World Intellectual Property Report 2024



In the video game industry, "AAA" (pronounced "Triple-A") titles refer to videogames that are of a high quality, have a high budget, and are produced and distributed by major publishers.


The ability of inventors and firms to recover their investments into innovation, particularly when the outcomes of innovation risk being copied by other firms.

Codified knowledge

Knowledge that is shared through documentation, standardization and classification


In the video game industry, a developer is a person or corporation responsible for the technical aspects of game development.


How many capabilities (scientific, technological or production) a country is specialized in

Economic complexity

A measure of the knowledge residing in an economy based on the diversity and ubiquity of its exports.

Embodied knowledge

Knowledge that exists in tools, machines and equipment

Industrial policy

Traditionally, industrial policies centered on approaches such as import tariffs, subsidies and subsidized loans targeted at a limited set of industries. More recent approaches have widened the focus to include policies promoting innovation.

Innovation complexity

A measure of the knowledge residing in an economy based on the diversity and ubiquity of its innovation capabilities.

Market failure

Market failures occur when individuals' and companies' pursuit of their own self-interest results in outcomes that are inefficient and can be enhanced from a societal perspective.


the principle that diversification tends to favor activities that are most closely related to each other

Smart specialization

a bottom-up approach involving stakeholders that aims to identify investment priorities for governments and companies building on local capabilities


the principle that economies specialize in certain capabilities (scientific, technological or production), which can be quantified in both absolute and relative terms

Tacit knowledge

non-codified knowledge that exists in individual’s brains and may not be shared easily

Public good

Describes a set of goods and services that are non-excludable and non-rivalrous.


A measure of how many countries/regions have a particular capability. It is the opposite of rareness.