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Trademarks Squatters: Evidence from Chile
Economic Research Working Paper No. 22
This paper explores the phenomenon of “trademark squatting” – a situation in which someone other than the original brand owner obtains a trademark on a brand. The authors develop a model that shows how squatting results from market uncertainty that leads brand owners to rationally forgo registering trademarks, creating opportunities for squatting. They create an algorithm to identify squatters in the Chilean trademark register and show empirically that squatting is a persistent and systematic phenomenon. Using data on trademark oppositions, the authors find that squatting leads brand owners that have been exposed to squatting to “over-protect” their brands by registering disproportionately many trademarks and covering classes other than those directly related to their products and services. Trademark squatting, therefore, creates a strategic, albeit excessive, response by brand owners which inflates trademark filings.
Publication year: 2014
Defining and Measuring the “Market for Brands”: Are Emerging Economies Catching Up?
Economic Research Working Paper No. 21
Markets for brands, as defined in this paper, play an important but underappreciated economic role in today's global economy. The ability to use Market for Brands allows companies to diversify their business; access competences; and generate new revenues without substantial investments. This paper defines and provides a taxonomy for different brand markets then analyzes the economic rationale of such markets. It also assesses the relative importance of the different brand-related transaction types in developed and emerging economies alike.
An "Algorithmic Links with Probabilities" Concordance for Trademarks For Disaggregated Analysis of Trademark and Economic Data
Economic Research Working Paper No. 14
The authors propose an ‘Algorithmic Links with Probabilities' (ALP) approach to match Trademarks (TMs) data to economic data and enable these data to speak to each other. Specifically, they construct a NICE Class Level concordance that maps TM data into trade and industry categories forward and backward. This concordance allows researchers to analyze differences in TM usage across both economic and TM sectors. In this paper, the authors apply this ALP concordance for TMs to characterize patterns in TM applications across countries, industries, income levels and more. They also use the concordance to investigate some of the key determinants of international technology transfer by comparing bilateral TM applications and bilateral patent applications.
Brands as Productive Assets: Concepts, Measurement, and Global Trends
Economic Research Working Paper No. 13
The paper looks at brands from an economic point of view. It defines concepts; analyzes the conditions under which brands are long-lived productive assets and contribute to economic growth; and reviews the measurement of investment in brands. It finds that a productive role for brands is consistent with assumptions used in the economic analysis of innovation. Finally it offers an analysis of economic development that suggests branding rises with growth.
World Intellectual Property Indicators - 2014
This annual publication provides a wide range of indicators covering the following areas of intellectual property: patents, utility models, trademarks, industrial designs, microorganisms and plant variety protection. It draws on data from national and regional IP offices, WIPO and the World Bank.
Madrid Experience Sharing Report
Japan's Experience in Joining and Using the Madrid System
This publication is the result of a WIPO research report on Japan's experience in acceding to the Madrid system for the international registration of marks.
Madrid Yearly Review 2013
International Registrations of Marks
Comprehensive facts, figures and analysis of the international registration of marks.
Publication year: 2013
The Use of Intellectual Property in Chile
Economic Research Working paper 11
This study describes patterns and trends of intellectual property (IP) use in Chile, drawing on a new database containing all patent, trademark, utility model, and design filings received by the Chilean IP office over the period 1991-2010. Among other things, the study offers insights into the drivers of filing growth, the origin of filings, the distribution of applicants, the importance of different applicant types, the share of filings by different economic sectors, the relevance of IP bundles, and the patenting behavior of Chilean applicants overseas.
Protecting your Marks Abroad - The Madrid System
Registering your mark internationally is the first step in protecting your commercial interests abroad, and an integral part of any successful global business strategy. The Madrid System, provides a simple, low-cost and effective means of obtaining and maintaining protection for marks in multiple countries.