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3D printing and the intellectual property system
Economic Research Working Paper No. 28
Three-dimensional (3D) printing – or “additive manufacturing” – technologies differ from traditional molding and casting manufacturing processes in that they build 3D objects by successively creating layers of material on top of each other. Rooted in manufacturing research of the 1980s, 3D printing has evolved into a broad set of technologies that could fundamentally alter production processes in a wide set of technology areas. This report investigates, from the perspective of an intellectual property scholar, how 3D printing technology has developed over the last few decades, how intellectual property rights have shaped this breakthrough innovation and how 3D printing technologies could challenge the intellectual property rights system in the future.
Año de publicación: 2015
Breakthrough technologies – Semiconductor, innovation and intellectual property
Economic Research Working Paper No. 27
Semiconductor technology is at the origin of today's digital economy. Its contribution to innovation, productivity and economic growth in the past four decades has been extensive. This paper analyzes how this breakthrough technology came about, how it diffused, and what role intellectual property played historically.
Intellectual property rights and pharmaceuticals: The case of antibiotics
Economic Research Working Paper No. 26
The development and diffusion of antibiotics contributed to large improvements in human health and living standards. The antibiotic revolution also spawned the modern pharmaceutical industry. This paper reviews the development of the early antibiotics, and the roles of intellectual property rights (in particular, patents) in their development and diffusion.
Breakthrough innovations in aircraft and the intellectual property system, 1900-1975
Economic Research Working Paper No. 25
Modern commercial aircraft are complex products that incorporate innovations in technologies ranging from advanced materials to software and electronics. Although commercial aircraft assuredly qualify as a transformative innovation, in fact today's commercial aircraft are the result of a process of incremental innovation and improvement that dates back more than a century. A great many of these improvements and incremental innovations originated from government-supported R&D programs sponsored by the military services or government research laboratories. The adoption of commercial-aircraft innovations within many industrial economies, including the United States, also has been influenced by government regulation of air transportation. This paper provides a historical characterization of the innovation and record of technical progress in US commercial aircraft during the 1900-1975 period. It identifies the sources of support for innovation and technological adoption, and examines the origins and impacts of “breakthrough innovations” on the overall evolution of the global commercial aircraft industry. The paper also assesses the role of patents in these important innovations.
World Intellectual Property Report 2015 - Breakthrough Innovation and Economic Growth
WIPO's latest World Intellectual Property Report (WIPR) explores the role of IP at the nexus of innovation and economic growth, focusing on the impact of breakthrough innovations.
Promoting Medical Innovation and Access, Together
Global Challenges Brief
An overview of issues relevant to debates about solutions to global challenges, such as climate change, public health and food security.
Report of the Director General to the 2015 WIPO Assemblies
This report is a presentation of the work accomplished by the Organization during the year that has passed since the last meeting of the WIPO Assemblies.
Geneva Act of the Lisbon Agreement on Appellations of Origin and Geographical Indications
The Geneva Act allows the international registration of geographical indications (GIs), in addition to appellations of origin, and permits the accession to the Lisbon Agreement by certain intergovernmental organizations.
Madrid Yearly Review 2015
International Registrations of Marks
Comprehensive facts, figures and analysis of the international registration of marks.
The Singapore Treaty on the Law of Trademarks (STLT) - Questions and Answers