rupees.]

(2) A judgment-debtor released from detention under this section shall not merely by reason of his release be discharged from his debt, but he shall not be liable to be re-arrested under the decree in execution of which he was detained in the civil prison.

59. Release on ground of illness— (1) At any time after a warrant for the arrest of a judgment-debtor has been issued the Court may cancel it on ground of his serious illness.

(2)
Where a judgment-debtor has been arrested, the Court may release him if, in its opinion, he is not in a fit state of health to be detained in the civil prison.
(3)
Where a judgment-debtor has been committed to the civil prison, he may be released therefrom,—
(a)
by the State Government, on the ground of the existence of any infectious or contagious disease, or
(b)
by the committing Court, or any Court to which that Court is subordinate, on the ground of his suffering from any serious illness.
(4)
A judgment-debtor released under this section may be re-arrested, but the period of his detention in the civil prison shall not in the aggregate exceed that prescribed by section 58.

Attachment

[36][60. Property liable to attachment and sale in execution of decree— (1) The following property is liable to attachment and sale in execution of a decree, namely, lands, houses or other buildings, goods, money, banknotes, cheques, bills of exchange, hundis, promissory notes, Government securities, bonds or other securities for money, debts, shares in corporation and, save as hereinafter mentioned, all other saleable property, movable or immovable, belonging to the judgment-debtor, or over which, or the profits of which, he has a disposing power which he may exercise for his own benefit,whether the same be held in the name of the judgment-debtor or by another person in trust for him or on his behalf :

Provided that the following particulars shall not be liable to such attachment or sale, namely:—

(a)
the necessary wearing-apparel, cooking vessels, beds and bedding of the judgment-debtor, his wife and children, and such personal ornaments as, in accordance with religious usage, cannot be parted with by any woman;
(b)
tools of artisans, and, where the judgment-debtor is an agriculturist, his implements of husbandry and such cattle and seed-grain as may, in the opinion of the court, be necessary to enable him to earn his livelihood as such, and such portion of agricultural produce or of any class of agricultural produce as may have been declared to be free from liability under the provisions of the next following section;
(c)
houses and other buildings (with the materials and the sites thereof and the land immediately appurtenant thereto and necessary for their enjoyment) belonging to [37][an agriculturist or a labourer or a domestic servant] and occupied by him;
(d)
books of account;
(e)
a mere right to sue for damages;
(f)
any right of personal service;
(g)
stipends and gratuities allowed to pensioners of the government [38][or of a local authority or of any other employer] or payable out of any service pension fund notified in the Official Gazette by the Central Government or the State government in this behalf, and political pension;
(h)
the wages of labourers and domestic servants, whether payable in money or in kind;
(i)
salary to the extent of the first [39][four hundred rupees] and two third of the remainder] in execution of any decree other than a decree for maintenance.

[40] [Provided that where any part of such portion of the salary as is liable to attachment has been under attachment, whether continuously or intermittently, for a total period of twenty-four months, such portion sail be exempt from attachment until the expiry of a further period of twelve months, and, where such attachment has been made in execution of one and the same decree, shall, after the attachment has continued for a total period of twenty-four months, be finally exempt from attachment in execution of that decree.]

[41] [(ia) one-third of the salary in execution of any decree for maintenance;]

[42][(j) the pay and allowances of persons to whom the Air Force Act, 1950 (45 of 1950), or the Army Act, 1950 (46 of 1950), or the Navy Act (62 of 1957), applies;]

(k) all compulsory deposits and other sums in or derived from and fund to which the Provident funds Act, 1925, (19 of 1925), for the time being applies in so far as they are declared by the said Act not to be liable to attachment;

[43] [(ka) all deposits and other sums in or derived from any fund to which the Public Provident Fund Act, 1968 (23 of 1968) for the time being applies in so far as they are declared by the said Act as not to be liable to attachment;

(kb) all moneys payable under a policy of insurance on the life of the judgment-debtor; (kc) the interest of a lessee of a residential building to which the provisions of law for the time being in force relating to control of rents and accommodation apply;]

(1)
any allowance forming part of the emoluments of any servant of the Government or of any servant of a railway company or local authority which the appropriate Government may by notification in the Official Gazette declare to be exempt from attachment, and any subsistence grant for allowance made to any such servant while under suspension;
(m)
an expectancy of succession by survivorship or other merely contingent or possible right or interest;
(n)
a right to future maintenance;
(o)
any allowance declared by any Indian law to be exempt from liability to attachment or sale in execution of a decree; and
(p)
where the judgment-debtor is a person liable for the payment of land-revenue; any movable property which, under any law for the time being applicable to him, is exempt from sale for the recovery of an arrears of such revenue.

[44] [Explanation I.— The moneys payable in relation to the matters mentioned in clauses (g), (h), (i), (ia), (j), (1) and

(o) are exempt from attachment or sale, whether before or after they are actually payable, and, in the case of salary, the attachable portion thereof is liable to attachment, whether before or after it is actually payable].

Explanation II.— [45][In clauses (1) and (ia)], "salary" means the total monthly emoluments, excluding any allowance declared exempt from attachment under the provisions of clause (1) derived by a person from his employment whether on duty or on leave].

Explanation [46][III]—In Clause (l), "appropriate Government" means—

(i)
as respect any person in the service of the Central Government, or any servant of a Railway Administration or of a cantonment authority or of the port authority of a major port, the Central Government;
(ii)
as respects any other [47][servant of the Government] or a servant of any other local authority skilled the State Government.

[48][Explanation IV.—For the purposes of this proviso, "wages", includes bonus, and labourer" includes a skilled/unskilled or semi-skilled labourer.

Explanation V.—For the purposes of this proviso, the expression "agriculturist" means a person who cultivates land personally and who depends for his livelihood mainly on the income from agricultural land, whether as owner, tenant, partner or agricultural labourer.

Explanation VI.—For the purposes of Explanation V, an agriculturist shall be deemed to cultivate land personally, if he cultivates land—

(a)
by his own labour, or
(b)
by the labour of any member of his family, or
(c)
by servants or labourers on wages payable in case or in kind (not being as a share of the produce), or both.]

[49] (1A) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force, an agreement by which a person agrees to waive the benefit on any exemption under this section shall be void.]

(2) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to exempt houses and other buildings (with the materials and the sites thereof and the land immediately appurtenant thereto and necessary for their enjoyment) from attachment or sale in execution of decrees for rent of any such house, building, site or land.

STATE AMENDMENTS

Andhra Pradesh— In its application to Andhra area of the State of Andhra Pradesh in section 60(1) clause (g) of the proviso after the words "pensioners of the Government" the words "or a local authority" shall be inserted

[C.P.C. (Andhra Pradesh) (Andhra area) Amendment Act 1950] In its application to whole of State of A.P. in proviso to sub-section (1) of section 60.

(i) after clause (k) the following shall be inserted.

"(kk) amount payable under policies issued in pursuance of the Rules for the Andhra Pradesh Govt. life Insurance and

Provident Fund".

(ii)
after Explanation 2 insert the following:"Explanation 2A.— Where any sum payable to a Government servant is exempt from attachment under the provisions
of clause (kk), such sum shall remain exempt from attachment notwithstanding the fact that owing to the death of the Govt. servant it is payable to same other person" [Act No. XI of 1953 and Act No. X of 1962]. In its application to Hyderabad area of Andhra Pradesh:
(i)
after clause (g) of the proviso to section 60 (1) insert the following:
"(gg) pension granted or continued by the Central Govt. the Govt. of Hyderabad or any other State Govt. on account of part services or present infirmities or as a compassionate allowance and."
(ii)
In Explanation 2A, for the words brackets and letter "Clause (kk)" substitute "Clause (gg) or Clause (kk)"

[A.P. Act No. XVIII of 1953]. In its application to the State of Andhra Pradesh:

(i)
After clause (kk) of Section 60(1) proviso the following inserted: "(kkk) amounts payable under the Andhra Pradesh State Employees Family Benefit Fund Rules."
(ii)
For the words "(kk)', in Explanation 2A, the words "(kkk) inserted.(A.P. Act No. 24 of 1979). Gujarat— (i) In section 60(1) after clause (g) insert the following. "(gg) stipends and gratuities allowed to pensioners of a local authority".
(ii)
Explanation 1, after the word "(g)" insert "(gg)". [Bombay Act No. LX of 1948). Himachal Pradesh— (i) In section 60 (1) at the end of Clause (c) insert the following. "or compensation paid for such houses and buildings (including compensation for the materials and the sites and the
land referred to above) acquired for public purpose".
(ii)
After clause (c), clause (cc) shall be inserted. "(cc) Compensation paid for agricultural lands belonging to agriculturists and acquired for public purpose".

[C.P.C. (H.P. Amendment) Act 1956].

Karnataka— In section 60 (1) after clause (p) the following shall be inserted in its application to Karnataka (except Bellary District).

"(pp) Where the judgment-debtor is a servant of the State Govt. who has insured his life under the rules in force relating to the official branch of Karnataka Govt. Life Insurance Department:—

(1)
in the case of insurance effected prior to the ninth day of may, 1911 the whole of the bonus payable or paid thereunder to such servant, or in the event of his death to his nominee or other person or persons entitled to such bonus under the said rules, and
(2)
in the case of Insurance effected on or after the ninth day of May, 1911, and such insurance is Compulsory premia payable or paid to such servant or in the event of his death to his nominee or other person or persons entitled to such bonus under the said rules.

[C.P.C. (Mysore Amendment) Act, 1952]. Kerala— After clause (g) the following clause (gg) shall be inserted:"(gg) all moneys payable to the beneficiaries under the Family Benefit Scheme for the employee of the Government of

Kerala.

[Kerala Act 1 of 1988].

Maharashtra— (i) In section 60(1) after clause (g) of the proviso insert the following:—

"(gg) in the Hyderabad area of the State of Maharashtra any pension granted or continued by the Central Govt. or the Govt. of the former State of Hyderabad or any other State Govt. on account of part services or present infirmities or as a compassionate allowance which is not covered by clause (g)".

(ii) after clause (kb) insert the following:

"(kbb) the amounts payable under the policies issued in pursuance of the Rules for the Hyderabad State Life Insurance and Provident Fund, which are not covered under clause (ka) or (kb)". [Maharashtra Act No. LXV of 1977]. Punjab and Haryana— (i) In clause (c) of the proviso to section 60 (1) for the words "occupied by him" substitute the

following:"not proved by the decree holder to have been let out on rent or lent to persons other than his father mother, wife, son, daughter, daughter in law, brother, sister or other dependents or left vacant for a period of a year or more".

(ii) after clause (c) insert the following:

"(cc) milch animals, whether in milk or in calf, animals used for the purposes of transport or draught cart and open spaces or endorures belonging to an agriculturist and required for use in case of need for tying cattle parking carts or stacking fodder or manure.

(ccc) one main residential house and other buildings attached to it (with the material and the sites there of and the land immediately appurtenant there to and necessary for there enjoyment belonging to a judgment-debtor other than an agriculturist and occupied by him:

Provided that the protection afforded by this clause shall not extend to any property specifically charged with the debt sought to be recovered".

(iii) after sub-section (2) insert the following sub-sections.

"(3) Notwithstanding any other law for the time being in force an agreement by which a debtor agrees to waive any benefit of any exemption under this section shall be void.

(4)
For the purposes of this section the word `agriculturist' shall include every person whether as owner tenant partner or agricultural labour who depends for his livelihood mainly on income from agricultural land as defined in the Punjab Alienation of Land Act. 1910.
(5)
Every member of a tribe notified as agricultural under the Punjab Alienation of Land Act, 1900 and every member of a scheduled caste shall be presumed to be as agriculturist until the contrary is provided.
(6)
No order for attachment shall be made unless the court is satisfied that the property sought to be attached is not exempt from attachment or sale"

[Punjab Act No. VII of 1934, 12 of 1940, 6 of 1946 and 44 of 1960].

Rajasthan — (i) In clause (b) of section 60 (1) after the word `Agriculturist' the words `his milch cattle and those likely to calve within two years' shall be inserted.

(ii) after clause (k) of the proviso to section 60 (1) insert the following.

"(kk) moneys payable under life Insurance Certificates issued in pursuance of the Rajasthan Govt. Servants Insurance Rules, 1953".

(iii) after Explanation 3 insert the following:

"Explanation 4.— Where any money payable to a Govt. servant of the state is exempt from attachment under the provision contained in clause (kk), such money shall remain exempt from the attachment notwithstanding the fact there owing to the death of a Govt. servant it is payable to some other person".

[Rajasthan Act No. 16 of 1957 and 19 of 1958].

Tamil Nadu— "Section 60 (1), clause (g) of the proviso after the words `stipends and gratuties allowed to the pensioners of the Govt. insert the words "or of a local authority"

[C.P.C. (Madras Amendment) Act, 1950].

Union Territory of Chandigarh— Same as in Punjab and Haryana

[Act No. 31 of 1966].

Union Territory of Pundicherry— Same as in Tamil Nadu

[Act No. 26 of 1968].

Uttar Pradesh— In section 60(1) after Explanation 1 add the following:

"Explanation 1-A.— Particulars mentioned in clause (c) are exempt from sale in execution of a decree whether passed before or after the commencement of the Code of Civil Procedure (United Provinces) Amendment Act, 1948 for enforcement of a mortgage of charge thereon".

[U.P. Act No. 35 of 1948].

  1. Partial exemption of agricultural produce— The State Government may, by general or special order published in the Official Gazette, declare that such portion of agricultural produce, or of any class of agricultural produce, as may appear to the State Government to be necessary for the purpose of providing until the next harvest the due cultivation of the land and for the support of the judgment-debtor and his family, shall, in the case of all agriculturists or of any class of agriculturists, be exempted from liability to attachment or sale in exaction of a decree.
  2. Seizure of property in dwelling-house— (1) No person executing any process under this Code directing or authorizing seizure of movable property shall enter any dwelling-house after sunset and before sunrise.
(2)
No outer door of a dwelling-house shall be broken open unless such dwelling-house is in the occupancy of the judgment-debtor and he refuses or in any way prevents access thereto, but when the person executing any such process has duly gained access to any dwelling-house, he may break open the door of any room in which he has reason to believe any such property to be.
(3)
Where a room in a dwelling-house is in the actual occupancy of a woman who, according to the customs of the country, does not appear in public, the person executing the process shall give notice to such woman that she is at liberty to withdraw; and, after allowing reasonable time for her to withdraw and giving her reasonable facility for widhrawing, he may enter such room for the purpose of seizing the property, using at the same time every precaution, consistent with these provisions, to prevent its clandestine removal.

63. Property attached in execution of decrees of several Courts— (1) Where property not in the custody of any Court is under attachment in execution of decrees of more Courts than one, the Court which shall receive or realize such property and shall determine any claim thereto any objection to the attachment thereof shall be the Court of highest grade, or, where there is no difference in grade between such Courts, the Court under whose decree the property was first attached.

(2) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to invalidate any proceeding taken by a Court executing one of such decrees.

[50] [Explanation.—For the purposes of sub-section (2), "proceeding taken by a Court" does not include an order allowing, to a decree-holder who has purchased property at a sale held in execution of a decree, set off to the extent of the purchase price payable by him.]

64. Private alienation of property after attachment to be void— Where an attachment has been made, any private transfer or delivery of the property attached or of any interest there in and any payment to the judgment-debtor of any debt, dividend or other monies contrary to such attachment, shall be void as against all claims enforceable under the attachment.

Explanation—For the purposes of this section, claims enforceable under an attachment include claims for the rateable distribution of assets.

Sale

  1. Purchaser's title— Where immovable property is sold in execution of a decree and such sale has become absolute, the property shall be deemed to have vested in the purchaser from the time when the property is sold and not from the time when the sale becomes absolute.
  2. [51][* * * *]
  3. Power for State Government to make rules as to sales of land in execution of decrees for payment of money— (1) The State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, make rules for any local area imposting conditions in respect of the sale of any class of interests in land in execution of decrees for the payment of money, where such interests are so uncertain or undermined as, in the opinion of the State Government to make it impossible to fix their value.

(2) When on the date on which this Code came into operation in any local area, any special rules as to sale of and in execution of decrees were in force therein, the State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare such rules to be in force, or may by a like notification, modify the same.

Every notification issued in the exercise of the powers conferred by this sub-section shall set out the rules so continued or modified.

[52] [(3) Every rule made under this section shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before the State Legislature.]

Delegation to Collector of power to execute decrees against immovable property

68.—72. Rep. by the Code of Civil Procedure (Amendment) Act, 1956 (66 of 1956), s. 7.

Distribution of assests

73. Proceeds of execution-sale to be reateably distributed among decree-holders— (1) Where assests are held by a Court and more persons than one have, before the receipt of such assests, made application to the Court for the execution of decrees for the payment of money passed against the same judgment-debtor and have not obtained satisfaction thereof, the assests, after deducting the costs of realization, shall be reteably distributed among all such persons :

Provided as follows :—

(a)
where any property is sold subject to a mortgage or charge, the mortgage or incumbrancer shall not be entitled to share in any surplus arising from such sale;
(b)
where any property liable to be sold in execution of a decree is subject to a mortgage or charges the Court may, with the consent of the mortgagee or incumbrancer, order that the property be sold free from the mortgage or charge, giving to the mortgagee or incumbrancer the same interest in the proceeds of the sale as he had in the property sold;
(c)
where any immovable property is sold in execution of a decree ordering its sale for the discharge of an incumbrance thereon, the proceeds of sale shall be applied—

first, in defraying the expenses of the sale;

secondly, in discharging the amount due under the decree;

thirdly, in discharging the interest and principal moneys due on subsequent incumbrances (if any); and

fourthly, rateably among the holders of decrees for the payment of money against the judgment debtor, who have, prior to the sale of the property, applied to the Court which passed the decree ordering such sale for execution of such decrees, and have not obtained satisfaction thereof.

(2)
Where all or any of the assests liable to be rateably distributed under this section are paid to a person not entitled to receive the same, any person so entitled may sue such person to compel him to refund the assets.
(3)
Nothing in this section affects any right of the Government.

Resistance to execution

74. Resistance to execution— Where the Court is satisfied that the holder of a decree for the possession of immovable property or that the purchaser of immovable property sold in execution of a decree has been resisted or obstructed in obtaining possession of the property by the judgment-debtor or some person on his behalf and that such resistance or obstruction was without any just cause, the Court may, at the instance of the decree-holder or purchaser, order the judgment-debtor or such other person to be detained in the civil prison for a term which may extend to thirty days and may further direct that the decree-holder or purchaser be put into possession of the property.

PART III-INCIDENTAL PROCEEDINGS

Commissions

75. Power of court to issue commissions-Subject to such conditions and limitations as may be prescribed, the court may issue a commission

(a)
to examine any person;
(b)
to make a local investigation;
(c)
to examine or adjust accounts; or
(d)
to make a partition;

[53] [(e) to hold a scientific, technical, or expert investigation;

(f)
to conduct sale of property which is subject to speedy and natural decay and which is in the custody of the Court pending the determination of the suit;
(g)
to perform any ministerial act.]

76. Commission to another Court-(1) A commission for the examination of any person may be issued to any Court (not being a High Court) situate in a State other than the State in which the Court of issue is situate and having jurisdiction in the place in which the person to be examined resides.

(2) Every Court receiving a commission for the examination of any person under sub-section (1) shall examine him or cause him to be examined pursuant thereto, and the commission, when it has been duly executed, shall be returned together with the evidence taken under it to the Court from which it was issued, unless the order for issuing the commission has otherwise directed, in which case the commission shall be returned in terms of such order.

  1. Letter of request-In lieu of issuing a commission the Court may issue a letter of request to examine a witness residing at any place not within India.
  2. Commissions issued by foreign Courts-Subject to such conditions and limitations as may be prescribed the provisions as to the execution and return of commissions for the examination of witnesses shall apply to commissions issue by or as the instance of
(a)
Courts situate in any part of India to which the provisions of this Code do not extend; or
(b)
Courts established or continued by the authority of the Central Government outside India, or
(c)
Courts of any State or country outside India.
PART IV-SUITS IN PARTICULAR CASES

Suits by or against the Government or public officers in their official capacity.

79. Suits by or against Government— In a suit by or against the Government, the authority to be named as plaintiff or defendant, as the case may be, shall be—

(a)
in the case of a suit by or against the Central Government, the Union of India, and
(b)
in the case of a suit by or against a State Government, the State.

80. Notice— [54][(1)][55][Save as otherwise provided in sub-section (2), no suits shall be instituted against the Government (including the Government of the State of Jammu & Kashmir) or against a public officer in respect of any act purporting to be done by such officer in his official capacity, until the expiration of two months next after notice in writing has been delivered to, or left at the office of—

(a)
in the case of a suit against the Central Government, except where it relates to a railway, a Secretary to that Government;
(b)
in the case of a suit against the Central Government where it relates to railway, the General Manager of that railway;
(bb) in the case of a suit against the Government of the State of Jammu and Kashmir the Chief Secretary to that Government or any other officer authorised by that Government in this behalf;
(c)
in the case of a suit against any other State Government, a Secretary to that Government or the Collector of the district;

and, in the case of a public officer, delivered to him or left at this office, stating the cause of action, the name, description and place of residence of the plaintiff and the relief which he claims; and the plaint shall contain a statement that such notice has been so delivered or left.

[56] [(2) A suit to obtain an urgent or immediate relief against the Government (including the Government of the State of Jammu & Kashmir) or any public officer in respect of any act purporting to be done by such public officer in his official capacity, may be instituted, with the leave of the Court, without serving any notice as required by sub-section (1); but the Court shall not grant relief in the suit, whether interim or otherwise, except after giving to the Government or public officer, as the case may be, a reasonable opportunity of showing cause in respect of the relief prayed for in the suit :

Provided that the Court shall, if it is satisfied, after hearing the parties, that no urgent or immediate relief need be granted in the suit, return the plaint for presentation to it after complying with the requirements of sub-section (1).

(3)
No suit instituted against the Government or against a public officer in respect of any act purporting to be done by such public officer in his official capacity shall be dismissed merely by reason of any error or defect in the notice referred to in sub-section (1), if in such notice—
(a)
the name, description and the residence of the plaintiff had been so given as to enable the appropriate authority or the public officer to identify the person serving the notice and such notice had been delivered or left at the office of the appropriate authority specified in sub-section (1), and
(b)
the cause of action and the relief claimed by the plaintiff had been substantially indicated.]

STATE AMENDMENTS

Madhya Pradesh — (i) After sub-section (3) of Section 80 the following inserted:

"(4) where in a suit or proceeding referred to in Rule 3B of Order 1, the state is joined as a defendant or non applicant or where the Court orders joinder of the State as defendant or non applicant in exercise of powers under Rule 10(2) of order 1 such suit or proceeding shall not be dismissed by reasons of Omission of the plaintiff or applicant to issue notice under sub-section (1)".

(ii) In sub-section (1) of section 80 for the words "sub-section (2)" substitute "sub-section (2) or (4)".

[M.P. Act No. 29 of 1948].

81. Exemption from arrest and personal appearance— In a suit instituted against a public officer in respect of any act purporting to be done by him in his official capacity—

(a)
the defendant shall not be liable to arrest nor his property to attachment otherwise than in execution of a decree, and
(b)
where the Court is satisfied that the defendant cannot absent himself from his duty without detriment to the public service, it shall exempt him from appearing in person.

82. Execution of decree— [57](1) Where, in a suit by or against the Government or by or against a public officer in respect of any act purporting to be done him in his official capacity, a decree is passed against the Union of India or a State or, as the case may be, the public officer, such decree shall not be executed except in accordance with the provisions of sub-section(2)].

(2)
Execution shall not be issued on any such decree unless it remains unsatisfied for the period of three months computed from the date of [58][such decree].
(3)
The provisions of sub-sections (1) and (2) shall apply in relation to an order or award as they apply in relation to a decree, if the order or award—
(a)
is passed or made against the Union of India or a State or a public officer in respect of any such act as aforesaid, whether by a Court or by any other authority; and
(b)
is capable of being executed under the provisions of this code or of any other law for the time being in force as if it were a decree.

Suits by Alliens and by or against Foreign Rulers, Ambassadors and Envoys

    1. When aliens may sue— Alien enemies residing in India with the permission of the Central Government, and alien friends, may sue in any Court otherwise competent to try the suit, as if they were citizens of India, but alien enemies residing in India without such permission, or residing in a foreign country, shall not sue in any such court.
    2. Explanation—Every person residing in a foreign country, the Government of which is at war with India and carrying on business in that country without a licence in that behalf granted by the Central Government, shall, for the purpose of this section, be deemed to be an alien enemy residing in a foreign country.
    1. When foreign State may sue.— A foreign State may sue in any competent Court:
    2. Provided that the object of the suit is to enforce a private right vested in the Ruler of such State or in any officer of such State in his public capacity.
  1. Persons specially appointed by Government to prosecute or defend on behalf of foreign Rulers— (1) The Central Government may, at the request of the Ruler of a foreign State or at the request of any person competent in the opinion of the Central Government to act on behalf of such Ruler, by order, appoint any persons to prosecute or defend any suit on behalf of such Ruler, and any persons so appointed shall be deemed to be the recognized agents by whom appearances, acts and applications under this Code may be made or done on behalf of such Ruler.
(2)
An appointment under this section may be made for the purpose of a specified suit or of several specified suits, or for the purpose of all such suits as it may from time to time be necessary to prosecute or defend on behalf of such Ruler.
(3)
A person appointed under this section may authorise or appoint any other persons to make appearances and applications and do acts in any such suit or suits as if he were himself a party thereto.

86. Suits against foreign Rulers, Ambassadors and Envoys— (1) No.****[59] foreign State may be sued in any Court otherwise competent to try the suit except with consent of the Central Government certified in writing by a Secretary to that Government :

Provided that a person may, as a tenant of immovable property, sue without such consent as aforesaid [60][a foreign State] from whom he holds or claims to hold the property.

(2)
Such consent may be given with respect to a specified suit or to several specified suits or with respect to all suits of any specified class or classes, and may specify, in the case of any suit or class of suits, the Court in which [61][the foreign State] may be sued, but it shall to be given, unless it appears to the Central Government that [62][the foreign State].
(a)
has instituted a suit in the Court against the person desiring to sue [63][it], or
(b)
[64][itself] or another, trades within the local limits of the jurisdiction of the Court, or
(c)
is in possession of immovable property situate within those limits and is to be sued with reference to such property or for money charged thereon, or
(d)
has expressly or impliedly waived the privilege accorded to [65][it] by this section.

[66] [(3) Except with the consent of the Central Government, certified in writing by a Secretary to that government, no decree shall be executed against the property of any foreign State.]

(4) The proceeding provisions of this section shall apply in relation to —

[67] [(a) any Ruler of a foreign State;]

[68] [(aa)] any ambassador or Envoy of a foreign State ;

(b)
any High Commissioner of a Commonwealth country; and
(c)
any such member of the staff [69][of the foreign State or the staff or retinue of the Ambassador] or Envoy of a foreign State or of the High Commissioner of a Commonwealth country as the Central Government may, by general or special order, specify in this behalf.

[70][as they apply in relation to a foreign State].

[71][(5) the following persons shall not be arrested under this Code, namely : —

(a)
any ruler of a foreign State;
(b)
any Ambassador or Envoy of a foreign State;
(c)
any High Commissioner of a Commonwealth country;
(d)
any such member of the staff of the foreign State or the staff or retinue of the Ruler, Ambassador or Envoy of a foreign State or of the High Commissioner of a Commonwealth country, as the Central Government may, by general or special order, specify in this behalf.
(6)
Where a request is made to the Central Government for the grant of any consent referred to in sub-section (1), the Central Government shall, before refusing to accede to the request in whole or in part, give to the person making the request a reasonable opportunity of being heard.]

87. Style of foreign Rulers as parties to suits— The Ruler of a foreign State may sue, and shall be sued, in the name of his State:

Provided that in giving the consent referred to in section 86, the Central Government may direct that the Ruler may be sued in the name of an agent or in any other name.

87A. Definitions of "foreign State" and "Ruler" — (1) In this Part,—

(a)
"foreign State" means any State outside India which has been recognised by the Central Government; and
(b)
"Ruler", in relation to a foreign State, means the person who is for the time being recognized by the Central Government to be the head of that State.
(2)
Every Court shall take judicial notice of the fact —
(a)
that a state has or has not been recognized by the Central Government;
(b)
that a person has or has not been recognized by the Central Government to be the head of a State.

Suits against Rulers of former Indian States

87B. Applications of sections 85 and 86 to Rulers of former Indian States.— (1) In the case of any suit by or against the Ruler of any former Indian State which is based wholly or in part upon a cause of action which arose before the commencement of the Constitution or any proceedings arising out of such suit, the provisions of section 85 and subsections (1) and (3) of section 86 shall apply in relation to such Ruler as they apply in relation to the Ruler of a foreign State.

(2)
In this section—
(a)
"former Indian State" means any such Indian State as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify for the purposes of this;
(b)
"commencement of the Constitution" means the 26th day of January, 1950; and
(c)
"Ruler" in relation to a former Indian State, has the same meaning as in article 363 of the Constitution.RInterpleader

88. Where interpleader suit may be reinstituted— Where two or more persons claim adversely to one another the same debts, sum of money or other property, movable or immovable, from another person, who claims no interest therein other than for charges or costs and who is ready to pay or deliver it to the rightful claimant such other person may institute a suit of interpleader against all the claimants for the purpose of obtaining a decision as to the person to whom the payment or delivery shall be made and of obtaining indemnity for himself:

Provided that where any suit is pending in which the rights of all parties can properly be decided, no such suit of interpleader shall be instituted.

PART V-SPECIAL PROCEEDINGS

Arbitration

  1. [Arbitration.] Rep. by the Arbitration Act, 1940 (10 of 1940), s. 49 and Sch. III Special case
    1. Power to state case for opinion of Court— Where any person agree in writing to state a case for the opinion of the Court, then the Court shall try and determine the same in the manner prescribed.
    2. [72][Public nuisances and other wrongful acts affecting the public]
  2. Public nuisances and other wrongful acts affecting the public.— [73][(1) in the case of a public nuisance or other wrongful act affecting, or likely to affect, the public, a suit for a declaration and injunction or for such other relief as may be appropriate in the circumstances of the case, may be instituted,—
(a)
by the Advocate General, or
(b)
with the leave of the Court, by two or more persons, even though no special damage has been caused to such persons by reason of such public nuisance or other wrongful act.]
(2)
Nothing in this section shall be deemed to limit or otherwise affect any right of suit which may exist independently of its provisions.

92. Public charities— (1) In the case of any alleged breach of any express or constructive trust created for public purposes of a charitable or religious nature, or where the direction of the Court is deemed necessary for the administration of any such trust, the Advocate-General, or two or more persons having an interest in the trust and having obtained the [74][leave of the Court] may institute a suit, whether contentious or not, in the principal Civil Court of original jurisdiction or in any other Court empowered in that behalf by the State Government within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the whole or any part of the subject-matter of the trust is situate to obtain a decree—

(a)
removing any trustee;
(b)
appointing a new trustee;
(c)
vesting any property in a trustee;
(cc)
directing a trustee who has bee removed or a person who has ceased to be a trustee, to deliver possession of any trust property in his possession to the person entitled to the possession of such property;
(d)
directing accounts and inquires;
(e)
declaring what proportion of the trust property or of the interest therein shall be allocated to any particular object of the trust;
(f)
authorizing the whole or any part of the trust property to be let, sold, mortgaged or exchanged;
(g)
settling a scheme; or
(h)
granting such further or other relief as the nature of the case may require.
(2)
Save as provided by the Religious Endowments Act, 1863 (20 of 1863) or by any corresponding law in force in the territories which, immediately before the 1st November, 1956, were comprised in Part B States, no suit claiming any of the reliefs specified in sub-section (1) shall be instituted in respect of any such trust as is therein referred to except in conformity with provisions of that sub-section.

[75] [(3) The Court may alter the original purposes of an express or constructive trust created for public purposes of a charitable or religious nature and allow the property or income of such trust or any portion thereof to be applied cy press in one or more the following circumstances, namely:—

(a)
where the original purposes of the trust, in whole or in part,—
(i)
have been, as far as may be, fulfilled; or
(ii)
cannot be carried out at all, or cannot be carried out according to the directions given in the instrument creating the trust or, where there is no such instrument, according to the spirit of the trust;
(b)
where the original purposes of the trust provide a use for a part only of the property available by virtue of the trust; or
(c)
where the property available by virtue of the trust and other property applicable for similar purposes can be more effectively used in conjunction with, and to that end can suitably be made applicable to any other purpose, regard being had to the spirit of the trust and its applicability to common purposes; or
(d)
where the original purposes, in whole or in part, were laid down by reference to an area which then was, but has since ceased to be, a unit for such purposes; or
(ii)
ceased, as being useless or harmful to the community, or

(iii) ceased to be, in law, charitable, or

(iv) ceased in any other way to provide a suitable and effective method of using the property available by virtue of the trust, regard being had to the spirit of the trust.] STATE AMENDMENTS

Uttar Pradesh— After clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 92 insert the following: "(bb) for delivery of possession of any trust property against a person who has ceased to be trustee or has been removed".

[U.P. Act No. 24 of 1954].

93. Exercise of powers of Advocate-General outside presidency-towns— The powers conferred by sections 91 and 92 on the Advocate-General may, outside the presidency-towns, be, with the previous sanction of the State Government, exercised also by the Collector or by such officer as the State Government may appoint in this behalf.

PART VI-SUPPLEMENTAL PROCEEDINGS

94. Supplemental Proceedings— In order to prevent the ends of justice from being, defeated the Court may, if it is to prescribed,—

(a)
issue a warrant to arrest the defendant and bring him before the Court to show cause why he should not give security for his appearance, and if he fails to comply with any order for security commit him to the civil prison;
(b)
direct the defendant to furnish security to produce any property belonging to him and to place the same at the disposal of the Court or order the attachment of any property;
(c)
grant a temporary injunction and in case of disobedience commit the person guilty thereof to the civil prison and order that his property be attached and sold;
(d)
appoint a receiver of any property and enforce the performance of his duties by attaching and selling his property;
(e)
make such other interlocutory orders as may appear to the Court to be just and convenient.

95. Compensation for obtaining arrest, attachment or injunction on insufficient grounds— Where, in any suit in which an arrest or attachment has been effected or a temporary injunction granted under the last preceding section,—

(a)
it appears to the Court that such arrest, attachment or injunction was applied for on insufficient grounds, or
(b)
the suit of the plaintiff fails and it appears to the Court that there was no reasonable or probable grounds for instituting the same,

the defendant may apply to the Court, and the Court may, upon such application, award against the plaintiff by its order such amount, not exceeding one thousand rupees, as it deems a reasonable compensation to the defendant for the [76][expense or injury (including injury to reputation) caused to him];

Provided that a Court shall not award, under this section, an amount exceeding the limits of its peculiar jurisdiction.

(2) An order determining any such application shall bar any suit for compensation in respect of such arrest, attachment or injunction.

PART VII-APPEALS

Appeals from original decrees

96. Appeal from original decree— (1) Save where otherwise expressly provided in the body of this Code or by any other law for the time being in force, an appeal shall lie from every decree passed by any Court exercising original jurisdiction the Court authorized to hear appeals from the decisions of such Court.

(2)
An appeal may lie from an original decree passed ex parte.
(3)
No appeal shall lie from a decree passed by the Court with the consent of parties.

[77] [(4) No appeal shall lie, except on a question of law, from a decree in any suit of the nature cognisable by Courts of Small Cause, when the amount or value of the subject-matter of the original suit does not exceed three thousand rupees.]

  1. Appeal from final decree where no appeal from preliminary decree— Where any party aggrieved by a preliminary decree passed after the commencement of this Code does not appeal from such decree, he shall be precluded from dispating its correctness in any appeal with may be preferred from the final decree.
  2. Decision where appeal heard by two or more Judges— (1) Where an appeal is heard by a Bench of two or more Judges, the appeal shall be decided in accordance with the opinion of such Judges or of the majority (if any) of such Judges.
(2)
Where there is no such majority which concurs in a judgment varying or reversing the decree appealed from, such decree shall be confirmed :
Provided that where the Bench hearing the appeal is [78][composed of two or other even number of Judges belonging to a Court consisting of more Judges than those constituting the Bench] and the Judges composing the Bench differ in opinion on a point of law, they may state the point of law upon which they differ and the appeal shall then be heard upon that point only by one or more of the other Judges, and such point shall be decided according to the opinion of the majority (if any) of the Judges who have heard the appeal including those who first heard it.
(3)
Nothing in this section shall be deemed to alter or otherwise affect any provision of the letters patent of any High Court.

99. No decree to be reversed or modified for error or irregularity not affecting merits or jurisdiction— No decree shall be reversed or substantially varied, nor shall any case be remanded in appeal on account of any misjoinder [79][or non-joinder] of parties or causes of action or any error, defect or irregularity in any proceedings in the suit, not affecting the merits of the case or the jurisdiction of the Court.

[80][Provided that nothing in this section shall apply to non-joinder of a necessary party.]

[81][99A. No order under section 47 to be refused or modified unless decision of the case is prejudicially affected— Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of section 99, no order under section 47 shall be reversed or substantially varied, on account of any error, defect or irregularity in any proceeding relating to such order, unless such error, defect or irregularity has prejudicially affected the decision of the case.}

Appeals from appellate decrees

[82][100. Second appeal— (1) Save as otherwise expressly provided in the body of this Code or by any other law for the time being in force, an appeal shall lie to the High Court from every decree passed in appeal by any Court subordinate to the High Court, if the High Court is satisfied that the case involves a substantial question of law.

(2)
An appeal may lie under this section from an appellate decree passed ex parte.
(3)
In an appeal under this section, the memorandum of appeal shall precisely state the substantial question of law involved in the appeal.
(4)
Where the High Court is satisfied that a substantial question of law is involved in any case, it shall formulate that question.
(5)
The appeal shall be heard on the question so formulated and the respondent shall, at the hearing of the appeal, be allowed to argue that the case does not involve such question :

Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall be deemed to take away or abridge the power of the Court to hear, for reasons to be recorded, the appeal on any other substantial question of law, not formulated by it, if it is satisfied that the case involves such question.]

[83][100A. No further appeal in certain cases— Notwithstanding anything contained in any Letters Patent for any High Court or in any other instrument having the force of law or in any other law for the time being in force, where any appeal from an appellate decree or order is heard and decided by a single Judge of a High Court, no further appeal shall lie from the judgment, decision or order or such single Judge in such appeal or from any decree passed in such appeal.]

  1. Second appeal on no other grounds— No second appeal shall lie except on the ground mentioned in section 100.
  2. No second appeal in certain suits— No second appeal shall lie in any suit of the nature cognizable by Courts of Small Causes, when the amount or value of the subject-matter of the original suit does not exceed [84][three thousand rupees].

[85][103. Power of High Court to determine issues of fact— In any second appeal, the High Court may, if the evidence on the record is sufficient, determine any issue necessary for the disposal of the appeal,—

(a)
which has not been determined by the lower Appellate Court or both by the Court of first instance and the lower Appellate Court, or
(b)
which has been wrongly determined by such Court or Courts reason of a decision on such question of law as is referred to in section 100.]

Appeals from orders

104. Orders from which appeal lies— (1) An appeal shall lie from the following orders, and save as otherwise expressly provided in the body of this Code or by any law for the time being in force, from no other orders:—

[Clauses (a) to (f) omitted] (ff) an order under section 35A;

[86] [(ffa) an order under section 91 or section 92 refusing leave to institute a suit of the nature referred to in section 91 or section 92, as the case may be;]

(g)
an order under section 95;
(h)
an order under any of the provisions of this Code imposing a fine or directing the arrest or detention in the civil prison of an person except where such arrest or detention is in execution of a decree;
(i)
any order made under rules from which an appeal is expressly allowed by rules;
Provided that not appeal shall lie against any order specified in clause (ff) save on the ground that no order, or an order for the payment of a less amount, ought to have been made.
(2)
No appeal shall lie from any order passed in appeal under this section.

105. Other orders— (1) Save as otherwise expressly provided, no appeal shall lie from any order made by a Court in the exercise of its original or appellate jurisdiction; but, where a decree is appealed from, any error, defect or irregularity in any order, affecting the decision of the case, may be set forth as ground of objection in the memorandum of appeal.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), where any party aggrieved by an order of remand [87]***** from which an appeal lies does not appeal therefrom, he shall thereafter be precluded from disputing its correctness.

    1. What Courts to hear appeals— Where an appeal from any order is allowed it shall lie to the Court to which an appeal would lie from the decree in the suit in which such order was made, or where such order is made by a Court (not being a High Court) in the exercise of appellate jurisdiction, then to the High Court.
    2. General provisions relating to appeals
  1. Powers of Appellate Court— (1) Subject to such conditions and limitations as may be prescribed, an Appellate Court shall have power—
(a)
to determine a case finally;
(b)
to remand a case;
(c)
to frame issues and refer them for trial;
(d)
to take additional evidence or to require such evidence to be taken.
(2)
Subject as aforesaid, the Appellate Court shall have the same powers and shall perform as nearly as may be the same duties as are conferred and imposed by this Code on Courts of original jurisdiction in respect of suits instituted therein.

108. Procedure in appeals from appellate decrees and orders— The provisions of this Part relating to appeals from original decree shall, so far as may be, apply to appeals—

(a)
from appellate decrees, and
(b)
from orders made under this Code or under any special or local law in which a different procedure is not provided.

Appeals to the Supreme Court

109. When appeals lie to the Supreme Court— Subject to the provisions in Chapter IV of Part V of the Constitution and such rules as may, from time to time, be made by the Supreme Court regarding appeals from the Courts of India, and to the provisions hereinafter contained, an appeal shall lie to the Supreme Court from any judgment, decree or final order in a civil proceeding of a High Court, if the High Court certifies—

(i)
that the case involves a substantial question of law of general importance; and
(ii)
that in the opinion of the High Court the said question needs to be decided by the Supreme Court.
  1. [Value of subject matters] Rep. by the Code of Civil Procedure (Amendment) Act, 1973 (49 of 1973).
  2. [Bar of certain appeals] Rep. by the A.O. 1950. 111A. [Appeals to Federal Court] Rep. by the Federal Court Act, 1941 (21 of 1941).
  3. Savings— (1) Nothing contained in this Code shall be deemed
(a)
to affect the powers of the Supreme Court under article 136 or any other provision of the Constitution, or
(b)
to interfere with any rules made by the Supreme Court, and for the time being in force, for the presentation of appeals to that Court, or their conduct before that Court.
(2)
Nothing herein contained applies to any matter of criminal or admiralty or vice-admiralty jurisdiction or to appeals from orders and decrees of Prize Courts.
PART VIII-REFERENCE, REVIEW AND REVISION

113. Reference to High Court— Subject to such conditions and limitations as may be prescribed, any Court may state a case and refer the same for the opinion of the High Court, and the High Court may make such order thereon as it thinks fit :

Provided that where the Court is satisfied that a case pending before it involves a question as to the validity of any Act, Ordinance or Regulation or of any provision contained in an Act, Ordinance or Regulation, the determination of which is necessary for the disposal of the case, and is of opinion that such Act, Ordinance, Regulation or provision is invalid or inoperative, but has not been so declared by the High Court to which that Court is subordinate or by the Supreme Court, the Court shall state a case setting out its opinion and the reasons therefor, and refer the same for the opinion of the High Court.

Explanation.—In this section "Regulation" means any Regulation of the Bengal, Bombay or Madras Code or Regulation as defined in the General Clauses Act, 1897, (10 of 1897) or in the General Clauses Act of a State.

STATE AMENDMENTS

Andhra Pradesh— In the Explanation to section 113 after the words "any Regulation of the Bengal, Bombay or Madras Code" insert the words "or any Regulation of the Madras Code in force, in the State of Andhra as it existed immediately before the 1st Nov. 1956".

[Andhra Adoption of Laws (Amendment) orders of 1954 and 1957].

Tamilnadu— In the Explanation to section 113 after the words "any Regulation of the Bengal, Bombay or Madras Code" insert the words "or any Regulation of the Madras Code in force in the territories specified in Second Schedule to the Andhra Pradesh and Madras (Alteration of Boundaries) Act, 1959"

[Madras Added Territories Adaptation of Laws Order, 1961].

Union Territory of Pondicherry— Some as in Tamil Nadu (Act No. 49 of 1962).

114. Review— Subject as aforesaid, any person considering himself aggrieved—

(a)
by a decree or order from which an appeal is allowed by this Code, but from which no appeal has been preferred,
(b)
by a decree or order from which no appeal is allowed by this Court, or
(c)
by a decision on a reference from a Court of Small Causes, may apply for a review of judgment to the Court which passed the decree or made the order, and the Court may make such order thereon as it thinks fit.

115. Revision— [88][(1)] The High Court may call for the record of an case which has been decided by any Court subordinate to such High Court and in which no appeal lies thereto, and if such subordinate Court appears—

(a)
to have exercised a jurisdiction not vested in it by law, or
(b)
to have failed to exercise a jurisdiction so vested, or
(c)
to have acted in the exercise of its jurisdiction illegally or with material irregularity, the High Court may make such order in the case as it thinks fit :

[89] [Provided that the High Court shall no, under this section, vary or reverse any order made, or any order deciding an issue, in the course of a suit or other proceeding, except where—

(a)
the order, if it had been made in favour of the party applying for revision, would have finally disposed of the suit or other proceedings, or
(b)
the order, if allowed to stand, would occasion a failure of justice or cause irreparable injury to the party against whom it was made.]

[90] [(2) The High Court shall not, under this section, vary or reverse any decree or order against which an

appeal lies either to the High Court or to any Court subordinate thereto. Explanation.—In this section, the expression "any case which has been decided" includes any order made, or any order deciding an issue in the course of a suit or other proceeding.]

STATE AMENDMENTS Madhya Pradesh— For Section 115 of the principal Act, the following Section substituted. "115. Revision.— The High Court may call for the record of any cases which has been decided by any Court

subordinate to such High Court and in which no appeal lies thereto, and if such subordinate Court appears—

(a)
to have exercised a jurisdiction not vested in it by law; or
(b)
to have failed to exercise a jurisdiction so vested; or
(c)
to have acted in the exercise of its jurisdiction illegally or with material irregularity, the High Court may make such order in the case as it thinks fit;
Provided that the High Court shall not, under this section, vary or reverse any order made or any order deciding an issue, in the course of a suit or other proceedings except where:—
(a)
the order, if it had been made in favour of the party applying for the revision, would have finally disposed of the suit or proceeding; or
(b)
the order, if allowed to stand, would occasion a failure of justice or cause irreparable injury to the party against whom it was made.
(2)
The High Court shall not, under this section, vary or reverse any decree or order against which an appeal lies either to the High Court or to any court subordinate thereto.

Explanation.— In this section, the expression "any case which has been decided" includes any order made, or any order deciding an issue in the course of a suit or other proceeding.

[M.P. Act 4 of 1994].

Orissa.— In its application to the State of Orissa, for section 115, substitute the following:—

"115. Revision.— The High Court, in cases arising out of original suits or other proceedings of the value exceeding one lakh rupees, and the District Court, in any other case, including a case arising out of an original suit or other proceedings instituted before the commencement of the Code of Civil Procedure (Orissa Amendment) Act, 1991, may call for the record of any case which has been decided by any Court subordinate to the High Court or the District Court, as the case may be, and in which no appeal lies thereto, and if such subordinate Court appears—

(a)
to have exercised a jurisdiction not vested in it by law; or
(b)
to have failed to exercise a jurisdiction so vested; or
(c)
to have acted in the exercise of its jurisdiction illegally or with material irregularity, the High Court or the District Court, as the case may be, may make such order in the case as it thinks fit;

Provided that in respect of cases arising out of original suits or other proceedings of any valuation decided by the District Court, the High Court alone shall be competent to make an order under this section:

Provided further that the High Court or the District Court shall not, under this section, vary or reverse any order, including an order deciding an issue, made in the course of a suit or other proceedings, except where,—

(i)
the order, if so varied or reversed, would finally dispose of the suit or other proceedings; or
(ii)
the order, if allowed to stand, would occasion a failure of justice or cause irreparable injury to the party against whom it was made.

Explanation.— In this section, the expression "any case which has been decided" includes any order deciding an issue in the course of a suit or other proceeding."

[Orissa Act 26 of 1991].

Uttar Pradesh.— In its application to the State of Uttar Pradesh, for section 115, substitute the following:—

"115 Revision.— The High Court, in cases arising out of original suits or other proceedings of the value exceeding one lakh rupees or such higher amount not exceeding five lakh rupees as the High Court may from time to time fix, by notification published in the Official Gazette including such suits or other proceedings instituted before the date of commencement of the U.P. Civil Laws (Amendment) Act, 1991, or as the case may be, the date of commencement of such notification and the District Court in any other case, including a case arising out of an original suit or other proceedings instituted before such date, may call for the record of any case which has been decided by any Court subordinate to such High Court or District Court, as the case may be, and in which no appeal lies thereto, and if such subordinate Court appears—

(a)
to have exercised a jurisdiction not vested in it by law; or
(b)
to have failed to exercise a jurisdiction so vested; or
(c)
to have acted in the exercise of its jurisdiction illegally or with material irregularity, the High Court or the District Court, as the case may be, may make such order in the case as it thinks fit: Provided that in respect of cases arising out of original suits or other proceedings of any valuation, decided
by the District Court, the High Court alone shall be competent to make an order under this section: Provided further that the High Court or the District Court shall not, under this section, vary or reverse any order including an order deciding an issue, made in the course of a suit or other proceeding, except where,
(i)
the order, if so varied or reversed, would finally dispose of the suit or other proceeding; or
(ii)
the order, if allowed to stand, would occasion a failure of justice or cause irreparable injury to the party against whom it was made:

Provided also that where a proceeding of the nature in which the District Court may call for the record and pass orders under this Section was pending immediately before the relevant date of commencement referred to above, in the High Court, such Court shall proceed to dispose of the same.

Explanation.— In this section, the expression "any case which has been decided" includes any order deciding an issue in the course of a suit or other proceeding."

[U.P. Acts 31 of 1978 and 17 of 1991]

West Bengal— After Section 115 of the Code the following section 115A inserted:

"115A. District Court's powers of revision— (1) A District Court may exercise all or any of the power which may be exercised by the High Court under section 115.

(2)
Where any proceedings by way of revision is commenced before a District Court in pursuance of the provision of sub-section (1), the provisions of section 115 shall, so for as may be, apply to such proceeding and references to the said section 60 the High Court shall be construed as reference to the District Court.
(3)
Where any proceeding for revision is commenced before the District Court, the decision of the District Court on such proceeding shall be final and no further proceeding by way of revision shall be entertained by the High Court or any other Court.
(4)
If any application for revision has been made by any party either to the High Court under section 115 or to the District Court under this section, no further application by the same party shall be entertained by the other of them.
(5)
A Court of an Additional Judge shall have and may exercise all the powers of a District Court under this section in respect of any proceeding which may be transferred to it by or under any general or special order of the District Court"

[West Bengal Act No. 15 of 1988].

PART IX-SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO THE HIGH COURTS NOT BEING THE COURT OF A JUDICIAL COMMISSIONER
  1. Part to apply only to certain High Courts— This Part applies only to High Courts not being the Court of a Judicial Commissioner.
  2. Application of Code to High Court.— Save as provided in this Part or in Part X or in rules, the provisions of this Court shall apply to such High Courts.
    1. Execution of decree before ascertainment of costs— Where any such High Court considers it necessary that a decree passed in the exercise of its original civil jurisdiction should be executed before the amount of the costs incurred in the suit can be ascertained by taxation, the Court may order that the decree shall be executed forthwith except as to so much thereof as relates to the costs;
    2. and, as to so much thereof as relates to the costs, that the decree may be executed as soon as the amount of the costs shall be ascertained by taxation.
  3. Unauthorized persons not to address Court— Nothing in this Code shall be deemed to authorize any person on behalf of another to address the Court in the exercise of its original civil jurisdiction, or to examine witnesses, except where the Court shall have in the exercise of the power conferred by its charter authorized him so to do, or to interfere with the power of the High Court to make rules concerning advocates, vakils and attorneys.
  4. Provisions not applicable to High Court in original civil jurisdiction— (1) The following provisions shall not apply to the High Court in the exercise of its original civil jurisdiction, namely, sections 16, 17 and 20.

PART X-RULES

  1. Effect of rules in First Schedule— The rules in a First Schedule shall have effect as if enacted in the body of this Code until annulted or altered in accordance with the provisions of this Part.
  2. Power of certain High Courts to make rules— High Courts not being the Court of a Judicial Commissioner may, from time to time after previous publication, make rules regulating their own procedure and the procedure of the Civil Courts subjects to their superintendence, and may be such rules annul, alter or add to all or any of the rules in the First Schedule.
  3. Constitution of Rule Committees in certain States— (1) A committee to be called the Rule Committee, shall be constituted at the town which is the usual place of sitting of each of the High Courts referred to in section 122.
(2)
Each such Committee shall consist of the following persons, namely—
(a)
three Judges of the High Court established at the town at which such Committee is constituted, one of whom at least has served as a District Judge or a Divisional Judge for three years,
(b)
two legal practitioners enrolled in that Court
(c)
a Judge of a Civil Court subordinate to the High Court[91]***** [92]***
(3)
The members of each such Committee shall be appointed by the [93][High Court], which shall also nominate one of their number to be President :
[94]***
(4)
Each member of any such Committee shall hold office for such period as may be prescribed by the [95][High Court] in this behalf; and whenever any member retires, resigns, dies or ceases to reside in the State in which the Committee was constituted or becomes incapable of acting as a member of the Committee, the said [96][High Court] may appoint another person to be a member in his stead.
(5)
There shall be a secretary to each such Committee who shall be appointed by the [97][High Court] and shall receiver such remuneration as may be provided in this behalf by the State Government. STATE AMENDMENTS

Assam and Nagaland— Substitute the following for clause (a) sub-section (2) of section 123. "(a) three judges of the High Court established at the town at which such committee is constituted, provided that the Chief Justice may appoint only two judges of the High Court on the Committee if the number of Judges of the High Court does not exceed three"

[Assam Act No. VIII of 1953]. Tamil Nadu— In section 123 sub-section (2).

(a)
"In clause (b) for the words `two legal practitioners' substitute the words `three legal practitioners'."
(b)
"Omit the words `Madras' in clause (d)". [Tamil Nadu Act No. 15 of 1970].
  1. Committee to report to High Court.— Every Rule Committee shall make a report to the High Court established at the town at which it is constituted on any proposal to annul, alter or add to the rules in the First Schedule or to make new rules, and before making any rules under section 122 the High Court shall take such report into consideration.
    1. Power of other High Courts to make rules— High Courts, other than the Courts specified in section 122, may exercise the powers conferred by that section in such manner and subject to such conditions as the State government may determine:
    2. Provided that any such High Court may, after previous publication, make a rule extending within the local limits of its jurisdiction any rules which have been made by any other High Court.
  2. Rules to be subject to approval— Rules made under the foregoing provisions shall be subject to the previous approval of the Government of the State in which the Court whose procedure the rules regulate is situate or, if that Court is not situate in any State, to the previous approval of Central Government.
  3. Publication of rules— Rules so made and approved shall be published in the Official Gazette and shall from the date of publication or from such other date as may be specified have the same force and effect, within the local limits of the jurisdiction of the High Court which made them, as if they had been contained in the First Schedule.
  4. Matters for which rules may provide— (1) Such rules shall be not inconsistent with the provisions in the body of this Code, but, subject thereto, may provide for any matters relating to the procedure of Civil Courts.
(2)
In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the powers conferred by sub-section (1), such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely :—
(a)
the service of summons, notices and other processes by post or in any other manner either generally or in any specified areas, and the proof of such service;
(b)
the maintenance and custody, while under attachment, of live-stock and other movable property, the fees payable for such maintenance and custody, the sale of such live-stock and property and the proceeds of such sale;
(c)
procedure in suits by way of counterclaim and the valuation of such suits for the purposes of jurisdiction;
(d)
procedure in garnishee and charging order either in addition to, or in substitution for, the attachment and sale of debts;
(e)
procedure where the defendant claims to be entitled to contribution or indemnity over against any person whether a party tot he suit or not;
(f)
summary procedure—
(i)
in suits in which the plaintiff seeks only to recover a debt or liquidated demand in money payable by the defendant, with or without interest, arising—

on a contract express or implied; or

on an enactment where the sum sought to be recovered is a fixed sum of money or in the nature of a debt other than a penalty; or

on a guarantee, where the claim against the principal is in respect of a debt or a liquidated demand only; or

on trust; or

(ii)
in suits for the recovery of immovable property, with or without claim for rent or mesne profits, by a landlord against a tenant whose term has expired or has been duly determined by notice to quit, or has become liable to forfeiture for non-payment of rent, or against persons claiming under such tenant;
(g)
procedure by way of originating summons;
(h)
consolidation of suits, appeals and other proceedings;
(i)
delegation to any Registrar, Prothonotary or Master or other official of the Court of any judicial, quasi-judicial and non-judicial duties; and
(j)
all forms, registers, books, entries and accounts which may be necessary or desirable for the transaction of the business of Civil Courts.
  1. Power of High Court to make rules as to their original Civil Procedure— Notwithstanding anything in this Code, any High Court not being the Court of a Judicial Commissioner may make such rules not inconsistent with the Letters Patent or order or other law establishing it to regulate its own procedure in the exercise of its original civil jurisdiction as it shall think fit, and nothing herein contained shall affect the validity of any such rules in force at the commencement of this Code.
    1. Powers of other High Court to make rules as to matters other than procedure— A High Court not being a High Court to which section 129 applies may, with the previous approval of the State Government make
    2. with respect to any matter other than procedure any rule which a High Court for a State might under article 227 of the Constitution make with respect to any such matter for any part of the territories under its jurisdiction which is not included within the limits of a presidency town.
  2. Publication of rules— Rules made in accordance with section 129 or section 130 shall be published in the Official Gazette and shall from the date of publication or from such other date as may be specified have the force of law.
PART XI-MISCELLANEOUS

132. Exemption of certain women from personal appearance— (1)Women who, according to the customs and manners of the country, ought not to be compelled to appear in public shall be exempt from personal appearance in Court.

(2) Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to exempt such women from arrest in execution of civil process in any case in which the arrest of women is not prohibited by this Code.

133. Exemption of other persons— (1)The following persons shall be entitled to exemption from personal appearance in Court, namely—

(i)
the President of India;
(ii)
the Vice-President of India;

(iii) the Speaker of the House of the People;

(iv)
the Ministers of the Union;
(v)
the Judges of the Supreme Court;
(vi)
the Governors of States and the administrators of Union Territories;

(vii) the Speakers of the State Legislative Assemblies;

(viii) the Chairman of the State Legislative Councils;

(ix)
the Ministers of States;
(x)
the Judges of the High Courts; and
(xi)
the persons to whom section 87B applies. [98]***
(3)
Where any person claims the privilege of such exemption, and it is consequently necessary to examine him by commission, he shall pay the costs of that commission, unless the party requiring his evidence pays such costs.
  1. Arrest other than in execution of decree— The provisions of sections 55, 57 and 59 shall apply, so far as may be, to all persons arrested under this Code.
  2. Exemption from arrest under civil process— (1) No Judge, Magistrate or other judicial officer shall be liable to arrest under civil process while going to, presiding in, or returning from his Court.
(2)
Where any matter is pending before a tribunal having jurisdiction therein, or believing in good faith that it has such jurisdiction, the parties thereto, their pleader, mukhtars, revenue-agents and recognized agents, and their witnesses acting in obedience to a summons, shall be exempt from arrest under civil process other than process issued by such tribunal for contempt of Court while going to or attending such tribunal for the purpose of such matter, and while returning from such tribunal.
(3)
Nothing in sub-section (2) shall enable a judgment-debtor to claim exemption from arrest under an order for immediate execution or where such judgment-debtor attends to show cause why he should not be committed to person in execution of a decree.
135A. Exemption of members of legislative bodies from arrest and detention under civil process— [99][(1) No person shall be liable to arrest or detention in prison under civil process—
(a)
if he is a member of—
(i)
either House of Parliament, or
(ii)
the legislative Assembly or Legislative Council of a State, or

(iii) a Legislative Assembly of a Union territory,

during the continuance of any meeting of such House of Parliament or, as the case may be, of the Legislative Assembly or the Legislative Council;

(b)
if he is a member of any committee of—
(i)
either House of Parliament, or
(ii)
the Legislative Assembly of a State or Union territory, or

(iii) the Legislative council of a State,

during the continuance of any meeting of such committee;

(c)
if he is a member of—
(i)
either House of Parliament, or
(ii)
a Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council of a State having both such Houses,

during the continuance of a joint sitting, meeting, conference or joint committee of the Houses of Parliament or Houses of the State Legislature, as the case may be,

and during the forty days before and after such meeting, sitting or conference.]

(2) A person released from detention under sub-section (1), shall, subject the provisions, of the said subsection,be liable to re-arrest and to the further detention to which he would have been liable if he had not been released under the provisions of sub-section (1).

136. Procedure where person to be arrested or property to be attached is outside district— (1) Where an application is made that any person shall be arrested or that any property shall be attached under any provision of this Code not relating to the execution of decrees, and such person resides or such property is situate outside the local limits of the jurisdiction of the Court to which the application is made, the Court may, in its discretion, issue a warrant of arrest or make an order of attachment, and send to the District Court within the local limits of whose jurisdiction such person or property reside or is situate a copy of the warrant or order, together with the probable amount of the costs of the arrest or attachment.

(2)
The District Court shall, on receipt of such copy and amount, cause the arrest or attachment to be made by its own officers, or by a Court subordinate to itself, and shall inform the Court which issued or made such warrant or order of the arrest or attachment.
(3)
The Court making an arrest under this section shall send the person arrested to the Court by which the warrant of arrest was issued, unless he shows cause to the satisfaction of the former Court why he should not be sent to the later Court, or unless he furnishes sufficient security for his appearance before the later Court or for satisfying any decree that may be passed against him by that Court, in either of which cases the Court making the arrest shall release him.
(4)
Where a person to be arrested or movable property to be attached under this section is within th local limits of the ordinary original civil jurisdiction of the High Court of Judicature at Fort William in Bengal or at Madras or at Bombay, the copy of the warrant of arrest or of the order of attachment, and the probable amount of the costs of the arrest or attachment, shall be sent to the Court of Small Causes of Calcutta, Madras or Bombay as the case may be, and that Court, on receipt of the copy and amount, shall proceed as if it were the District Court.

137. Language of subordinate Courts— (1) The language which, on the commencement of this Code, is the language of any Court subordinate to a High Court shall continue to be the language of such subordinate Court until the State Government otherwise directs.

(2)
The State Government may declare what shall be the language of any such Court and in what character applications to and proceedings in such Court shall be written.
(3)
Where this Court requires or allows anything other than the recording of evidence to be done in writing in any such Court, such writing may be in English; but if any party or his pleader is unacquainted with English a tanslation into the language of the Court shall, at his request, be supplied to him; and the Court shall make such order as it thinks fit in respect of the payment of the costs of such translation.

STATE AMENDMENTS

Rajasthan— For sub-section (3) of section 137 substitute the following:

"(3) Wherever the code requires or allows anything other than the recording of evidence to be done in writing in any such court, such writing shall be in Hindi in Devnagri Script with the international from of Indian numerals.

Provided that the court may in its decretion accept such writing in England on the undertaking of the party filing such writing, to file a Hindi translation of the same, within such time as may be granted by the Court and the opposite party shall have a copy of such writing in Hindi."

[Raj. Act No. 7 of 1983].

Uttar Pradesh— To section 137 (3) insert the following proviso:

"Provided that with effect from such date as the State Government in consultation with the High Court may by notification in the Gazette appoint, the language of every judgment, decree or order passed on made by such courts or classes of courts subordinate to the High Court and in such classes of cases as may be specified shall only be Hindi in Devnagri Script with the international form of Indian numerals".

(U.P. Act No. 17 of 1970).

138. Power of High Court to require evidence to be recorded in English— (1) The High Court may, by notification in the Official Gazette, direct with respect to any Judge specified in the notification, or falling under a description set forth therein, that evidence in cases in which an appeal is allowed shall be taken down by him in the English language and in manner prescribed.

(2) Where a Judge is prevented by any sufficient reason from complying with a direction under sub-section (1), he shall record the reason and cause the evidence to be taken down in writing from his dictation in open Court.

STATE AMENDMENTS

Assam, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Tripura and Manipur— For section 138, substitute the following section:—

"138. Power of High Court to require evidence to be record in English.— The High Court may, by notification, in the Official Gazette, direct with respect to any Judge specified in the notification, or falling under a description set forth therein that in cases in which an appeal is allowed, he shall take down, or cause to be taken down, the evidence in the English language and in the form and manner prescribed."

[Assam Act 2 of 1941, State of Nagaland Act 27 of 1962].

139. Oath on affidavit by whom to be administered— In the case of any affidavit under this Code—

(a) any Court or Magistrate, or

[100] [(aa) any notary appointed under the Notaries Act, 1952 (53 of 1952); or]

(b)
any officer or other person whom a High Court may appoint in this behalf, or
(c)
any officer appointed by any other Court which the State Government has generally or specially empowered in this behalf, may administer the oath to the deponent.

STATE AMENDMENTS Uttar Pradesh— (i) for clause (b) of section 139 substitute:

"(b) any person appointed in this behalf by a High Court or by a district court; or"

(ii) for clause (c) of section 139 substitute:

"(c) any person appointed in this behalf by such other court as the State Govt. may, by general or special order, empower in this behalf."

[U.P. Act No. 11 of 1981].

140. Assessors in causes of salvage etc.— (1) In any admiralty or vice-admiralty cause of salvage, towage or collision, the Court, whether it be exercising its original or its appellate jurisdiction may, if it thinks fit, and shall upon request of either party to such cause, summon to its assistance, in such manner as it may direct or as may be prescribed , two competent assessors; and such assessors shall attend and assist accordingly.

(2) Every such assessor shall receive such fees for his attendance, to be paid by such of the parties as the Court may direct or as may be prescribed.

    1. Miscellaneous proceedings— The procedure provided in this Code in regard to suit shall be followed, as far as it can be made applicable, in all proceedings in any Court of civil jurisdiction.
    2. [101][Explanation.—In this section, the expression "proceedings" includes proceedings under Order IX, but does not include any proceeding under article 226 of the Constitution.]
  1. Orders and notices to be in writing— All orders and notices served on or given to any person under the provisions of this Code shall be in writing.
    1. Postage— Postage, where chargeable on a notice, summons or letter issued under this Code and forwarded by post, and the fee for registering the same, shall be paid within a time to be fixed before the communications made :
    2. Provided that the State Government may remit such postage, or fee, or both, or may prescribe a scale of court-fees to be levied in lieu thereof.
  2. Application for restitution— (1) Where and in so far as a decree or an order is [102][varied or reversed in any appeal, revision or other proceedings or is set aside or modified in any suit instituted for the purpose the Court which passed the decree or order] shall, on the application of any party entitled to any benefit by way of restitution or otherwise, cause such restitution to be made as will, so far as may be, place the parties in the position which they would have occupied but for such decree or order or [103][such part thereof as has been varied, reversed, set aside or modified], and, for this purpose, the Court may make any orders, including orders for the refund of costs and for the payment of interest, damages, compensation and mesne profits, which are properly [104][consequential on such variation, reversal, setting aside or modification of the decree or order.]

[105] [Explanation.—For the purposes of sub-section (1) the expression "Court which passed the decree or order" shall be deemed to include,—

(a)
where the decree or order has been varied or reversed in exercise of appellate or revisional jurisdiction, the Court of first instance;
(b)
where the decree or order has been set aside by a separate suit, the Court of first instance which passed such decree or order;
(c)
where the Court of first instance has ceased to exist or has ceased to have jurisdiction to execute, it, the Court which, if the suit wherein the decree or order was passed were instituted at the time of making the application for restitution under this section, would have jurisdiction to try such suit.]
(2)
No suit shall be instituted for the purpose of obtaining any restitution or other relief which could be obtained by application under sub-section (1).

STATE AMENDMENTS

Uttar Pradesh— Substitute the following for sub-section (1) of section 144 of the Code:

"(1) Where and in so far as a decree or an order is varied or reversed in appeal, revision or otherwise, the Court of first instance shall, on the application of any party entitled to any benefit by way of restitution or otherwise, cause such restitution to be made, as will, so for as may be, place the parties in the position which they would have occupied but for such decree or order or such part there of as has been varied or reversed; and for this purpose, the Court may make any orders, including orders for the refused of costs and for the payment of interest, damages, compensation and mesne profits, which are properly consequential on such variation or reversal".

[U.P. Act No. 24 of 1954].

145. Enforcement of liability of surety— Where any person [106][has furnished security or given a guarantee]—

(a)
for the performance of any decree or any part thereof, or
(b)
for the restitution of any property taken in execution of a decree, or
(c)
for the payment of any money, or for the fulfilment of any condition imposed on any person, under an order of the Court in any suit or in any proceeding consequent thereon,
[107][the decree or order may be executed in the manner therein provided for the execution of decree, namely :—
(i)
if he has rendered himself personally liable, against him to that extent;
(ii)
if he has furnished any property as security, by sale of such property to the extent of the security;

(iii) if the case falls both under clauses (i) and (ii) then to the extent specified in those clauses, and such person shall, be deemed to be a party within the meaning of section 47 :] Provided that such notice as the Court in each case thinks sufficient has been given to the surety. STATE AMENDMENTS Uttar Pradesh— Substitute the following for section 145; "145. Where any person has become liable as surety or given any property as security:

(a)
for the performance of any decree or any part there of, or
(b)
for the restitution of any property taken in execution of any decree, or
(c)
for the payment of any money or for the fulfilment of any condition imposed on any person, under an order of the Court in any suit or in any proceeding Consequent there on,— the decree or order may be executed in the manner herein provided for the execution of decrees:—
(i)
if he has rendered himself personally liable, against him to that extent; and
(ii)
if he has given any property as security, by sale of such property to the extent of the security; such person shall, for the purposes of appeal, be deemed to be a party within the meaning of section 47: Provided that such notice as the Court in each case thinks sufficient has been given to the surety. Explanation:— For the purposes of this section a person entrusted by a Court with custody of any property

attached in execution of any decree or order shall be deemed to have become liable as surety for the restitution of such property within the meaning of clause (b)."

[U.P. Act No. 24 of 1954].

  1. Proceedings by or against representatives— Save as otherwise provided by this Code or by any law for the time being in force, where any proceeding may be taken or application made by or against any person then the proceeding may be taken or the application may be made by or against any person claiming under him.
  2. Consent or agreement by persons under disability— In all suits to which any person under disability is a party, any consent or agreement, as to any proceeding shall, if given or made with the express leave of the Court by the next friend or guardian for the suit, have the same force and effect as if such person, were under no disability and had given such consent or made such agreement.
  3. Enlargement of time— Where any period is fixed or granted by the Court for the doing of any act prescribed or allowed by this Code, the Court may, in its discretion, from time to time, enlarge such period, even though the period originally fixed or granted may gave expired.

[108][148A. Right to lodge a caveat— (1) Where an application is expected to be made, or has been made, in a suit or proceedings instituted, or about to be instituted, in a Court, any person claiming a right to appear before the Court on the hearing of such application may lodge a caveat in respect thereof.

(2)
Where a caveat has been lodged under sub-section (1), the person by whom the caveat has been lodged (hereinafter referred to as the caveator) shall serve a notice of the caveat by registered post, acknowledgement due, on the person by whom the application has been or is expected to be, made, under sub-section (1).
(3)
Where, after a caveat has been lodged under sub-section (1), any application is filed in any suit or proceeding, the Court, shall serve a notice of the application on the caveator.
(4)
Where a notice of any caveat has been served on the applicant, he shall forthwith furnish the caveator at the caveator's expense, with a copy of the application made by him and also with copies of any paper or document which has been, or may be, filed by him in support of the application.
(5)
Where a caveat has been lodged under sub-section (1), such caveat shall not reman in force after the expiry of ninety days from the date on which it was lodged unless the application referred to in sub-section
(1)
has been made before the expiry of the said period.]
  1. Power to make up deficiency of court-fees— Where the whole or any part of any fee prescribed for any document by the law for the time being in force relating to court-fees has not been paid, the Court may, in its discretion, at any stage, allow the person, by whom such fee is payable, to pay the whole or part, as the case may be, of such court-fee; and upon such payment the document, in respect of which such fee is payable, shall have the same force and effect as if such fee had been paid in the first instance.
  2. Transfer of business— Save as otherwise provide, where the business of any Court is transferred to any other Court, the Court to which the business is so transferred shall have the same powers and shall perform the same duties as those respectively conferred and imposed by or under this Code upon the Court from which the business was so transferred.
  3. Saving of inherent powers of Court— Nothing in this Code shall be deemed to limit or otherwise affect the inherent power of the Court to make such orders as may be necessary for the ends of justice or to prevent abuse of the process of the Court.
  4. Amendment of judgments, decrees or orders— Clerical or arithmetical mistakes in judgments, decrees or orders or errors arising therein from any accidental slip or omission may at any time be corrected by the Court either of its own motion or on the application of any of the parties.
  5. General power to amend— The Court may at any time and on such terms as to costs or otherwise as it may think fit, amend any defect or error in any proceeding in a suit, and all necessary amendments shall be made of the purpose of determining the real question or issue raised by or depending on such proceeding.

[109][153A. Power to amend decree or order where appeal is summarily dismissed.— Where an Appellate Court dismisses an appeal under rule 11 of Order XLI, the power of the Court to amend, under section 152, the decree or order appealed against may be exercised by the Court which had passed the decree or order in the first instance, notwithstanding that the dismissal of the appeal has the effect of confirming the decree or order, as the case may be, passed by the Court of first instance.

153B. Place of trial to be deemed to be open Court— The place in which any Civil Court is held for the purpose of trying any suit shall be deemed to be an open Court, to which the public generally may have access so far as the same can conveniently contain them :

Provided that the presiding Judge may, if he thinks fit, order at any stage of any inquiry into or trial of any particular case, that the public generally or any particular person, shall not have access to, or be or remain in, the room or building used by Court.]

  1. [Saving of present right of appeal]— Rep. by the Repealing and Amending Act, 1952 (48 of 1952), s. 2 and Sch. I.
  2. [Amendment of certain Acts]— Rep. by the Repealing and Amending Act, 1952 (48 of 1952), s. 2 and Sch. I.
  3. [Repeals]— Rep. by the Second Repealing and Amending Act, 1914 (17 of 1914), s. 3 and Sch. II.
  4. Continuance of orders under repealed enactments.— Notifications published, declarations and rules made, places appointed, agreements filed, scales prescribed, forms framed, appointments made and powers conferred under Act 8 of 1859 or under any Code of Civil Procedure or any Act amending the same or under any other enactment hereby repealed shall, so far as they are consistent with this Code, have the same force and effect is if they had been respectively published, made, appointed, filed, prescribed, framed and conferred under this Code and by the authority empowered thereby in such behalf.
  5. Reference to Code of Civil Procedure and other repealed enactments.— In every enactment or notification passed or issued before the commencement of this Code in which reference is made to or to any Charter or section of Act 8 of 1859 or any Code of Civil Procedure or any Act amending the same or any other enactment hereby repealed, such reference shall, so far as may be practicable, be taken to be made to this Code or to its corresponding Part, Order, section or rule.

THE CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE, 1908-THE FIRST SCHEDULE ORDER I-PARTIES OF SUITS [110][1. Who may be joined as plaintiffs— All persons may be joined in one suit as plaintiffs where—

(a)
any right to relief in respect of, or arising out of, the same act or transaction or series of acts or transactions is alleged to exist in such persons, whether jointly, severally or in the alternative; and
(b)
if such persons brought separate suits, any common question of law or fact would arise.]

2. Power of Court to order separate trial— Where it appears to the Court that any joinder of plaintiffs may embarrass or delay the trial of the suit, the Court may put the plaintiffs to their election or order separate trials or make such other order as may be expedient.

[111][3. Who may be joined as defendants— All persons may be joined in one suit as defendants where—

(a)
any right to relief in respect of, or arising out of, the same act or transaction or series of acts or transactions is alleged to exist against such persons, whether jointly, severally or in the alternative; and
(b)
if separate suits were brought against such persons, any common question of law or fact would arise.] STATE AMENDMENTS Bihar.— In its application to the Scheduled Areas in the State of Bihar, in Order I, Rule 3, following proviso added:"Provided that in suits for declaration of title or for possession relating to immovable properties of a member of the

Scheduled Tribes as specified in Part III to the Schedule to the Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order, 1950, the Deputy Commissioner concerned shall also be joined as a defendant."

[Bihar Scheduled Areas Regulation, 1969]. [112][3A. Power to order separate trials where joinder of defendants may embarrass or delay trial— Where it appears to the Court that any joinder of defendants may embarrass or delay the trial of the suit, the Court may order separate trials or make such other order as may be expedient in the interests of justice.]

STATE AMENDMENTS Madhya Pradesh.— In Order I of First Schedule to the Principal Act, after Rule 3-A, the following rule inserted:"3-B. Conditions for entertainment of suits.— (1) No suit or proceeding for.

(a)
declaration of title or any right over any agricultural land, with or without any other relief; or
(b)
specific performance of any contract for transfer of any agricultural land, with or without any other relief, shall be entertained by any Court, unless the plaintiff or applicant, as the case may be, knowing or having reason to believe that a return under section 9 of the Madhya Pradesh Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings Act, 1960 (No. 20 of 1960) in relation to land aforesaid has been or is required to be filed by him or by any other person before competent authority appointed
under that Act, has impleaded the State of Madhya Pradesh as one of the defendants or non-applicants, as the case may be, to such suit or proceeding.
(2)
No Court shall proceed with pending suit or proceeding referred to in sub-rule (1) unless, as soon as may be, the State Government is so impleaded as a defendant or non-applicant.

Explanation.— The expression "suit or proceeding" used in this sub-rule shall include appeal, reference or revision, but shall not include any proceeding for or connected with execution of any decree or final order passed in such suit or proceeding".

[M.P. Act 29 of 1984].

4. Court may give judgment for or against one or more of joint parties.— Judgment may be given without any amendment—

(a)
for such one or more of the plaintiffs as may be found to be entitled to relief, for such relief as he or they may be entitled to;
(b)
against such one or more of the defendants as may be found to be liable, according to their respective liabilities.
  1. Defendant need not be interested in all the relief claimed— It shall not be necessary that every defendant shall be interested as to all the relief claimed in any suit against him.
  2. Joinder of parties liable on same contract— The plaintiff may, at his option, join as parties to the same suit all or any of the persons severally, or jointly and severely, liable on any one contract, including parties to bills of exchange, hundis and promissory notes.
  3. When plaintiff in doubt from whom redress is to be sought— Where the plaintiff is in doubt as to the person from whom he is entitled to obtain redress, he may join two or more defendants in order that the question as to which of the defendants is liable, and to what extent, may be determined as between all parties.

[113][8. One person may sue or defend on behalf of all in same interest— (1) Where there are numerous persons having the same interest in one suit,—

(a)
one or more of such persons may, with the permission of the Court, sue or be sued, or may defend such suit, on behalf of, or for the benefit of, all persons so interested;
(b)
the Court may direct that one or more of such persons may sue or be sued, or may defend such suit, on behalf of, or for the benefit of, all persons so interested.
(2)
The Court shall, in every case where a permission or direction is given under sub-rule (1), at the plaintiff's expense, give notice of the institution of the suit to all persons so interested either by personal service, or, where, by reason of the number of persons or any other cause, such service is not reasonably practicable, by public advertisement, as the Court in each case may direct.
(3)
Any person on whose behalf, or for whose benefit, a suit is instituted or defended, under sub-rule (1), may apply to the Court to be made a party to such suit.
(4)
No part of the claim in any such suit shall be abandoned under sub-rule (1), and no such suit shall be withdrawn under sub-rule (3), of rule 1 of Order XXIII, and no agreement, compromise or satisfaction shall be recorded in any such suit under rule 3 of that Order, unless the Court has given, at the plaintiff's expense, notice to all persons so interested in the manner specified in sub-rule (2).
(5)
Where any person suing or defending in any such suit does not proceed with due diligence in the suit or defence, the Court may substitute in his place any other person having the same interest in the suit.
(6)
A decree passed in a suit under this rule shall be binding on all persons on whose behalf, or for whose benefit, the suit is instituted, or defended, as the case may be.

Explanation.—For the purpose of determining whether the persons who sue or are sued, or defend, have the same interest in one suit, it is not necessary to establish that such persons have the same cause of action as the person on whom behalf, or for whose benefit, they sue or are sued, or defend the suit, as the case may be.]

[114][8A. Power of Court to permit a person or body of persons to present opinion or to take part in the proceedings— While trying a suit, the Court may, if satisfied that a person or body of persons is interested in any question of law which is directly and substantially in issue in the suit and that it is necessary in the public interest to allow that person or body of persons to present his or its opinion on that question of law, permit that person or body of persons to present such opinion and to take part in the proceedings of the suit as the Court may specify.]

    1. Misjoinder and nonjoinder— No suit shall be defeated by reason of the misjoinder or nonjoinder of parties, and the Court may in every suit deal with the matter in controversy so far as regards the rights and interests of the parties actually before it:
    2. [115][Provided that nothing in this rule shall apply to nonjoinder of a necessary party.]
  1. Suit in name of wrong plaintiff— (1) Where a suit has been instituted in the name of the wrong person as plaintiff or where it is doubtful whether it has been instituted in the name of the right plaintiff, the Court may at any stage of the suit, if satisfied that the suit has been instituted thought a bona fide mistake, and that it is necessary for the determination of the real matter in dispute so to do, order any other person to be substituted or added as plaintiff upon such terms as the Court thinks just.
(2)
Court may stirke out or add parties.—The Court may at any stage of the proceedings, either upon or without the application of either party, and on such terms as may appear to the Court to be just, order that the name of any party improperly joined, whether as plaintiff or defendant, be struck out, and that the name, of any person who ought to have been joined, whether as plaintiff or defendant, or whose presence before the Court may be necessary in order to enable the Court effectually and completely to adjudicate upon and settle all the questions involved in the suit, be added.
(3)
No person shall be added as a plaintiff suing without a next friend or as the next friend of a plaintiff under any disability without his consent.
(4)
Where defendant added, plaint to be amended—Where a defendant is added, the plaint shall, unless the Court otherwise directs, be amended in such manner as may be necessary, and amended copes of the summons and of the plaint shall be served on the new defendant and, if the Court thinks fit, on the original defendant.
(5)
Subject to the provisions of the [116]Indian Limitation Act, 1877 (15 of 1877), section 22, the proceedings as against any person added as defendant shall be deemed to have begun only on the service of the summons.

[117][10A. Power of Court to request any pleader to address it— The Court may, in its discretion, request any pleader to address it as to any interest which is likely to be affected by its decision on any matter in issue in any suit or proceeding, if the party having the interest which is likely to be so affected is not represented by any pleader.]

  1. Conduct of suit— The Court may give the conduct of [118][a suit] to such persons as it deems proper.
  2. Appearance of one of several plaintiffs or defendants for others— (1) Where there are more plaintiffs than one, any one or more of them may be authorized by any other of them to appear, plead or act for such other in any proceeding; and in like manner, where there are more defendants than one, any one or more of them may be authorized by any other of them to appear, plead or act for such other in any proceeding.

(2) The authority shall be in writing signed by the party giving it and shall be filed in Court.

13. Objections as to nonjoinder or misjoinder— All objections on the ground of non-joinder or misjoinder of parties shall be taken at the earliest possible opportunity and, in all cases where issue are settled, at or before such settlement, unless the ground of objection has subsequently arisen, and any such objection not so taken shall be deemed to have been waived.

ORDERS

ORDER I-PARTIES OF SUITS

[110][1. Who may be joined as plaintiffs— All persons may be joined in one suit as plaintiffs where—

(a)
any right to relief in respect of, or arising out of, the same act or transaction or series of acts or transactions is alleged to exist in such persons, whether jointly, severally or in the alternative; and
(b)
if such persons brought separate suits, any common question of law or fact would arise.]

2. Power of Court to order separate trial— Where it appears to the Court that any joinder of plaintiffs may embarrass or delay the trial of the suit, the Court may put the plaintiffs to their election or order separate trials or make such other order as may be expedient.

[111][3. Who may be joined as defendants— All persons may be joined in one suit as defendants where—

(a)
any right to relief in respect of, or arising out of, the same act or transaction or series of acts or transactions is alleged to exist against such persons, whether jointly, severally or in the alternative; and
(b)
if separate suits were brought against such persons, any common question of law or fact would arise.] STATE AMENDMENTS Bihar.— In its application to the Scheduled Areas in the State of Bihar, in Order I, Rule 3, following proviso added:"Provided that in suits for declaration of title or for possession relating to immovable properties of a member of the

Scheduled Tribes as specified in Part III to the Schedule to the Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order, 1950, the Deputy Commissioner concerned shall also be joined as a defendant."

[Bihar Scheduled Areas Regulation, 1969]. [112][3A. Power to order separate trials where joinder of defendants may embarrass or delay trial— Where it appears to the Court that any joinder of defendants may embarrass or delay the trial of the suit, the Court may order separate trials or make such other order as may be expedient in the interests of justice.]

STATE AMENDMENTS Madhya Pradesh.— In Order I of First Schedule to the Principal Act, after Rule 3-A, the following rule inserted:"3-B. Conditions for entertainment of suits.— (1) No suit or proceeding for.

(a)
declaration of title or any right over any agricultural land, with or without any other relief; or
(b)
specific performance of any contract for transfer of any agricultural land, with or without any other relief, shall be entertained by any Court, unless the plaintiff or applicant, as the case may be, knowing or having reason to believe that a return under section 9 of the Madhya Pradesh Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings Act, 1960 (No. 20 of 1960) in relation to land aforesaid has been or is required to be filed by him or by any other person before competent authority appointed under that Act, has impleaded the State of Madhya Pradesh as one of the defendants or non-applicants, as the case may be, to such suit or proceeding.
(2)
No Court shall proceed with pending suit or proceeding referred to in sub-rule (1) unless, as soon as may be, the State Government is so impleaded as a defendant or non-applicant.

Explanation.— The expression "suit or proceeding" used in this sub-rule shall include appeal, reference or revision, but shall not include any proceeding for or connected with execution of any decree or final order passed in such suit or proceeding".

[M.P. Act 29 of 1984].

4. Court may give judgment for or against one or more of joint parties.— Judgment may be given without any amendment—

(a)
for such one or more of the plaintiffs as may be found to be entitled to relief, for such relief as he or they may be entitled to;
(b)
against such one or more of the defendants as may be found to be liable, according to their respective liabilities.
  1. Defendant need not be interested in all the relief claimed— It shall not be necessary that every defendant shall be interested as to all the relief claimed in any suit against him.
  2. Joinder of parties liable on same contract— The plaintiff may, at his option, join as parties to the same suit all or any of the persons severally, or jointly and severely, liable on any one contract, including parties to bills of exchange, hundis and promissory notes.
  3. When plaintiff in doubt from whom redress is to be sought— Where the plaintiff is in doubt as to the person from whom he is entitled to obtain redress, he may join two or more defendants in order that the question as to which of the defendants is liable, and to what extent, may be determined as between all parties.

[113][8. One person may sue or defend on behalf of all in same interest— (1) Where there are numerous persons having the same interest in one suit,—

(a)
one or more of such persons may, with the permission of the Court, sue or be sued, or may defend such suit, on behalf of, or for the benefit of, all persons so interested;
(b)
the Court may direct that one or more of such persons may sue or be sued, or may defend such suit, on behalf of, or for the benefit of, all persons so interested.
(2)
The Court shall, in every case where a permission or direction is given under sub-rule (1), at the plaintiff's expense, give notice of the institution of the suit to all persons so interested either by personal service, or, where, by reason of the number of persons or any other cause, such service is not reasonably practicable, by public advertisement, as the Court in each case may direct.
(3)
Any person on whose behalf, or for whose benefit, a suit is instituted or defended, under sub-rule (1), may apply to the Court to be made a party to such suit.
(4)
No part of the claim in any such suit shall be abandoned under sub-rule (1), and no such suit shall be withdrawn under sub-rule (3), of rule 1 of Order XXIII, and no agreement, compromise or satisfaction shall be recorded in any such suit under rule 3 of that Order, unless the Court has given, at the plaintiff's expense, notice to all persons so interested in the manner specified in sub-rule (2).
(5)
Where any person suing or defending in any such suit does not proceed with due diligence in the suit or defence, the Court may substitute in his place any other person having the same interest in the suit.
(6)
A decree passed in a suit under this rule shall be binding on all persons on whose behalf, or for whose benefit, the suit is instituted, or defended, as the case may be.

Explanation.—For the purpose of determining whether the persons who sue or are sued, or defend, have the same interest in one suit, it is not necessary to establish that such persons have the same cause of action as the person on whom behalf, or for whose benefit, they sue or are sued, or defend the suit, as the case may be.]

[114][8A. Power of Court to permit a person or body of persons to present opinion or to take part in the proceedings— While trying a suit, the Court may, if satisfied that a person or body of persons is interested in any question of law which is directly and substantially in issue in the suit and that it is necessary in the public interest to allow that person or body of persons to present his or its opinion on that question of law, permit that person or body of persons to present such opinion and to take part in the proceedings of the suit as the Court may specify.]

    1. Misjoinder and nonjoinder— No suit shall be defeated by reason of the misjoinder or nonjoinder of parties, and the Court may in every suit deal with the matter in controversy so far as regards the rights and interests of the parties actually before it:
    2. [115][Provided that nothing in this rule shall apply to nonjoinder of a necessary party.]
  1. Suit in name of wrong plaintiff— (1) Where a suit has been instituted in the name of the wrong person as plaintiff or where it is doubtful whether it has been instituted in the name of the right plaintiff, the Court may at any stage of the suit, if satisfied that the suit has been instituted thought a bona fide mistake, and that it is necessary for the determination of the real matter in dispute so to do, order any other person to be substituted or added as plaintiff upon such terms as the Court thinks just.
(2)
Court may stirke out or add parties.—The Court may at any stage of the proceedings, either upon or without the application of either party, and on such terms as may appear to the Court to be just, order that the name of any party improperly joined, whether as plaintiff or defendant, be struck out, and that the name, of any person who ought to have been joined, whether as plaintiff or defendant, or whose presence before the Court may be necessary in order to enable the Court effectually and completely to adjudicate upon and settle all the questions involved in the suit, be added.
(3)
No person shall be added as a plaintiff suing without a next friend or as the next friend of a plaintiff under any disability without his consent.
(4)
Where defendant added, plaint to be amended—Where a defendant is added, the plaint shall, unless the Court otherwise directs, be amended in such manner as may be necessary, and amended copes of the summons and of the plaint shall be served on the new defendant and, if the Court thinks fit, on the original defendant.
(5)
Subject to the provisions of the [116]Indian Limitation Act, 1877 (15 of 1877), section 22, the proceedings as against any person added as defendant shall be deemed to have begun only on the service of the summons.

[117][10A. Power of Court to request any pleader to address it— The Court may, in its discretion, request any pleader to address it as to any interest which is likely to be affected by its decision on any matter in issue in any suit or proceeding, if the party having the interest which is likely to be so affected is not represented by any pleader.]

  1. Conduct of suit— The Court may give the conduct of [118][a suit] to such persons as it deems proper.
  2. Appearance of one of several plaintiffs or defendants for others— (1) Where there are more plaintiffs than one, any one or more of them may be authorized by any other of them to appear, plead or act for such other in any proceeding; and in like manner, where there are more defendants than one, any one or more of them may be authorized by any other of them to appear, plead or act for such other in any proceeding.

(2) The authority shall be in writing signed by the party giving it and shall be filed in Court.

13. Objections as to nonjoinder or misjoinder— All objections on the ground of non-joinder or misjoinder of parties shall be taken at the earliest possible opportunity and, in all cases where issue are settled, at or before such settlement, unless the ground of objection has subsequently arisen, and any such objection not so taken shall be deemed to have been waived.

ORDER II-FRAME OF SUIT

  1. Frame of suit— Every suit shall as far as practicable be framed so as to afford ground for final decision upon the subjects in dispute and to prevent further litigation concerning them.
  2. Suit to include the whole claim— (1) Every suit shall include the whole of the claim which the plaintiff is entitled to make in respect of the cause of action; but a plaintiff may relinquish any portion of his claim in order to bring the suit within the jurisdiction of any Court.
(2)
Relinquishment of part of claim—Where a plaintiff omits to sue in respect of, or intentionally relinquishes, any portion of his claim he shall not afterwards sue in respect of the portion so omitted or relinquished.
(3)
Omission to sue for one of several reliefs—A person entitled to more than one relief in respect of the same cause of action may sue for all or any of such reliefs; but if he omits, except with the leave of the Court, to sue for all such reliefs, he shall not afterwards sue for any relief so omitted.

Explanation—For the purposes of this rule an obligation and a collateral security for its performance and successive claims arising under the same obligation shall be deemed respectively to constitute but one cause of action.

Illustration

A lets a house to B at a yearly of rent Rs. 1200. The rent for the whole of the years 1905, 1906 and 1907 is due and unpaid. A sues B in 1908 only for the rent due for 1906. A shall not afterwards sue B for the rent due for 1905 or 1907.

STATE AMENDMENTS

Uttar Pradesh.— In Order II, Rule 2.—

(a)
the existing Explanation shall be numbered as Explanation I, and after Explanation I, as so numbered the following Explanation II shall be inserted, namely:—
"Explanation II.— For the purposes of this rule a claim for ejectment of the defendant from immoable property let out to him and a claim for money due from him on account of rent or compensation for use and occupation of that property, shall be deemed to be claims in respect of distinct causes of action":
(b)
for the illustration, the following illustration shall be substituted, namely:—

"Illustration.— A lets immovable property to B at a yearly rent. The rent for the whole of the years 1905, 1906 and 1907 is due and unpaid, and the tenancy is determined before A sues B in 1908, only for the rent due for 1906. A may afterwards sue B for ejectment but not for the rent due for 1905 or 1907".

[U.P. Act 57 of 1976].

3. Joinder of causes of action— (1) Save as otherwise provided, a plaintiff may unite in the same suit several causes of action against the same defendant, or the same defendants jointly; and any plaintiffs having causes of action in which they are jointly interested against the same defendant or the same defendants jointly may unite such causes of action in the same suit.

(2) Where causes of action are united, the jurisdiction of the Court as regards the suit shall depend on the amount or value of the aggregate subject-matters at the date of instituting the suit.

4. Only certain claims to be joined for recovery of immovable property— No cause of action shall, unless with the leave of the Court, be joined with a suit for the recovery of immovable property, except—

(a)
claims for mesne profits or arrears of rent in respect of the property claimed or any part thereof;
(b)
claims for damages for breach of any contract under which the property or any part thereof is held; and
(c)
claims in which the relief sought is based on the same cause of action:

Provided that nothing in this rule shall be deemed to prevent any party in a suit for foreclosure or redemption from asking to be put into possession of the mortgaged property.

5. Claims by or against executor, administrator or heir— No claim by or against an executor, administrator or heir, as such, shall be joined with claims by or against him personally unless the last mentioned claims are alleged to arise with reference to the estate in respect of which the plaintiff or defendant sues or is sued as executor, administrator or heir, or are such as he was entitled to, or liable for, jointly with the deceased person whom he represents.

[119][6. Power of Court to separate trials— Where it appears to the Court that the joinder of causes of action in one suit may embarrass or delay the trial or is otherwise inconvenient, the Court may order separate trials or make such other order as may be expedient in the interests of justice.]

7. Objections as to misjoinder— All objections on the ground of misjoinder of causes of action shall be taken at the earliest possible opportunity and, in all cases where issues are settled, at or before such settlement unless the ground of objection has subsequently arisen, and any such objection to so taken shall be deemed to have been waived.

ORDER III-RECOGNIZED AGENTS AND PLEADERS
    1. Appearances, etc., may be in person, by recognized agent or by pleader— Any appearance, application or act in or to any Court, required or authorized by law to be made or done by a party in such Court, may, except where otherwise expressly provided by any law for the time being in force, be made or done by the party in person, or by his recognized agent, or by a pleader appearing, applying or acting, as the case may be, on his behalf:
    2. Provide that any such appearance shall, if the Court so directs, be made by the party in person.
  1. Recognized agent— The recognized agent of parties by whom such appearances, applications and acts may be made or done are—
(a)
persons holding powers-of-attorney, authorizing them to make and do such appearances, applications and acts on behalf of such parties;
(b)
persons carrying on trade or business for and in the names of parties not resident within the local limits of the jurisdiction of the Court within which limits the appearance, application or act is made or done, in matters connected with such trade or business only, where no other agent is expressly authorized to make and do such appearances, applications and acts.

3. Service of process on recognized agent— (1) Process served on the recognized agent of a party shall be as effectual as if the same had been served on the party in person, unless the Court otherwise directs.

(2) The provisions for the service of process on a party to a suit shall apply to the service of process on his recognized agent.

4. Appointment of pleader— (1) No pleader shall act for any person in any Court, unless he has been appointed for the purpose by such person by a document in writing signed by such person or by his recognized agent or by some other person duly authorized by or under a power-of-attorney to make such appointment.

(2) Every such appointment shall be [120][filed in Court and shall, for the purposes of sub-rule(1), be] deemed to be in force until determined with the leave of the Court by a writing singed by the client or the pleader, as the case may be, and filed in Court, or until the client or the pleader dies, or until all proceedings in the suit are ended so far as regards the client.

[121] [Explanation.—For the purposes of this sub-rule, the following shall be deemed to be proceedings in the suit,—

(a)
an application for the review of decree or order in the suit,
(b)
an application under section 144 or under section 152 of this Code, in relation to any decree or order made in the suit,
(c)
an appeal from any decree or order in the suit, and
(d)
any application or act for the purpose of obtaining copies of documents or return of documents produced or filed in the suit or of obtaining refund of moneys paid into the Court in connection with the suit.]

[122] [(3) Nothing in sub-rule (2) shall be construed—

(a)
as extending, as between the pleader and his client, the duration for which the pleader is engaged, or
(b)
as authorising service on the pleader of any notice or document issued by any Court other than the Court for which the pleader was engaged, except where such service was expressly agreed to by the client in the document referred in in sub-rule (1)].
(4)
The High Court may, by general order, direct that, where the person by whom a pleader is appointed is unable to write his name, his mark upon the document appointing the pleader shall be attested by such person and in such manner as may be specified by the order.
(5)
No pleader who has been engaged for the purpose of pleading only shall plead on behalf of any party, unless he has filed in Court a memorandum of appearance signed by himself and stating—
(a)
the names of the parties to the suit,
(b)
the name of the party for whom he appears, and
(c)
the name of the person by whom he is authorized to appear :

Provided that nothing in this sub-rule shall apply to any pleader engaged to plead on behalf of any party by any other pleader who has been duly appointed to act in Court on behalf of such party.

  1. Service of process on pleader— [123][Any process served on the pleader who has been duly appointed to act in Court for any party] or left at the office or ordinary residence of such pleader, and whether the same is for the personal appearance of the party or not, shall be presumed to be duly communicated and made known to the party whom the pleader represents, and, unless the Court otherwise directs, shall be as effectual for all purposes as if the same had been given to or served on the party in person.
  2. Agent to accept service— (1) Besides the recognized agents described in rule 2 any person residing within the jurisdiction of the Court may be appointed an agent to accept service of process.

(2) Appointment to be in writing and to be filed in Court—Such appointment may be special or general and shall be made by a instrument in writing signed by the principal, and such instrument or, if the appointment is general, a certified copy thereof shall be filed in Court.

[124] [(3)The Court may, at any stage of the suit, order any party to the suit not having a recognised agent residing within the jurisdiction of the Court, or a pleader who has been duly appointed to act in the Court on his behalf, to appoint, within a specified time, an agent residing within the jurisdiction of the Court to accept service of the procession his behalf.]

ORDER IV-INSTITUTION OF SUITS

1. Suit to be commenced by plaint— (1) Every suit shall be instituted by presenting a plaint to the Court or such officer as it appoints in this behalf.

(2) Every plaint shall comply with the rules contained in Orders VI and VII, so far as they are applicable.

2. Register of suits— The Court shall cause the particulars of every suit to be entered in a book to be kept for the purposes and called the resister of civil suits. Such entries shall be numbered in every year according to the order in which the plaints are admitted.

STATE AMENDMENTS

Uttar Pradesh— In its application to the State of Uttar Pradesh after Order IV, the following Order shall be inserted:— ORDER IVA CONSOLIDATION OF CASES

1. Consolidation of suits and proceedings— When two or more suits or proceedings are pending in the same Court, and the Court is of opinion that it is expedient in the interest of justice, it may by order direct their joint trial, where upon all such suits and proceedings may be decided upon the evidence in all or any of such suits or proceedings.".

[U.P. Act 57 of 1976].

ORDER V-ISSUE AND SERVICE OF SUMMONS

Issue of Summons

1. Summons— (1)When a suit has been duly instituted a summons may be issued to the defendant to appear and answer the claim on a day to be therein specified:

Provided that no such summons shall be issued when the defendant has appeared at the presentation of the plaint and admitted the plaintiff's claim :

[125][Provided further that where a summons has been issued, the Court may direct the defendant to file the written statement of his defence, if any, on the date of his appearance and cause an entry to be made to that effect in the summons.]

(2)
A defendant to whom a summons has been issued under sub-rule (1) may appear—
(a)
in person, or
(b)
by a pleader duly instructed and able to answer all material questions relating to the suit, or
(c)
by a pleader accompanied by some person able to answer all such questions.
(3)
Every such summons shall be signed by the Judge or such officer as he appoints, and shall be sealed with the seal of the Court.
  1. Copy or statement annexed to summons— Every summons shall be accompanied by a copy of the plaint or, if so permitted, by a concise statement.
  2. Court may order defendant or plaintiff to appear in person— (1) where the Court sees reason to require the personal appearance of the defendant, the summons shall order him to appear in person in Court on the day therein specified.

(2) Where the Court sees reason to require the personal appearance of the plaintiff on the same day, it shall make an order for such appearance.

4. No party to be ordered to appear in person unless resident with certain limits— No party shall be ordered to appear in person unless he resides—

(a)
within the local limits of the Court's ordinary original jurisdiction, or
(b)
without such limits but at place less than fifty or (where there is railway or steamer communication or other established public conveyance for five-sixths of the distance between the place where he resides and the place where the Court is situate) less than two hundred miles distance from the Court-house.
    1. Summons to be either to settle issues or for final disposal— The Court shall determine, at the time of issuing the summons, whether it shall be for the settlement of issues only, or for the final disposal of the suit; and the summons shall contain a direction accordingly :
    2. Provided that, in every suit heard by a Court of Small Causes, the summons shall be for the final disposal of the suit.
  1. Fixing day for appearance of defendant— The day for the appearance of the defendant shall be fixed with reference to the current business of the Court, the place of residence of the defendant and the time necessary for the service of the summons; and the day shall be so fixed as to allow the defendant sufficient time to enable him to appear and answer on such day.
  2. Summons to order defendant to produce documents relied on by him— The summons to appeal and answer shall order the defendant to produce all documents in his possession or power upon which he intends to rely in support of his case.
    1. On issue of summons for final disposal, defendant to be directed to produce his witnesses— Where the summons is for the final disposal of the suit, it shall also direct the defendant to produce, on the day fixed for his appearance, all witnesses upon whose evidence he intends to relay in support of his case.
    2. Service of Summons
  3. Delivery or transmission of summons for service— (1) Where the defendant resides within the jurisdiction of the Court in which the suit is instituted, or has an agent resident within that jurisdiction who is empowered to accept the service of the summons, the summons shall, unless the Court otherwise directs, be delivered or sent to the proper officer to be served by him or one of his subordinates.

(2) The proper officer may be an officer of a Court other than that in which the suit is instituted, and, where he is such an officer, the summons may be sent to him by post or in such other manner as the Court may direct.

  1. Mode of service— Service of the summons shall be made by delivering or tendering a copy thereof signed by the Judge or such officer as he appoints in this behalf, and sealed with the seal of the Court.
  2. Service on several defendants— Save as otherwise prescribed, where there are more defendants than one, service of the summons shall be made on each defendant.
  3. Service to be on defendant on person when practicable, or on his agent— Wherever it is practicable service shall be made on the defendant in person, unless he has an agent empowered to accept service, in which case service on such agent shall be sufficient.
  4. Service on agent by whom defendant carries on business— (1) In a suit relating to any business or work against a person who does not reside within the local limits of the jurisdiction of the Court from which the summons is issued, service on any manager or agent, who, at the time of service, personally carries on such business or work for such person within such limits, shall be deemed good service.

(2) For the purpose of this rule the master of a ship shall be deemed to be the agent of the owner or chartered.

14. Service on agent in charge in suits for immovable property— Where in a suit to obtain relief respecting, or compensation for wrong to, immovable property, service cannot be made on the defendant in person, and the defendant has no agent empowered to accept the service, it may be made on any agent of the defendant in charge of the property.

[126][15. Where service may be on an adult member of defendant's family— Where in a suit the defendant is absent from his residence at the time when the service of summons is sought to be effected on his at his residence and there is no likelihood of his being found at the residence within a reasonable time and he has no agent empowered to accept service of the summons on his behalf service may be made on any adult member of the family, whether male or female, who is residing with him.

Explanation.—A servant is not a member of the family within the meaning of this rule.]

  1. Person served to sign acknowledgement— Where the serving officer delivers or tenders a copy of the summons to the defendant personally, or to an agent or other person on his behalf, he shall require the signature of the person to whom the copy is so delivered or tendered to an acknowledgement of service endorsed on the original summons.
  2. Procedure when defendant refuses to accept service, or cannot be found— Where the defendant or his agent or such other person as aforesaid refuses to sign the acknowledgement, or where the serving officer, after using all due and reasonable diligence, cannot find the defendant, [127][who is absent from his residence at the time when service is sought to be effected on him at his residence and there is no likelihood of his being found at the residence within a reasonable time] and there is no agent empowered to accept service of the summons on his behalf, nor any other person on whom service can be made, the serving officer shall affix a copy of the summons on the outer door or some other conspicuous part of the house in which the defendant ordinarily resides or carries on business or personally works for gain, and shall then return the original to the Court from which it was issued, with a report endorsed thereon or annexed thereto stating that he has so affixed the copy, the circumstances under which he did do, and the name and address of the person (if any) by whom the house was identified and in whose presence the copy was affixed.
  3. Endorsement of time and manner of service— The serving officer shall, in all cases in which the summons has been served under rule 16, endorse or annex, or cause to be endorsed or annexed, on or to the original summons, a return stating the time when and the manner in which the summons was served, and the name and address of the person (if any) identifying the person served and witnessing the delivery or tender of the summons.
  4. Examination of serving officer.— Where a summons is returned under rule 17, the Court shall, if the return under that rule has not been verified by the affidavit of the serving officer, and may, if it has been so verified, examine the serving officer on oath, or cause him to be so examined by another Court, touching his proceedings, and may make such further enquiry in the matter as it thinks fit; and shall either declare that the summons has been duly served or order such service as it thinks fit.

[128][19A. Simultaneous issue of summons for service by post in addition to personal service— (1) The Court shall, in addition to, and simultaneously with, the issue of summons for service in the manner provided in rules 9 to 19 (both inclusive), also direct the summons to be served by registered post, acknowledgement due, addressed to the defendant, or his agent empowered to accept the service, at the place where the defendant, or his agent, actually and voluntarily resides or carries on business or personally works for gain:

Provided that nothing in this sub-rule shall require the Court to issue a summons for service by registered post, where, in the circumstances of the case, the Court considers it unnecessary.

(2) When an acknowledgement purporting to be signed by the defendant or his agent is received by the Court or the postal article containing the summons is received back by the Court with an endorsement purporting to have been made by a postal employee to the effect that the defendant or his agent had refused to take delivery of the postal article containing the summons, when tendered to him, the Court issuing the summons shall declare that the summons had been duly served on the defendant :

Provided that where the summons was properly addressed, prepaid and duly sent by registered post, acknowledgement due, the declaration referred to in this sub-rule shall be made notwithstanding the fact that the acknowledgement having lost or mislaid, or for other reason, has been received by the Court within thirty days from the date of the issue of the summons].

20. Substituted service— (1) Where the Court is satisfied that there is preason to believe that the defendant is keeping out of the way for the purpose of avoiding service, or that for any other reason the summons cannot be served in the ordinary way, the Court shall order the summons to be served by affixing a copy thereof in some conspicuous place in the Court-house, and also upon some conspicuous part of the house (if any) in which the defendant is known to have last resided or carried on business or personally worked for gain, or in such other manner as the Court thinks fit.

[129][(1A) Where the Court acting under sub-rule (1) orders service by an advertisement in a newspaper, the newspaper shall be a daily newspaper circulating in the locality in which the defendant is last known to have actually and voluntarily resided, carried on business or personally worked for gain.]

(2)
Effect of substituted service—Service substituted by order of the Court shall be as effectual as if it had been made on the defendant personally.
(3)
Where service substituted, time for appearance to be fixed—Where service is substituted by order of the Court, the Court shall fix such time for the appearance of the defendant as the case may require.

20A. [Service of summons by post.] Rep. by the Code of Civil Procedure (Amendment) Act, 1976 ( 104 of 1976), s. 55 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

  1. Service of summons where defendant resides within jurisdiction of another Court— A summons may sent by the Court by which it is issued, whether within or without the State, either by one of its officers or by post to any Court (not being the High Court) having jurisdiction in the place where the defendant resides.
  2. Service within presidency-towns of summons issued by Courts outside— Where as summons issued by any Court established beyond the limits of the towns of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay is to be served within any such limits, it shall be sent to the Court of Small Causes within whose jurisdiction it is to be served.
  3. Duty of Court to which summons is sent— The Court to which a summons is sent under rule 21 or rule 22 shall, upon receipt thereof, proceed as if it had been issued by such Court and shall then return the summons to the Court of issue, together with the record (if any) of its proceedings with regard thereto.
  4. Service on defendant in prison— Where the defendant is confined in a prison, the summons shall be delivered or sent by post or otherwise to the officer in charge of the prison for service on the defendant.
  5. Service where defendant resides out of India and has no agent— Where the defendant resides out of India and has no agent in India empowered to accept service, the summons shall be addressed to the defendant at the place where he is residing and sent to him by post, if there is postal communication between such place and the place where the Court is situate :

Provided that where any such defendant [130][resides in Bangladesh or Pakistan] the summons, together with a copy thereof, may be sent for service on the defendant, to any Court in that country (not being the High Court) having jurisdiction in the place where the defendant resides:

Provided further that where any such defendant is a public officer [131][in Bangladesh or Pakistan (not belonging to the Bangladesh or, as the case may be, Pakistan military naval or air forces)] or is servant of a railway company or local authority in that country, the summons, together with a copy thereof, may be sent for service on the defendant, to such officer or authority in that country as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf.

[132][26. Service in foreign territory through Political Agent or Court— Where—

(a)
in the exercise of any foreign jurisdiction vested in the Central Government, a Political Agent has been appointed, or a Court has been established or continued, with power to serve a summons, issued by a Court under this code, in any foreign territory in which the defendant actually and voluntarily resides, caries on business or personally works for gain, or
(b)
the Central Government has, by notification in the Official Gazette, declared, in respect of any Court situate in any such territory and not established or continued in the exercise of any such jurisdiction as aforesaid, that service by such Court of any summons issued by a Court under this Code shall be deemed to be vaild service,

the summons may be sent to such Political Agent or Court, by post, or otherwise, or if so directed by the Central Government, through the Ministry of that Government dealing with foreign affairs, or in such other manner as may be specified by the Central Government for the purpose of being served upon the defendant : and, if the Political Agent or Court returns the summons with an endorsement purporting to have been made by such Political Agent or by the Judge or other officer of the Court to the effect that the summons has been served on the defendant in the manner hereinbefore directed, such endorsement shall be deemed to be evidence of service.

26A. Summonses to be sent to officer to foreign countries— Where the Central Government has, by notification in the Official Gazette, declared in respect of any foreign territory that summonses to be served on defendants actually and voluntarily residing or carrying on business or personally working for gain in that foreign territory may be sent to an officer of the Government of the the foreign territory specified by the Central Government, the summonses may be sent to such officer, through the Ministry of the Government of India dealing with foreign affairs or in such other manner as may be specified by the Central Government; and if such officer returns any such summons with an endorsement purporting to have been made by him that the summons has been served on the defendant, such endorsement shall be deemed to be evidence of service.]

  1. Service on civil public or on servant of railway officer or on servant of railway company or local authority— Where the defendant is a public officer (not belonging to the Indian military naval or air forces, or is the servant of a railway company or local authority, the Court may, if it appears to it that the summons may be most conveniently so served, send it for service on the defendant to the head of the office in which he is ememployed together with a copy to be retained by the defendant.
  2. Service on soldiers, sailors or airmen— Where the defendant is a soldier, sailor or airman, the Court shall send the summons for service to his commanding officer together with a copy to be retained by the defendant.
  3. Duty of person to whom summons is delivered or sent for service— (1) Where a summons is delivered or sent to any person for service under rule 24, rule 27 or rule 28, such person shall be bound to serve it if possible and to return it under his signature, with the written acknowledgement of the defendant, and such signature shall be deemed to be evidence of service.

(2) Where from any cause service is impossible, the summons shall be returned to the Court with a full statement of such cause and of the steps taken to procure service, and such statement shall be deemed to be evidence of non-service.

30. Substitution of letter for summons— (1) The Court may, notwithstanding anything hereinbefore contained, substitute for a summons a letter signed by the Judge or such officer as he may appoint in this behalf, where the defendant is, in the opinion of the Court, of a rank entitling him to such mark of consideration.

(2)
A letter substituted under sub-rule (1) shall contain all the particulars required to be stated in a summons, and, subject to the provisions of sub-rule (3), shall be treated in all respects as a summons.
(3)
A letter so substituted may be sent to the defendant by spot or by a special messenger selected by the Court, or in any other manner which the Court thinks fit; and where the defendant has an agent empowered to accept service, the letter may be delivered or sent to such agent.
ORDER VI-PLEADINGS GENERALLY

1. Pleading— "Pleading", shall mean plaint or written statement.

[133][2. Pleading to state material facts and not evidence— (1) Every pleading shall contain, and contain only a statement in a concise form of the material facts on which the party pleading relies for his claim or defnece as the case may be, but not the evidence by which they are to be proved.

(2)
Every pleading shall, when necessary, be devided into paragraphs, numbered consecutively, each allegation being, so far as is convenient, contained in a separate paragraph.
(3)
Dates, sums and numbers shall be expressed in a pleading in figures as well as in words.]
  1. Forms of pleading— The forms in Appendix A when applicable, and where they are not applicable forms of the like character, nearly as may be, shall be used for all pleadings.
  2. Particulars to be given where necessary— In all cases in which the party pleading relies on any misrepresentation, fraud, breach of trust, wilful default, or undue influence, and in all other cases in which particulars may be necessary beyond such as are exemplified in the forms aforesaid, particulars (with dates and items if necessary) shall be stated in the pleading.

STATE AMENDMENTS

Madhya Pradesh.— After rule 4, the following rule shall be inserted, namely:—

"4-A. Particulars of pleading for agricultural land.— In any suit or proceeding contemplated under rule 3-B of Order 1, the parties, other than the State Government, shall plead the particulars of total agricultural land which is owned, claimed or held by them in any right and shall further declare whether the subject-matter of suit or proceeding is or is not covered by Madhya Pradesh Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings Act, 1960 (20 of 1960), and whether any proceedings in relation to such subject-matter are to the knowledge of the party pending before the competent authority."

[M.P. Act 29 of 1984]

  1. Further and better statement, or particulars— A further and better statement of the nature of the claim or defence, or further and better particulars of any matter stated in any pleading, may in all cases be ordered, upon such terms, as to costs and otherwise, as may be just.
  2. Condition precedent— Any condition precedent, the performance or occurrence of which is intended to be contested, shall be distinctly specified in his pleading by the plaintiff or defendant, as the case my be; and, subject thereto, an avernment of the performance or occurrence of all conditions precedent necessary for the case of the plaintiff or defendant shall be implied in his pleading.
  3. Departure— No pleading shall, except by way of amendment, raise any new ground of claim or contain any allegation of fact inconsistent with the previous pleadings of the party pleading the same.
  4. Denial of contract— Where a contract is alleged in any pleading, a bare denial of the same by the opposite party shall be construed only as a denial in fact of the express contract alleged or of the matters of fact from which the same may be implied and not as a denial of the legality or sufficiency in law of such contract.
  5. Effect of document to be stated.— Wherever the contents of any document are material, it shall be sufficient in any pleading to state the effect thereof as briefly as possible, without setting out the whole or any part thereof, unless the precise words of the document or any part thereof are material.
  6. Malice, knowledge, etc.,— Wherever it is material to allege malice, fraudulent intention, knowledge or other condition of the mind of any person, it shall be sufficient to allege the same as a fact without setting out the circumstances from which the same is to be inferred.
  7. Notice— Wherever it is material to allege notice to any person of any fact, mater or thing, it shall be sufficient to allege such notice as a fact, unless the form or the precise terms of such notice, or the circumstances from which such notice is to be inferred are material.
  8. Implied contract, or relation— Wherever any contract or any relation between any persons is to be implied from a series of letters or conversations or otherwise from a number of circumstances it shall be sufficient to allege such contract or relation as a fact, and to refer generally to such letter, conversations or circumstances without setting them out in detail. And if in such case the person so pleading desires to rely in the alternative upon more contracts or relations than one as to be implied from such circumstances, he may state the same in the alternative.
  9. Presumptions of law— Neither party need in any pleading allege any matter of fact which the law presumes in his favour or as to which the burden of proof lies upon the other side unless the same has first been specifically denied (e.g. consideration for a bill of exchange where the plaintiff sues only on the bill and not for the consideration as a substantive ground of claim.)
  10. Pleading to be signed— Every pleading shall be signed by the party and his pleader (if any) :

Provided that where a party pleading is, by reason of absence or for other good cause, unable to sign the pleading it may be signed by any person duly authorized by him to sign the same or to sue or defend on his behalf.

[134][14A. Address for service of notice— (1) Every pleading, when filed by a party, shall be accompanied by a statement in the prescribed form, signed as provided in rule 14, regarding the address of the party.

(2)
Such address may, from time to time, be changed by lodging in Court a form duly filled up and stating the new address of the party and accompanied by a verified petition.
(3)
The address furnished in the statement made sub-rule (1) shall be called the "registered address" of the party, and shall, until duly changed as aforesaid, be deemed to be the address of the party for the purpose of service of all processes in the suit of in any appeal from any decree or order therein made and for the purpose of execution, and shall hold good, subject as aforesaid, for a period of two years after the final determination of the cause or matter.
(4)
Service of any process may be effected upon a party at his registered address in all respects as though such party resided there at.
(5)
Where the registered address of a party is discovered by the court to be incomplete, false or fictitious, the Court may, either on its own motion, or on the application of any party, order—
(a)
in the case where such registered address was furnished by a plaintiff, stay of the suit, or
(b)
in the case where such registered address was furnished by a defendant, his be struck out and he be placed in the same position as if he had not put up and defence.
(6)
Where a suit is stayed or a defence is struck out under sub-rule (5), the plaintiff or, as the case may be, the defendant may, after furnishing his true address, apply to the Court for an order to set aside the order of stay or, as the case may be, the order striking out the defence.
(7)
the Court, if satisfied that the party was prevented by any sufficient cause from filing the true address at the proper time, shall set aside the order of stay or order striking out the defence, on such term as to costs or otherwise as it thinks fit and shall appoint a day for proceeding with the suit or defence, as the case may be.
(8)
Nothing in this rule shall prevent the Court from directing the service of a process at any other address, if, for any reason, it thinks fit to do so.]

15. Verification of pleadings— (1) Save as otherwise provided by any law for the time being in force, every pleading shall be varied at the foot by the party or by one of the parties pleading or by some other person proved to the satisfaction of the Court to be acquainted with the facts of the case.

(2)
The person verifying shall specify, by reference to the numbered paragraphs of the pleading, what he verifies of his own knowledge and what he verifies upon information received and believed to be true.
(3)
The verification shall be signed by the person making it and shall state the date on which and the place at which it was signed.
[135][16. Striking out pleadings— The Court may at any stage of the proceedings order to be struck out or amended any matter in any pleading—
(a)
which may be unnecessary, scandalous, frivolous or vexatious, or
(b)
which may tend to prejudice, embarrass or delay the fair trail of the suit, or
(c)
which is otherwise an abuse of the process of the Court.]
  1. Amendment of pleadings— The Court may at any stage of the proceedings allow either party to alter or amend his pleadings in such manner and on such terms as may be just, and all such amendments shall be made as may be necessary for the purpose of determining the real questions in controversy between the parties.
  2. Failure to amend after order— If a party who has obtained an order for leave to amend does not amend accordingly within the time limited for that purpose by the order, or if no time is thereby limited then within fourteen days from the date of the order, he shall not be permitted to amend after the expiration of such limited time as aforesaid or of such fourteen days, as the case may be, unless the time is extended by the Court.
ORDER VII-PLAINT

1. Particulars to be contained in plaint— The plaint shall contain the following particulars:—

(a)
the name of the Court in which the suit is brought ;
(b)
the name, description and place of residence of the plaintiff;
(c)
the name, description and place of residence of the defendant, so far as they can be ascertained;
(d)
where the plaintiff or the defendant is a minor or a person of unsound mind, a statement to that effect;
(e)
the facts constituting the cause of action and when it arose;
(f)
the facts showing that the Court has jurisdiction;
(g)
the relief which the plaintiff claims;
(h)
where the plaintiff has allowed a set-off or relinquished a portion of his claim, the amount so allowed or relinquished; and
(i)
a statement of the value of the subject-matter of the suit for the purposes of jurisdiction and of court fees, so far as the case admits.
    1. In money suits— Where the plaintiff seeks the recovery of money, the plaint shall state the precise amount claimed:
    2. But where the plaintiff sue for mesne profits, or for an amount which will be found due to him on taking unsettled accounts between him and the defendant, [136][or for movables in the possession of the defendant, or for debts of which the value he cannot, after the exercise of reasonable diligence, estimate, the plaint shall state approximately the amount or value sued for].
  1. Where the subject-matter of the suit is immovable property— Where the subject-matter of the suit is immovable property, the plaint shall contain a description of the property sufficient to identify it, and, in case such property can be identified by boundaries or numbers in a record of settlement or survey, the plaint shall specify such boundaries or numbers.
  2. When plaintiff sues as representative— Where the plaintiff sues in a representative character the plaint shall show not only that he has an actual existing interest in the subject-matter, but that he has taken the steps (if any) necessary to enable him to institute a suit concerning it.
  3. Defendant's interest and liability to be shown— The plaint shall show that the defendant is or claims to be interested in subject-matter, and that he is liable to be called upon to answer the plaintiff's demand.
  4. Grounds of exemption from limitation law— Where the suit is instituted after the expiration of the period prescribed by the law of limitation, the plaint shall show the ground upon which exemption from such law is claimed :

[137] [Provided that the Court may permit the plaintiff to claim exemption from the law of limitation on any ground not set out in the plaint, if such ground is not inconsistent with the grounds set out in the plaint.]

  1. Relief to be specifically stated— Every plaint shall state specifically the relief which the plaintiff claims either simply or in the alternative, and it shall not be necessary to ask for general or other relief which may always be given as the Court may think just to the same extent as if it had been asked for. And the same rule shall apply to any relief claimed by the defendant in his written statement.
  2. Relief founded on separate ground— Where the plaintiff seeks relief in respect of several distinct claims or causes of action founded upon separate and district grounds, they shall be stated as far as may be separately and distinctly.
  3. Procedure on admitting plaint— concise statement—(1) The plaintiff shall endorse on the pliant, or annex thereto, a list of the documents (if any) which he has produced along with it; and , if the plaint is admitted [138][shall present, within such time as may be fixed by the Court or extended by it from time to time, as many copies] on plain paper of the plaint as there are defendants, unless the Court by reason of the length of the plaint or the number of the defendants, or for any other sufficient reason, permits him present a like number of concise statements of the nature of the claim made, or of the relief claimed in the suit, in which case he shall present such statements.

[139] [(1A) The plaintiff shall, within the time fixed by the Court or extended by it under sub-rule (1), pay the requisite fee for the service of summons on the defendants.]

(2)
Where the plaintiff sue or the defendant or any of the defendants is sued, in a representative capacity such statements shall show in what capacity the plaintiff or defendant sues or is sued.
(3)
The plaintiff may, by leave of the Court, amend such statements so as to make them correspond with the plaint.
(4)
The chief ministerial officer of the Court shall sign such list and copies or statements if, on examination, he finds them to be correct.

[140][10. Return of plaint— (1) [141][Subject to the provisions of rule 10A, the plaint shall] at any state of the suit be returned to be presented to the Court in which the suit should have been instituted.

[142][Explanation.—For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that a Court of appeal or revision may direct, after setting aside the decree passed in a suit, the return of the plaint under this sub-rule.]

(2)
procedure on returning plaint—On returning a plaint, the Judge shall endorse thereon the date of its presentation and return, the name of the party presenting it, and a brief statement of the reasons for returning it.
[143][10A. Power of Court to fix a date of appearance in the Court where plaint is to be filed after its return—
(1)
Where, in any suit, after the defendant has appeared, the Court is of opinion that the plaint should be returned, it shall, before doing, so, intimate its decision to the plaintiff.
(2)
Where an intimation is given to the plaintiff under sub-rule (1), the plaintiff may make an application to the Court—
(a)
specifying the Court in which he proposes to present the plaint after its return,
(b)
praying that the Court may fix a date for the appearance of the parties in the said Court, and
(c)
requesting that the notice of the date so fixed may be given to him and to the defendant.
(3)
Where an application is made by the plaintiff under sub-rule (2), the Court shall, before returning the plaint and notwithstanding that the order for return of plaint was made by it on the ground that it has no jurisdiction to try the suit,—
(a)
fix a date for the appearance of the parties in the Court in which the plaint is proposed to be presented, and
(b)
give to the plaintiff and to the defendant notice of such date for appearance.
(4)
Where the notice of the date for appearance is given under sub-rule (3),—
(a)
it shall not be necessary for the Court in which the plaint is presented after its return, to serve the defendant with a summons for appearance in the suit, unless that Court, for reasons to be recorded otherwise directs, and
(b)
the said notice shall be deemed to be a summons for the appearance of the defendant in the Court in which the plaint is presented on the date so fixed by the Court by which the plaint was returned.
(5)
Where the application made by the plaintiff under sub-rule (2) is allowed by the Court, the plaintiff shall not be entitled to appeal against the order returning the plaint.
10B. Power of appellate Court to transfer suit to the proper Court— (1) Where, on an appeal against an order for the return of plaint, the Court hearing the appeal confirms such order, the Court of appeal may, if the plaintiff by an application so desires, while returning the plaint, direct plaintiff to file the plaint, subject to the provisions of the Limitation Act, 1963 (36 of 1963), in the Court in which the suit should have been instituted, (whether such Court is within or without the State in which the Court hearing the appeal is situated), and fit a date for the appearance of the parties in the Court in which the plaint is directed to be filed and when the date is so fixed it shall not be necessary for the Court in which the plaint is filed to serve the defendant with the summons for appearance in the suit, unless that Court in which the plaint is filed, for reasons to be recorded, otherwise directs.
(2)
The direction made by the Court under sub-rule (1), shall be without any prejudice to the rights of the parties to question the jurisdiction of the Court, in which the plaint is filed, to try the suit.]

11. Rejection of plaint— The plaint shall be rejected in the following cases:—

(a)
where it does not disclose a cause of action;
(b)
where the relief claimed is undervalued, and the plaintiff, on being required by the Court to correct the valuation within a time to be fixed by the Court, fails to do so;
(c)
where the relief claimed is properly valued, but the plaint is returned upon paper insufficiently stamped, and the plaintiff, on being required by the Court to supply the requisite stamp-paper within a time to be fixed by the Court, fails to do so;
(d)
where the suit appears from the statement in the plaint to be barred by any law :

[144] [Provided that the time fixed by the Court for the correction of the valuation or supplying of the requisite stamp-paper shall not be extended unless the Court, for reasons to be recorded, is satisfied that the plaintiff was prevented by any cause of an exceptional nature form correcting the valuation or supplying the requisite stamp-paper , as the case may be, within the time fixed by the Court and that refusal to extend such time would cause grave injustice to the plaintiff.]

  1. Procedure on rejecting plaint— Where a plaint is rejected the Judge shall record an order to that effect with the reasons for such order.
    1. Where rejection of plaint does not preclude presentation of fresh plaint— The rejection of the plaint on any of the grounds herein before mentioned shall not of its own force preclude the plaintiff from presenting a fresh plaint in respect of the same cause of action.
    2. Documents relied on in plaint
  2. Production of document on which plaintiff sues— (1) Where a plaintiff sues upon a document in his possession or power, he shall produce it in Court when the plaint is presented, and shall at the same time deliver the document or a copy thereof to be filed with the plaint.

(2) List of other documents—Where he relies on any other documents (whether in his possession or power or not) as evidence in support of his claim, he shall enter such documents in a list to be added or annexed to the plaint.

  1. Statement in case of documents not in plaintiff's possession or power— Where any such document is not in the possession or power of the plaintiff, he shall, if possible, state in whose possession or power it is.
  2. Suits on lost negotiable instruments— Where the suit is founded upon a negotiable instrument, and it is proved that the instrument is lost, and an indemnity is given by the plaintiff, to the satisfaction of the Court, against the claims of any other person upon such instrument, the Court may pass such decree as it would have passed if the plaintiff had produced the instrument in Court when the plaint was presented, and had at the same time delivered a copy of the instrument to be filed with the plaint.
  3. Production of shop-book— (1) Save in so far as is otherwise provided by the Bankers' Books Evidence Act, 1891 (18 of 1891), where the document on which the plaintiff sues is an entry in shop-book or other account in his possession or power the plaintiff shall produce the book or account at the time of filing the plaint, together with a copy of the entry on which he relies.

(2) Original entry to be marked and returned—The Court, or such officer as it appoints in this behalf, shall forthwith mark the document for the purpose of identification, and, after examining and comparing the copy with the original, shall, if it is found correct, certify it to be so and return the book to the plaintiff and cause the copy to be filed.

18. Inadmissibility of document not produced when plaint filed— (1) A document which ought to be produced in Court by the plaintiff when the plaint is presented, or to be entered in the list to be added or annexed to the plaint, and which is not produced or entered accordingly, shall not, without the leave of the Court, be received in evidence on his behalf at the hearing of the suit.

(2) Nothing in this rule applies to documents produced for cross-examination of the defendant's witnesses or in answer to any case set up by the defendant or handed to a witness merely to refresh his memory

ORDER VIII-[145][WRITTEN STATEMENT, SET-OF AND COUNTER-CLAIM]

1. Written statement— [146][(1)] The defendant [147]****shall, at or before the first hearing or within such time as the Court may permit, present a written statement of his defence.

[148] [(2) Save as otherwise provided in rule 8A, where the defendant relies on any document (whether or not in his possession or power) in support of his defence or claim for set-off or counter claim, he shall enter such documents in a list, and shall, —

(a)
If a written statement is presented, annex the list to the written statement :
Provided that where the defendant, in his written statement, claims a set-off or makes a counter-claim based on a document in his possession or power, he shall produce it in Court at the time of presentation of the written statement and shall at the same time deliver the document or copy thereof to be filed with the written statement;
(b)
If a written statement is not presented, present the list to the Court at the first hearing of the suit.
(3)
Where any such document is not in the possession or power of the defendant, he shall, wherever possible, state in whose possession or power it is.
(4)
If no such list is so annexed or presented, the defendant shall be allowed such further period for the purpose as the Court may think fit.
(5)
A document which ought to be entered in the list referred to in sub-rule (2), and which is not so entered, shall not, without the leave of the Court, be received in evidence on behalf of the defendant at the hearing of the suit.
(6)
Nothing in sub-rule (5) shall apply to documents produced for the cross-examination of plaintiff's witnesses or in answer to any case set up by the plaintiff subsequent to the filing of the plaint, or handed over to a witness merely to refresh his memory.
(7)
Where a Court grants leave under sub-rule (5), it shall record its reasons for so doing and no such leave shall be granted unless good cause is shown to the satisfaction of the Court for the non-entry of the document in the list referred to in sub-rule (2).]
  1. New facts must be specially pleaded— The defendant must raise by his pleading all matters which show the suit not be maintainable, or that the transaction is either void or voidable in point of law, and all such grounds of defence as, if not raised, would be likely to take the opposite party by surprise, or would raise issues of fact not arising out of the plaint, as, for instance, fraud, limitation, release, payment, performance, or facts showing illegality.
  2. Denial to be specific— It shall not be sufficient for a defendant in his written statement to deny generally the grounds alleged by the plaintiff, but the defendant must deal specifically with each allegation of fact of which he does not admit the truth, except damages.
  3. Evasive denial— Where a defendant denies an allegation of fact in the plaint, he must not do so evasively, but answer the point of substance, Thus, if it is alleged that he received a certain sum of money, it shall not be sufficient to deny that he received that particular amount, but he must deny that he received that sum or any part thereof, or else set out how much he received. And if an allegation is made with diverse circumstances, it shall not be sufficient to deny it along with those circumstances.
  4. Specific denial— [149][(1)] Every allegation of fact in the plaint, if not denied specifically or by necessary implication, or stated to be not admitted in the pleading of the defendant, shall be taken to be admitted except as against a person under disability :

Provided that the Court may in it discretion require any fact so admitted to be proved otherwise than by such admission.

[150] [(2) Where the defendant has not filed a pleading, it shall be lawful for the Court to pronounce judgment on the basis of the facts contained in the plaint, except as against a person under a disability, but the Court may, in its discretion, require any such fact to be proved.

(3)
In exercising its discretion under the proviso to sub-rule (1) or under sub-rule (2), the Court shall have due regard to the fact whether the defendant could have, or has, engaged a pleader.
(4)
Whenever a judgment is pronounced under this rule, a decree shall be drawn up in accordance with such judgment and such decree shall bear the date on which the judgment was pronounced.]

6. Particulars of set-off to be given in written statement— (1) Where in a suit for the recovery of money the defendant claims to set-off against the plaintiff's demand any ascertained sum of money legally recoverable by him from the plaintiff, not exceeding the pecuniary limits of the jurisdiction of the Court, and both parties fill the same character as they fill in the plaintiff's suit, the defendant may, at the first hearing of the suit, but not afterwards unless permitted by the Court, presents a written statement containing the particulars of the debt sought to be set-off.

(2)
Effect of set-off—The written statement shall have the same effect as a plaint in a cross-suit so as to enable the Court to pronounce a final judgment in respect both of the original claim and of the set-off : but this shall not affect the lien, upon the amount decreed, of any pleader in respect of the costs payable to him under the decree.
(3)
The rules relating to a written statement by a defendant apply to a written statement in answer to a claim of set-off.
Illustrations
(a)
A bequeaths Rs. 2,000 to B and appoints C his executor and residuary legatee. B dies and D takes out administration to B's effect, C pays Rs. 1,000 as surety for D: then D sues C for the legacy. C cannot set-off the debt of Rs. 1,000 against the legacy, for neither C nor D fills the same character with respect to the legacy as they fill with respect to the payment of Rs. 1,000.
(b)
A dies intestate and in debt to B. C takes out administration to A's effects and B buys part of the effects from C. In a suit for the purchase-money by C against B, the latter cannot set-off the debt against the price, for C fills two different characters, one as the vendor to B, in which he sues B, and the other as representative to A.
(c)
A sues B on a bill of exchange. B alleges that A has wrongfully neglected to insure B's goods and is liable to him in compensation which he claims to set-off. The amount not being ascertained cannot be set-off.
(d)
A sues B on a bill of exchange for Rs. 500. B holds a judgment against A for Rs. 1,000. The two claims being both definite, pecuniary demands may be set-off.
(e)
A sues B for compensation on account of trespass. B holds a promissory note for Rs. 1,000 from A and claims to set-off that amount against any sum that A may recover in the suit. B may do so, for as soon as A recovers, both sums are definite pecuniary demands.
(f)
A and B sue C for Rs. 1,000 C cannot set-off a debt due to him by A alone.
(g)
A sues B and C for Rs. 1000. B cannot set-off a debt due to him alone by A.
(h)
A owes the partnership firm of B and C Rs. 1,000 B dies, leaving C surviving. A sues C for a debt of Rs. 1,500 due in his separate character. C may set-off the debt of Rs. 1,000.

[151][6A. Counter-claim by defendant— (1) A defendant in a suit may, in addition to his right of pleading a set-off under rule 6, set up, by way of counter-claim against the claim of the plaintiff, any right or claim in respect of a cause of action accruing to the defendant against the plaintiff either before or after the filing of the suit but before the defendant has delivered his defence or before the time limited for delivering his defence has expired. whether such counter-claim is in the nature of a claim for damages or not :

Provided that such counter-claim shall not exceed the pecuniary limits of the jurisdiction of the Court.

(2)
Such counter-claim shall have the same effect as a cross-suit so as to enable the Court to pronounce a final judgment in the same suit, both on the original claim and on the counter-claim.
(3)
The plaintiff shall be at liberty to file a written statement in answer to the counter-claim of the defendant within such period as may be fixed by the Court.
(4)
The counter-claim shall be treated as a plaint and governed by the rules applicable to plaints.

6B. Counter-claim to be stated— Where any defendant seeks to rely upon any ground as supporting a right of counter-claim, he shall, in his written statement, state specifically that he does so by way of counter-claim.

6C. Exclusion of counter-claim— Where a defendant sets up a counter-claim and the plaintiff contends that the claim thereby raised ought not to be disposed of by way of counter-claim but in an independent suit, the plaintiff may, at any time before issues are settled in relation to the counter-claim, apply to the Court for an order that such counter-claim may be excluded, and the Court may, on the hearing of such application make such order as it thinks fit.

6D. Effect of discontinuance of suit— If in any case in which the defendant sets up a counter-claim, the suit of the plaintiff is stayed, discontinued or dismissed, the counter-claim may nevertheless be proceeded with.

6E. Default of plaintiff to reply to counter-claim— If the plaintiff makes default in putting in reply to the counter-claim made by the defendant, the Court may pronounce judgment against the plaintiff in relation to the counter-claim made against him or make such order in relation to the counter-claim as it thinks fit.

6F. Relief to defendant where counter-claim succeeds— Where in any suit a set-off or counter-claim is established as defence against the plaintiff's claim and any balance is found due to the plaintiff or the defendant, as the case may be, the Court may give judgment to the party entitled to such balance.

6G. Rules relating to written statement to apply— The rules relating to a written statement by a defendant shall apply to a written statement filed in answer to a counter-claim.]

  1. Defence or set-off founder upon separate grounds— Where the defendant relies upon several distinct grounds of defence or set-off [152][or counter-claim] founded separate and distinct facts, they shall be stated, as far as may be, separately and distinctly.
  2. New ground of defence— Any ground of defence which has arisen after the institution of the suit or the presentation of a written statement claiming a set-off [153][or counter-claim] may be raised by the defendant or plaintiff as the case may be, in his written statement.

[154][8A. Duty of defendant to produce documents upon which relief is claimed by him— (1)Where a defendant bases his defence upon a document in his possession or power, he shall produce it in Court when the written statement is presented by him and shall, at the same time, deliver the document or a copy thereof, to be filed with the written statement.

(2)
A document which ought to be produced in Court by the defendant under this rule, but is not so produced, shall not, without the leave of the Court, be received in evidence on his behalf at the hearing of the suit.
(3)
Nothing in this rule shall apply to documents produced,—
(a)
for the cross-examination of the plaintiff's witnesses, or
(b)
in answer to any case setup by the plaintiff subsequent to the filing of the plaint, or
(c)
handed over to a witness merely to refresh him memory].
  1. Subsequent pleadings— No pleading subsequent to the written statement of a defendant other than by way of defence to a set-off [155][or counter-claim] shall be presented except by the leave of the Court and upon such terms as the Court thinks fit, but the Court may at any time require a written statement or additional written statement from any of the parties and fix a time for presenting the same.
  2. Procedure when party fails to present written statement called for by Court— Where any party from whom a written statement [156][is required under rule 1 or 9] fails to present the same within the time [157][permitted or fixed by the Court, as the case may be, the Court shall] pronounce judgment against him or make such order in relation to the suit as it thinks fit [158][and on the pronouncement of such judgment, a decree shall be drawn up.]
ORDER IX-APPEARANCE OF PARTIES AND CONSEQUENCE OF NON-APPEARANCE
  1. Parties to appear on day fixed in summons for defendant to appear and answer— On the day fixed in the summons for the defendant to appear and answer, the parties shall be in attendance at the Court-house in person or by their respective pleaders, and the suit shall then be heard unless the hearing is adjourned to a future day fixed by the Court.
  2. Dismissal of suit where summons not served in consequence of plaintiffs failure to pay cost— Where on the day so fixed it is found that the summons has not been served upon the defendant in consequence of the failure of the plaintiff to pay the court-fee of postal charges (if any) chargeable for such service, [159][or to present copies of the plaint or concise statements, as required by rule 9 of order VII,] the Court may make an order that the suit be dismissed :

[160] [Provided that no such order shall be made, if, notwithstanding such failure the defendant attends in person (or by agent when he is allowed to appear by agent) on the day fixed for him to appear and answer.]

  1. Where neither party appears, suit to be dismissed— Where neither party appears when the suit is called on for hearing, the Court may make an order that the suit be dismissed.
  2. Plaintiff may bring fresh suit or Court may restore suit to file— Where a suit is dismissed under rule 2 or rule 3, the plaintiff may (subject to the law of limitation) bring a fresh suit, or he may apply for an order to set the dismissal aside, and if he satisfies the Court that there was sufficient cause for [161][such failure as is referred to in rule 2], or for his non-appearance, as the case may be, the Court shall make an order setting aside the dismissal and shall appoint a day for proceeding with the suit.
  3. Dismissal of suit where plaintiff after summons returned unserved, fails for one month to apply for fresh summons— (1) Where after a summons has been issued to the defendant, or to one of several defendants, and returned unserved the plaintiff fails, for a periods of [162][one month] from the date of the return made to the Court by the officer ordinarily certifying to the Court returns made by the serving officers, to apply for the issue of a fresh summons the Court shall make an order that the suit be dismissed as against such defendant, unless the plaintiff has within the said period satisfied the Court that—
(a)
he has failed after using his best endeavours to discover the residence of the defendant, who has not been served, or
(b)
such defendant is avoiding service of process, or
(c)
there is any other sufficient cause for extending the time,
(2)
In such case the plaintiff may (subject to the law of limitation) bring a fresh suit.

in which case the Court may extend the time for making such application for such period as it thinks fit.]

6. Procedure when only plaintiff appears— (1) Where the plaintiff appears and the defendant does not appear when the suit is called on for hearing, then—

[163] [(a)] When summons duly served—if it is proved that the summons was duly served, the Court may make an order that the suit shall be heard ex parte.]

(b)
When summons not duly served—if it is not proved that the summons was duly serve, the Court shall direct a second summons to be issued and served on the defendant;
(c)
When summons served but not in due time—if it is proved that the summons was served on the defendant, but not in sufficient time to enable him to appear and answer on the day fixed in the summons,
the Court shall postpone the hearing of the suit to future day to be fixed by the Court, and shall direct notice of such day to be given to the defendant.
(2)
Where it is owing to the plaintiffs' default that the summons was not duly served or was not served in sufficient time, the Court shall order the plaintiff to pay the costs occasioned by the postponement.
  1. Procedure where defendant appears on day of adjourned hearing and assigns good cause for previous non-appearance— Where the Court has adjourned the hearing of the suit ex-parte and the defendant, at or before such hearing, appears and assigns good cause for his previous non-appearance, he may, upon such terms as the Court directs as to costs or otherwise, be heard in answer to the suit as if he had appeared on the day, fixed for his appearance.
  2. Procedure where defendant only appears— Where the defendant appears and the plaintiff does not appear when the suit is called on for hearing, the Court shall make an order that the suit be dismissed, unless the defendant admits the claim or part thereof, in which case the Court shall pass a decree against the defendant upon such admission, and, where part only of the claim has been admitted, shall dismiss the suit so far as it relates to the remainder.
  3. Decree against plaintiff by default bars fresh suit— (1) Where a suit is wholly or partly dismissed under rule 8, the plaintiff shall be precluded from bringing a fresh suit in respect of the same cause of action. But he may apply for an order to set the dismissal aside, and if he satisfies the Court that there was sufficient cause for his non-appearance when the suit was called on for hearing, the Court shall make an order setting aside the dismissal upon such terms as to costs or otherwise as it thinks fit. and shall appoint a day for proceeding with suit.

(2) No order shall be made under this rule unless notice of the application has been served on the opposite party.

  1. Procedure in case of non-attendance of one or more of several plaintiffs— Where there are more plaintiffs than one, and one or more of them appear, and the others do not appear, the Court may, at the instance of the plaintiff or plaintiffs appearing, permit the suit to proceed in the same way as if all the plaintiffs had appeared, or make such order as it thinks fit.
  2. Procedure in case of non-attendance of one or more of several defendants— Where there are more defendants than one, and one or more of them appear, and the others do not appear, the suit shall proceed, and the Court shall, at the time of pronouncing judgment, make such order as it thinks fit with respect to the defendants who do not appear.
    1. Consequence of non-attendance, without sufficient cause shown, of party ordered to appear in person— Where a plaintiff or defendant, who has been ordered to appear in person, does not appear in person, or show sufficient cause to the satisfaction of the Court for failing so to appear, he shall be subject to all the provisions of the foregoing rules applicable to plaintiffs and defendants, respectively who do no appear.
    2. Setting aside decrees ex parte
  3. Setting aside decree BIex parte against defendant— In any case in which a decree is passed ex parte against a defendant, he may apply to the Court by which the decree was passed for an order to set it aside; and if he satisfies the Court that the summons was not duly served, or that he was prevented by any sufficient cause from appearing when the suit was called on for hearing, the Court shall make an order

setting aside the decree as against him upon such terms as to costs, payment into Court or otherwise as it thinks fit, and shall appoint a day for proceeding with the suit;

Provided that where the decree is of such a nature that it cannot be set aside as against such defendant only it may be set aside as against all or any of the other defendants also:

[164] [Provided further that no Court shall set aside a decree passed ex parte merely on the ground that there has been an irregularity in the service of summons, if it is satisfied that the defendant had notice of the date of hearing and had sufficient time to appear and answer the plaintiff's claim]

[165] [Explanation.—Where there has been an appeal against a decree passed ex parte under this rule, and the appeal has been disposed of an any ground other than the ground that the appellant has withdrawn the appeal, no application shall lie under this rule for setting aside that ex parte decree.]

14. No decree to be set aside without notice to opposite party— No decree shall be set aside on any such application as aforesaid unless notice thereof has been served on the opposite party.

ORDER X-EXAMINATION OF PARTIES BY THE COURT

1. Ascertainment whether allegations in pleadings are admitted or denied— At the first hearing of the suit the Court shall ascertain from each party or his pleader whether he admits or denies such allegations of fact as are made in the plaint or written statement (if any) of the opposite party, and as are not expressly or by necessary implication admitted or denied by the party against whom they are made. The Court shall record such admissions and denials.

[166][2. Oral examination of party, or companion of party— (1) At the first hearing of the suit, the Court—

(a)
shall, with a view to elucidating matters in controversy in the suit examine orally such of the parties to the suit appearing in person or present in Court, as it deems fit; and
(b)
may orally examine any person, able to answer any material question relating to the suit, by whom any party appearing in person or present in Court or his pleader is accompanied.
(2)
At any subsequent hearing, the Court may orally examine any party appearing in person or present in Court, or any person, able to answer any material question relating to the suit, by whom such party or his pleader is accompanied.
(3)
The Court may, if it thinks fit, put in the course of an examination under this rule questions suggested by either party.]
  1. Substance of examination to be written— The substance of the examination shall be reduced to writing by the Judge, and shall form part of the record.
  2. Consequence of refusal or inability of pleader to answer— (1) Where the pleader of any party who appears by a pleader or any such person accompanying a pleader as is referred to in rule 2, refuses or is unable to answer any material question relating to the suit which the Court is of opinion that the party whom he represents ought to answer, and is likely to be able to answer if interrogated in person, the Court may postpone the hearing of the suit to a future day and direct that such party shall appear in person on such day.

(2) If such party fails without lawful excuse to appear in person on the day so appointed, the Court may pronounce judgment against him, or make such order in relation to the suit as it thinks fit.

ORDER XI-DISCOVERY AND INSPECTION
  1. Discovery by interrogatories— In any suit the plaintiff or defendant by leave of the Court may deliver interrogatories in writing for the examination of the opposite parties or any one or more of such parties and such interrogatories when delivered shall have a note at the foot thereof stating which of such interrogatories each of such persons is required to answer: Provided that no party shall deliver more than one set of interrogatories to the same party without an order for that purpose : Provided also that interrogatories which do not relate to any matters in question in the suit shall be deemed irrelevant, notwithstanding that they might be admissible on the oral cross-examination of a witness.
    1. Particular interrogatories to be submitted— On an application for leave to deliver interrogatories, the particular interrogatories proposed to be delivered shall be submitted to the Court. In deciding upon such
    2. application, the Court shall take into account any offer, which may be made by the party sought to be interrogated to deliver particulars, or to make admissions, or to produce documents relating to the matters in question, or any of them, and leave shall be given as to such only of the interrogatories submitted as the Court shall consider necessary either for disposing fairly of the suit or for saving costs.
  2. Costs of interrogatories— In adjusting the costs of the suit inquiry shall at the instance of any party be made into the propriety of exhibiting such interrogatories, and if it is the opinion of the taxing officer or of the Court, either with or without an application for inquiry, that such interrogatories have been exhibited unreasonably, vexatiously, or at improper length, the cost occasioned by the said interrogatories and the answers thereto shall be paid in any event by the party in fault.
  3. Form of interrogatories. — Interrogatories shall be in Form No. 2 in Appendix C, with such variations as circumstances may require.
  4. Corporations— Where any party to a suit is a corporation or a body of persons, whether incorporated or not, empowered by law to sue or be sued, whether in its own name or in the name of any officer or other person, any opposite party may apply for an order allowing him to deliver interrogatories to any member or officer of such corporation or body, and an order may be made accordingly.
  5. Objections to interrogatories by answer— Any objection to answering any interrogatory on the ground that it is scandalous or irrelevant or not exhibited bona fide for the purpose of the suit, or that the matters inquired into are not sufficiently material at that stage, [167][or on the ground of privilege or any other ground], may be taken in the affidavit in answer.
  6. Setting aside and striking out interrogatories— Any interrogatories may be set aside on the ground that they have been exhibited unreasonably or vexatiously, or struck out on the ground that they are prolix, oppressive, unnecessary or scandalous; and any application for this purpose may be made within seven days after service of the interrogatories.
  7. Affidavit in answer, filing— Interrogatories shall be answered by affidavit to be filed within ten days or within such other time as the Court may allow.
  8. Form of affidavit in answer— An affidavit in answer to interrogatories shall be in Form No. 3 in Appendix C, with such variations as circumstances may require.
  9. No exception to be taken— No exceptions shall be taken to any affidavit in answer, but the sufficiency or otherwise of any such affidavit objected to as insufficient shall be determined by the Court.
  10. Order to answer or answer further— Where any person interrogated omits to answer, or answer insufficiently, the party interrogating may apply to the Court for an order requiring him to answer, or to answer further, as the case may be. And an order may be made requiring him to answer or answer further, either by affidavit or by viva voice examination, as the Court may direct.
  11. Application for discovery of documents— Any party may, without filing any affidavit, apply to the Court for an order directing any other party to any suit to make discovery on oath of the documents which are or have been in his possession or power, relating to any matter in question therein. On the hearing of such application the Court may either refuse or adjourn the same, if satisfied that such discovery is not necessary, or not necessary at that stage of the suit, or make such order, either generally or limited to certain classes of documents, as may, in its discretion be thought fit :
  12. Affidavit of documents— The affidavit to be made by a party against whom such order as is mentioned in the last preceding rule has been made, shall specify which (if any) of the documents therein mentioned he objects to produce, and it shall be in Form No. 5 in Appendix C, with such variations as circumstances may require.
  13. Production of documents— It shall be lawful for the Court, at any time during the pendency of any suit, to order the production by any party thereto, upon oath of such of the documents in his possession or power, relating to any matter in question in such suit, as the Court shall think right; and the Court may deal with such documents, when produced, in such manner as shall appear just.
  14. Inspection of documents referred to in pleadings or affidavits— Every party to a suit shall be entitled at any time to give notice to any other party, in whose pleadings or affidavits reference is made to any document [168][or who has entered any document in any list annexed to his pleadings] or produce such document for the inspection of the party giving such notice, or of his pleader, and to permit him or them to take copies thereof; and any party not complying with such notice shall not afterwards be at liberty to put any such document in evidence on his behalf in such suit unless he shall satisfy the Court that such document relates only to his own title, he being a defendant to the suit, or that he had some other cause or excuse with the Court shall deem sufficient for not complying with such notice, in which case the Court may allow the same to be put in evidence on such terms as to costs an otherwise as the Court shall think fit.
  15. Notice to produce— Notice to any party to produce any documents referred to in his pleading or affidavits shall be in Form No. 7 in Appendix C, with such variations as circumstances may require.
  16. Time for inspection when notice given— The party to whom such notice is given shall, within ten days from the receipt of such notice, deliver to the party giving the same a notice stating a time within three days from the delivery thereof at which the documents, or such of them as he does not object to produce, may be inspected at the office of his pleader, or in the case of bankers books or other books of account or books in constant use for the purposes of any trade or business, at their usual place of custody, and stating which (if any) of the documents he objects to produce, and on what ground. Such notice shall be in Form No. 8 in Appendix C, with such variations as circumstances may require.
  17. Order for inspection— (1) Where the party served with notice under rule 15 omits to give such notice of a time for inspection or objects to give inspection, or offers inspection elsewhere than at the office of his pleader, the Court may, on the application of the party desiring it, make an order for inspection in such place and in such manner as it may think fit :

Provided that discovery shall not be ordered when and so far as the Court shall be of opinion that it is not necessary either for disposing fairly of the suit or for saving costs.

Provided that the order shall not be made when and so far as the Court shall be of opinion that, it is not necessary either for disposing fairly of the suit or for saving costs.

(2) Any application to inspect documents, except such as are referred to in the pleadings, particulars or affidavits of the party against whom the application is made or disclosed in his affidavit of documents, shall be founded upon an affidavit showing of what documents inspection is sought, that the party applying is entitled to inspect them, and that they are in the possession or power of the other party. The Court shall not make such order for inspection of such documents when and so far as the Court shall be of opinion that it is not necessary either for disposing fairly of the suit or for saving costs.

19. Verified copies— (1) Where inspection of any business books is applied for, the Court may , if it thinks fit, instead of ordering inspection of the original books, order a copy of any entries therein to be furnished and verified by the affidavit of some person who has examined the copy with the original entries, and such affidavit shall state whether or not there are in the original book any and what erasures, interlineations or alterations :

Provided that, notwithstanding that such copy has been supplied, the Court may order inspection of the book from which the copy was made.

(2)
Where on an application for an order for inspection privilege is claimed for any document, it shall be lawful for the Court to inspect the document for the purpose of deciding as to the validity of the claim of privilege [169][unless the document relates to matters of State.]
(3)
The Court may, on the application of any party to a suit at any time, and whether an affidavit of documents shall or shall not have already been ordered or made, make an order requiring any other party to state by affidavit whether anyone or more specific documents, to be specified in the application, is or are, or has or have at an time been, in his possession or power, and , if not then in his possession, when he parted with the same and what has become thereof. Such application shall be made on an affidavit stating that in the belief of the deponent the party against whom the application is made has, or has at some time and, in his possession or power the document or documents specified in the application, and that they relate to the matters in questions in the suit, or to some of them.
    1. Premature discovery— Where the party from whom discovery of any kind or inspection is sought objects to the same, or any part thereof, the Court may if satisfied that the right to the discovery or inspection sought depends on the determination of any issue or question in dispute in the suit, or that for any other reason it is desirable that any issue or question in dispute in the suit should be determined before deciding upon the
    2. right to the discovery or inspection, order that such issue or question be determined first, and reserve the question as to the discovery or inspection.
  1. Non-compliance with order for discovery— [170][(1)] Where any party fails to comply with any order to answer interrogatories, or for discovery or inspection of documents, he shall, if a plaintiff, be liable to have his suit dismissed for want of prosecution, and, if a defendant, to have his defence, if any struck out, and to be placed in the same position as if he had not defended, and the party interrogating or seeking discovery or inspection may apply to the Court for an order to that effect and [171][an order may be made on such application accordingly, after notice to the parties and after giving them a reasonable opportunity of being heard.]

[172] [(2) Where an order is made under sub-rule (1) dismissing any suit, the plaintiff shall be precluded from bringing a fresh suit on the same cause of action.]

  1. Using answers to interrogatories at trial— Any party may, at the trial of a suit, use in evidence any one or more of the answers or any part of an answer of the opposite party to interrogatories without putting in the others or the whole of such answer : Provided always that in such case the Court may look at the whole of the answers, and if it shall be of opinion that any others of them are so connected with those put in that the last-mentioned answers ought not to be used without them, it may direct them to be put in.
  2. Order to apply to minors— This Order shall apply to minor plaintiffs and defendants, and to the next friends and guardians for the suit of the persons under disability.
ORDER XII-ADMISSION
  1. Notice of admission of case— Any party to a suit may give notice, by his pleading, or otherwise in writing, that he admits the truth of the whole or any part of the case of any other party.
  2. Notice to admit documents— Either party may call upon the other party [173][to admit, within fifteen days from the date of service of the notice any document,] saving all just exceptions; and in case of refusal or neglect to admit, after such notice, the costs of proving any such document shall be paid by the party so neglecting or refusing, whatever the result of the suit may be, unless the Court otherwise directs; and no costs of proving any document shall be allowed unless such notice is given, except where the omission to give the notice is, in the opinion of the Court, a saving of expense.

[174][2A. Document to be deemed to be admitted if not divided after service of notice to admit documents—

(1)
Every document which a party is called upon to admit, if not denied specifically or by necessary implication, or stated to be not admitted in the pleading of that party or in his reply to the notice to admit documents, shall be deemed to be admitted except as against a person under a disability :
Provided that the Court may, in its discretion and for reasons to be recorded, require any document so admitted to be proved otherwise than by such admission.
(2)
Where a party unreasonably neglects or refuses to admit a document after the service on him of the notice to admit documents, the Court may direct him to pay costs to the other party by way of compensation.]
    1. Form of notice— A notice to admit documents shall be in Form No. 9 in Appendix C, with such variations as circumstances may require.
    2. 3A. Power of Court to record admission— Notwithstanding that no notice to admit documents has been given under rule 2, the Court, may at any stage of the proceeding before it, of its own motion, call upon any party to admit any document and shall in such a case, record whether the party admits or refuses or neglects to admit such document.
  1. Notice to admit acts— Any party, may, by notice in writing, at any time not later than nine days before the day fixed for the hearing, call on any other party to admit, for the purposes of the suit only, any specific fact or facts, mentioned in such notice. And in case of refusal or neglect to admit the same within six days after service of such notice, or within such further time as may be allowed by the Court, the costs of proving such fact or facts shall be paid by the party so neglecting or refusing, whatever the result of the suit may be, unless the Court otherwise directs:

Provided that any admission made in pursuance of such notice is to be deemed to be made only for the purposes of the particular suit, and not as an admission to be used against the party on any other occasion or in favour of any person other than the party giving the notice: Provided also that the Court may at any time allow any party to amend or withdraw any admission so made on such terms as may be just.

5. Form of admissions— A notice to admit facts shall be in Form No. 10 in Appendix C, and admissions of facts shall be in Form No. 11 in Appendix C, with such variations as circumstances may require.

[175][6. Judgment on admissions— (1) Where admissions of fact have been made either in the pleading or otherwise, whether orally or in writing, the Court may at any stage of the suit, either on the application of any party or of its own motion and without waiting for the determination of any other question between the parties, make such order or give such judgment as it may think fit, having regard to such admissions.

(2) Whenever a judgment is pronounced under sub-rule (1) a decree shall be drawn upon in accordance with the judgment and the decree shall bear the date on which the judgment was pronounced.]

  1. Affidavit of signature— An affidavit of the pleader or his clerk, of the due signature of any admissions made in pursuance of any notice to admit documents or facts, shall be sufficient evidence of such admissions, if evidence thereof is required.
  2. Notice to produce documents— Notice to produce documents shall be in Form No. 12 in Appendix C, with such variations as circumstances may require. An affidavit of the pleader, or his clerk, of the service of any notice to produce, and of the time when it was served, with a copy of the notice to produce, shall in all cases be sufficient evidence of the service of the notice, and of the time it was served.
  3. Costs— If a notice to admit or produce specifies documents which are not necessary, the costs occasioned thereby, shall be borne by the party giving such notice.
ORDER XIII-PRODUCTION, IMPOUNDING AND RETURN OF DOCUMENTS

1. Documentary evidence to be produced [176][at or before the settlement of issues]— (1) The parties or their pleaders shall produce, [177][at or before the settlement of issues], all the documentary evidence of every description in their possession or power, on which they intend to rely, and which has not already been filed in Court, and all documents which the Court has ordered to be produced.

(2) The Court shall receive the documents so produced : Provided that they are accompanied by an accurate list thereof prepared in such form as the High Court directs.

2. Effect of non-production of documents— [178][(1)] No documentary evidence in the possession or power of any party which should have been, but has not been produced in accordance with the requirements of rule 1 shall be received at any subsequent stage of the proceedings unless good cause is shown to the satisfaction of the Court for the non-production thereof; and the Court receiving any such evidence shall record the reasons for so doing.

[179] [(2)] Nothing in sub-rule (1) shall apply to documents, —

(a)
produced for the cross-examination of the witness of the other party, or
(b)
handed over to a witness merely to refresh his memory.]
  1. Rejection of irrelevant or inadmissible documents— The Court may at any stage of the suit reject any document which it considers irrelevant or otherwise inadmissible, recording the grounds of such rejection.
  2. Endorsements on documents admitted in evidence— (1) Subject to the provisions of the next following sub-rule, there shall be endorsed on every document which as been admitted in evidence in the suit the following particulars, namely :—
(a)
the number and title of the suit,
(b)
the name of the person producing the document,
(c)
the date on which it was produced, and
(d)
a statement of its having been so admitted,
(2)
Where a document so admitted is an entry in a book, account or record, and a copy thereof has been substituted for the original under the next following rule, the particulars aforesaid shall be endorsed on the copy and the endorsement thereon shall be signed or initialled by the Judge.

and the endorsement shall be signed or initialled by the Judge.

5. Endorsements on copies of admitted entries in books, accounts and records— (1) Save in so far as is otherwise provided by the Bankers' Books Evidence Act, 1891 ( 18 of 1891) where a document admitted in evidence in the suit is an entry in a letter-book or a shop-book or a or other account in current use, the party on whose behalf the book or account is produced may furnish a copy of the entry.

(2)
Where such a document is an entry in a public record produced from a public office or by a public officer, or an entry in a book or account belonging to a person other than a party on whose behalf the book or account is produced, the Court may require a copy of the entry to be furnished—
(a)
where the record, book or account is produced on behalf of a party, then by that party, or
(b)
where the record, book or account is produced in obedience to an order of the Court acting of its own motion, then by either or any party.
(3)
Where a copy of an entry is furnished under the foregoing provisions of this rule, the Court shall, after accusing the copy to be examined, compared and certified in manner mentioned in rule 17 of Order VII, mark the entry and cause the book, account or record in which it occurs to be returned to the person producing it.
  1. Endorsements on documents rejected as inadmissible in evidence— Where a document relied on as evidence by either party is considered by the Court to be inadmissible in evidence, there shall be endorsed thereon the particulars mentioned in clauses (a), (b), and (c) of rule 4, sub-rule (1), together with a statement of its having been rejected, and the endorsement shall be signed or initialled by the Judge.
  2. recording of admitted and return or rejected documents— (1) Every document which has been admitted in evidence or a copy thereof where a copy has been substituted for the original under rule 5, shall form part of the record of the suit.

(2) Documents not admitted in evidence shall not form part of the record and shall be returned to the persons respectively producing them.

  1. Court may order any document to be impounded— Notwithstanding anything contained in rule 5 or rule 7 of this Order or in rule 17 of Order VII, the Court may, if it sees sufficient cause, direct any document or book produced before it in any suit to be impounded and kept in the custody of an officer of the Court, for such period and subject to such conditions as the Court think fit.
  2. Return of admitted documents— (1) Any person, whether a party to the suit or not, desirous of receiving back any document produced by him in the suit and placed on the record shall, unless the document is impounded under rule 8, be entitled to receive back the same,—
(a)
where the suit is one in which an appeal is not allowed, when the suit has been disposed of, and
(b)
where the suit is one in which an appeal is allowed, when the Court is satisfied that the time for preferring an appeal has elapsed and that no appeal has been preferred or, if an appeal has been preferred, when the appeal has been disposed of :

[180] [Provided that a document may be returned at any time earlier than that prescribed by this rule if the person applying therefor—

(a)
delivers to the proper officer for being substituted for the original,—
(i)
in the case of a party to the suit, a certified copy, and
(ii)
in the case of any other person, an ordinary copy which has been examined, compared and certified in the manner mentioned in sub-rule (2) of rule 17 of Order VII, and
(b)
undertakes to produce the original, if required to do so :]
(2)
On the return of a document admitted in evidence, a receipt shall be given by the person receiving it.

Provided also, that no document shall be returned with, by force of the decree, has become wholly void or useless.

10. Court may send for papers from its own records or from other Courts— (1) The Court may of its own motion, and may in its discretion upon the application of any of the parties to a suit, send for, either from its own records or from any other suit or proceedings, and inspect the same.

(2)
Every application made under this rule (unless the Court otherwise directs) be supported by an affidavit showing how the record is material to the suit in which the application is made, and that the applicant cannot without unreasonable delay or expense obtain a duly authenticated copy of the record or of such portion thereof as the applicant requires, or that the production of the original is necessary for the purposes of justice.
(3)
Nothing contained in this rule shall be deemed to enable the Court to use in evidence any document which under the law of evidence would be inadmissible in the suit.

11. Provisions as to documents applied to material objects— The provisions therein contained as to documents shall, so far as may be, apply to all other material objects producible as evidence.

ORDER XIV-SETTLEMENT OF ISSUES AND DETERMINATION OF SUIT ON ISSUES OF LAW OR ON ISSUES AGREED UPON

1. Framing of issues— (1) Issues arise when a material proposition of fact or law is affirmed by the one party and denied by the other.

(2)
Material propositions are those propositions of law or fact which a plaintiff must allege in order to show a right to sue or a defendant must allege in order to constitute his defence.
(3)
Each material proposition affirmed by one party denied by the other shall form the subject of distinct issue.
(4)
Issues are of two kinds :
(a)
issues of fact,
(b)
issues of law.
(5)
At the first hearing of the suit the Court shall, after reading the plaint and the written statements, if any, and [181][after examination under rule 2 of Order X and after hearing the parties or their pleaders], ascertain upon what material propositions of fact or of law the parties are at variance, and shall thereupon proceed to frame and record the issues on which the right decision of the case appears to depend.
(6)
Nothing in this rule requires the Court to frame and record issues where the defendant at the first hearing of the suit makes no defence.
[182][2. Court to pronounce judgment on all issues— (1) Notwithstanding that a case may be disposed of on preliminary issue, the Court shall, subject to the provisions of sub-rule (2), pronounce judgment on all issues.
(2)
Where issues both of law and of fact arise in the same suit, and the Court is of opinion that the case or any part thereof may be disposed of on an issue of law only, it may try that issue first if that issue relates to—
(a)
the jurisdiction of the Court, or
(b)
a bar to the suit created by any law for the time being inforce.

and for that purpose may, if it thinks fit, postpone the settlement of the other issues until after that issue has been determined, and may deal with the suit in accordance with the decision on that issue.]

3. Materials from which issues may be framed— The Court may frame the issues from all or any of the following materials :—

(a)
allegations made on oath by the parties, or by any persons present on their behalf, or made by the pleaders of such parties;
(b)
allegations made in the pleadings or in answers to interrogatories delivered in the suit;
(c)
the contents of documents by either party.
    1. Court may examine witnesses or documents before framing issues— Where the Court is of opinion that the issues cannot be correctly framed without the examination of some person not before the Court or
    2. without the inspection of some document not produced in the suit, it may adjourn the framing of the issues to a future day, and may (subject to any law for the time being in force) compel the attendance of any person or the production of any document by the person in whose possession or power it is by summons or other process.
  1. Power to amend and strike out, issues— (1) The Court may at any time before passing a decree amend the issues or frame additional issues on such terms as it thinks fit, and all such amendments or additional issues as may be necessary for determining the matters in controversy between the parties shall be so made or framed.

(2) The Court may also, at any time before passing a decree, strike out any issues that appear to it to be wrongly framed or introduced.

6. Questions of fact or law may by agreement be stated in form of issues— Where the parties to a suit are agreed as to the question of fact or of law to be decided between them, they may state the same in the form of an issue, and enter into an agreement in writing that upon the finding of the Court in the affirmative or the negative of such issue,—

(a)
a sum of money specified in the agreement or to be ascertained by the Court, or in such manner as the Court may direct, shall be paid by one of the parties to the other of them, or that one of them be declared entitled to some right or subject some liability specified in the agreement;
(b)
some property specified in the agreement and in dispute in the suit shall be delivered by one of the parties to the other of them, or as that other may direct; or
(c)
one or more of the parties shall do or abstain from doing some particular act specified in the agreement and relating to the matter in dispute.

7. Court, if satisfied that agreement was executed in good faith, may pronounce judgment— Where the Court is satisfied, after making such inquiry as it deems proper,—

(a)
that the agreement was duly executed by the parties;
(b)
that they have a substantial interest in the decision of such question as aforesaid, and
(c)
that the same is fit to be tried and decided,

it shall proceed to record and try the issue and state its finding or decision thereon in the same manner as if the issue had been framed by the Court.

and shall, upon the finding or decision on such issue, pronounce judgment according to the terms of the agreement, and, upon the judgment so pronounced a decree shall follow

ORDER XV-DISPOSAL OF THE SUIT AT THE FIRST HEARING
  1. Parties not at issue— Where at the first hearing of a suit it appears that the parties are not at issue on any question of law or of fact, the Court may at once pronounce judgment.
  2. One of several defendants not at issue— [183][(1)] Where there are more defendants than one, and any one of the defendants is not at issue with the plaintiff on any question of law or of fact, the Court may at once pronounce judgment for or against such defendant and the suit shall proceed only against the other defendants.

[184] [(2) Wherever a judgment is pronounced under this rule, a decree shall be drawn up in accordance with such judgment and the decree shall bear the date on which the judgment was pronounced.]

3. Parties at issue— (1) Where the parties are at issue on some question of law or of fact, and issues have been frame by the Court as herein before provided, if the Court is satisfied that no further argument or evidence than the parties can at once adduce is required upon such of the issues as may be sufficient for the decision of the suit, and that no injustice will result from proceeding with the suit forthwith, the Court may proceed to determine such issues, and , if the finding thereon is sufficient for the decision, may pronounce judgment accordingly, whether the summons has been issued for the settlement of issues only or for the final disposal of the suit : Provided that, where the summons has been issued for the settlement of issues only, the parties or their pleaders are present and none of them objects.

(2) Where the finding is not sufficient for the decision, the Court shall postpone the further hearing of the suit, and shall fix a day for the production of such further evidence, or for such further argument as the case requires.

4. Failure to produce evidence— Where the summons has been issued for the final disposal of the suit and either party fails without sufficient cause to produce the evidence on which he relies, the Court may at once pronounce judgment, or any, if it thinks fit, after framing and recording issues, adjourn the suit for production of such evidence as may be necessary for its decision upon such issues.

STATE AMENDMENTS

Uttar Pradesh.— In its application to the State of Uttar Pradesh add the following rule 5 after rule 4.

"5. Striking off defence for failure to deposit admitted rent, etc.— (1) In any suit by a lessor for the eviction of a lessee after the determination of his lease and for the recovery from him of rent or compensation for use and occupation, the defendant shall, at or before the first hearing of the suit, deposit the entire amount admitted by him to be due together with interest thereon at the rate of nine per cent. per annum and whether or not he admits any amount to be due, he shall throughout the continuation of the suit regularly deposit the monthly amount due within a week from the date of its accrual, and in the event of any default in making the deposit of the entire amount admitted by him to be due or the monthly amount due as aforesaid, the Court may, subject to the provisions of sub-rule (2), strike off his defence.

Explanation 1.— The expression "first hearing" means the date for filing written statement for hearing mentioned in the summons or where more than one of such dates are mentioned, the last of the dates mentioned.

Explanation 2.— The expression "entire amount admitted

by him to be due" means the entire gross amount, whether as rent or compensation for use and occupation, calculated at the admitted rate of rent for the admitted period of arrears after making no other deduction except the taxes, if any, paid to a local authority in respect of the building on lessor's account and the amount, if any, paid to the lessor acknowledged by the lessor in writing signed by him and the amount, if any, deposited in any Court under section 30 of the U.P. Urban Buildings (Regulation of Letting, Rent and Eviction) Act, 1972.

Explanation 3.— (1) The expression "monthly amount due" means the amount due every month, whether as rent or compensation for use and occupation at the admitted rate of rent, after making no other deduction except the taxes, if any, paid to a local authority, in respect of the building on lessor's account.

(2)
Before making an order for striking off defence, the Court may consider any representation made by the defendant in that behalf provided such representation is made within 10 days of the first hearing or, of the expiry of the week referred to in sub-section (1), as the case may be.
(3)
The amount deposited under this rule may at any time be withdrawn by the plaintiff.

Provided that such withdrawal shall not have the effect of prejudicing any claim by the plaintiff disputing the correctness of the amount deposited:

Provided further that if the amount deposited includes any sums claimed by the depositor to be deductible on any account, the Court may require the plaintiff to furnish the security for such sum before he is allowed to withdraw the same."

[U.P. Act (57 of 1976) amended vide U.P. Govt. Gazzette dated 3.10.1981].

ORDER XVI-SUMMONING AND ATTENDANCE OF WITNESSES

[185][1. List of witnesses and summons to witnesses— (1) On or before such date as the Court may appoint, and not later than fifteen days after the date on which the issues are settled, the parties shall present in Court a list of witnesses whom they propose to call either to give evidence or to produce documents and obtain summonses to such person for their attendance in Court.

(2)
A party desirous of obtaining any summons for the attendance of any person shall file in Court an application stating therein the purpose for which the witness is proposed to be summoned.
(3)
The Court may, for reasons to be recorded, permit a party to call, whether by summoning through Court or otherwise, any witness, other than those whose names appear in the list referred to in sub-rule (1), if such part shows sufficient cause for the omission to mention the name of such witness in the said list.
(4)
Subject to the provisions of sub-rule (2), summonses referred to in this rule may be obtained by the parties on an application to the Court or to such officer as may be appointed by the Court in this behalf.]

[186][1A. Production of witnesses without summons— A subject to the provisions of sub-rule (3) of rule 1, and party to the suit may, without applying for summons under rule 1, bring any witness to give evidence or to produce documents.]

2. Expenses of witnesses to be paid into Court on applying for summons— (1) The party applying for a summons shall, before the summons is granted and within a period to be fixed, pay into Court such a sum of money as appears to the Court to be sufficient to defray the travelling and other expenses of the person summoned in passing to and from the Court in which he is required to attend, and for one day's attendance.

(2)
Experts—In determining the amount payable under this rule, the Court may, in the case of any person summoned to give evidence as an expert, allow reasonable remuneration for the time occupied both in giving evidence and in performing any work of an expert character necessary for the case.
(3)
Scale of expenses—Where the Court is subordinate to High Court, regard shall be had, in fixing the scale of such expenses to a any rules made in that behalf.

[187] [(4)] Expenses to be directly paid to witnesses—Where the summons is served directly by the party on a witness, the expenses referred to in sub-rule (1) shall be paid to the witness by the party or his agent.]

STATE AMENDMENTS

Uttar Pradesh.— In its application to the State of Uttar Pradesh:—

(i)
In rule 2, sub-rule (1), insert, at the end, the following proviso,
"Provided, where Government is the party applying for a summons to a Government servant, it shall not be necessary for it to make any such payment into Court."
(ii)
After sub-rule (4) insert the following, namely:—

"(4-A) Allowances, etc., of Government servant witnesses to be taxed as costs.— Any travelling and daily allowances and the salary, payable to a Government servant who attends the Court to give evidence or to produce a document shall, on the amount being certified by such witness, be taxable as costs.

Explanation 1.— The travelling and daily allowances shall be in accordance with the rules governing such allowances, applicable to the Government servant in question.

Explanation 2— The daily allowance and salary of the Government servant shall be proportionate to the number of days of his attendance required by the Court."

[U.P. Act 57 of 1976].

  1. Tender of expenses to witness— The sum so paid into Court shall be tendered to the person summoned, at the time of serving the summons, if it can be served personally.
  2. Procedure where insufficient sum paid in— (1) Where it appears to the Court or to such officer as it appoints in this behalf that the sum paid into Court is not sufficient to cover such expenses or reasonable remuneration, the Court may direct such further sum to be paid to the person summoned as appears to be necessary on that account, and, in case of default in payment, may order such sum to be levied by attachment and sale of the movable property of the party obtaining the summons; or the Court may discharge the person summoned without requiring him to give evidence; or may both order such levy and discharge such person as aforesaid.

(2) Expenses of witnesses detained more than one day—Where it is necessary to detain the person summoned for a longer period than one day, the Court may, from time to time, order the party at whose instance he was summoned to pay into Court such sum as is sufficient to defray the expenses of his detention for such further period, and, in default of such deposit being made, may order such sum to be levied by attachment and sale of the movable property of such party; or the Court may discharge the person summoned without requiring him to give evidence, or may other order such levy and discharge such person as aforesaid.

STATE AMENDMENTS

Uttar Pradesh.— In its application to the State of Uttar Pradesh, in Order XVI, rule 4, add the following proviso:—

"Provided that nothing in this rule shall apply to a case where the witness is a Government servant summoned at the instance of Government as a party.

[U.P. Act., 57 of 1976].

  1. Time, place and purpose of attendance to be specified in summons— Every summons for the attendance of a person to give evidence or to produce a document shall specify the time and place at which he is required to attend, and also whether his attendance is required for the purpose of giving evidence or to produce a document, or for both purposes; and any particular document, which the person summoned is called on to produce, shall be described in the summons with reasonable accuracy.
  2. Summons to produce document— Any person may be summoned to produce a document, without being summoned to give evidence, and any person summoned merely to produce a document shall be deemed to have complied with the summons if he causes such document to be produced instead of attending personally to produce the same.
  3. Power to require persons present in Court to give evidence or produce document— Any person present in Court may be required by the Court to give evidence or to produce any document then and there in his possession or power.

[188][7A. Summons given to party for service— (1) The Court may, on the application of any party for the issue of a summons for the attendance of any person, permit such party to effect service of such summons on such person and shall, in such a case, deliver the summons to such party for service.

(2)
The service of such summons shall be effected by or on behalf of such party by delivering or tendering to the witness personally a copy thereof signed by the Judge or such officer of the Court as he may appoint in this behalf and sealed with the seal of the Court.
(3)
The provisions of rules 16 and 18 of Order V shall apply to a summons personally served under this rule as if the person effecting service were a serving officer.
(4)
If such summons, when tendered, is refused or if the person served refuses to sign and acknowledgement of service or for any reason such summons cannot be served personally, the Court shall, on the application of the party, re-issue such summons to be served by the Court in the same manner as a summons to a defendant.
(5)
Where a summons is served by a party under this rule, the party shall not be required to pay the fees otherwise chargeable for the service of summons.]
  1. Summons how served— Every summons [189][under this Order, not being a summons delivered to a party for service under rule 7A,] shall be served as nearly as may be in the same manner as a summons to a defendant and the rules in Order V as to proof of service shall apply in the case of all summonses served under this rule.
  2. Time for serving summons— Service shall in all cases be made a sufficient time before the time specified in the summons for the attendance of the person summoned, to allow him a reasonable time for preparation and for travelling to the place at which his attendance is required.
  3. Procedure whose witness fails to comply with summons— [190][(1) Where a person to whom a summons has been issued either to attend to give evidence or to produce a document, fails to attend or to produce the document in compliance with such summons, the Court—
(a)
shall, if the certificate of the serving officer has not been verified by affidavit, or if service of the summons has been effected by a party or his agent, or
(b)
may, if the certificate of the serving officer has been so verified.
examine on oath the serving officer or the party or his agent, as the case may be, who has effected service, or cause him to be so examined by any Court, touching the service or non-service of the summons.]
(2)
Where the Court sees reason to believe that such evidence or production is material, and that such person has, without lawful excuse, failed to attend or to produce the document in compliance with such summons or has intentionally avoided service, it may issue a proclamation requiring him to attend to give evidence or to produce the document at a time and place to be named therein; and a copy of such proclamation shall be affixed on the outer door or other conspicuous part of the house in which he ordinarily resides.
(3)
In view of or at the time of issuing such proclamation, or at any time afterwards, the Court may, in its discretion, issue a warrant, either with or without bail, for the arrest of such person, and may make an order for the attachment of his property to such amount as it thinks fit, not exceeding the amount of the costs of attachment and of any fine which may be imposed under rule 12 :

Provided that no Court of Small Causes shall make an order for the attachment of immovable property.

11. If witness appears attachment may be withdrawn— Where at any time after the attachment of his property, such person appears and satisfies the Court—

(a)
that he did not, without lawful excuse, fail to comply with the summons or intentionally avoid service, and
(b)
where he has failed to attend at the time and place named in a proclamation issued under the last proceeding rule, that he had no notice of such proclamation in time to attend.

the Court shall direct that the property be released from attachment, and shall make such order as to the costs of the attachment as it thinks fit.

12. Procedure if witness fails to appear— [191][(1)] The Court may, where such person does not appear, or appears but fails so to satisfy the Court, impose upon him such fine not exceeding five hundred rupees as it thinks fit, having regard to his condition in life and all the circumstances of the case, and may order his property, or any part thereof, to the attached and sold or, if already attached under rule 10, to be sold for the purpose of satisfying all costs to such attachment, together with the amount of the said fine, if any:

Provided that, if the person whose attendance is required pays into Court the Costs and fine aforesaid, the Court shall order the property to be released from attachment.

[192] [(2) Notwithstanding that the Court has not issued a proclamation under sub-rule (2) of rule 10, nor issued a warrant nor ordered attachment under sub-rule (3) of that rule, the Court may impose fine under sub-rule (1) of this rule after giving notice to such person to show cause why the fine should not be imposed.]

  1. Mode of attachment.—The provisions with regard to the attachment and sale of property in the execution of a decree shall, so far as they are applicable, be deemed to apply to any attachment and sale under this Order as if the person whose property is so attached were a judgment-debtor.
  2. Court may of its own accord summon as witnesses strangers to suit.— Subject to the provisions of this Code as to attendance and appearance and to any law for the time being in force, where the Court at any time thinks it necessary [193][to examine any person, including a party to the suit] and not called as witness by a party to the suit, the Court may, of its own motion, cause such person to be summoned as a witness to give evidence, or to produce any document in his possession on a day to be appointed, and may examine him as a witness or require him to produce such document.
    1. Duty of persons summoned give evidence or produce document— Subject as last aforesaid, whoever is summoned to appear and give evidence in a suit shall attend at the time an place named in the summons for
    2. that purpose, and whoever is summoned to produce a document shall either attend to produce it, or cause it to be produced, at such time and place.
  3. When they may depart— (1) A person so summoned and attending shall, unless the Court otherwise directs, attend at each hearing until the suit has been disposed of.

(2) On the application of either party and the payment through the Court of all necessary expenses (if any), the Court may require any person so summoned and attending to furnish security to attend at the next or any other hearing or until the suit is disposed of and, in default of his furnishing such security, may order him to be detained in the civil prison.

  1. Application of rules 10 to 13— The provisions of rules 10 to 13 shall, so far as they are applicable, be deemed to apply to any person who having attended in compliance with a summons departs, without lawful excuse, in contravention of rule 16.
  2. Procedure where witness apprehended cannot give evidence or produce document— Where any person arrested under a warrant is brought before the Court in custody and cannot, owing to the absence of the parties or any of them , give the evidence or produce the document which he has been summoned to give or produce, the Court may require him to give reasonable bail or other security for his appearance at such time and place as it thinks fit, on such bail or security being given, may release him, and, in default of his giving such bail or security, any order him to be detained in the civil prison.
  3. No witness to be ordered to attend in person unless resident within certain limits— No one shall be ordered to attend in person to give evidence unless he resides—
(a)
within the local limits of the Court's ordinary original jurisdiction, or
(b)
without such limits but at a place less than [194][one hundred] or (where there is railway or steamer communication or other established public conveyance for five-sixths of the distance between the place where he resides and the place were the Court is situate) less than [195][five hundred kilometers] distance from the Court-house :

[196] [Provided that where transport by air is available between the two places mentioned in this rule and the witness is paid the fare by air, he may be ordered to attend in person.]

  1. Consequence of refusal of party to give evidence when called on by Court— Where any party to a suit present in Court refuses, without lawful excuse, when required by the Court, to give evidence or to produce any document then and there in his possession or power, the Court may pronounce judgment against him or make such order in relation to the suit as it thinks fit.
  2. Rules as to witnesses to apply to parties summoned— Where any party to a suit is required to give evidence or to produce a document, the provisions as to witnesses shall apply to him so for as they are applicable.
[197][ORDER XVIA-ATTENDANCE OF WITNESSES CONFINED OR DETAINED IN PRISONS

1. Definitions— In this Order,—

(a)
"detained" includes detained under any law providing for preventive detention;
(b)
"prison" includes—
(i)
any place which has been declared by the State Government, by general or special order, to be a subsidiary jail; and
(ii)
any reformatory, borstal institution or other institution of a like nature.
    1. Power to require attendance of prisoners to give evidence— Where it appears to a Court that the evidence of a person confined or detained in a prison within the State is material in a suit, the Court may make an order requiring the officer in charge of the prison to produce that person before the Court to give evidence :
    2. Provided that, if the distance from the prison to the Court-house is more than twenty-five kilometres, no such order shall be made unless the Court is satisfied that the examination of such person on commission will not be adequate.
  1. Expenses to be paid into Court— (1) Before making any order under rule 2, the Court shall require the party at whose instance or for whose benefit the order is to be issued, to pay into Court such sum of money as appears to the Court to be sufficient to defray the expenses of the execution of the order, including the traveling and other expenses of the escort provided for the witness.

(2) Where the Court is subordinate to a High Court, regard shall be had, in fixing the scale of such expenses, to any rule made by the High Court in that behalf.

4. Power of State Government to exclude certain persons from the operation of rule 2— (1) The State Government may, at any time, having regard to the matters specified in sub-rule (2) by general or special order, direct that nay person or class of persons shall not be removed from the prison in which he or they may be confined or detained, and thereupon, so long as the order remains in force, no order made under rule 2, whether before or after the date of the order made by the State Government, shall have effect in respect of such person or class of persons.

(2)
Before making an order under sub-rule (1), the State Government shall have regard to the following matters, namely :—
(a)
the nature of the offence for which, or the grounds on which, the person or class of persons have been ordered to be confined or detained in prison;
(b)
the likelihood of the disturbance of public order if the person or class of persons is allowed to be removed from the prison; and
(c)
the public interest, generally.

5. Officer in charge of prison to abstain from carrying out order in certain cases— Where the person in respect of whom an order is made under rule 2 —

(a)
is certified by the medical officer attached to the prison as unfit to be removed from the prison by reason of sickness or infirmity; or
(b)
is under committal for trial or under remand pending trial or pending a preliminary investigation; or
(c)
is in custody for a period which would expire before the expiration of the time required for comply with the order and for taking him back to the prison in which he is confined or detained ; or
(d)
is a person to whom an order made by the State Government under rule 4 applies,the officer in charge of the prison shall abstain from carrying out the Court's order and shall send to the Court a statement of reason for so abstaining.
  1. Prisoner to be brought to Court in custody—In any other case, the officer in charge of the prison shall, upon delivery of the Court's order, cause the person named therein to be taken to the Court so as to be present at the time mentioned in such order, and shall cause him to be kept in custody in or near the Court until he has been examined or until the Court authorises him to be taken back to the prison in which he is confined or detained.
  2. Power to issue commission for examination of witness in prison—(1) Where it appears to the Court that the evidence of a person confined or detained in a pison, whether within the State or elsewhere in India, is material in a suit but the attendance of such person cannot be secured under the preceding provisions of this order, the Court may issue a commission for the examination of that person in the prison in which he is confined or detained.

(2) The provisions of Order XXVI shall, so far may be, apply in relation to the examination on commission of such person in prison as they apply in relation to the examination on commission of any other person.]

ORDER XVII-ADJOURNMENTS

1. Court may grant time and adjourn hearing—(1) The Court may, if sufficient cause is shown, at any stage of the suit grant time to the parties or to any of them, and may from time to time adjourn the hearing of the suit.

(2)
Costs of adjournment—In every such case the Court shall fix a day for the further hearing of the suit and may make such order, as it thinks fit with respect to the costs occasioned by the adjournment:
[198][Provided that,—
(a)
When the hearing of the suit has commenced, it shall be continued from day-to-day until all the witnesses in attendance have been examined, unless the Court finds that, for the exceptional reasons to be recorded by it, the adjournment of the hearing beyond the following day is necessary.
(b)
no adjournment shall be granted at the request of a party, except where the circumstances are beyond the control of that party.
(c)
the fact that the pleader of a party is engaged in another Court, shall not be a ground for adjournment.
(d)
where the illness of a pleader or his inability to conduct the case for any reason, other than his being engaged in another Court, is put forward as a ground for adjournment, the Court shall not grant the adjournment unless it is satisfied that the party applying for adjournment could not have engaged another pleader in time.
(e)
where a witness is present in Court but a party or his pleader is not present or the party or his pleader, though present in Court, is not ready to examine or cross-examine the witness, the Court may, if it thinks fit, record the statement of the witness and pass such orders as it thinks fit dispensing with the examination-inchief or cross-examination of the witness, as the case may be, by the party or his pleader not present or not ready as aforesaid.]
2 . Procedure if parties fail to appear on day fixed,— Where, on any day to which the hearing of the suit is adjourned, the parties or any of them fail to appear, the Court may proceed to dispose of the suit in one of the modes directed in that behalf by Order IX or make such other order as it thinks fit.

[199] [Explanation.—Where the evidence or a substantial portion of the evidence of any party has already been recorded and such party fails to appear on any day to which the hearing of the suit is adjourned, the Court may, in its discretion, proceed with the case as if such party were present.]

  1. 3 . Court may proceed notwithstanding either party fails to produce evidence, etc.— Where any party to a suit to whom time has been granted fails to produce his evidence, or to cause the attendance of his witnesses, or to perform any other act necessary to the further progress of the suit, for which time has been allowed, [200][the Court may, notwithstanding such default,—
  2. if the parties are present, proceed to decide the suit forthwith, or
  3. if the parties are, or any of them is, absent, proceed under rule 2].
ORDER XVIII-HEARING OF THE SUIT AND EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES
  1. 1 . Right to begin— The plaintiff has the right to begin unless the defendant admits the facts alleged by the plaintiff and contends that either in point of law or on some additional facts alleged by the defendant the plaintiff is not entitled to any part of the relief which he seeks, in which case the defendant has the right to begin.
  2. 2 . Statement and production of evidence— (1) On the day fixed for the hearing of the suit or on any other day to which the hearing is adjourned, the party having the right to begin shall state his case and produce his evidence in support of the issues which he is bound to prove.
  3. The other party shall then state his case and produce his evidence (if any) and may then address the Court generally on the whole case.
  4. The party beginning may then reply generally on the whole case.

[201] [(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in this rule, the Court may, for reasons to be recorded, direct or permit any party to examine any witness at any stage.]

    1. 3 . Evidence where several issues— Where there are several issues, the burden of proving some of which lies on the party, the party beginning may, at his option, either produce his evidence on those issues or reserve it by way of answer to the evidence produced by the other party; and, in the latter case, the party beginning may produce evidence on those issues after the other party has produced all his evidence, and the other party may then reply specially on the evidence so produced by the party beginning; but the party beginning will then be entitled to reply generally on the whole case.
    2. [202][3A . Party to appear before other witnesses— Where a party himself wishes to appear as a witness, he shall so appear before any other witness on his behalf has been examined, unless the Court, for reasons to be recorded permits him to appear as his own witness at a later stage.]
    1. 4 . Witnesses to be examined in open Court— The evidence of the witnesses in attendance shall be taken orally in open Court in the presence and under the personal direction and superintendence of the judge.
    2. [203][[204]5 . How evidence shall be taken in appealable cases —In cases in which an appeal is allowed, the evidence of each witness shall be,—
  1. taken down in the language of the Court,—
  2. in writing by, or in the presence and under the personal direction and superintendence of, the Judge, or
  3. from the dictation of the Judge directly on a typewriter, or
  4. if the Judge, for reasons to be recorded, so directs, recorded mechanically in the language of the Court in the presence of the Judge.]

[205]6 . When deposition to be interpreted— Where the evidence is taken down in language different from that in which it is given, and the witness does not understand the language in which it is taken down, the evidence as taken down in writing shall be interpreted to him in the language in which it is given.

[206]7 . Evidence under Section 138.— Evidence taken down under section 138 shall be in the form prescribed by rule 5 and shall be read over and signed and, as occasion may require, interpreted and corrected as if it were evidence taken down under that rule.

[207]8 . Memorandum when evidence not taken down by Judge— Where the evidence is not taken down in writing by the Judge, [208][or from his dictation in the open Court, or recorded mechanically in his presence,] he shall be bound, as the examination of each witness proceeds, to make a memorandum of the substance of what each witness deposes, and such memorandum shall be written and signed by the Judge and shall form part of the record.

[209][[210]9 . When evidence may be taken in English— (1) Where English is not the language of the Court, but all the parties to the suit who appear in person, and the pleaders of such of the parties as appear by pleaders, do not object to having such evidence as is given in English, being taken down in English, the Judge may so take it down or cause it to be taken down.

(2)
Where evidence is not given in English but all the parties who appear in person, and the pleaders of such of the parties as appear by pleaders, do not object to having such evidence being taken down in English, the Judge may take down, or cause to be taken down, such evidence in English.]
10 . Any particular question and answer may be taken down— the Court may, of its own motion or on the application of any party or his pleader, take down any particular question and answer, or any objection to any question, if there appears to be any special reason for so doing.
[211]11 . Questions objected to and allowed by Court— Where any question put to a witness is objected to by a party or his pleader, and the Court allows the same to be put, the Judge shall take down the question, the answer, the objection and the name of the person making it, together with the decision of the Court thereon.
12 . Remarks on demeanour of witnesses— The Court may record such remarks as it thinks material respecting the demeanour of any witness while under examination.

[212][[213]13 . Memorandum of evidence in unappealable cases— In cases in which an appeal is not allowed, it shall not be necessary to take down or dictate or record the evidence of the witnesses at length; but the Judge, as the examination of each witness proceeds, shall make in writing, or dictate directly on the typewriter, or cause to be mechanically recorded, a memorandum of the substance of what the witness deposes, and such memorandum shall be signed by the Judge or otherwise authenticated, and shall form part of the record.]

[214]14 . [Judge unable to make such memorandum to record reasons of his liability.] Rep. by the Code of Civil Procedure (Amendment) Act, 1976 (104 of 1976), s. 69 (w.e.f. 1-2-1977).

[215]15 . Power to deal with evidence taken before another Judge— (1) Where a Judge is prevented by death, transfer or other cause from concluding the trial of a suit, his successor may deal with any evidence or memorandum taken down or made under the foregoing rules as if such evidence or memorandum had been taken down or made by him or under his direction under the said rules and may proceed with the suit from the stage at which his predecessor left it.

(2)
The provisions of sub-rule (1) shall, so far as they are applicable, be deemed to apply to evidence taken in a suit transferred under section 24.
[216]16 . Power to examine witness immediately— (1) Where a witness is about to leave the jurisdiction of the Court, or other sufficient cause is shown to the satisfaction of the Court why his evidence should be taken immediately, the Court may upon the application of any party or of the witness, at any time after the institution of the suit, take the evidence of such witness in manner herein before provided.
(2)
Where such evidence is not taken forthwith and in the presence of the parties, such notice as the Court thinks sufficient, of the day fixed for the examination, shall be given to the parties.
(3)
The evidence so taken shall be read over to the witness, and if he admits it to be correct, shall be signed by him, and the Judge shall, if necessary, correct the same, and shall sign it, and it may then be read at any hearing of the suit.
17 . Court may recall and examine witness— The Court may at any stage of a suit recall any witness who has been examined and may (subject to the law of evidence for the time being in force) put such questions to him as the Court thinks fit.
[217]17A . Production of evidence not previously known or which could not be produced despite due diligence— Where a party satisfies the Court that after the exercise of due diligence, any evidence was not within his knowledge or could not be produced by him at the time when that party was leading his evidence, the Court may permit that party to produce that evidence at a later stage on such terms as may appear to it to be just.]
18 . Power of Court to inspect— The Court may at any stage of a suit inspect any property or thing concerning which any question may arise [218][and where the Court inspects any property or thing it shall, as soon as may be practicable, make a memorandum of any relevant facts observed at such inspection and such memorandum shall form a part of the record of the suit.]
ORDER XIX-AFFIDAVITS

1 . Power to order any point to be proved by affidavit— Any Court may at any time for sufficient reason order that any particular fact or facts may be proved by affidavit, or that the affidavit of any witness may be read at the hearing, on such conditions as the Court thinks reasonable :

Provided that where it appears to the Court that either party bona fide desires the production of a witness for cross-examination, and that such witness can be produced, an order shall not be made authorizing the evidence of such witness to be given by affidavit.

STATE AMENDMENTS

Uttar Pradesh.— For the existing proviso, substitute the following:—

"Provided that if it appears to the Court, whether at the instance of either party or otherwise and whether before or after the filing of such affidavit, that the production of such witness for cross-examination is necessary and his attendance can be procured, the Court shall order the attendance of such witness, whereupon the witness may be examined, cross-examined and re-examined.".

[U.P. Act (57 of 1976)].

Madhya Pradesh.— Insert the following rule, after rule 1:—

"1-A. Proof of fact by affidavit in certain cases.— Notwithstanding anything contrary to rule 1, the Court shall, in a suit or proceeding referred to in sub-rule 3-B of Order 1 and whether or not any proceeding under the Madhya Pradesh Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings Act, 1960 are pending before the Competent Authority appointed under that Act, call upon the parties to prove any particular fact or facts as it may direct, by affidavit, unless the Court looking to the nature and complexity of the suit or proceeding and for reasons to be recorded in writing deems it just and expedient to dispense with the proof of a fact or facts by affidavits.".

[M.P. Act 29 of 1984].

  1. 2 . Power to order attendance of deponent for cross-examination— (1) Upon any application evidence may be given by affidavit, but the Court may, at the instance of either party, order the attendance for cross-examination of the deponent.
  2. Such attendance shall be in Court, unless the deponent is exempted from personal appearance in Court or the Court otherwise directs.
  3. 3 . Matters to which affidavits shall be confined— (1) Affidavits shall be confined to such facts as the deponent is able of his own knowledge to prove, except on interlocutory applications, on which statements of his belief may be admitted, provided that the grounds thereof are stated.
  4. The costs of every affidavit which shall unnecessarily set forth matters of hear say or argumentative matter, or copies of or extracts from document, shall (unless the Court otherwise directs) be paid by the party filing the same.
ORDER XX-JUDGMENT AND DECREE

[219]1 . Judgment when pronounced— [220][(1)] The Court, after the case has been shall pronounce judgment in open Court either at once or, as soon thereafter as may be practicable, on some future day; and when the judgment is to be pronounced on some future day,the Court shall fix a day for that purpose, of which due notice shall be given to the parties or their pleader:]

[221] [Provided that where the judgment is not pronounced at once, every endeavour shall be made by the Court to pronounce the judgment within fifteen days from the date on which the hearing of the case was concluded but, where it is not practicable so to do, the Court shall fix a future day for the pronouncement of the judgment, and such day shall not ordinarily be a day beyond thirty days from the date on which the hearing of the case was concluded, adduce notice of the day so fixed shall be given to the parties or their pleader :

Provided further that, where a judgment is not pronounced within thirty days from the date on which the hearing of the case was concluded, the Court shall record the reasons for such delay and shall fix a future day on which the judgment will be pronounced and due notice of the day so fixed shall be given to the parties or their pleaders].

[222] [(2) Where a written judgment is to be pronounced, it shall be sufficient if the findings of the Court on each issue and the final order passed in the case are read out and it shall not be necessary for the Court to read out the whole judgment, but a copy of the whole judgment shall be made available for the perusal of the parties or the pleaders immediately after the judgment is pronounced.

(3)
The judgment may be pronounced by dictation in open Court to a shorthand writer if the Judge is specially empowered by the High Court in this behalf:
Provided that, where the judgment is pronounced by dictation in open Court, the transcript of the judgment so pronounced shall, after making such correction therein as may be necessary, be signed by the judge, bear the date on which it was pronounced, and form a part of the record.]
2 . Power to pronounce judgment written by judge's predecessor— [223][A Judge shall] pronounce a judgment written, but not pronounced, by his predecessor.

[224]3 . Judgment to be signed— The judgment shall be dated and signed by the Judge in open Court at the time of pronouncing it and, when once signed, shall not afterwards be altered or added, to save as provided by section 152 or on review.

[225]4 . Judgments of Small Cause Courts— (1) Judgments of a Court of Small Causes need not contain more than the points for determination and the decision thereon.

(2) Judgments of other Courts[1]—Judgments of other Courts contain a concise statement of the case, the points for determination, the decision thereon, and the reasons for such decision.

[226]5 . Court to state its decision on each issue— In suits in which issue, have been framed, the Court shall state its finding or decision, with the reasons therefore, upon separate issue, unless the finding upon any one or more of the issue is sufficient for the suit.

[227][5A . Court to inform parties as to where an appeal lies in cases where parties are not represented by pleaders— Except where both the parties are represented by pleaders, the Court shall, when it pronounces its judgment in a case subject to appeal, inform the parties present in Court as to the Court to which an appeal lies and the period of limitation for the filing of such appeal and place on record the information so given to the parties.]

  1. 6 . Contents of decree— (1)The decree shall agree with the judgment; it shall contain the number of the suit, the [228][names and descriptions of the parties, their registered addresses,] and particulars of the claim and shall specify clearly the relief granted or other determination of the suit.
  2. The decree shall also state the amount of costs incurred in the suit, and by whom or out of what property and in what proportions such costs are to be paid.
    1. The Court may direct that the costs payable to one party by the other shall be set off against any sum which is admitted or found to be due from the former to the latter.
    2. [229][6A . Last paragraph of judgment to indicate in precise terms the reliefs granted— (1) The last paragraph of the judgment shall state in precise terms the relief which has been granted by such judgment.
  3. Every endeavour shall be made to ensure that the decree is drawn up as expeditiously as possible, and, in any case, within fifteen days from the date on which the judgment is pronounced; but where the decree is not drawn up within the time aforesaid, the Court shall if requested so to do by a party desirous of appealing against the decree, certify that the decree has not been drawn up and indicate in the certificate the reasons for the delay, and thereupon—
  4. an appeal may be preferred against the decree without filing a copy of the decree and in such a case the lst paragraph of the judgment shall, for the purposes of rule 1 of Order XLI, be treated as the decree; and
  5. so long as the decree is not drawn up, the last paragraph of the judgment shall be deemed to be the decree for the purpose of execution and the party interested shall be entitled to apply for a copy of that paragraph only without being required to apply for a copy of the whole of the judgment; but as soon as a decree is drawn up, the last paragraph of the judgment shall cease to have the effect of decree for the purpose of execution or for any other propose :

Provided that, where an application is made for obtaining a copy of only the last paragraph of the judgment, such copy shall indicate the name and address of all the parties to the suit.

6B . Copies of typewritten judgments when to be made available— Where the judgment is type-written, copies of the type-written judgment shall, where it is practicable so to do, be made available to the parties immediately after the pronouncement of the judgment on payment, by the party applying for such copy, of such charges as may be specified in the rules made by the High Court.]

  1. 7 . Date of decree— The decree shall bear the day on which the judgment was pronounced, and when the Judge has satisfied himself that the decree has been drawn up in accordance with the judgment, he shall sign the decree.
  2. 8 . Procedure where Judge has vacated office before signing decree— Where a Judge has vacated office after pronouncing judgment but without signing the decree, a decree drawn up in accordance with such judgment may be signed by his successor or, if the Court has ceased to exist, by the Judge of any Court to which such Court was subordinate.
  3. 9 . Decree for recovery of immovable property— Where the subject-matter of the suit is immovable property, the decree shall contain a description of such property sufficient to identify the same, and where such property can be identified boundaries or by numbers in a record of settlement or survey, the decree shall specify such boundaries or numbers.
  4. 10 . Decree for delivery of movable property— Where the suit is for movable property, and the decree is for the delivery of such property, the decree shall also state the amount of money to be paid as an alternative if delivery cannot be head.
  5. 11 . Decree may direct payment by instalments— (1) Where and in so far as a decree is for the payment of money, the Court may for any sufficient reason [230][incorporate in the decree after hearing such of the parties who had appeared personally or by pleader at the last hearing, before judgment, an order that] payment of the amount decreed shall be postponed or shall be made by installments, with or without interest, notwithstanding anything contained in the contract under which the money is payable.BUS
  6. Order, after decree, for payment by instalments—After the passing of any such decree the Court may, on the application of the judgment-debtor and with the consent of the decree-holder, order that payment of the amount decreed shall be postponed or shall be made by instalments on such terms as to the payment of interest, the attachment of the property of the judgment-debtor, or the taking of security from him, or otherwise, as it thinks fit.
  7. 12 . Decree for possession and BImesne profits— (1) Where a suit is for the recovery of possession of immovable property and for rent or mesne profits, the Court may pass a decree—
  8. for the possession of the property;

[231] [(b) for the rents which have accrued on the property during the period prior to the institution of the suit or directing an inquiry as to such rent;

(ba) for the mesne profits or directing an inquiry as to mesne profits;]

(c)
directing an inquiry as to rent or mesne profits from the institution of the suit until—
(i)
the delivery of possession to the decree-holder,
(ii)
the relinquishment of possession by the judgment-debtor with notice to the decree-holder through the Court, or

(iii) the expiration of three years from the date of the decree, whichever event first occurs.

(2)
Where an inquiry is directed under clause (b) or clause (c), a final decree in respect of the rent or mesne profits shall be passed in accordance with the result of such inquiry.
[232][12A . Decree for specific performance of contract for the sale or lease of immovable property— Where a decree for the specific performance of contract for the sale or lease of immovable property orders that the purchase money or other sum be paid by the purchaser or lessee, it shall specify the period within which the payment shall be made.]
13 . Decree in administration suit— (1) Where a suit is for an account of any property and for its due administration under the decree of the Court, the Court shall, before passing the final decree, pass a preliminary decree ordering such accounts and inquiries to be taken and made, and giving such other directions as it thinks fit.
(2)
In the administration by the Court of the property of any deceased person, if such property proves to be insufficient for the payment in full of his debts and liabilities, the same rules shall be observed as to the respective rights of secured and unsecured creditors and as to debts and liabilities provable, and as to the valuation of annuities and future and contingent liabilities respectively, as may be in force for the time being, within the local limits of the Court in which the administration suit, is pending with respect to the estates of persons adjudged or declared insolvent, and all persons who in any such case would be entitled to be paid out of such property, may come in under the preliminary decree, and make such claims against the same as they may respectively be entitled to by virtue of this Code.
14 . Decree in pre-emption suit— (1) Where the Court decrees a claim to pre-emption in respect of a particular sale of property and the purchase-money has not been paid into Court, the decree shall—
(a)
specify a day on or before which the purchase-money shall be so paid, and
(b)
direct that on payment into Court of such purchase-money, together with the costs (if any) decrees against the plaintiff, on or before the day referred to in clause (a), the defendant shall deliver possession of the property to the plaintiff, whose title thereto shall be deemed to have accused from the date of such payment, but that, if the purchase-money and the costs (if any) are not so paid, the suit shall be dismissed with costs.
(2)
Where the Court has adjudicated upon rival claims to pre-emption, the decree shall direct,—
(a)
if and in so far as the claims decreed are equal in degree, that the claim of each pre-emptor complying with the provisions of sub-rule (1) shall take effect in respect of a proportionate share of the property including any proportionate share in respect of which the claim of any pre-emptor failing to comply with the said provisions would but for such default, have taken effect; and
(b)
if and in so far as the claims decreed are different in degree, that the claim of the inferior pre-emption shall not take effect unless and until the superior pre-emptor has failed to comply with the said provisions.
15 . Decree in suit for dissolution of partnership— Where a suit is for the dissolution of partnership, or the taking of partnership accounts, the Court, before passing a final decree, may pass a preliminary decree declaring the proportionate shares of the parties, fixing the day on which the partnership shall stand dissolved or be deemed to have been dissolved, and directing such accounts to be taken, and other acts to be done, as it thinks fit.
16 . Decree in suit for account between principal and agent— In a suit for an account of pecuniary transactions between a principal and an agent, and in any other suit not herein before provided for, where it is necessary, in order to ascertain the amount of money due to or from any party, that an account should be taken, the Court shall, before passing its final decree, pass preliminary decree directing such accounts to be taken as it thinks fit.
17 . Special directions as to accounts— The Court may either by the decree directing an account to be taken or by any subsequent order give special directions with regard to the mode in which the account is to be taken or vouched and in particular may direct that in taking the account the books of account in which the accounts in question have been kept shall be taken as prima facie evidence of the truth of the matters therein contained with liberty to the parties interested to take such objection thereto as they may be advised.
18 . Decree in suit for partition of property or separate possession of a share therein— Where the Court passes a decree for the partition of property or for the separate possession of a share therein, then,—
(1)
if and in so far as the decree relates to an estate assessed to the payment of revenue to the Government, the decree shall declare the rights of the several parties interested in the property, but shall direct such partition or separation to be made by the Collector, or any gazetted subordinate of the Collector deputed by him in this behalf, in accordance with such declaration and with the provisions of section 54;
(2)
if and in so far as such decree relates to any other immovable property or to movable property, the Court may, if the partition or separation cannot be conveniently made without further inquiry, pass a preliminary decree declaring the right of the several parties interested in the property and giving such further directions as may be required.
19 . Decree when set-off or counter-claims is allowed— (1) Where the defendant has been allowed a set-off

[233] [or counter-claim] against the claim of the plaintiff, the decree shall state what amount is due to the plaintiff and what amount is due to the defendant, and shall be for the recovery of any sum which appears to be due to either party.

(2)
Appeal from decree relating to set-off or counter-claim—Any decree passed in a suit in which a set-off [234][or counter-claim] is claimed shall be subject to the same provisions in respect of appeal to which it would have been subject if not set-off [235] [or counter-claim] had been claimed.
(3)
The provisions of this rule shall apply whether the set-off is admissible under rule 6 of Order VIII or otherwise.
20 . Certified copies of judgment and decree to be furnished— Certified copies of the judgment and decree shall be furnished to the parties on application to the Court, and at their expense.

[236]ORDER XXA

COSTS

  1. 1 . Provisions relating to certain items— Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of this Code relating to costs, the Court may award costs in respect of,—
  2. expenditure incurred for the giving of any notice required to be given by law before the institution of the suit;
  3. expenditure incurred on any notice which, though not required to be given by law, has been given by any party to the suit to any other party before the institution of the suit;
  4. expenditure incurred on the typing, writing or printing of pleadings filed by any party;
  5. charges paid by a party for inspection of the records of the Court for the purposes of the suit;
  6. expenditure incurred by a party for producing witnesses, even though not summoned through Court, and
  7. in the case of appeals, charges incurred by a party for obtaining any copies of judgments and decrees which are required to be filed along with the memorandum of appeal.
  8. 2 . Costs to be awarded in accordance with the rules made by High Court— The award of costs under this rule shall be in accordance with such rules as the High Court may make in that behalf.]
ORDER XXI-EXECUTION OF DECREES AND ORDERS

Payment under decree

[237][1 . Modes of paying money under decree— (1) All money, payable under a decree shall be paid as follows, namely :—

(a)
by deposit into the Court whose duty it is to execute the decree, or sent to that Court by postal money order or through a bank; or
(b)
out of Court, to the decree-holder by postal money order or through a bank or by any other mode wherein payment is evidenced in writing; or
(c)
otherwise, as the Court which made the decree, directs.
(2)
Where any payment is made under clause (a) or clause (c) of sub rule (1), the judgment-debtor shall give notice thereof to the decree-holder either through the Court or directly to him by registered post, acknowledgement due.
(3)
Where money is paid by postal money order or through a bank under clause (a) or clause (b) of sub-rule (1), the money order or payment through bank, as the case may be, shall accurately state the following particulars, namely : —
(a)
the number of the original suit;
(b)
the names of the parties or where there are more than two plaintiffs or more than two defendants, as the case may be, the names of the first two plaintiffs and the first two defendants;
(c)
how the money remitted is to be adjusted, that is to say, whether it is towards the principal, interest or costs;
(d)
the number of the execution case of the Court, where such case is pending; and
(e)
the name and address of the payer.
(4)
On any amount paid under clause (a) or clause (c) of sub-rule (1) interest, if any, shall cease to run from the date of service of the notice referred to in sub-rule (2).
(5)
On any amount paid under clause (b) of sub-rule (1) interest, if any, shall cease to run from the date of such payment :
Provided that, where the decree-holder refuses to accept the postal order or payment through a bank, interest shall cease to run from the date on which the money was tendered to him, or where he avoids acceptance of the postal money order or payment through bank, interest shall cease to run from the date on which money would have been tendered to him in the ordinary course of business of the postal authorities or the bank, as the case may be.]
2 . Payment out of Court to decree-holder— (1) Where any money payable under a decree of any kind is paid out of Court. [238][or decree of any kind is otherwise adjusted] in whole or in part to the satisfaction of the decree-holder, the decree-holder shall certify such payment or adjustment to the Court whose duty it is to execute the decree, and the Court shall record the same accordingly.
(2)
The judgment-debtor [239][or any person who has become surety for the judgment-debtor] also may inform the Court of such payment or adjustment, and apply to the Court to issue a notice to the decree-holder to show cause, on a day to be fixed by the Court, why such payment or adjustment should not be recorded as certified; and if, after service of such notice, the decree-holder fails to show cause why the payment or adjustment should not be recorded as certified, the Court record the same accordingly.

[240] [(2A) No payment or adjustment shall be recorded at the instance of the judgment-debtor unless—

(a)
the payment is made in the manner provided in rule 1; or
(b)
the payment or adjustment is proved by documentary evidence; or
(c)
the payment or adjustment is admitted by, or on behalf of, the decree-holder in his reply to the notice given under sub-rule (2) of rule 1, on before the Court.]

[241] (3) A payment or adjustment, which has not been certified or recorded as aforesaid, shall not be recognized by any Court executing the decree.

Courts executing decrees

  1. 3 . Lands situate in more than one jurisdiction— Where immovable property forms one estate or tenure situate within the local limits of jurisdiction of two or more Court, any one of such Courts may attach and sell the entire estate or tenure.
    1. 4 . Transfer to Court of Small Causes— Where a decree has been passed in a suit of which the value as set forth in the plaint did not exceed two thousand rupees and which, as regards its subject-matter, is not excepted by the law for the time being in force from the cognizance of either a Presidency or a Provincial Court of Small Causes, and the Court which passed it wishes it to be executed in Calcutta, Madras or Bombay, such Court may send to the Court of Small Causes in Calcutta, Madras or Bombay, as the case may be, the copies and certificates mentioned in rule 6; and such Court of Small Causes shall thereupon execute the decree as if it had been passed by itself.
    2. [242][5 . Mode of transfer— Where a decree is to be sent for execution to another Court, the Court which passed such decree shall send the decree directly to such other Court whether or not such Court is situated in the same State, but the Court to which the decree is sent for execution shall, if it has no jurisdiction to execute the decree, send it to the Court having such jurisdiction.]
  2. 6 . Procedure where Court desires that its own decree shall be executed by another Court— The Court sending a decree for execution shall send—
  3. a copy of the decree;
  4. a certificate setting forth that satisfaction of the decree has not been obtained by execution within the jurisdiction of the Court by which it was passed, or, where the decree has been executed in part, the extent to which satisfaction has been obtained and what part of the decree remains unsatisfied; and
  5. a copy of any order for the execution of the decree, or, if no such order has been made, a certificate to that effect.
  6. 7 . Court receiving copies of decree, etc. to file same without proof— The Court to which a decree is so sent shall cause such copes and certificates to be filed, without any further proof of the decree or order for execution, or of the copies thereof, unless the Court, for any special reasons to be recorded under the hand of the Judge, requires such proof.
  7. 8 . Execution of decree or order by Court to which it is sent— Where such copies are so filed, the decree or order may, if the Court to which it is sent is the District Court, be executed by such or be transferred for execution to any subordinate Court of competent jurisdiction.
  8. 9 . Execution of High Court of decree transferred by other Court— Where the Court to which the decree is sent for execution is a High Court, the decree shall be executed by such Court in the same manner as if it had been passed by such Court in exercise of its ordinary original civil jurisdiction.
  9. 10 . Application for execution— Where the holder of a decree desires to execute it, he shall apply to the Court which passed the decree or to the officer (if any) appointed in this behalf, or if the decree has been sent under the provisions hereinbefore contained to another Court then to such Court or to the proper officer thereof.
  10. 11 . Oral application— (1) Where a decree is for the payment of money the Court may, on the oral application of the decree-holder at the time of passing of the decree, order immediate execution thereof by the arrest of the judgment-debtor, prior to the preparation of a warrant if he is within the precincts of the Court.
  11. Written application—Save as otherwise provided by sub-rule(1), every application for the execution of a decree shall be in writing, signed and verified by the applicant or by some other person proved to the satisfaction of the Court to be acquainted with the facts of the case, and shall contain in a tabular form the following particulars, namely—
  12. the number of the suit;
  13. the names of the parties;
  14. the date of the decree;
  15. whether any appeal has been preferred from the decree;
  16. whether any, and (if any) what, payment or other adjustment of the matter in controversy has been made between the parties subsequently to the decree;
  17. whether any, and (if any) what, previous applications have been made for the execution of the decree, the dates of such applications and their results;
  18. the amount with interest (if any) due upon the decree, or other relief granted thereby, together with particulars of any cross-decree, whether passed before or after the date of the decree sought to be executed;
  19. the amount of the costs (if any) awarded;
  20. the name of the person against whom execution of the decree is sought; and
  21. the mode in which the assistance of the Court is required whether—
  22. by the delivery of any property specifically decreed;

Application for execution [243] [(ii) by the attachment, or by the attachment and sale, or by the sale without attachment, of any property;]

(iii) by the arrest and detention in prison of any person;

(iv)
by the appointment of a receiver;
(v)
otherwise, as the nature of the relief granted may require.
(3)
The Court to which an application is made under sub-rule (2) may require the applicant to produce a certified copy of the decree.
[244][11A . Application for arrest to state grounds— Where an application is made for the arrest and detention in prison of the judgment-debtor, it shall state, or be accompanied by an affidavit stating, the grounds on which arrest is applied for.]
12 . Application for attachment of movable property not in judgment-debtor's possession— Where an application is made for the attachment of any movable property belonging to a judgment-debtor in his possession, the decree-holder shall annex to the application an inventory of the property to be attached, containing a reasonably accurate description of the same.
13 . Application for attachment of immovable property to contain certain particulars— Where an application is made for the attachment of any immovable property belonging to a judgment-debtor, it shall contain at the foot—
(a)
a description such property sufficient to identify the same and, in case such property can be identified by boundaries or numbers in a record of settlement or survey, a specification of such boundaries or numbers; and
(b)
a specification of the judgment-debtor's share or interest in such property to the best of the belief of the applicant, and so far as he has been able to ascertain the same.
14 . Power to require certified extract from Collector's register in certain cases— Where an application is made for the attachment of any land which is registered in the office of the Collector, the Court may require the applicant to produce a certified extract from the register of such office, specifying the persons registered as proprietors of, or as possessing any transferable interest in, the land or its revenue, or as liable to pay revenue for the land, and the shares of the registered proprietors.
15 . Application for execution by joint decree-holders— (1) Where a decree has been passed jointly in favour of more persons than one, any one or more such persons may, unless the decree imposes any condition to the contrary, apply for the execution of the whole decree for the benefit of them all, or, where of them has died, for the benefit of the survivors and the legal representatives of the deceased.
(2)
Where the Court sees sufficient cause for allowing the decree to be executed on an application made under this rule, it shall make such order as it deems necessary for protecting the interest of the persons who have not joined in the application.
16 . Application for execution by transferee of decree— Where a decree or, if a decree has been passed jointly in favour of two or more persons, the interest of any decree-holder in the decree in transferred by assignment in writing or by operation of law, the transferee may apply for execution of the decree to the Court which passed if, and the decree may be executed in the same manner and subject to the same conditions as if the application were made by such decree-holder :

Provided also that, where the decree, or such interest as aforesaid, has been transferred by assignment, notice of such application shall be given to the transferor and the judgment-debtor, and the decree shall not be executed until the Court has heard their objections (if any) to its execution :

Provided also that, where a decree for the payment of money against two or more persons has been transferred to one of them, it shall not be executed against the others.

[245] [Explanation.—Nothing in this rule shall affect the provisions of section 146, and a transferee of rights in the property, which is the subject matter of the suit, may apply for execution of the decree without a separate assignment of the decree as required by this rule.]

17 . Procedure on receiving application for execution of decree— (1) On receiving an application for the execution of a decree as provided by rule 11, sub-rule (2), the Court shall ascertain whether such of the requirement's of rules 11 to 14 as may be applicable to the case have been complied with; and if, they have not been complied with, [246][the Court shall allow] the defect to be remedied then and there or within a time to be fixed by it.

[247] [(1A) If the defect is not so remedied, the Court shall reject the application:

Provided that where, in the Court, there is some inaccuracy as to the amount referred to in clauses (g) and

(h)
of sub-rule (2) of rule 11, the Court, instead of rejecting the application, decide provisonally (without prejudice to the right of the parties to have the amount finally decided in the course of the proceedings) the amount and make an order for the execution of the decree for the amount so provisionally decided.]
(2)
Where an application is amended under the provisions of sub-rule (1), it shall be deemed to have been an application in accordance with law and presented on the date when it was first presented.
(3)
Every amendment made under this rule shall be signed or initialled by the Judge.
(4)
When the application is admitted, the Court shall enter in the proper register a note of the application and the date on which it was made, and shall, subject to the provisions hereinafter contained, order execution of the decree according to the nature of the application:
18 . Execution in case of cross-decrees— (1) Where applications are made to a Court for the execution of cross-decrees in separate suits for the payment of two sums of money passed between the same parties and capable of execution at the same time by such Court, then—
(a)
if the two sums are equal, satisfaction shall be entered upon both decrees; and
(b)
if the two sums are unequal execution may be taken out only by the holder of the decree for the larger sum and for so much only as remains after deducting the smaller sum, and satisfaction for the smaller sum shall be entered on the decree for the larger sum as well as satisfaction on the decree for the smaller sum.
(2)
This rule shall be deemed to apply where either party is an assignee of one of the decrees and as well in respect of judgment-debts due by the original assignor as in respect of judgment-debts due by the assignee himself.
(3)
This rule shall not be deemed to apply unless—
(a)
the decree holder in one of the suits which the decrees have been made is the judgment-debtor in the other and each party files the same character in both suits; and
(b)
the sums due under the decrees are definite.
(4)
The holder of a decree passed against several persons jointly and severally my treat is as a cross-decree in relation to a decree against him singly in favour of one or more of such persons.
Illustrations
(a)
A holds a decree against B for Rs. 1,000. B holds a decree against A for the payment of Rs. 1,000 in case A fails to deliver certain goods at a future day. B cannot treat his decree as a cross-decree under this rule.
(b)
A and B, co-plaintiffs, obtain a decree for Rs. 1,000 against C, and C obtain a decree for Rs. 1,000 1,000 against B. C cannot treat his decree as a cross-decree under this rule.
(c)
A obtains a decree against B for Rs. 1,000 C, who is a trustee for B, obtains a decree on behalf of B against A for Rs. 1,000 B cannot treat C's decree as a cross-decree under this rule.
(d)
A, B, C, D and E are jointly and severely liable for Rs. 1,000 under a decree obtained by F. A obtains a decree for Rs. 1,000 against F singly and applies for execution to the Court in which the joint-decree is being executed. F may treat his joint-decree as cross-decree under this rule.
19 . Execution in case of cross-claims under same decree— Where application is made to a Court for the execution of a decree under which two parties are entitled to recover sums of money from each other, then—
(a)
if the two sums are equal, satisfaction for both shall be entered upon the decree; and
(b)
if the two sums are unequal, execution may be taken out only by the party entitled to the larger sum and for so much only as remains after deducting the smaller sum, and satisfaction for the smaller sum shall be entered upon the decree.
20 . Cross-decrees and cross-claims in mortgage-suits— The provisions contained in rules 18 and 19 shall apply to decrees for sale in enforcement of a mortgage or charge.
21 . Simultaneous execution— The Court may, in its discretion, refuse execution at the same time against the person and property of the judgment-debtor.
22 . Notice to show cause against execution in certain cases— (1) Where an application for execution is made,—
(a)
more than [248][two years] after the date of the decree, or
(b)
against the legal representative of a party to the decree or where an application is made for execution of a decree filed under the provisions of section 44A,[249][or]

Provided that, in the case of a decree for the payment of money, the value of the property attached shall, as nearly as may be, correspond with the amount due under the decree.

[250] [(c) against the assignee or receiver in insolvency, where the party to the decree has been adjudged to be an insolvent,] the Court executing the decree shall issue a notice to the person against whom execution is applied for requiring him to show cause, on a date to be fixed, why the decree should not be executed against him :

Provided that no such notice shall be necessary in consequence of more than [251][two years] having elapsed between the date of the decree and the application for execution if the application is made within [252][two years] from the date of the last order against the party against whom execution is applied for, made on any previous application for execution, or in consequence of the application being made against the legal representative of the judgment-debtor if upon a previous application for execution against the same person the Court has ordered execution to issue against him.

(2)
Nothing in the foregoing sub-rule shall be deemed to preclude the Court from issuing any process in execution of a decree without issuing the notice thereby prescribed, if, for reasons to be recorded, it considers that the issue of such notice would cause unreasonable delay or would defeat the ends of justice.
[253][22A . Sale not to be set aside on the death of the judgment-debtor before the sale but after the service of the proclamation of sale.— Where any property is sold in execution of a decree, the sale shall not be set aside merely by reason of the death of the judgment-debtor between the date of issue of the proclamation of sale and the date of the sale notwithstanding the failure of the decree-holder to substitute the legal representative of such deceased judgment-debtor, but, in case of such failure, the Court may set aside the sale if it is satisfied that the legal representative of the deceased judgment-debtor has been prejudiced by the sale.]
23 . Procedure after issue of notice— (1) Where the person to whom notice is issued under [254][rule 22] does not appear or does not show cause to the satisfaction of the Court why the decree should not be executed the Court shall order the decree to be executed.
(2)
Where such person offers any objection to the execution of the decree, the Court shall consider such objection and make such order as it thinks fit.
Process for execution
24 . Process for execution— (1) When the preliminary measures (if any) required by the foregoing rules have been taken, the Court shall, unless it sees cause to the contrary, issue its process for the execution of the decree.
(2)
Every such process shall bear date the day on which it is issued, and shall be signed by the Judge or such officer as the Court may appoint in this behalf, and shall be sealed with the seal of the Court and delivered to the proper officer to be executed.

[255] [(3)] In every such process, a day shall be specified on or before which it shall be executed and a day shall also be specified on or before which it shall be returned to the Court, but no process shall be deemed to be void if no day for its return is specified therein.]

  1. 25 . Endorsement on process— (1) The officer entrusted with the execution of the process shall endorse thereon the day on, and the manner in which it was executed, and, if the latest day specified in the process for the return thereof has been exceeded, the reason of the delay, or, if it is executed, the reason why it was not executed, and shall return the process with such endorsement to the Court.
    1. Where the endorsement is to the effect that such officer is unable to execute the process, the Court shall examine him touching his alleged inability, and may, if it thinks fit, summon and examine witnesses as to such inability, and shall record the result.
    2. Stay of execution
  2. 26 . When Court may stay execution— (1) the Court to which a decree has been sent for execution shall, upon sufficient cause being shown, stay the execution of such decree for a reasonable time, to enable the judgment-debtor to apply to the Court by which the decree was passed, or to any Court having appellate jurisdiction in respect of the decree or the execution thereof, for an order to stay execution, or for any other order relating to the decree or execution which might have been made by such Court of first instance or Appellate Court if execution had been issued thereby, or if application for execution had been made thereto.
  3. Where the property or person of the judgment-debtor has been seized under an execution, the Court which issued the execution may order the restitution of such property or the discharge of such person pending the result of the application.
  4. Power to require security from, or impose conditions upon, judgment-debtor—Before making an order to stay execution, or for the restitution of property or the discharge of the judgment-debtor, [256][the Court shall require] such security from, or impose such conditions upon, the judgment-debtor as it thinks fit.
  5. 27 . Liability of judgment-debtor discharged— No order of restitution or discharge under rule 26 shall prevent the property or person of a judgment-debtor from being retaken in execution of the decree sent for execution.
  6. 28 . Order of Court which passed decree or of Appellate Court to be binding upon Court applied to— Any order of the Court by which the decree was passed, or of such Court of appeal as aforesaid, in relation to the execution of such decree, shall be binding upon the Court to which the decree was sent for execution.
  7. 29 . Stay of execution pending suit between decree-holder and judgment-debtor— Where a suit is pending in any Court against the holder of a decree of such Court [257] [or of a decree which is being executed by such Court], on the part of the person against whom the decree was passed, the Court may, on such terms as to security or otherwise, as it thinks fit, stay execution of the decree until the pending suit has been decided :

[258] [Provided that if the decree is one for payment of money, the Court shall, if it grants stay without requiring security, record its reasons for so doing.]

Mode of execution

  1. 30 . Decree for payment of money— Every decree for the payment of money, including a decree for the payment of money as the alternative to some other relief, may be executed by the detention in the civil prison of the judgment-debtor, or by the attachment and sale of his property, or by both.
  2. 31 . Decree for specific movable property— (1) Where the decree is for any specific movable, or for any share in a specific movable, it may be executed by the seizure, if practicable, of the movable or share, and by the delivery thereof to the party to whom it has been adjudged, or to such person as he appoints to receive delivery on his behalf, or by the detention in the civil prison of the judgment-debtor, or by the attachment of his property, or by both.
  3. Where any attachment under sub-rule (1) has remained in force for [259][three months] if the judgment-debtor has not obeyed the decree and the decree-holder has applied to have the attached property sold, such property may be sold, and out of the proceeds the Court may award to the decree-holder, in cases where any amount has been fixed by the decree to be paid as an alternative to delivery of movable property, such amount, and, in other cases, such compensation as it thinks fit, and shall pay the balance (if any) to the judgment-debtor on his application.
  4. Where the judgment-debtor has obeyed the decree and paid all costs of executing the same which he is bound to pay, or where, at the end of [260][three months] from the date of attachment, no application to have the property sold has been made, or, if made, has been refused, the attachment shall cease.
  5. 32 . Decree for specific performance for restitution of conjugal rights, or for an injunction— (1) Where the party against whom a decree for the specific performance of a contract, or for restitution of conjugal rights, or for an injunction, has been passed, has had an opportunity of obeying the decree and has wilfully failed to obey it, the decree may be enforced in the case of a decree for restitution of conjugal rights by the attachment of his property or, in the case of a decree for the specific performance of a contract or for an injunction by his detention in the civil prison, or by the attachment of his property, or by both.
  6. Where the party against whom a decree for specific performance or for an injunctions been passed is a corporation, the decree may be enforced by the attachment of the property of the corporation or, with the leave of the Court by the detention in the civil prison of the directors or other principal officers thereof, or by both attachment and detention.
  7. Where any attachment under sub-rule (1) or sub-rule (2) has remained in force for [261][six months] if the judgment-debtor has not obeyed the decree and the decree-holder has applied to have the attached property sold, such property may be sold; and out of the proceeds the Court may award to the decree-holder such compensation s it thinks fit, and shall pay the balance (if any) to the judgment-debtor on his application.
  8. Where the judgment-debtor has obeyed the decree and paid all costs of executing the same which he is bound to pay, or here, at the end of [262][six months] from the date of the attachment, no application to have the property sold has been made, or if made has been refused, the attachment shall cease.
  9. Where a decree for the specific performance of a contract or for an injunction has not been obeyed, the Court may, in lieu of or in addition to all or any of the processes aforesaid, direct that the act required to be done may be done so far as practicable by the decree-holder or some other person appointed by the Court, at the cost of the judgment-debtor, and upon the act being done the expenses incurred may be ascertained in such manner as the Court may direct and may be recovered as if they were included in the decree.

Illustration

A, a person of little substance, effects a building which renders uninhbitable a family mansion belonging to B. A, in spite of his detention in prison and the attachment of his property, declines to obey a decree obtained against him by B and directing him to revoe the building. The Court is of opinion that no sum realizable by the sale of A's property wold adequately compensate B for the depreciation in the value of his mansion. B may apply to the Court to remove the building and may revocer the cost of such removal from a in the execution-proceedings.

  1. 33 . Discretion of Court in executing decrees for restitution of conjugl rights— (1) Notwithstanding anything in rule 32, the Court, either at the time of passing a decree agaisnt a husband for the restitution of conjugal rights or at any time afterwards, may order that the decree shall be executed in the manner provided in this rule.
  2. Where the Court has made an order under sub-rule (1), it may order that, in the event of the decree not being obeyed within such period as may be fixed in this behalf, the judgment-debtor shall make to the decree-holder such periodical payments as may be just, and, if it thinks fit, require that the judgment-debtor shall, to its satisfaction, secure to the decree-holder such periodical payments.
  3. The Court may from time to time vary or modify any order made under sub-rule (2) for the periodical payment of money, either by altering the times of payment or by increasing or diminishing the amount, or may temporilay suspend the same as to the whole or any part of the money so ordered to be paid, and again review the same, either wholly or in part as it may think just.
  4. Any money ordered to be paid under this rule may be recovered as though it were payble under a decree for the payment of money.
  5. 34 . Decree for executin of document, or endoresment of negotiable instrument— (1) Where a decree is for the execution of a document or for the endorsement for a negotiable instrument and the judgment-debtor neglects or refuses to obey the decree, the decree-holder may prepare a draft of the document or endoresement in accordance with the terms of the decree and delvier the same to the Court.
  6. The Court shall thereupon cause the draft to beserved on the judgment-debtor together with a notice requiring his objections (if any) to be made within such time as the Cout fixes in this behalf.
  7. Where the judgment-debtor object tot he draft, his objections shall be stated in writing within such time, and the court shall make such order approving or altering the draft, as it thinks fit.
  8. The decree-holder shall deliver to the Court a copy of the draft with such alterations (if any) as the Court may have directed upon the proper stamp-paper if a stamp is required by the law for the time being in force; and the Judge or such officer as may be appointed in this behalf shall execute the document so delivered.
  9. The execution of a document or the endorsement of a negotiable instrument under this rule may be in the following form, namely :—

"C.D., Judge of the Court of

(or as the case may be), for A.B. in suit by E.F. against A.B."

and shall have the same effect as the execution of the document or the endorsement of the negotiable instrument by the party ordered to execute or endorese the same.

[263] [(6) (a) Where the registration of the document is required under any law for the time being in force, the Court, or such officer of the court as may be authorised in this behalf by the Court, shall cause the document to be registered in accordance with such law.

(b)
Where the registration of the doucment is not so required, but the decree-holder desires it to be registered, the Court may make such order as it thinks fit.
(c)
Where the Court makes any order for the registration of any document, it may make such order as it thinkgs fit as to the expenses of registration.]
35 . Decree for immovable property— (1) Where a decree is for the delivery of any immovable property, possession thereof shall be delviered to the party to whom it has been adjudged, or to such person as he may appoint to receive delivery on his behalf, and, if necessary, by removing any person bound by the decree who refuses to vacate the property.
(2)
Where a decree is for the joint possession of immovable property, such possession shall be delivered by afixing a copy of the warrant in some conspicuous place on the property and proclamining the beat of drum, or other customary mode, at some convenient place, the substance of the decree.
(3)
Where possession of any building on enclosure is to be delivered and the person in possession, being bound by the decree, does not afford free access, the Court, through its officers, may, after giving reasonable warning and facility to any woman not appearing in public according to the customs of the country to withdraw, remove or open any lock or bolt or break open any door or do any other act necessary for putting the decree-holder in possession.
36 . Decree for delivery of immovable property when in occupancy of tenant— Where a decree is for the delivery of any immovable property in the occupancy of a tenant or other person entitled to occupy the same and not bound by the decree to relinguish such occupancy, the Court shall order delivery to be made by affixing a copy of the warrant in some conspicuous place on the property, and proclaiming to the occupant by beat of drum or other customary mode, at some convenient place, the substance of the decree in regard to the property.
Arrest and detention in the civil prison
37 . Discretionary power to permit judgment debtor to show cause against detention in prison— (1) Notwithstanding anything in these rules, where an application is for the execution of a decree for the payment of money by the arrest and detention in the civil prison of a judgment-debtor who is liable to be arrested in pursuance of the application, the Court shall, instead of issuing a warrant for his arrest, issue a notice calling upon him to appear before the Court on a day to be specified in the notice and show cause why he should not be committed to the civil prison:
Provided that such notice shall not be necessary if the Court is satisfied, by affidavit, or otherwise, that, with the object or effect of delaying the execution of the decree,the judgment-debtor is likely to abscond or leave the local limits of the jurisdiction of the Court.
38 . Warrant for arrest to direct judgment-debtor to be brought up— Every warrant for the arrest of a judgment-debtor shall direct the officer entrusted with its execution to bring him before the Court with all convenient speed, unless the amount which he has been ordered to pay, together with the interest thereon and the costs (if any) to which he is liable, be sooner paid.
39 . Subsistence allowance— (1) No judgment-debtor shall be arrested in execution of a decree unless and until the decree-holder into Court such sum as the Judge thinks sufficient for the subsistence of the judgment-debtor from the time of his arrest until he can be brought before the Court.
(2)
Where a judgment-debtor is committed to the civil prison in execution of a decree, the Court shall fix for his subsistence such monthly allowance as he may be entitled to according to the seales fixed under section 57, or, where no such scales have been fixed, as it considers sufficient with reference to the class to which he belongs.
(3)
The monthly allowance fixed by the Court shall be supplied by the party on whose application the judgment-debtor has been arrested by monthly payments in advance before the first day of each month.
(4)
The first payment shall be made to the proper officer of the Court for such portion of the current month as remains unexpired before the judgment-debtor is committed to the civil prison, and the subsequent payments (if any) shall be made to the officer in charge of the civil prison.
(5)
Sums disbursed by the decree-holder for the subsistence of the judgment-debtor in the civil prison shall be deemed to be costs in the suit :
40 . Proceedings on appearance of judement-debtor in obedience to notice or after arrest— (1) When a judgment-debtor appears before the Court in obedience to a notice issued under rule 37, or is brought before the Court after being arrested in execution of a decree for the payment of money, the Court shall proceed to hear the decree-holder and take all such evidence as may be produced by him in support of his application for execution and shall then give the judgment-debtor an opportunity of showing cause why he should not be committed to the civil prison.
(2)
Pending the conclusion of the inquiry under sub-rule (1) the Court may, in its discretion, order the judgment-debtor to be detained in the custody of an officer of the Court or release him on his furnishing security to the satisfaction of the Court for his appearance when required.
(3)
Upon the conclusion of the inquiry under sub-rule (1) the Court may, subject to the provisions of section 51 and to the other provisions of the Code, make an order for the detention of the judgment-debtor in the civil prison and shall in that event cause him to be arrested if he is not already under arrest:
Provided that in order to give the judgment-debtor an opportunity of satisfying the decree, the Court may, before making the order of detention, leave the judgment-debtor in the custody of an officer of the Court for a specified period not exceeding fifteen days or release him on his furnishing security to the satisfaction of the Court for his appearance at the expiration of the specified period if the decree be not sooner satisfied.
(4)
A judgment-debtor released under this rule may be re-arrested.
(5)
When the Court does not make an order of detention under sub-rule (3), it shall disallow the application and, if the judgment-debtor is under arrest, direct his release.
Attachment of property
41 . Examination of judgment-debtor as to his property— [264][(1)] Where a decree is for the payment of money the decree-holder may apply to the Court for an order that—
(a)
The judgment-debtor, or
(b)
[265][where the judgment-debtor is a corporation], any officer thereof, or
(c)
any other person,

Provided that the judgment-debtor shall not be detained in the civil prison or arrested on account of any sum so disbursed.

be orally examined as to whether any or what debts are owing to the judgment-debtor and whether the judgment-debtor has any and what other property or means of satisfying the decree; and the Court may make an order for the attendance and examination of such judgment-debtor, or officer or other person, and for the production of any books or documents.

[266] [(2) Where a decree for the payment of money has remained unsatisfied for a period of thirty days, the Court may, on the application of the decree-holder and without prejudice to its power under sub-rule (1), by order require the judgment-debtor or where the judgment-debtor is a corporation, any officer thereof, to make an affidavit stating the particulars of the assets of the judgment-debtor.

(3)
In case of disobedience of any order made under sub-rule (2), the Court making the order, or any Court to which the proceeding is transferred, may direct that the person disobeying the order be detained in the civil prison for a term not exceeding three months unless before the expiry of such term the Court directs his release.]
42 . Attachment in case of decree for rent or mesne profits or other matter, amount of which to be subsequently determined— Where a decree directs an inquiry as to rent or mesne profits or any other matter, the property of the judgment-debtor may, before the amount due from him has been ascertained, be attached, as in the case of an ordinary decree for the payment of money.
43 . Attachment of movable property, other than agricultural produce, in possession of judgment-debtor— Where the property to be attached is movable property, other than agricultural produce, in the possession of the judgment-debtor, the attachment shall be made by actual seizure, and the attaching officer shall keep the property in his own custody or in the custody of one of his subordinates, and shall be responsible for the due custody thereof:

Provided that, when the property seized is subject to speedy and natural decay, or when the expense of keeping it in custody is likely to exceed its value, the attaching officer may sell it at once.

[267][43A . Custody of movable property— (1) Where the property attached consists of live-stock, agricultural implements or other articles which cannot conveniently be removed and the attaching officer does not act under the proviso to rule 43, he may, at the instance of the judgment-debtor or of the decree-holder or of any other person claiming to be interested in such property, leave it in the village or place where it has been attached, in the custody of any respectable person (hereinafter referred to as the "custodian").

(2)
If the custodian fails, after due notice, to produce such property at the place named by the Court before the officer deputed for the purpose or to restore it to the person in whose favour restoration is ordered by the Court, or if the property, though so produced or restored, is not in the same condition as it was when it was entrusted to him,—
(a)
the custodian shall be liable to pay compensation to the decree-holder, judgment-debtor or any other person who is found to be entitled to the restoration thereof, for any loss or damage cause by his default; and
(b)
such liability may be enforced—
(i)
at the instance of the decree-holder, as if the custodian were a surety under section 145;
(ii)
at the instance of the judgment-debtor or such other person, on an application in execution; and
(c)
any order determining such liability shall be appealable as a decree.]
44 . Attachment of agricultural produce— Where the property to be attached is agricultural produce, the attachment shall be made by affixing a copy of the warrant of attachment,—
(a)
where such produce is a growing crop, on the land on which such crop has grown, or
(b)
where such produce has been cut or gathered, on the threshing floor or place for treading out grain or the like or fodder-stack on or in which it is deposited,
and another copy on the outer door or on some other conspicuous part of the house in which the judgment-debtor ordinarily resides or, with the leave of the Court, on the outer door or on some other conspicuous part of the house in which he carries on business or personally works for gain or in which he is known to have last resided or carried on business or personally worked for gain; and the produce shall thereupon be deemed to have passed into the possession of the Court.
45 . Provisions as to agricultural produce under attachment— (1) Where agricultural produce is attached, the Court shall make such arrangements for the custody thereof as it may deem sufficient and, for the purpose of enabling the Court to make such arrangements, every application for the attachment of a growing crop shall specify the time at which it is likely to be fit to be cut or gathered.
(2)
Subject to such conditions as may be imposed by the Court in this behalf either in the order of attachment or in any subsequent order, the judgment-debtor may tend, cut, gather and store the produce and do any other act necessary for maturing or preserving it; and if the judgment-debtor fails to do all or any of such acts, the decree-holder may, with the permission of the Court and subject to the like conditions, do all or any of them either by himself or by any person appointed by him in this behalf and the costs incurred by the decree-holder shall be recoverable from the judgment-debtor as if they were included in, or formed part of, the decree.
(3)
Agricultural produce attached as a growing crop shall not be deemed to have ceased to be under attachment or to require re-attachment merely because it has been severed from the soil.
(4)
Where an order for the attachment of a growing crop has been made at a considerable time before the crop is likely to be fit to be cut or gathered, the Court may suspend the execution of the order for such time as it thinks fit, and may, in its discretion, make a further order prohibiting the removal of the crop pending the execution of the order of attachment.
(5)
A growing crop which from its nature does not admit of being stored shall not be attached under the rule at any time less than twenty days before the time at which it is likely to be fit to be cut or gathered.

46. Attachment of debt, share and other property not in possession of Judgment-debtor — (1) In the case of—

(a)
a debt not secured by a negotiable instrument,
(b)
a share in the capital of a corporation,
(c)
other movable property not in the possession of the judgment-debtor, except property deposited in, or in the custody of, any Court,
the attachment shall be made by a written order prohibiting,—
(i)
in the case of the debt, the credit or from recovering the debt and the debtor from making payment thereof until the further order of the Court;
(ii)
in the case of the share, the person in whose name the share may be standing from transferring the same or receiving any dividend thereon;

(iii) in the case of the other movable property except as aforesaid, the person in possession of the same from giving it over to the judgment-debtor.

(2)
A copy of such order shall be affixed on some conspicuous part of the court-house, and another copy shall be sent in the case of the debt, to the debtor, in the case of the share, to the proper officer of the corporation and, in the case of the other movable property (except as aforesaid), to the person in possession of the same.
(3)
A debtor prohibited under clause (i) of sub-rule (1) may pay the amount of his debt into Court, and such payment shall discharge him as effectually as payment to the party entitled to receive the same.
[268][46A . Notice to garnishee— (1) The Court may in the case of a debt (other than a debt secured by a mortgage or a charge) which has been attached under rule 46, upon the application of the attaching creditor, issue notice to the garnishee liable to pay such debt, calling upon him either to pay into Court the debt due from him to the judgment-debtor or so much thereof as may be sufficient to satisfy the decree and costs of execution, or to appear and show cause why he should not do so.
(2)
An application under sub-rule (l) shall be made on affidavit verifying the facts alleged and stating that in the belief of the deponent, the garnishee is indebted to the judgment-debtor.
(3)
Where the garnishee pays in the Court the amount due from him to the judgment-debtor or so much thereof as is sufficient to satisfy the decree and the costs of the execution, the Court may direct that the amount may be paid to the decree-holder towards satisfaction of the decree and costs of the execution.

46B . Order against garnishee— Where the garnishee does not forthwith pay into Court the amount due from him to the judgment-debtor or so much thereof as is sufficient to satisfy the decree and the costs of execution, and does not appear and show cause in answer to the notice, the Court may order the garnishee to comply with the terms of such notice, and on such order, execution may issue as though such order were a decree against him.

46C . Trial of disputed questions— Where the garnishee disputes liability, the Court may order that any issue or question necessary for the determination of liability shall be tried as if it were an issue in a suit, and upon the determination of such issue shall make such order or orders as it deems fit:

Provided that if the debt in respect of which the application under rule 46A is made is in respect of a sum of money beyond the pecuniary jurisdiction of the Court, the Court shall send the execution case to the Court of the District Judge to which the said Court is subordinate, and thereupon the Court of the District Judge or any other competent Court to which it may be transferred by the District Judge shall deal with it in the same manner as if the case had been originally instituted in that Court.

46D . Procedure where debt belongs to third person— Where it is suggested or appears to be probable that the debt belongs to some third person, or that any third person has a lien or charge on, or other interest in such debt, the Court may order such third person to appear and state the nature and particulars of his claim, if any, to such debt and prove the same.

46E . Order as regards third person— After hearing such third person and any person or persons who any subsequently be ordered to appear, or where such third or other person or persons do not appear when so ordered, the Court may make such order as is hereinbefore provided, or such other order or orders upon such terms, if any, with respect to the lien, charge or interest, as the case may be, of such third or other person or persons as it may deem fit and proper.

46F . Payment by garnishee to be valid discharge— Payment made by the garnishee on notice under rule 46A or under any such order as aforesaid shall be a valid discharge to him as against the judgment-debtor and any other person ordered to appear as aforesaid for the amount paid or levied, although the decree in execution of which the application under rule 46A was made, or the order passed in the proceedings on such application may be set aside or reversed.

46G . Costs— The costs of any application made under rule 46A and of any proceeding arising therefrom or incidental thereto shall be in the discretion of the Court.

46H . Appeals— An order made under rule 46B, rule 46C or rule 46E shall be appealable as a decree.

46I . Application to negotiable instruments— The provisions of rule 46A to 46H (both inclusive) shall, so far as may be, apply in relation to negotiable instruments attached under rule 51 as they apply in relation to debts.]

  1. 47 . Attachment of share in movables— Where the property to be attached consists of the share or interest of the judgment-debtor in movable property belonging to him and another as co-owners, the attachment shall be made by a notice to the judgment-debtor prohibiting him from transferring the share or interest or charging it in any way.
  2. 48 . Attachment of salary or allowances of servant of the Government or railway company or local authority—
  3. Where the property to be attached is the salary or allowances of a servant of the Government or of a servant of a railway company or local authority [269][or of a servant of a corporation engaged in any trade or industry which is established by a Central, Provincial or State Act, or a Government company as defined in section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956)] the Court, whether the judgment-debtor or the disbursing officer is or is not within the local limits of the Court's jurisdiction, may order that the amount shall, subject to the provisions of section 60, be withheld from such salary or allowances either in one payment or by monthly instalments as the Court may direct; and, upon notice of the order to such officer as the appropriate Government may be notification in the Official Gazette appoint in this behalf,—
  4. where such salary or allowances are to be disbursed within the local limits to which this Code for the time being extends, the officer or other person whose duty it is to disburse the same shall withhold and remits to the Court the amount due under the order, or the monthly instalments, as the case may be;
  5. where such salary or allowances are to be disbursed beyond the said limits, the officer or other person within those limits whose duty it is to instruct the disbursing authority regarding the amount of the salary or allowances to the disbursed shall remit to the Court the amount due under the order, or the monthly instalments, as the case may be, and shall direct the disbursing authority to reduce the aggregate of the amounts from time to time, to be disbursed by the aggregate of the amounts from time to time remitted to the Courts.
  6. Where the attachable proportion of such salary or allowances is already being withheld and remitted to a Court in pursuance of a previous and unsatisfied order of attachment, the officer appointed by the appropriate Government in this behalf shall forthwith return the subsequent order to the Court issuing it with a full statement of all the particulars of the existing attachment.

[270] [(3) Every order made under this rule, unless it is returned in accordance with the provisions of sub-rule

(2) shall, without further notice or other process, bind the appropriate Government or the railway company or local authority or corporation or Government company, as the case may be, while the judgment-debtor is within the local limits to which this Code for the time being extends and while he is beyond those limits, if he is in receipt of any salary or allowances payable out of the Consolidated Fund of India or the consolidated Fund of the State or the funds of a railway company or local authority or corporation or Government Company in India; and the appropriate Government or the railway company or local authority or corporation or Government company, as the case may be, shall be liable for any sum paid in contravention of the rule.]

[271] [Explanation.—In this rule, "appropriate Government" means,—

(i)
as respects any person in the service of the Central Government, or any servant of a railway administration or of a cantonment authority or of the port authority of a major port, or any servant of a corporation engaged in any trade or industry which is established by Central Act, or any servant of a Government company in which any part of the share capital is held by the Central Government or by more than one State Governments or partly by the Central Government and partly by one or more State Governments, the Central Government;
(ii)
as respects any other servant of the Government, or a servant of any other local or other authority, or any servant of a corporation engaged in any trade or industry which is established by a Provincial or State Act, or a servant of any other Government company, the State Government.]
[272][48A . Attachment of salary or allowances of private employees— (1) Where the property to be attached is the salary or allowances of an employee other than an employee to whom rule 48 applies, the Court, where the disbursing officer of the employee is within the local limits of the Court's jurisdiction, may order that the amount shall, subject to the provisions of section 60, be withheld from such salary or allowances either in one payment or by monthly instalments as the Court may direct; and upon notice of the order to such disbursing officer, such disbursing officer shall remit to the Court the amount due under the order, or the monthly instalments, as the case may be.
(2)
Where the attachable portion of such salary or allowances is already being withheld or remitted to the Court in pursuance of a previous and unsatisfied order of attachment, the disbursing officer shall forthwith return the subsequent order to the Court issuing it with a full statement of all the particulars of the existing attachment.
(3)
Every order made under this rule, unless it is returned in accordance with the provisions of sub-rule (2), shall, without further notice or other process, bind the employer while the judgment-debtors is within the local limits to which this Code for the time being extents and while he is beyond those-limits, if he is in receipt of salary or allowances payable out of the funds of an employer in any part of India; and the employer shall be liable for any sum paid in contravention of this rule.]
49 . Attachment of partnership property— (1) Save as otherwise provided by this rule, property belonging to a partnership shall not be attached or sold in execution of a decree other than a decree passed against the firm or against the partners in the firm as such.
(2)
The Court may, on the application of the holder of a decree against a partner, make an order charging the interest of such partner in the partnership property, and profits with payment of the amount due under the decree, and may, by the same or a subsequent order, appoint a receiver of the share of such partner in the profits (whether already declared or accruing) and of any other money which may be coming to him in respect of the partnership, and direct accounts and inquiries and make an order for the sale of such interest or other orders as might have been directed or made if a charge had been made in favour of the degree-holder by such partner, or as the circumstances of the case may require.
(3)
The other partner or partners shall be at liberty at any time to redeem the interest charged or, in the case of a sale being directed, to purchase the same.
(4)
Every application for an order under sub-rule (2) shall be served on the judgment-debtor and on his partners or such of them as are within India.
(5)
Every application made by any partner of the judgment-debtor under sub-rule (3) shall be served on the decree-holder and on the judgment-debtor, and on such of the other partners as do not join in the application and as are within India.
(6)
Service under sub-rule (4) or sub-rule (5) shall be deemed to be service on all the partners and all orders made on such application shall be similarly served.
50 . Execution of decree against firm— (1) Where a decree has been passed against a firm, execution may be granted—
(a)
against any property of the partnership;
(b)
against any person who has appeared in his own name under rule 6 or rule 7 of Order XXX or who has admitted on the pleadings that he is, or who has been adjudged to be, a partner;
(c)
against any person who has been individually served as a partner with a summons and has failed to appear:
Provided that nothing in this sub-rule shall be deemed to limit or otherwise affect the provisions of [273][section 30 of the Indial Partnership Act, 1932 (9 of 1932)].
(2)
Where the decree-holder claims to be entitled to cause the decree to be executed against any person other than such a person as is referred to in sub-rule (1), clauses (b) and (c), as being a partner in the firm
he may apply to the Court which passed the decree for leave, and where the liability is not disputed, such court may grant such leave, or, where such liability is disputed, may order that the liability of such person be tried and determined in any manner in which any issue in a suit may be tried and determined.
(3)
Where the liability of any person has been tried and determined under sub-rule (2) the order made thereon shall have the same force and be subject to the same conditions as to appeal or otherwise as if it were a decree.
(4)
Save as against any property of the partnership, a decree against a firm shall not lease, render liable or otherwise affect any partner therein unless he has been served with a summons to appear and answer.

[274] [(5) Nothing in this rule shall apply to a decree passed against a Hindu Undivided Family by virtue of the provision of rule 10 of Order XXX.]

  1. 51 . Attachment of negotiable instruments— Where the property is a negotiable instrument not deposited in a Court, not in the custody of a public officer, the attachment shall be made by actual seizure, and the instrument shall be brought into Court and held subject to further orders of the Court.
    1. 52 . Attachment of property in custody of Court or public officer— Where the property to be attached is in the custody of any Court or public officer, the attachment shall be made by a notice to such Court or officer, requesting that such property, and any interest or dividend becoming payable thereon, may be held subject to the further orders of the Court from which the notice is issued:
    2. Provided that, where such property is in the custody of a Court, any question of title or priority arising between the decree-holder and any other person, not being the judgment-debtor, claiming to be interested in such property by virtue of any assignment, attachment or otherwise, shall be determined by such Court.
  2. 53 . Attachment of decrees— (1) Where the property to be attached is a decree, either for the payment of money or for sale in enforcement of a mortgage or charge, the attachment shall be made,—
  3. if the decrees were passed by the same Court, then by order of such Court, and
  4. if the decree sought to be attached was passed by another Court, then by the issue to such other Court of a notice by the Court which passed the decree sought to be executed, requesting such other Court to stay the execution of its decree unless and until—
  5. the Court which passed the decree sought to be executed cancels the notice, or

[275] [(ii) (a) the holder of the decree sought to be executed, or

(b)
his judgment-debtor with the previous consent in writing of such decree-holder, or with the permission of the attaching Court,
applies to the Court receiving such notice to execute the attached decree.]
(2)
Where a Court makes an order under clause (a) of sub-rule (1), or receives an application under subhead
(ii)
of clause (b) of the said sub-rule, it shall, on the application of the creditor who has attached the decree or his judgment-debtor, proceeds to execute the attached decree and apply the net proceeds in satisfaction of the decree sought to be executed.
(3)
The holder of a decree sought to be executed by the attachment of another of decree the nature specified in sub-rule (1) shall be deemed to be the representative of the holder of the attached decree and to be entitled to executive such attached decree in any manner lawful for the holder thereof.
(4)
Where the property to be attached in the execution of a decree is a decree other than a decree of the nature referred to in sub-rule (1) the attachment shall be made by a notice by the Court which passed the decree sought to be executed, to the holder of the decree sought to be attached, prohibiting him from transferring or charging the same in any way; and, where such decree has been passed by any other Court, also by sending to such other Court a notice to abstain from executing the decree sought to be attached until such notice is cancelled by the Court from which it was sent.
(5)
The holder of a decree attached under this rule shall give the Court executing the decree such information and aid as may reasonably be required.
(6)
On the application of the holder of a decree sought to be executed by the attachment of another decree, the Court making an order of attachment under this rule shall give notice of such order to the judgment-debtor bound by the decree attached; and no payment or adjustment of the attached decree made by the judgment-debtor in contravention of such order [276][with knowledge thereof or] after receipt of notice thereof, either through the Court or otherwise, shall be recognized by any Court so long as the attachment remains in force.
54 . Attachment of immovable property— (1) Where the property is immovable, the attachment shall be made by an order prohibiting the judgment-debtor from transferring or charging the property in any way, and all persons from taking any benefit from such transfer or charge.

[277] [(1A) The order shall also require the judgment-debtor to attend Court on a specified date to take notice of the date to be fixed for settling the terms of the proclamation of sale.]

(2)
The order shall be proclaimed at some place on or adjacent to such property by beat of drum or other customary mode, and a copy of the order shall be affixed on a conspicuous part of the property and then upon a conspicuous part of the court-house, and also, where the property is land paying revenue to the Government in the office of the Collector of the district in which the land is situate [278][and, where the property is land situate in a village, also in the office of the Gram Panchayat, if any, having jurisdiction over that village.]
55 . Removal of attachment after satisfaction of decree— Where—
(a)
the amount decreed with costs and all charges and expenses resulting from the attachment of any property are paid into Court, or
(b)
satisfaction of the decree is otherwise made through the Court or certified to the Court, or
(c)
the decree is set aside or reversed,
the attachment shall be deemed to be withdrawn, and, in the case of immovable property, the withdrawal shall, if the judgment-debtor so desires, be proclaimed at his expense, and a copy of the proclamation shall be affixed in the manner prescribed by the last preceding rule.
56 . Order for payment of coin or currency notes to party entitled under decree— Where the property attached is current coin or currency notes, the Court may, at any time during the continuance of the attachment, direct that such coin or notes, or a part thereof sufficient to satisfy the decree, be paid over to the party entitled under the decree to receive the same.
[279][57 . Determination of attachment— (1) Where any property has been attached in execution of a decree and the Court, for any reason, passes an order dismissing the application for the execution of the decree, the Court shall direct whether the attachment shall continue or cease and shall also indicate the period up to which such attachment shall continue or the date on which such attachment shall cease.
(2)
If the Court omits to give such direction, the attachment shall be deemed to have ceased.]

[280] [Adjudication of claims and objections

    1. 58 . Adjudication of claims to, or objections to attachment of, property— (1) Where any claim is preferred to, or any objection is made to the attachment of, any property attached in execution of a decree on the ground that such property is not liable to such attachment, the Court shall proceed to adjudicate upon the claim or objection in accordance with the provisions herein contained:
    2. Provided that no such claim or objection shall be entertained—
  1. where, before the claim is preferred or objection is made, the property attached has already been sold; or
  2. where the Court considers that the claim or objection was designedly or unnecessarily delayed.
  3. All questions (including questions relating to right, title or interest in the property attached) arising between the parties to a proceeding or their representatives under this rule and relevant to the adjudication of the claim or objection, shall be determined by the Court dealing with the claim or objection and not by a separate suit.
  4. Upon the determination of the questions referred to in sub-rule (2), the Court shall, in accordance with such determination,—
  5. allow the claim or objection and release the property from attachment either wholly or to such extent as it thinks fit; or
  6. disallow the claim or objection; or
  7. continue the attachment subject to any mortgage, charge or other interest in favour of any person; or
  8. pass such order as in the circumstances of the case it deems fit.
  9. Where any claim or objection has been adjudicated upon under this rule, the order made thereon shall have the same force and be subject to the same conditions as to appeal or otherwise as if it were a decree.
  10. Where a claim or an objection is preferred and the Court, under the proviso to sub-rule (1), refuses to entertain it, the party against whom such order is made may institute a suit to establish the right which he claims to the property in dispute; but, subject to the result of such suit, if any, an order so refusing to entertain the claims or objection shall be conclusive.
  11. 59 . Stay of sale— Where before the claim was preferred or the objection was made, the property attached had already been advertised for sale, the Court may—
  12. if the property is movable, make an order postponing the sale pending the adjudication of the claim or objection, or
  13. if the property is immovable, make an order that, pending the adjudication of the claim or objection, the property shall not be sold, or, that pending such adjudication, the property may be sold but the sale shall not be confirmed,

and any such order may be made subject to such terms and conditions as to security or otherwise as the Court thinks fit.]

60 to 63. [Omitted].

Sale genrally

  1. 64 . Power to order property attached to be sold and proceeds to be paid to person entitled— Any Court executing a decree may order that any property attached by it and liable to sale, or such portion thereof as may see necessary to satisfy the decree, shall be sold, and that the proceeds of such sale, or a sufficient portion thereof, shall be paid to the party entitled under the decree to receive the same.
  2. 65 . Sales by whom conducted and how made— Save as otherwise prescribed, every sale in execution of a decree shall be conducted by an officer of the Court or by such other person as the Court may appoint in this behalf, and shall be made by public auction in manner prescribed.
  3. 66 . Proclamation of sales by public auction— (1) Where any property is ordered to be sold by public auction in execution of a decree, the Court shall cause a proclamation of the intended sale to be made in the language of such Court.
  4. Such proclamation shall be draw up after notice to the decree-holder and the judgment-debtor and shall state the time and place of sale, and specify as fairly and accurately as possible—
  5. the property to be sold [281][or, where a part of the property would be sufficient to satisfy the decree, such part];
  6. the revenue assessed upon the estate, where the property to be sold is an interest in an estate or in part of an estate paying revenue to the Government;
  7. any incumbrance to which the property is liable;
  8. the amount for the recovery of which the sale is ordered; and
  9. every other thing which the Court considers material for a purchaser to know in order to judge of the nature and value of the property:

[282] [Provided that where notice of the date for settling the terms of the proclamation has been given to the judgement-debtor by means of an order under rule 54, it shall not be necessary to give notice under this rule to the judgment-debtor unless the Court otherwise directs:

Provided further that nothing in this rule shall be construed as requiring the Court to enter in the proclamation of sale its own estimate of the value of the property, but the proclamation shall include the estimate if any, given, by either or both of the parties.]

(3)
Every application for an order for sale under this rule shall be accompanied by a statement signed and verified in the manner hereinbefore prescribed for the signing and verification of pleadings and containing, so far as they are known to or can be ascertained by the person making the verification, the matters required by sub-rule (2) to be specified in the proclamation.
(4)
For the purpose of ascertaining the matters to be specified in the proclamation, the Court may summon any person whom it thinks necessary to summon and may examine him in respect to any such matters and require him to produce any document in his possession or power relating thereto.
67 . Mode of making proclamation— (1) Every proclamation shall be made and published, as nearly as may be, in the manner prescribed by rule 54, sub-rule (2).
(2)
Where the Court so directs, such proclamation shall also be published in the Official Gazette or in a local newspaper, or in both, and the costs of such publication shall be deemed to be costs of the sale.
(3)
Where property is divided into lots for the purpose of being sold separately, it shall not be necessary to make a separate proclamation for each lot, unless proper notice of the sale cannot, in the opinion of the Court, otherwise be given.
68 . Time of sale— Save in the case of property of the kind described in the proviso to rule 43, no sale hereunder shall, without the consent in writing of the judgment-debtor, take place until after the expiration of at least [283][fifteen days] in the case of immovable property, and of at least [284][seven days] in the case of movable property, calculated from the date on which the copy of the proclamation has been affixed on the court-house of the Judge ordering the sale.
69 . Adjournment or stoppage of sale— (1) The Court may, in its discretion, adjourn any sale hereunder to a specified day and hour, and the officer conducting any such sale may in his discretion adjourn the sale, recording his reasons for such adjournment:
Provided that, where the sale is made in, or within the precincts of, the court-house, no such adjournment shall be made without the leave of the Court.
(2)
Where a sale is adjourned under sub-rule (1) or a longer period than [285][thirty] days a fresh proclamation under rule 67 shall be made, unless the judgment-debtor consents to waive it.
(3)
Every sale be stopped if, before the lot is knocked down, the debt and costs (including the costs of the sale) are tendered to the officer conducting the sale, or proof is given to his satisfaction that the amount of such debt and costs has been paid into the Court which ordered the sale.
70 . [Saving of certain sales.] Rep. by the Code of Civil Procedure (Amendment) Act, 1956 (66 of 1956), s.

14.

  1. 71 . Defaulting purchaser answerable for loss on re-sale— Any deficiency of price which may happen on a re-sale by reason of the purchaser's default, and all expenses attending such re-sale, shall be certified to the Court by the officer or other person holding the sale, and shall, at the instance of either the decree-holder or the judgment-debtor, be recoverable from the defaulting purchaser under the provisions relating to the execution of a decree for the payment of money.
  2. 72 . Decree holder not to bid for or buy property without permission— (1) No holder of a decree in execution of which property is sold shall, without the express permission of the Court, bid for or purchase the property.
  3. Where decree-holder purchases, amount of decree may be taken as payment—Where a decree-holder purchases with such permission, the purchase-money and the amount due on the decree may, subject to the provisions of section 73, be set off against one another, and the Court executing the decree small enter up satisfaction of the decree in whole or in part accordingly.
    1. Where a decree-holder purchases, by himself or through another person, without such permission, the Court may, if it thinks fit, on the application of the judgment-debtor or any other person whose interests are affected by the sale, by order set aside the sale; and the costs of such application and order, and any deficiency of price which may happen on the re-sale and all expenses attending it, shall be paid by the decree-holder.
    2. [286][72A . Mortgagee not to bid at sale without the leave of the Court— (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in rule 72, a mortgagee of immovable property shall not bid for or purchase property sold in execution of a decree on the mortgage unless the Court grants him leave to bid for or purchase the property.
  4. If leave to bid is granted to such mortgagee, then the Court shall fix a reserve price as regards the mortgagee, and unless the Court otherwise directs, the reserve price shall be—
  5. not less than the amount then due for principal, interest and costs in respect of the mortgage if the property is sold in one lot; and
  6. in the case of any property sold in lots, not less than such sum as shall appear to the Court to be properly attributable to each lot in relation to the amount then due for principal, interest and costs on the mortgage.
  7. In other respects, the provisions of sub-rules (2) and (3) of rule 72 shall apply in relation to purchase by the decree-holder under that rule.]
    1. 73 . Restriction on bidding or purchase by officers— No officer or other person having any duty to perform in connection with any sale shall, either directly or indirectly, bid for, acquire or attempt to acquire any interest in the property sold.
    2. Sale of movable property
  8. 74 . Sale of agricultural produce— (1) Where the property to be sold is agricultural produce, the sale shall be held,—
  9. if such produce is a growing crop, on or near the land on which such crop has grown, or
    1. if such produce has been cut or gathered, at or near the threshing floor or place for treading out grain or the like or fodder-stack on or in which it is deposited:
    2. Provided that the Court may direct the sale to be held at the nearest place of public resort, if it is of opinion that the produce is thereby likely to sell to greater advantage.
  10. Where, on the produce being put up for sale,—
  11. a fair price, in the estimation of the person holding the sale, is not offered for it, and
    1. the owner of the produce or a person authorized to act in his behalf applies to have the sale postponed till next day or, if a market is held at the place of sale, the next market-day,
    2. the sale shall be postponed accordingly and shall be then completed, whatever price may be offered for the produce.
  12. 75 . Special provisions relating to growing crops— (1) Where the property to be sold is a growing crop and the crop from its nature admits of being stored but has not yet been stored, the day of the sale shall be so fixed as to admit of its being made ready for storing before the arrival of such day, and the sale shall not be held until the crop has been cut or gathered and is ready for storing.
  13. Where the crop from its nature does not admit of being stored, it may be sold before it is cut and gathered and the purchaser shall be entitled to enter on the land, and to do all that is necessary for the purpose of tending and cutting or gathering it.
  14. 76 . Negotiable instruments and shares in corporations— Where the property to be sold is a negotiable instrument or a share in a corporation, the Court may, instead of directing the sale to be made by public auction, authorize the sale of such instrument or share through a broker.
  15. 77 . Sale by public auction— (1) Where movable property is sold by public auction the price of each lot shall be paid at the time of sale or as soon after as the officer or other person holding the sale directs, and in default of payment the property shall forthwith be re-sold.
  16. On payment of the purchase-money, the officer or other person holding the sale shall grant a receipt for the same, and the sale shall become absolute.
  17. Where the movable property to be sold is a share in goods belonging to the judgment-debtor and a coowner, and two or more persons, of whom one is such co-owner, respectively bid the same sum for such property or for any lot, the bidding shall be deemed to be the bidding of the co-owner.
  18. 78 . Irregularity not to vitiate sale, but any person injured may sue— No irregularity in publishing or conducting the sale of movable property shall vitiate the sale; but any person sustaining any injury by reason of such irregularity at the hand of any other person may institute a suit against him for compensation or (if such other person is the purchaser) for the recovery of the specific property and for compensation in default of such recovery.
  19. 79 . Delivery of movable property, debts and shares— (1) Where the property sold is movable property of which actual seizure has been made, it shall be delivered to the purchaser.
  20. Where the property sold is movable property in the possession of some person other than the judgment-debtor, the delivery thereof to the purchaser shall be made by giving notice to the person in possession prohibiting him from delivering possession of the property to any person except the purchaser.
  21. Where the property sold is a debt not secured by a negotiable instrument, or is a share in a corporation, the delivery thereof shall be made by a written order of the Court prohibiting the creditor from receiving the debt or any interest thereon, and the debtor from making payment thereof to any person except the purchaser, of prohibiting the person in whose name the share may be standing from making any transfer of the share to any person except the purchaser, or receiving payment of any dividend or interest thereon, and the manager, secretary or other proper officer of the corporation from permitting any such transfer or making any such payment to any person except the purchaser.
  22. 80 . Transfer of negotiable instruments and shares— (1) Where the execution of a document or the endorsement of the party in whose name a negotiable instrument or a share in a corporation is standing is required to transfer such negotiable instrument or share, the Judge or such officer as he may appoint in this behalf may execute such document or make such endorsement as may be necessary, and such execution or endorsement shall have the same effect as an execution or endorsement by the party.
  23. Such execution or endorsement may be in the following form, namely:—

A.B. by C.D. Judge of the Court of (or as the case may be), in a suit by E.F. against A.B.

(3)
Until the transfer of such negotiable instrument or share, the Court may, by order appoint some person to receive any interest or dividend due thereon and to sign a receipt for the same; and any receipt so signed shall be as valid and effectual for all purposes as if the same had been signed by the party himself.
81 . Vesting order in case of other property— In the case of any movable property not hereinbefore provided for, the Court may make an order vesting such property in the purchaser or as he may direct; and such property shall vest accordingly.
Sale of immovable property
82 . What Courts may order sales— Sales of immovable property in execution of decrees may be ordered by any Court other than a Court of Small Causes.
83 . Postponement of sale to enable judgment-debtor to raise amount of decree— (1)Where an order for the sale of immovable property has been made, if the judgment-debtor can satisfy the Court that there is reason to believe that the amount of the decree may be raised by the mortgage or lease or private sale of such property, or some part thereof, or of any other immovable property of the judgment-debtor, the Court may, on his application, postpone the sale of the property comprised in the order for sale on such terms and for such period as it thinks proper, to enable him to raise the amount.
(2)
In such case the Court shall grant a certificate to the judgment-debtor authorizing him within a period to be mentioned therein, and notwithstanding anything contained in section 64, to make the proposed mortgage, lease or sale:

Provided that all moneys payable under such mortgage, lease or sale shall be paid, not to the judgment-debtor, but, save in so far as a decree-holder is entitled to set-off such money under the provisions of rule 72, into Court:

Provided also that not mortgage, lease or sale under this rule shall become absolute until it has been confirmed by the Court.

(3)
Nothing in this rule shall be deemed to apply to a sale of property directed to be sold in execution of a decree for sale in enforcement of a mortgage of, or charge on, such property.
84 . Deposit by purchaser and re-sale on default— (1) On every sale of immovable property the person declared to be the purchaser shall pay immediately after such declaration a deposit of twenty-five per cent, on the amount of his purchase-money to the officer or other person conducting the sale, and in default of such deposit, the property shall forthwith be re-sold.
(2)
Where the decree-holder is the purchaser and is entitled to set-off the purchase-money under rule 72, the Court may dispense with the requirements of this rule.
85 . Time for payment in full of purchase-money— The full amount of purchase-money payable shall be paid by the purchaser into Court before the Court closes on the fifteenth day from the sale of the property:
Provided, that, in calculating the amount to be so paid into Court, the purchaser shall have the advantage of any set-off to which he may be entitled under rule 72.
86 . Procedure in default of payment— In default of payment within the period mentioned in the last preceding rule, the deposit may, if the Court thinks fit, after defraying the expenses of the sale, be forfeited to the Government, and the property shall be re-sold, and the defaulting purchaser shall forfeit all claim to the property our to any part of the sum for which it may subsequently be sold.
87 . Notification on re-sale— Every re-sale of immovable, property, in default of payment of the purchase-money within the period allowed for such payment, shall be made after the issue of fresh proclamation in the manner and for the period hereinbefore prescribed for the sale.
88 . Bid of co-sharer to have preference— Where the property sold is a share of undivided immovable property and two or more persons, or whom one is a co-sharer, respectively bid the same sum for such property or for any lot, the bid shall be deemed to be the bid of the co-sharer.
89 . Application to set aside sale on deposit— (1) Where immovable property has been sold in execution of a degree, [287][any person claiming an interest in the property sold at the time of the sale or at the time of making the application, or acting for or in the interest of such person,] may apply to have the sale set aside on his deposition in Court,—
(a)
for payment to the purchaser, a sum equal to five per cent of the purchase-money, and
(b)
for payment, to the decree-holder, the amount specified in the proclamation of sale as that for the recovery of which the sale was ordered less any amount which may, since the date of such proclamation of sale, have been received by the decree-holder.
(2)
Where a person applies under rule 90 to set aside the sale of his immovable property, he shall not unless he withdraws his application, be entitled to make or prosecute an application under this rule.
(3)
Nothing in this rule shall relieve the judgment-debtor from any liability he may be under in respect of costs and interest not covered by the proclamation of sale.
[288][90 . Application to set aside sale on ground of irregularity or fraud— (1) Where any immovable property has been sold in execution of a decree, the decree-holder, or the purchaser, or any other person entitled to share in a rateable distribution of assets, whose interests are affected by the sale, may apply to the Court to set aside the sale on the ground of a material irregularity or fraud in publishing or conduction it.
(2)
No sale shall be set aside on the ground of irregularity or fraud in publishing or conducting it unless, upon the facts proved, the Court is satisfied that the applicant has sustained substantial injury by reason of such irregularity or fraud.
(3)
No application to set aside a sale under this rule shall be entertained upon any ground which the applicant could have taken on or before the date on which the proclamation of sale was drawn up.
Explanation.—There mere absence of, or defect in, attachment of the property sold shall not, by itself, be a ground for setting aside a sale under this rule.]
91 . Application by purchaser to set aside sale on ground of judgment-debtor having no saleable interest— The purchaser at any such sale in execution of a decree may apply to the Court to set aside the sale, on the ground that the judgment-debtor had no saleable interest in the property sold.
92 . Sale when to become absolute or be set aside— (1) When no application is made under rule 89, rule 90 or rule 91, or where such application is made and disallowed, the Court shall make an order confirming the sale, and thereupon the sale shall become absolute:
[289][Provided that, where any property is sold in execution of a decree pending the final disposal of any claim to, or any objection to the attachment of, such property, the Court shall not confirm such sale until the final disposal of such claim or objection.]
(2)
Where such application is made and allowed, and where, in the case of an application under rule 89, the deposit required by that rule is made within thirty days from the date of sale, [290][or in cases where the amount deposited under rule 89 is found to be deficient owing to any clerical or arithmetical mistake on the part of the depositor and such deficiency has been made good within such time as may be fixed by the Court, the Court shall make an order setting aside the sale]:
Provided that no order shall be made unless notice of the application has been given to all persons affected thereby.
(3)
No suit to set aside an order made under this rule shall be brought by any person against whom such order is made.

[291] [(4) Where a third party challenges the judgment-debtor's title by filing a suit against the auction-purchaser, the decree-holder and the judgment-debtor shall be necessary parties to the suit.

(5)
If the suit referred to in sub-rule (4) is decreed, the Court shall direct the decree-holder to refund the money to the auction-purchaser, and where such an order is passed the execution proceeding in which the sale had been held shall, unless the Court directs, be revived at the stage at which the sale was ordered.]
93 . Return of purchase-money in certain cases— Where a sale of immovable property is set aside under rule 92, the purchaser shall be entitled to an order for repayment of his purchase-money, with or without interest as the Court may direct, against any person to whom it has been paid.
94 . Certificate to purchaser— Where a sale of immovable property has become absolute, the Court shall grant a certificate specifying the property sold and the name of the person who at the time of sale of is declared to be the purchaser. Such certificate shall bear date the day on which the sale became absolute.
95 . Delivery of property in occupancy of judgment-debtor— Where the immovable property sold is in the occupancy of the judgment-debtor or of some person on his behalf or of some person claiming under a title created by the judgment-debtor subsequently to the attachment of such property and a certificate in respect thereof has been granted under rule 94, the Court shall, on the application of the purchaser, order to delivery to be made by putting such purchaser or any person whom he may appoint to receive delivery on his behalf in possession of the property, and, if need be, by removing any person who refuses to vacate the same.
96 . Delivery of property in occupancy of tenant— Where the property sold is in the occupancy of a tenant or other person entitled to occupy the same and a certificate in respect thereof has been granted under rule 94, the Court shall, on the application of the purchaser, order delivery to be made by affixing a copy of the certificate of sale in some conspicuous place on the property, and proclaiming to the occupant by beat of drum or other customary mode, at some convenient place, that the interest of the judgment-debtor has been transferred to the purchaser.
Resistance to delivery of possession to decree-holder or purchaser
97 . Resistance or obstruction to possession of immovable property— (1) Where the holder of a decree for the possession of immovable property or the purchaser of any such property sold in execution of a decree is resisted or obstructed by any person in obtaining possession of the property, he may make an application to the Court complaining of such resistance or obstruction.

[292][(2) Where any application is made under sub-rule (1), the Court shall proceed to adjudicate upon the application in accordance with the provisions herein contained.]

[293] [98 . Orders after adjudication— (1) Upon the determination of the questions referred to in rule 101, the Court shall, in accordance with such determination and subject to the provisions of sub-rule (2),—

(a)
make an order allowing the application and directing that the applicant be put into the possession of the property or dismissing the application; or
(b)
pass such other order as, in the circumstances of the case, it may deem fit.
(2)
Where, upon such determination, the Court is satisfied that the resistance or obstruction was occasioned without any just cause by the judgment-debtor or by some other person at his instigation or on his behalf, or by any transferee, where such transfer was made during the pendency of the suit or execution proceeding, it shall direct that the applicant be put into possession of the property, and where the applicant is still resisted or obstructed in obtaining possession, the Court may also, at the instance of the applicant, order the judgment-debtor, or any person acting at his instigation or on his behalf, to be detained in the civil prison for a term which may extend to thirty days.
99 . Dispossession by decree-holder or purchaser— (1) Where any person other than the judgment-debtor is dispossessed of immovable property by the holder of a decree for possession of such property or, where such property has been sold in execution of a decree, by the purchaser thereof, he may make an application to the Court complaining of such dispossession.
(2)
Where any such application is made, the Court shall proceed to adjudicate upon the application in accordance with the provisions herein contained.
100 . Order to be passed upon application complaining of dispossession— Upon the determination of the questions referred to in rule 101, the Court shall, in accordance with such determination,—
(a)
make an order allowing the application and directing that the applicant be put into the possession of the property or dismissing the application; or
(b)
pass such other order as, in the circumstances of the case, it may deem fit.
101 . Question to be determined— All questions (including questions relating to right, title or interest in the property) arising between the parties to a proceeding on an application under rule 97 or rule 99 or their representatives, and relevant to the adjudication of the application, shall be determined by the Court dealing with the application and not by a separate suit and for this purpose, the Court shall, notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in any other law for the time being in force, be deemed to have jurisdiction to decide such questions.
102 . Rules not applicable to transferee BIpendent lite— Nothing in rules 98 and 100 shall apply to resistance or obstruction in execution of a decree for the possession of immovable property by a person to whom the judgment-debtor has transferred the property after the institution of the suit in which the decree was passed or to the dispossession of any such person.
Explanation—In this rule, "transfer" includes a transfer by operation of law.
103 . Orders to be treated as decrees— Where any application has been adjudicated upon under rule 98 or rule 100 the other made thereon shall have the same force and be subject to the same conditions as to an appeal or otherwise as if it were a decree.]
[294][104 . Order under rule 101 or rule 103 to be subject to the result or pending suit— Every order made under rule 101 or rule 103 shall be subject to the result of any suit that may be pending on the date of commencement of the proceeding in which such order is made, if in such suit the party against whom the order under rule 101 or rule 103 is made has sought to establish a right which he claims to the present possession of the property.
105 . Hearing of application— (1) The Court, before which an application under any of the foregoing rules of this Order is pending, may fix a day for the hearing of the application.
(2)
Where on the day fixed or on any other day to which the hearing may be adjourned the applicant does not appear when the case is called on for hearing, the Court may make an order that the application be dismissed.
(3)
Where the applicant appears and the opposite party to whom the notice has been issued by the Court does not appear, the Court may hear the application ex parte and pass such order as it thinks fit.
Explanation.—An application referred to in sub-rule (1) includes a claim or objection made under rule 58.
106 . Setting aside order passed BIex parte, etc.— (1) The applicant, against whom an order is made under sub-rule (2) rule 105 or the opposite party against whom an order is passed ex parte under sub-rule (3) of that rule or under sub-rule (1) of rule 23, may apply to the Court to set aside the order, and if he satisfies the Court that there was sufficient cause for his non-appearance when the application was called on for hearing, the Court shall set aside the order or such terms as to costs, or otherwise as it thinks fit, and shall appoint a day for the further hearing of the application.
(2)
No order shall be made on an application under sub-rule (1) unless notice of the application has been served on the other party.
(3)
An application under sub-rule (1) shall be made within thirty days from the date of the order, or where, in the case of an ex parte order, the notice was not duly served, within thirty days from the date when applicant had knowledge of the order.]
ORDER XXII-DEATH, MARRIAGE AND INSOLVENCY OR PARTIES
  1. 1 . No abatement by party's death if right to sue survives— The death of a plaintiff or defendant shall not cause the suit to abate if the right to sue survives.
  2. 2 . Procedure where one of several plaintiffs or defendants dies and right to sue survives— Where there are more plaintiffs or defendants than one, and any of them dies, and where the right to sue survives to the surviving plaintiff or plaintiffs alone, or against the surviving defendant or defendants alone, the Court shall cause an entry to the effect to be made on the record, and the suit shall proceed at the instance of the surviving plaintiff or plaintiffs, or against the surving defendant or defendants.
  3. 3 . Procedure in case of death of one of several plaintiffs or of sole plaintiff— (1) Where one of two or more plaintiffs dies and the right to sue does not survive to the surviving plaintiff or plaintiffs alone, or a sole plaintiff or sole surviving plaintiff dies and the right to the sue survives, the Court, on an application made in that behalf, shall cause the legal representative of the deceased plaintiff to be made a party and shall proceed with the suit.
  4. Where within the time limited by law no application is made under sub-rule (1), the suit shall abate so far as the deceased plaintiff is concerned, and, on the application of the defendant, the Court may award to him the costs which he may have incurred in defending the suit, to be recovered from the estate of the deceased plaintiff.
  5. 4 . Procedure in case of death of one of several defendants or of sole defendant— (1) Where one of two or more defendants dies and the right to sue does not survive against the surviving defendant or defendants alone, or a sole defendant or sole surviving defendant dies and the right to sue survives, the Court, on an application made in that behalf, shall cause the legal representative of the deceased defendant to be made a party and shall proceed with the suit.
  6. Any person so made a party may make any defence appropriate to his character as legal representative of the deceased defendant.
  7. Where within the time limited by law no application is made under sub-rule (1), the suit shall abate as against the deceased defendant.

[295] [(4) The Court whenever it thinks fit, may exempt the plaintiff from the necessity of substituting the legal representatives of any such defendant who has failed to file a written statement or who, having filed it, has failed to appear and contest the suit at the hearing; and judgment may, in such case, be pronounced against the said defendant not withstanding the death of such defendant and shall have the same force and effect as if it has been pronounced before death took place.

(5)
Where—
(a)
the plaintiff was ignorant of the death of a defendant, and could not, for that reason, make an application for the substitution of the legal representative of the defendant under this rule within the period specified in the Limitation Act, 1963 (36 of 1963) and the suit has, in consequence, abated, and
(b)
the plaintiff applies after the expiry of the period specified therefor in the Limitation Act, 1963 (36 of 1963), for setting aside the abatement and also for the admission of that application under section 5 of that Act on the ground that he had, by reason of such ignorance, sufficient cause for not making the application within the period specified in the said Act,

the Court shall, in considering the application under the said section 5, have due regard to the fact of such ignorance, if proved.]

[296][4A . Procedure where there is no legal representative— (1) If, in any suit, it shall appear to the Court that any party who has died during the pendency of the suit has no legal representative, the Court may, on the application of any party to the suit, proceed in the absence of a person representing the estate of the deceased person, or may by order appoint the Administrator-General, or an officer of the Court or such other person as it thinks fit to represent the estate of the deceased person for the purpose of the suit; and any judgment or order subsequently given or made in the suit shall bind the estate of the deceased person to the same extent as he would have been bound if a personal representative of the deceased person had been a party to the suit.

(2)
Before making an order under this rule, the Court—
(a)
may require notice of the application for the order to be given to such (if any) of the persons having an interest in the estate of the deceased person as it thinks fit; and
(b)
shall ascertain that the person proposed to be appointed to represent the estate of the deceased person is willing to be so appointed and has no interest adverse to that of the deceased person.]
5 . Determination of question as to legal representative— Where a question arises as to whether any person is or is not the legal representative of a deceased plaintiff or a deceased defendant, such question shall be determined by the Court:
[297][Provided that where such question arises before an Appellate Court, that Court may, before determining the question, direct any subordinate Court to try the question and to return the records together with evidence, if any, recorded at such trial, its findings and reasons therefor, and the Appellate Court may take the same into consideration in determining the question.]
6 . No abatement by reason of death after hearing— Nothwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing rules, whether the cause of action survives or not, there shall be no abatement by reason of the death of either party between the conclusion of the hearing and the pronouncing of the judgment, but judgment may in such case be pronounced notwithstanding the death and shall have the same force and effect as if it had been pronounced before the death took place.
7 . Suit not abated by marriage of female party— (1) The marriage of a female plaintiff or defendant shall not cause the suit to abate, but the suit may notwithstanding be proceeded with to judgment, and, where the decree is against a female defendant, it may be executed against her alone.
(2)
Where the husband is by law liable for the debts of his wife, the decree may, with the permission of the Court, be executed against the husband also; and in case of judgment for the wife, execution of the decree may, with such permission, be issued upon the application of the husband, where the husband is by law entitled to the subject matter of the decree.
8 . When plaintiffs insolvency bars suit— (1) The insolvency of a plaintiff in any suit which the assignee or receiver might maintain for the benefit of his creditors, shall not cause the suit to abate, unless such assignee or receiver declines to continue the suit or (unless for any special reason the Court otherwise directs) to give security for the costs thereof within such time as the Court may direct.
(2)
Procedure where assignee fails to continue suit, or give security—Where the assignee or receiver neglects or refuses to continue the suit and to give such security within the time so ordered, the defendant may apply for the dismissal of the suit on the ground of the plaintiff's insolvency, and the Court may make an order dismissing the suit and awarding to the defendant the costs which he has insured in defending the same to be proved as a debt against the plaintiff's estate.
9 . Effect of abatement or dismissal— (1) Where a suit abates or is dismissed under this Order, no fresh suit shall be brought on the same cause of action.
(2)
The plaintiff or the person claiming to be the legal representative of a deceased plaintiff or the assignee or the receiver in the case of an insolvent plaintiff may apply for an order to set aside the abatement or dismissal; and if it is proved that he was prevented by any sufficient cause from continuing the suit, the Court shall set aside the abatement or dismissal upon such terms as to costs or otherwise as it thinks fit.
(3)
The provisions of section 5 of the [298][Indian Limitation Act, 1877 (15 of 1877)] shall apply to applications under sub-rule (2).
[299][Explanation—Nothing in this rule shall be construed as barring, in any later suit, a defence based on the facts which constituted the cause of action in the suit which had abated or had been dismissed under this Order]
10 . Procedure in case of assignment before final order in suit— (1) In other cases of an assignment, creation or devolution of any interest during the pendency of a suit, may, by leave of the Court, be continued by or against the person to or upon whom such interest has come or devolved.
(2)
The attachment of a decree pending an appeal therefrom shall be deemed to be an interest entitling the person who procured such attachment to the benefit of sub-rule (1).
[300][10A . Duty or pleader to communicate to Court death of a party— Wherever a pleader appearing for a party to the suit comes to know of the death of that party, he shall inform the Court about it, and the Court shall there upon give notice of such death to the other party, and, for this purpose, the contract between the pleader and the deceased party shall be deemed to subsist.]
11 . Application of Order to appeals— In the application of this Order to appeals, so far as may be, the word "plaintiff" shall be held to include an appellant, the word "defendant" a respondent, and the word "suit" an appeal.
12 . Application of Order to proceedings— Nothing in rules 3, 4 and 8 shall apply to proceedings in executive of a decree or order.
ORDER XXIII-WITHDRAWAL AND ADJUSTMENT OF SUITS

[301][1 . Withdrawal of suit or abandonment of part of claim— (1) At any time after the institution of a suit, the plaintiff may as against all or any of the defendants abandon his suit or abandon a part of his claim:

Provided that where the plaintiff is a minor or other person to whom the provisions contained in rules 1 to 14 of Order XXXII extend, neither the suit nor any part of the claim shall be abandoned without the leave of the Court.

(2)
An application for leave under the proviso to sub-rule (1) shall be accompanied by an affidavit of the next friend and also, if the minor or such other person is represented by a pleader, by a certificate of the pleader to the effect that the abandonment proposed is, in his opinion, for the benefit of the minor or such other persons.
(3)
Where the Court is satisfied,—
(a)
that a suit must fail by reason