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R&D, Scale Effects and Spillovers: New Insights from Emerging Countries
Economic Research Working Paper No. 32
There has been a concomitant rise in R&D and the rate of economic growth in emerging countries. Analyzing a panel of 31 emerging countries, we find convincing evidence of scale effects which make government policies potent for long-run growth. This contrasts sharply with the well-known findings of Jones (1995a). Innovations show increasing returns to knowledge stock, implying that the diminishing returns assumed by some semi-endogenous growth models might not be generalized. International R&D spillovers raise the innovation bar. The observed growth rates of emerging economies appear in transition therefore their growth rates may recede with the passage of time.
Año de publicación: 2016
Main Provisions and Benefits of the Marrakesh Treaty (2013)
This leaflet explains how the Marrakesh Treaty works and why it is so important.
Main Provisions and Benefits of the Beijing Treaty on Audiovisual Performances (2012)
The Beijing Treaty on Audiovisual Performances was adopted by the Diplomatic Conference on the Protection of Audiovisual Performances, which took place in Beijing from June 20 to 26, 2012. The Treaty deals with the intellectual property rights of performers in audiovisual performances.
Patent Landscape Report on Microalgae-Related Technologies
This report aims to provide patent based information on available technologies and patenting trends in the area of microalgae. It covers in detail patent applications and granted patents within the space of microalgae and has revealed several interesting facets of research and innovation related to that area. Expected to be the 3rd generation biofuels solution, microalgae have quickly been developed for the biofuel industry with a marked inflection point in 2006. Lipids and pigments, which are the second metabolites of interest, also developed early on, still continue to see a steady growth in recent years.
An Introduction to the Economics of Collective Management of Copyright and Related Rights
Collective Management as a Business Strategy for Creators
An introduction to the economic theory surrounding collective management of copyright
Collective Management Organizations – Tool Kit
This WIPO toolkit offers a practical approach to the collective management of copyright and related rights.
Musical Works and Audio-Visual Works
Documentation of Traditional Knowledge and Traditional Cultural Expressions
Background Brief - No. 9
This Brief describes the main objectives of documenting traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions, the intellectual property issues that may arise and options for addressing them.
Alternative Dispute Resolution for Disputes Related to Intellectual Property and Traditional Knowledge, Traditional Cultural Expressions and Genetic Resources
Background Brief - No. 8
This Brief introduces how alternative dispute resolution offers an alternative to formal court-based systems for tackling intellectual property disputes that may arise in relation to traditional knowledge, traditional cultural expressions and genetic resources.
Customary Law and Traditional Knowledge
Background Brief - No. 7
This Brief explores the issues concerning customary law, traditional knowledge and intellectual property.