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Economic growth and breakthrough innovations: A case study of nanotechnology
Economic Research Working Paper No. 29
This paper examines the role of intellectual property and other innovation incentives in the development of one field of breakthrough innovation: nanotechnology. Because nanotechnology is an enabling technology across a wide range of fields, the nanotechnology innovation ecosystem appears to be a microcosm of the global innovation ecosystem. Part I describes the nature of nanotechnology and its economic contribution, Part II explores the nanotechnology innovation ecosystem, and Part III focuses on the role of IP systems in the development of nanotechnology.
Publication year: 2015
3D printing and the intellectual property system
Economic Research Working Paper No. 28
Three-dimensional (3D) printing – or “additive manufacturing” – technologies differ from traditional molding and casting manufacturing processes in that they build 3D objects by successively creating layers of material on top of each other. Rooted in manufacturing research of the 1980s, 3D printing has evolved into a broad set of technologies that could fundamentally alter production processes in a wide set of technology areas. This report investigates, from the perspective of an intellectual property scholar, how 3D printing technology has developed over the last few decades, how intellectual property rights have shaped this breakthrough innovation and how 3D printing technologies could challenge the intellectual property rights system in the future.
Breakthrough technologies – Semiconductor, innovation and intellectual property
Economic Research Working Paper No. 27
Semiconductor technology is at the origin of today's digital economy. Its contribution to innovation, productivity and economic growth in the past four decades has been extensive. This paper analyzes how this breakthrough technology came about, how it diffused, and what role intellectual property played historically.
Intellectual property rights and pharmaceuticals: The case of antibiotics
Economic Research Working Paper No. 26
The development and diffusion of antibiotics contributed to large improvements in human health and living standards. The antibiotic revolution also spawned the modern pharmaceutical industry. This paper reviews the development of the early antibiotics, and the roles of intellectual property rights (in particular, patents) in their development and diffusion.
Breakthrough innovations in aircraft and the intellectual property system, 1900-1975
Economic Research Working Paper No. 25
Modern commercial aircraft are complex products that incorporate innovations in technologies ranging from advanced materials to software and electronics. Although commercial aircraft assuredly qualify as a transformative innovation, in fact today's commercial aircraft are the result of a process of incremental innovation and improvement that dates back more than a century. A great many of these improvements and incremental innovations originated from government-supported R&D programs sponsored by the military services or government research laboratories. The adoption of commercial-aircraft innovations within many industrial economies, including the United States, also has been influenced by government regulation of air transportation. This paper provides a historical characterization of the innovation and record of technical progress in US commercial aircraft during the 1900-1975 period. It identifies the sources of support for innovation and technological adoption, and examines the origins and impacts of “breakthrough innovations” on the overall evolution of the global commercial aircraft industry. The paper also assesses the role of patents in these important innovations.
Strategic Review of WIPO Re:Search
Global Challenges Report
WIPO Re:Search was established in 2011 and has enjoyed more than three years of progress and success. The current report explores ways to secure the longer-term success and sustainability of WIPO Re:Search through the expansion of its programs and additional support. The Consortium, an initiative of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), which hosts the WIPO Re:Search secretariat is managed jointly with BIO Ventures for Global Health (BVGH) (Seattle, USA) which operates the WIPO Re:Search Partnership Hub.
Guide to the International Patent Classification (2015)
Public Health, Intellectual Property, and TRIPS at 20: Innovation and Access to Medicines; Learning from the Past, Illuminating the Future
The World Trade Organization (WTO) and its Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement) celebrated their 20th anniversary in 2015. To mark the event, the World Health Organization (WHO), World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and the WTO held the fifth in the series of trilateral symposia to discuss practical ways in which the twin challenges of innovation and access have been addressed.
Geneva Act of the Lisbon Agreement on Appellations of Origin and Geographical Indications
The Geneva Act allows the international registration of geographical indications (GIs), in addition to appellations of origin, and permits the accession to the Lisbon Agreement by certain intergovernmental organizations.
Global Innovation Index 2015
Effective Innovation Policies for Development
The Global Innovation Index ranks the innovation performance of 141 countries and economies around the world, based on 79 indicators. This edition explores the impact of innovation-oriented policies on economic growth and development. High-income and developing countries alike are seeking innovation-driven growth through different strategies. Some countries are successfully improving their innovation capacity, while others still struggle.