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Global Innovation Hotspots: A case study of São Paulo's innovation ecosystem local capabilities and global networks
WIPO Development Studies
This report presents an in-depth study of the innovation ecosystem of São Paulo (Brazil). We use georeferenced patent, scientific publication, and economic data to characterize one of the few global innovation hotspots in Latin America and the southern hemisphere. It attempts to understand what makes São Paulo different from the rest of Brazil and the Latin American region by mapping what its main potentialities and drawbacks are. The report finds that São Paulo is rich in scientific activity, but lags behind with respect to patent production. At the same time, it is a patent leader in Brazil and the region with characteristics resembling the large innovation hotspots of the world. The report also shows where São Paulo is in the global knowledge space, and how it can leverage scientific production and global networks to upgrade into more complex technological activities. The report also reviews the main innovation policies at national and subnational level, which may partially explain the São Paulo's success story.
Año de publicación: 2022
Global Innovation Hotspots: Innovation ecosystems and catching-up in developing countries: Evidence from Shenzhen
During the past 40 years, Shenzhen has risen from a fishing village into a globally leading innovation hotspot. What drives such remarkable growth? Is there a “Shenzhen model” for technological catch-up that is different from the classical “Silicon Valley model”? What kind of policy lessons can Shenzhen offer to developing countries and lag-behind regions? Based on international patent and scientific publication data, this report classifies Shenzhen's technological trajectory and catch-up process into three stages: 1) accessing advanced technology by participating in the Global Production Networks (GPNs) and Global Value Chains (GVCs), 2) accumulating technological knowledge and enhancing absorptive capability through imitation and 3) achieving indigenous innovation. We interpret this remarkable catch-up process from the perspective of 1) technological specialization, 2) the local innovation ecosystem and 3) its embeddedness into the Global Innovation Networks (GINs). The last part summarizes Shenzhen's policy lessons in fostering innovation-based economic growth in developing countries and areas.
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