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Guidance on WIPO FRAND Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)
This document has been developed by the WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center (WIPO Center) and takes into account comments by telecom stakeholders, the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) Legal Department, WIPO Arbitrators and Mediators, and the Munich IPDR Forum.
Publication year: 2017
Understanding the dynamics of global value chains for solar photovoltaic technologies
Economic Research Working Paper No. 40
China dominates the global solar photovoltaic (PV) value chain, while 15 years ago the demand and supply were located in few Western economies. In this process, the PV industry has seen a booming demand, drastic price decreases along the supply chain, and fierce competition among surviving companies. This paper seeks to understand how this spatial shift has occurred and its drivers, with a specific focus on the role of intangible assets and intellectual property.
Intangible assets and value capture in global value chains: the smartphone industry
Economic Research Working Paper No. 41
This report uses data on individual smart phones as well as industry data to identify which smartphone firms capture the most value. It finds that Apple captures most of the industry profits, thanks to its high prices, large profit margins and the volume of iPhone sales worldwide. Apple's success is explained as a result of its ability to develop its own intellectual property (IP) and take advantage of IP created by suppliers through a strategy of selling only a few models at high prices compared to competitors.
The powerful role of intangibles in the coffee value chain
Economic Research Working Paper No. 39
The paper describes: a) the coffee industry and its GVC structure; b) the role that intangible assets play in value creation from both the supply and demand perspective; and c) the current and potential role of intellectual property tools in creating and retaining value, as well as providing economic upgrade options.
Intangible assets and transactions within multinational enterprises: implications for national economic accounts
Economic Research Working Paper No. 38
Transactions involving intangible assets within multinational enterprises impose challenges for national economic accountants. In light of the challenges, recent research at the United States Bureau of Economic Analysis aims to identify areas for improving the treatment of multinational enterprises in national economic accounts. This paper summarizes the work and demonstrates implications for gross domestic product – the most widely cited measure in national economic accounts – of the United States.
A missing link in the analysis of global value chains: cross-border flows of intangible assets, taxation and related measurement implications
Economic Research Working Paper No. 37
Understanding cross-border flows of disembodied knowledge, often associated with intellectual property (IP), is essential to analyzing how modern economies operate. This paper documents how available data to document these IP flows are distorted by various factors, including tax planning by multinational enterprises. It finds that tax-induced mismeasurement could be more than 35%, and greater for individual countries particularly high-tax-rate countries.
Measuring the income to intangibles in goods production: a global value chain approach
Economic Research Working Paper No. 36
Today's production processes are fragmented across countries and industries. Intangibles play an important role, but their measurement is elusive. This paper proposes a new empirical framework to measure factor incomes in production that spans industries and countries.
World Intellectual Property Report 2017 – Intangible Capital in Global Value Chains
The World Intellectual Property Report 2017 examines the crucial role of intangibles such as technology, design and branding in international manufacturing. Macroeconomic analysis is complemented by case studies of the global value chains for three products – coffee, photovoltaic energy cells and smartphones – to give an insightful picture of the importance of intellectual property and other intangibles in modern production.
Global Innovation Index 2017
Innovation Feeding the World
The Global Innovation Index provides detailed metrics about the innovation performance of 127 countries and economies around the world. Its 81 indicators explore a broad vision of innovation, including political environment, education, infrastructure and business sophistication. This year's report reviews the state of innovation in agriculture and food systems across sectors and geographies. Chapters of the report provide more details on this year's theme from academic, business, and particular country perspectives from leading experts and decision makers.
International Survey on Text and Image Copyright Levies
The third ‘International Survey of Text and Image Copyright Levies', jointly published by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and the International Federation of Reprographic Rights Organizations (IFRRO) builds on and updates the first two surveys published in 2014 and 2015, and analyzes the origins, scope and current use of these levies around the world, and their role in ensuring easy legal access to copyright material. The Survey also shows how and why text and image (TI) levies are different from audio and audio-visual private copying levies. As with the first two surveys, it uses data from IFRRO members, collated and presented by Paul Greenwood, a consultant, with the assistance of representatives of IFRRO members and the IFRRO Secretariat. The methodology and scope are unchanged.