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Interrogation > Creative Commons (CC) > Anglais > 2018 > Current
Innovation in the pharmaceutical and medical technologies industries of Poland
Economic Research Working Paper No. 45
This paper analyzes the recent economic and innovation trends of the health industries in Poland. The health industries have observed remarkable growth since entering into the EU. While the pharmaceutical industry faces some economic slowdown since 2011, the medtech industry shows substantial dynamism for its small size. The Polish health industry has still much to do to improve its innovation status. However, the observed trend of the innovation dynamics is cause for optimism. Polish firms in the health industries are increasingly innovating and extracting economic results from these innovations.
Année de publication: 2018
Leveraging Micropayment Technology to Increase Access to Safe Drinking Water
Matchmaking Impact Stories
Since connecting at Innovate 4 Water 2017 – a matchmaking event co-organized by WIPO GREEN – Cubo Environmental Technologies and Susteq have joined forces to make affordable, safe drinking water more accessible in rural Kenya and Nigeria.
WIPO Good Practice Toolkit for CMOs (The Toolkit)
The WIPO Good Practice Toolkit for Collective Management Organizations (CMOs) brings together examples of legislation, regulation and codes of conduct in the area of collective management from around the world. The Toolkit is a working document that will continue to be improved. Member states and other stakeholders may use relevant parts of the document to help them design an approach suitable for their particular context. Note - The Toolkit is not a normative document
Immigrants' Contribution to Innovativeness: Evidence from a Non-Selective Immigration Country
Economic Research Working Paper No. 52
The economic consequences of migration are hotly debated and a main topic of recent political movements across Europe. We analyze Polish immigration in the context of the 2004 enlargement of the European Union and find a positive and significant spillover effect of the immigrants on the number of local inventors in German counties in 2001-2010. For causal identification, we exploit a historical episode in the Polish migration history to Germany before the fall of the Iron Curtain and construct a shift-share instrument. Our results differ from findings for high-skilled migration to the United States, which is particularly interesting as Polish immigration to Germany was not based on selection by qualification in our period of analysis.
Economic Research Working Paper No. 51
Companies use trademarks to protect their brands from outright imitation or competition by confusingly similar products. However, publication of trademark filings by the trademark office discloses information about a firm's new product or service. This creates a trade-off between legal protection and disclosure of information. We analyze the trade-off through the lens of “submarine trademarks” in the U.S. – submarine trademarks are trademarks whose publication and hence disclosure to the public is strategically delayed. This is achieved through a particular international filing strategy that is often combined with the use of shell companies to further conceal the trademark filing. These submarine strategies allow companies to benefit from legal trademark protection while reducing the risk of inadvertent disclosure of information. We provide the first systematic evidence of submarine trademarks and explore both their determinants and their effectiveness in reducing the disclosure of information.
Spreading the message, building respect
This brochure highlights a few of the tools we produce to raise awareness about key intellectual property issues, from outreach publications for children to support communications campaigns by IP offices.
Unpacking predictors of income and income satisfaction for artists
Economic Research Working Paper No. 50
The stereotype of the “starving artist” is pervasive in modern Western culture, but previous research on artists and income is mixed. The goal of this study is to explore how several demographic variables, along with self-reported behaviors and artistic activities associated with non-monetary and monetary motivators, predict income and income satisfaction for artists.Using unique survey data on current working artists in the United States, we provide empirical evidence on substantial reputational rewards and rewards from altruistic behaviors as important sources of artists' utility and, arguably, sources of their motivation to create new works. Moreover, we find that the evidence on “procedural” utility from working in the arts is less straightforward, and we find that many artists are pooling and diversifying financial risks on household levels. Overall, quantitative findings indicate that artists may have different criteria and conceptualizations when it comes to income, and they may derive value from their work in a variety of ways aside from income.
Creators' Income Situation in the Digital Age
Economic Research Working Paper No. 49
The digital transformation imposes both opportunities and risks for creativity and for creative employment, with implications for trends in income levels and the distribution of income. First, we consider skill-biased technological change as a determinant of income and labor market outcomes in the arts. Arguably, the IT revolution has changed the demand for certain skills, with creative occupations being more in demand than general employment. Second, we consider declines in the costs of generating new works and artistic experimentation due to digital technologies, and their effect on the barriers to entry in labor markets. Third, we touch upon the rise of online contract labor in certain creative professions as a determinant of income. Here, online platforms can change creators' access to work opportunities and it may alter the way income is distributed. We find that wage trends for creative workers in the digital age outperform general trends in the population: based on various data sources and various ways to identify creators, we see creators losing less or even gaining a better income position in relative terms. From a policy perspective, results do not lend support to the idea that creators' income situation has systematically worsened with the rise of the internet and its intermediaries. Evidence on changing distributions of income is ambiguous as trends differ from one country to the next.
Intellectual Property and Folk, Arts and Cultural Festivals
This Guide provides general information about intellectual property (IP) and cultural interests. It identifies the main IP challenges faced by festival organizers and outlines some practical elements of an effective IP management strategy, following a step-by-step approach.
Inventing the Future
An Introduction to Patents for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises
This is the third in the series of guides on Intellectual Property for Business. It focuses on patents, a crucial tool to enable a company to draw maximum benefit from new technological ideas.