All IP Services
All about IP
34, chemin des Colombettes
CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland
Visit Us |
All about WIPO
Query > English > older > Current
3D printing and the intellectual property system
Economic Research Working Paper No. 28
Three-dimensional (3D) printing – or “additive manufacturing” – technologies differ from traditional molding and casting manufacturing processes in that they build 3D objects by successively creating layers of material on top of each other. Rooted in manufacturing research of the 1980s, 3D printing has evolved into a broad set of technologies that could fundamentally alter production processes in a wide set of technology areas. This report investigates, from the perspective of an intellectual property scholar, how 3D printing technology has developed over the last few decades, how intellectual property rights have shaped this breakthrough innovation and how 3D printing technologies could challenge the intellectual property rights system in the future.
Publication year: 2015
Breakthrough technologies – Semiconductor, innovation and intellectual property
Economic Research Working Paper No. 27
Semiconductor technology is at the origin of today's digital economy. Its contribution to innovation, productivity and economic growth in the past four decades has been extensive. This paper analyzes how this breakthrough technology came about, how it diffused, and what role intellectual property played historically.
Intellectual property rights and pharmaceuticals: The case of antibiotics
Economic Research Working Paper No. 26
The development and diffusion of antibiotics contributed to large improvements in human health and living standards. The antibiotic revolution also spawned the modern pharmaceutical industry. This paper reviews the development of the early antibiotics, and the roles of intellectual property rights (in particular, patents) in their development and diffusion.
Breakthrough innovations in aircraft and the intellectual property system, 1900-1975
Economic Research Working Paper No. 25
Modern commercial aircraft are complex products that incorporate innovations in technologies ranging from advanced materials to software and electronics. Although commercial aircraft assuredly qualify as a transformative innovation, in fact today's commercial aircraft are the result of a process of incremental innovation and improvement that dates back more than a century. A great many of these improvements and incremental innovations originated from government-supported R&D programs sponsored by the military services or government research laboratories. The adoption of commercial-aircraft innovations within many industrial economies, including the United States, also has been influenced by government regulation of air transportation. This paper provides a historical characterization of the innovation and record of technical progress in US commercial aircraft during the 1900-1975 period. It identifies the sources of support for innovation and technological adoption, and examines the origins and impacts of “breakthrough innovations” on the overall evolution of the global commercial aircraft industry. The paper also assesses the role of patents in these important innovations.
The Intersection of Intellectual Property Rights and Innovation Policy Making - A Literature Review
This report (literature review) provides an overview of academic writing on the role IP has played in innovation policy-making over the last two decades.
Integrating Intellectual Property into Innovation Policy Formulation in Rwanda
Part of a series of WIPO-produced country reports, reviewing IP in national innovation systems. Each report offers country-specific recommendations for more effectively using the IP system to strengthen national innovation systems.
Integrating Intellectual Property into Innovation Policy Formulation in Serbia
Integrating Intellectual Property into Innovation Policy Formulation in Sri Lanka
This report presents a review of Sri Lanka's national innovation system, including in-depth stakeholder interviews regarding the extent to which intellectual property (IP) has been integrated therein. It also provides focused recommendations, adapted to the specific national context, for improving reliance on the IP system.
Integrating Intellectual Property into Innovation Policy Formulation in Trinidad and Tobago
Guidelines for Preparing Patent Landscape Reports
These Guidelines are designed both for general users of patent information, as well as for those involved in producing Patent Landscape Reports (PLRs). They provide step-by-step instructions on how to prepare a PLR, as well as background information such as objectives, patent analytics, concepts and frameworks.