IPC Definitions - October 20, 2015

A01 - Definition fr

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Plant

Any of a kingdom (Plantae) of multicellular eukaryotic mostly photosynthetic organisms typically lacking locomotive movement or obvious nervous or sensory organs and possessing cellulose cell walls.

A01B - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Seat constructions

A47C

Wheels

B60B

Shelters for drivers

B60J

Seats specially adapted for vehicles, arrangement or mounting of seats in vehicles

B60N 2/00

Wheel scrapers

B60S 1/68

A01D - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods, apparatus or hand tools for

Separation of useful parts of plants (e.g. seeds, fruits, roots, stalks or leaves) from the remainder of the plants in the place where the plants are grown;

Mowing of plants (e.g. grass or cereals), regardless of whether the intention is to make use of the mown plants or not;

Gathering of whole plants (e.g. root crops or onions) or their useful parts (e.g. fallen fruit) from where the plants grow or from the ground;

Haymaking, i.e. working on mown forage crop lying on the ground with the intention to make hay.

Hand rakes.

Forks.

Non-abrasive sharpening devices for scythes, sickles or the like.

Containers for whetstones for use during harvesting.

Machines specially adapted for binding of harvested hay, straw or similar crops in the field.

Arrangements for making or setting of stacks, used in connection with harvesting.

Vehicles specially adapted for carrying harvested crops with means for self-loading or unloading.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Combined or convertible apparatus

This subclass covers mowers combined with apparatus performing additional operations (e.g. threshing) while mowing, mowers convertible to apparatus for purposes other than mowing (e.g. for sweeping snow), and mowers capable of performing operations other than mowing (e.g. soil-working). The non-mowing parts of such mowers are only covered by this subclass if they are immediately associated with the mowing parts or the mowing process. Otherwise they are covered by the places for the non-mowing operations.

This subclass covers digging harvesters (e.g. for root crops) combined with apparatus performing additional operations (e.g. topping, separating or planting) while harvesting. The non-harvesting parts of such combinations are only covered by this subclass if they are immediately associated with the harvesting parts or the harvesting process. Otherwise they are covered by the places for the non-harvesting operations.

Hand tools for soil working

This subclass covers hand tools for soil working when specially adapted for harvesting, for example of root crops. This subclass also covers rakes and forks. A01B covers hand tools for soil working in general, e.g. spades, shovels or hoes, with the exception of rakes and forks.

Binding

This subclass covers apparatus specially adapted for binding of harvested hay, straw or similar crops, with the exception of stationary apparatus or hand tools, which are covered by A01F 1/00, and binding apparatus specially adapted for baling presses, which is covered by A01F 15/14. Binding in general is covered by B65B, for example B65B 13/00 and B65B 27/12.

Shredding or pulverising

This subclass covers the shredding or pulverising of stubble or other vegetation in situ, e.g. for the purpose of producing mulch, but does not cover other mechanical destruction of unwanted vegetation, which is covered by group A01M 21/02.

References

Limiting references:

Soil working tools or machines for weeding or thinning

A01B

e.g.

A01B 1/16, A01B 39/18, A01B 41/00

Transplanting

A01C 11/00, A01G 23/04

Machines for cutting sods or turf from lawns or meadows

A01B 45/04

Cutting implements specially adapted for horticultural purposes, e.g. flower shears, fruit shears, secateurs or hedge shears

A01G 3/00

Delimbing of standing trees

A01G 3/00

Uprooting or felling of trees

A01G 23/02

Tapping of tree juices

A01G 23/10

Apparatus for destruction of unwanted vegetation

A01M 21/00

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Machines that pick up mown material from the ground and bale it

A01F 15/00

Machines that pick up mown material from the ground and cut it, e.g. field choppers

A01F 29/01

Informative references:

Agricultural soil working in general

A01B

Gatherers for removing stones, undesirable roots or the like from the soil

A01B 43/00

Parts, details or accessories of agricultural machines in general

A01B 51/00-A01B 76/00

Threshing

A01F 5/00-A01F 12/00, A01F 17/00-A01F 21/00

Baling of hay, straw or the like

A01F 13/00-A01F 21/00

Stacks for storing of harvested products

A01F 25/04

Cutting machines specially adapted for hay, straw or the like

A01F 29/00

Floral handling

A01G 5/00

"Harvesting" of oysters, mussels, sponges or the like

A01K 80/00

Treatment of harvested fruit or vegetables, not otherwise provided for, e.g. extracting juice, cleaning of vegetables or topping of onions

A23N

Preparation of tobacco

A24B

Making harvesting tools

B21

e.g.

e.g.

B21D 53/68, B21D 53/72, B21H 7/08, B21H 7/10, B21K 11/08, B21K 11/14, B21K 19/00

Sharpening of cutting edges in general

B24B, B24D

e.g.

e.g.

B24B 3/00, B24D 15/06

Handles for hand implements in general

B25G

Hand-held cutting tools in general

B26B

Cutting in general

B26D

Wheels

B60B

Vehicles specially adapted for load transportation, or for transporting, carrying or comprising special loads or objects, in general

B60P

Wheel scrapers

B60S 1/68

Conveyers in general

B65G

Hoisting or lifting in general, e.g. hay hoists

B66

e.g.

B66C 11/24

Removing undesired matter from land, not otherwise provided for

E01H 15/00

Dredging or soil-shifting in general

E02F

e.g.

E02F 3/28, E02F 5/28

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Combine (noun)

Harvester or mower combined with a threshing device.

Fork

Hand tool having two or more tines that are used for lifting, digging or pitching.

Harvest (verb)

Perform one of the methods defined in the definition statement in order to make use of the separated, mown or gathered plantmaterial.

Hay

Mown forage crop in a dry or partially dry state.

Haymaking

Working on mown forage crop lying on the ground with the intention to make hay.

Mow (verb)

Cut down grass, cereals or other standing plants.

Thresh (verb)

Separate grains or seeds from harvested plants or plant parts (e.g. cereals, maize/corn, peas, beans or pine cones) by mechanical action (e.g. shaking, stamping, rubbing, beating or applying intermittent pressure).

A01D 3/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Abrasive or similar sharpening devices

B24D 15/06

A01D 5/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Whetting implements

B24D 15/00

A01D 7/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Haymakers, crop conditioners

A01D 76/00-A01D 84/00

A01D 23/04 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Processing of harvested produce in bulk

A01F 29/00, A23N

A01D 37/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Features relating to mowing only

A01D 34/00

Features relating to binding only

A01D 39/00

A01D 41/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Threshing devices for combines

A01F 7/00-A01F 12/00

A01D 59/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Bundling articles for packaging in general

B65B 13/00

A01D 59/12 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Twine balls or their manufacture

B65H

A01D 61/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Conveying in general

B65G

Hoisting, lifting, in general

B66

A01D 75/08 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Sharpening machines or devices per se

B24B, B24D

A01D 75/18 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Safety devices in general

F16P

A01D 75/20 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Safety devices in general

F16P

A01D 87/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Loading in general

B65G, B66

A01D 90/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Load transporting vehicles modified to facilitate loading, in general

B60P

Bucket cars, i.e. having scraper bowls

E02F 3/64

A01F - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

The scope of this subclass is composed of five separate parts, relating to the five parts of the subclass title. For ease of reference each section of these definitions is separated under five corresponding simplified headings: "Threshing", "Baling", "Bundling", "Cutting" and "Storing".

Threshing (relating to main groups A01F 5/00-A01F 12/00 and A01F 17/00-A01F 21/00):

Methods and apparatus for separating grains or seeds from harvested plants or plant parts by mechanical action.

Baling (relating to main groups A01F 13/00-A01F 21/00):

Methods and apparatus for forming bales of straw, hay or like harvested products of plant origin.

Bundling (relating to main group A01F 1/00):

Stationary apparatus or hand tools for forming or binding bundles of straw, hay or like harvested products of plant origin.

Cutting (relating to main groups A01F 3/00 and A01F 29/00):

Apparatus specially adapted for cutting or disintegrating straw, hay or like already harvested products of plant origin.

Storing (relating to main group A01F 25/00):

Mechanical aspects (e.g. materialhandlingaspects) of apparatus (e.g. silos) or methods that are specially adapted for storing harvested agricultural or horticultural crops.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Threshing

Main groups A01F 5/00-A01F 12/00 and A01F 17/00-A01F 21/00 provide for threshing devices and for accessories that are directly connected with threshing. Combines, and details of combines that are not directly connected with the threshing action (e.g. mowing, feeding or vehicular features) are covered by A01D.

Baling

Main groups A01F 13/00-A01F 21/00 are application-oriented places for methods or apparatus for baling that are specially adapted for straw, hay or like harvested products of plant origin. Baling of compressible fibrous material in general is provided for in B65B 27/12. Baling presses in general is provided for in B30B 9/30. Bales of material are provided for in B65D 71/00.

Bundling

Main group A01F 1/00 is an application-oriented place for stationary apparatus or hand tools for bundling, which are specially adapted for straw, hay or like harvested products of plant origin. Binding of harvested products by mobile apparatus in the field is provided for in A01D, for example in A01D 37/00, A01D 39/00 and A01D 59/00. Bundling of compressible fibrous material in general is provided for in B65B 27/12. Bundling of articles in general is provided for in B65B 13/00.

Cutting

Main groups A01F 3/00 and A01F 29/00 are application-oriented places for apparatus or methods that are specially adapted for cutting up or disintegrating straw, hay or like already harvested products of plant origin. Mowing and other cutting down of standing plants is covered by A01D and A01G. Cutting in general is covered by B26. Disintegrating in general, e.g. by rotating knives, is covered by B02C.

Storing

Main group A01F 25/00 is an application-oriented place for mechanical aspects (e.g. materialhandlingaspects) of apparatus or methods that are specially adapted for storing harvested agricultural or horticultural crops. Containers for storage of articles or materials in general is covered by B65D. Storing and associated handling of bulk material or articles in general is covered by B65G. Civil-engineering aspects of silos or similar bulk storage containers are covered by section E, for example E04H 7/00.

References

Limiting references:

Threshing

Separation of grains or seeds from plants in the place where they grow

A01D

e.g.

e.g.

A01D 41/08, A01D 45/00, A01D 46/00

Combines

A01D 41/00, A01D 45/00, A01D 57/00, A01D 61/00-A01D 75/00

Field threshers with windrow pick-up apparatus

A01D 41/10

Pick-ups for harvested crop

A01D 89/00

Coring or stoning of fruit

A23N 3/00, A23N 4/00, A47J 23/00, A47J 25/00

Removing seed-containing sections from fruit

A23N 4/00, A23N 7/08

Hulling, husking or cracking of nuts

A23N 5/00, A47J 43/26

Baling

Arrangements for making or setting stacks

A01D 85/00

Pick-ups for harvested crop

A01D 89/00

Bundling

Arrangements for making or setting stacks in connection with harvesting

A01D 85/00

Cutting

Cutting or disintegrating in combination with mowing

A01D 43/08

Pick-ups for harvested crop

A01D 89/00

Shredding tea leaves

A23F 3/12

Fodder mashers for preparing animal feeding-stuff

A23N 17/02

Cutting tobacco

A24B 7/00

Spice mills

A47J 42/00

Storing

Arrangements for making or setting stacks, used in connection with harvesting

A01D 85/00

Devices for preserving flowers

A01G 5/06

Arrangements in barns for treatment of tobacco

A24B 1/02

Suspending devices for tobacco leaves

A24B 1/08

Cabinets for perishable goods

A47B 71/00

Fruit or potato storage cabinets, racks or tray for domestic use

A47B 75/00

Closed containers for foodstuffs

A47J 47/02

Drying or storing hops

C12C 3/02, C12C 3/04

Civil engineering aspects of bulk storage containers, e.g. silos

E04H 7/00

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Baling

Vehicles for carrying harvested crops with bale-forming means additionally used for loading

A01D 90/08

Packing or pressing tobacco

A24B 1/10

Bundling

Apparatus for binding bouquets or wreaths of flowers

A01G 5/02

Packing or pressing tobacco

A24B 1/10

Informative references:

Threshing

Separating solids using pneumatic tables or jigs

B03B

Separating solids from solids by dry methods, in general

B07B

Hulling, husking, decorticating or removing awns otherwise than in connection with threshing

B02B 3/00

Conveying in general

B65G

Baling

Forming of bundles of straw, hay or like material of plant origin

A01D 37/00, A01D 39/00, A01D 57/00-A01D 75/00, A01F 1/00

Loaders for bales

A01D 87/12, A01D 90/08

Baling of compressible fibrous material in general

B65B 27/12

Baling presses in general

B30B 9/30

Bales of material

B65D 71/00

Conveying in general

B65G

Bundling

Mobile binders for use while harvesting

A01D 37/00, A01D 39/00, A01D 57/00-A01D 75/00

Loaders for sheaves

A01D 87/12

Forming of bales

A01F 13/00, A01F 15/00

Bundling of compressible fibrous material in general

B65B 27/12

Bundling of articles in general

B65B 13/00

Cutting

Mowing

A01D

Cutting implements specially adapted for horticultural purposes, e.g. flower shears, fruit shears, secateurs or hedge shears

A01G 3/00

Apparatus for destruction of unwanted vegetation

A01M 21/00

Household implements for mashing potatoes or other foodstuff

A47J 19/04

Disintegrating in general

B02C

Hand-held cutting tools

B26B

Cutting in general

B26D

Conveying in general

B65G

Storing

Protecting growing plants

A01G 13/00

Preservation of plants or parts thereof

A01N 3/00

Preserving flour by storage in an inert atmosphere

A21D 4/00

Preservation of fruits or vegetables

A23B 7/00

Preservation of edible seeds

A23B 9/00

Preservation of edible oils or fat

A23D 7/06, A23D 9/06

Preservation of materials to produce animal feeding stuff

A23K 30/00

Preservation of foods or foodstuffs in general

A23L 3/00

Containers for storage of articles or materials in general

B65D

Storage and associated handling of bulk material or articles in general

B65G

Conserving hops

C12C 3/04

Refrigerators, cold rooms, or the like

F25D

Drying in general

F26B

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Bale (noun)

A compressed, solid package of harvested material, which is either held together by thread or webs or formed by the material itself (with or without additives) to maintain its shape.

Bundle (noun)

A relatively loose package of harvested material, normally consisting of straws or stalks that are oriented in parallel to each other. It can either be held together by thread or webs or be formed by the material itself.

Combine (noun)

Harvester or mower combined with a threshing device.

Harvest (verb)

Separate useful parts from growing plants in situ, mow plants, or gather whole plants or their useful parts from the ground or from where the plants grow, with the intention to make use of the separated, mown or gathered plantmaterial.

Mow (verb)

Cut down grass, cereals or other standing plants.

Threshing

Separation of grains or seeds from harvested plants or plant parts (e.g. cereals, maize/corn, peas, beans or pine cones) by mechanical action (e.g. shaking, stamping, rubbing, beating or applying intermittent pressure).

A01H - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

New plants (including multicellular algae, multicellular fungi and lichens).

Processes for modifying genotypes or phenotypes.

Plant reproduction by tissue culture techniques.

Methods or apparatus for producing changes in chromosome number.

References

Limiting references:

Unicellular algae

C12N 1/12

Fungal micro-organisms

C12N 1/14

Specific mutations prepared by genetic engineering on plant cell or plant tissues

C12N 15/00

Informative references:

Influencing the growth of plants without producing new plants, non-chemically.

A01G 7/00

Influencing the growth of plants without producing new plants, chemically.

A01N 25/00-A01N 65/00

A01K - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Equipment and methods for the care, culture or rearing of all animals or for obtaining their products, not otherwise provided for

Equipment and methods for fishing

Equipment for angling

Methods of breeding animals, not otherwise provided for

New breeds of animals

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Whilst A01K provides for equipment and methods associated with the care, nurturing, handling and rearing of all animals, and the harvesting of their products, devices and accessories for milking are classified in A01J. Furthermore, shoes for animals (e.g. horses, oxen and other solipeds) and associated accessories are classified in A01L. Devices for maintaining the appearance and welfare of animals (e.g. washing and grooming devices, shearing equipment, dehorners, horn trainers) are classified here, whilst veterinary equipment and methods for the medical treatment of animals are classified in A61D. A01K provides for fastening and tethering/restraining equipment for animals (e.g. halters, neck-bars, leads, collars), yet equine or similar harnesses and devices used in connection therewith are classified in B68B. A01K provides for new breeds of animals, irrespective of the manner of their production, including new breeds of multicellular animals, e.g. transgenic animals. It also provides for processes of obtaining such new animals. Processes and methods for genetic engineering and mutation per se are classified in C12N. Where genetic engineering or mutation techniques are used to produce new breeds of animals, multi-aspect classification in A01K 67/00 and C12N 15/00 should be applied. Breeding of animals not otherwise provided for is covered by A01K 67/00, whilst instruments or methods for reproduction or fertilisation (e.g. artificial insemination) is classified in A61D 19/00.

References

Limiting references:

Milking; Accessories therefor

A01J 1/00A01J 9/00

Shoeing of animals

A01L

Veterinary instruments, implements, tools, or methods

A61D

Harnesses; Devices used in connection therewith

B68B

Informative references:

New plants or processes for obtaining them; Plant reproduction by tissue culture techniques

A01H

Manufacture of dairy products, other than milking

A01J 11/00A01J 27/00

Catching, trapping or scaring of animals; Apparatus for the destruction of noxious animals

A01M

Preservation of bodies of animals or parts thereof; Pest repellants or attractants

A01N

Feeding-stuffs specially adapted for animals; Methods specially adapted for production thereof

A23K

Fencing, e.g. fences, enclosures, corrals

E04H 17/00

Construction of valves

F16K

Electric circuits or apparatus specially designed for use in equipment for killing, stunning, enclosing or guiding living beings

H05C

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Angling

A form of fishing using a hook and line. A rod or pole is often additionally used, e.g. for sport fishing.

Game

Wild mammals or birds hunted for sport or food.

Honeycomb

A structure of hexagonal wax cells, made by bees to store honey and larvae.

Poultry

Domesticated fowl, such as chickens, ducks, turkeys and geese.

Stock

Domesticated animals bred and kept for their produce.

A01K 1/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Ventilating buildings

F24F

A01K 1/06 - Definition fr

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Halter

An arrangement of straps fixed around an animal's head and used to lead or tie-up livestock.

Neck-bar

A mechanical device for restraining animals (e.g. cows) by clamping their necks in a releasable frame or cage.

A01K 1/08 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Starting stalls, e.g. for horses or greyhounds

A63K 3/02

A01K 1/10 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Devices for impeding movement of animals

A01K 15/04

A01K 3/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Construction of fencing in general

E04H 17/00

A01K 5/00 - Definition fr

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Stock

Animals kept or raised for use or pleasure

A01K 5/015 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Salt blocks

A23K 10/40

A01K 7/00 - Definition fr

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Stock

Animals kept or raised for use or pleasure

A01K 9/00 - Definition fr

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Stock

Animals kept or raised for use or pleasure

A01K 11/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Lead-sealing pliers

B25B 7/20

A01K 13/00 - Definition fr

References

Limiting references:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Milking machine accessories for cleaning udders or teats

A01J 7/04

Washing devices specially adapted to veterinary purposes

A61D 11/00

Informative references:

Bandages, poultices

A61D

Scissors

B26B

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Fetlock ring

A ring (typically rubber) placed around the fetlock joint to prevent a horse kicking its own feet when walking, and to encourage a wider gait. Often used for horses with close hind feet.

A01K 15/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Appliances for supporting or fettering animals for operative purposes

A61D 3/00

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Hobble

A device restricting an animal's leg movement to impede its ability to stray or run.

A01K 17/00 - Definition fr

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Horn trainer

A device fitted to an animal's horns to influence how they grow.

A01K 21/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Covering boxes

A01K 15/00

A01K 27/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Devices specially adapted or mounted for storing and repeatedly paying-out and re-storing lengths of material

B65H 75/34

A01K 31/02 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Individual entry or exit registers

G07C 9/00

A01K 43/08 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Sorting according to weight in general

B07C 5/16

A01K 61/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Harvesting oysters, mussels, sponges or the like

A01K 80/00

A01K 63/04 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Filters in general

B01D

Water treatment in general

C02F

A01K 63/06 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Fixed electric lighting devices

F21S

Electric heating

H05B 1/00, H05B 3/00

A01K 65/00 - Definition fr

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Fish stringer

A device for fastening together multiple caught fish to aid their transport.

A01K 67/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Veterinary methods for reproduction or fertilisation

A61D 19/00

Medicinal preparations containing sperm

A61K 35/52

Apparatus for in vitro animal cell culture

C12M 3/00

in vitro animal cell culture (e.g. oocytes, sperm cells and embryos)

C12N 5/00

Mutation or genetic engineering

C12N 15/00

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Breeding

Obtaining animals up to and including their birth or hatching.

A01K 67/02 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Covering boxes

A01K 15/00

Devices for assisting or preventing mating

A01K 21/00

A01K 67/033 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Non-chemical sterilisation of invertebrates

A01M

A01K 75/04 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Floats for angling

A01K 93/00

A01K 75/06 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Sinkers for angling

A01K 95/00

A01K 79/02 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Electric circuits or apparatus specially designed for catching fish

H05C

A01K 80/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Fishing nets

A01K 73/00, A01K 74/00

Dredgers

E02F

A01K 85/08 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Fly tying devices

A01K 97/26

A01K 91/06 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Floats

A01K 93/00

A01K 97/04 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Feeding-stuffs for particular animals

A23K 50/00

A01K 97/14 - Definition fr

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Gaff

A pole with a sharp hook at the distal end, used to spear and lift large fish out of the water.

A01M - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Catching or killinginsects

Special adaptations or arrangements or liquid- or powder-spraying apparatus for the purposes covered by this subclass

Fumigators

Flame-throwers specially adapted for the purposes covered by this subclass

Apparatus for the destruction of vermin, noxiousanimals or unwanted vegetation

Traps for animals

Devices or apparatus for killinganimals by dispensing poison, or by projectiles

Scaring or repelling devices

Hunting appliances

Relationship between large subject matter areas

A01M provides for the catching, trapping or scaring of animals, yet when these processes are used for the purposes of fishing and apiculture/bee-keeping they are classified in A01K. Furthermore, electric circuits or apparatus specially adapted for catching, trapping and control of animals or adapted for the destruction of insects and animals are classified in H05C. Mechanical devices/apparatus for the destruction of vermin, noxiousanimals and unwanted plants and vegetation is classified in A01M, yet biocides, pest repellants, attractants and plant growth regulators are classified in A01N.

References

Limiting references:

Appliances for catching swarms; Drone-catching devices

A01K 57/00

Fishing

A01K 69/00 - A01K 99/00

Biocides, pest repellants or attractants

A01N

Electric circuits or apparatus specially designed for use in equipment for killing, stunning, enclosing or guiding living beings

H05C

Informative references:

Slaughtering or stunning of animals

A22B

Spraying or atomising apparatus, in general

B05B

Equipment for fitting in or to aircraft for dropping or releasing powdered, liquid or gaseous matter, e.g. pesticides, herbicides

B64D 1/16

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Animal

Bon-human members of the kingdom Animalia, including, but not limited to, mammals, birds and insects.

Destruction

To destroy or cause the death of a living organism; the non-chemical sterilisation of invertebrates.

Fumigator

Apparatus used to disinfect or purify an area using the fumes of selected chemicals.

Insect

A class of arthropod animals characterised by an exoskeleton supporting a three-part body (comprising a head, thorax and abdomen), six legs and two antennae.

Killing

To destroy or cause the death of a living organism; the non-chemical sterilisation of invertebrates.

Noxious

Harmful, poisonous or undesirable.

Snare

An anchored noose typically made from wire or cable which tightens around an animal, preventing release or escape.

Vermin

Wild animals, e.g. rodents, which may spread disease or be harmful to crops.

A01M 15/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Flame-throwers in general

F41H 9/02

A01M 21/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Biocides, plant growth regulators

A01N 25/00 - A01N 65/00

Soil-conditioning or soil-stabilising materials

C09K 17/00

A01M 23/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Housing animals

A01K 1/00

A01M 25/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Devices or methods for introducing solid, liquid, or gaseous remedies or other materials into or onto the bodies of animals

A61D 7/00

A01M 27/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Smallarms, e.g. pistols, rifles

F41C

A01M 29/10 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Stationary means for catching or killing insects by using illumination

A01M 1/04, A01M 1/08

A01M 29/12 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Poisoning, narcotising, or burning insects

A01M 1/20

Fumigators; Apparatus for distributing gases

A01M 13/00

A01M 29/14 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Flame-throwers

A01M 15/00

A01M 29/16 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Beater rattles for hunting

A01M 31/04

A01M 29/22 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Beater rattles for hunting

A01M 31/04

Special rules of classification

A01M 29/16 takes precedence.

A01M 29/24 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Apparatus for the destruction of noxious animals, other than insects, by hot water, steam, hot air, or electricity

A01M 19/00

Electric traps

A01M 23/38

Electrified wire fencing

A01K 3/00

A01M 29/28 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Killing insects by electric means

A01M 1/22

A01M 29/30 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Fencing, e.g. fences, enclosures, corrals

E04H 17/00

A01M 29/34 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Adhesive bands or coatings for trees

A01M 1/18

A01M 31/02 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Folding seats

A47C

A01N - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions, physical forms thereof, and the application or method of use of specific materials, compositions, or single compounds for the following purposes:

Preserving or preventing the decay of dead human or animal bodies or parts thereof

Preserving living parts of human or animal bodies

Preserving or maintaining the freshness of plants or plant parts

Reducing the noxious effect of active ingredients on organisms other than unwanted organisms

Killing or preventing the growth or proliferation of unwanted organisms (e.g. insects, weeds, micro-organisms)

Repelling (i.e. resisting, warding off) or luring pests

Affecting plant growth through a chemical modification of the metabolism of plants using plant growth regulators, such as auxins.

Compositions used to protect the wound and scions of newly grafted plants or to cover the wounds on pruned plants (i.e. grafting wax).

Chemical agents used for the sexual sterilization of invertebrates (e.g. insects).

Relationship between large subject matter areas

While substances that chemically modify a plant's metabolism are classified in A01N, compositions that affect the growth of a plant solely by supplying nutrients ordinarily required for growth, e.g. fertiliser, plant food, are classified in C05. Materials used to prevent or cure mineral deficiencies in plants, such as iron chelates used to cure iron chlorosis, are also classified in C05.

The activities (e.g. rodenticidal, herbicidal) of biocidal, pest repellent, pest attractant or plant growth regulatory preparations must also be classified in A01P, when such activities are determined to be invention information.

When biocides, pest repellents, pest attractants or plant growth regulators are compounds or contain compounds which are determined to be invention information, the compounds must also be classified in C01, C07, C08, or C12N. When these compounds are considered to be of interest for search purposes, they may also be classified in C01, C07, C08, or C12N.

References

Limiting references:

Apparatus therefor

A01G 5/06

Preservation of food or foodstuff, e.g. pasteurizing, sterilizing

A23B, A23K 30/00, A23L 3/00

Preservation or chemical ripening of harvested fruits or vegetables

A23B 7/00

Compositions for medical, dental or toilet purposes which kill or prevent the growth or proliferation of unwanted organisms

A61K

Sex sterilants for animals other than invertebrates

A61K

Mixtures of pesticides with fertilisers

C05G

Fungicidal, bactericidal, insecticidal, disinfecting or antiseptic paper

D21H

Informative references:

Plant grafting

A01G 1/06

Devices for preserving flowers

A01G 5/06

Electric or magnetic treatment of plants for promoting growth

A01G 7/04

Sterilising soil by steam

A01G 11/00

Protecting plants (e.g. protective covers; devices for generating heat, smoke or fog; devices protecting against animals)

A01G 13/00

Means for catching or killing insects

A01M 1/00, A01M 5/00

Apparatus for destroying vermin in soil or food stuffs

A01M 17/00

Apparatus for the destruction of vegetation

A01M 21/00

Scaring devices e.g. bird-scaring apparatus

A01M 29/00

Hunting decoys

A01M 31/06

Methods or apparatus for disinfection or sterilisation of materials not characterized by the agent employed

A61L 2/00, A61L 12/00

Paints containing biocides, e.g. fungicides, insecticides, pesticides

C09D 5/14

Anti-fouling paints and underwater paints

C09D 5/16

Soil-conditioning materials or soil-stabilising materials

C09K 17/00

Undifferentiated human, animal or plant cells or tissues and their cultivation and maintenance

C12N 5/00

Biocidal agents (e.g. fungicidal, bactericidal, or insecticidal agents) which are in or on paper

D21H 21/36

Special rules of classification

In groups A01N 27/00-A01N 65/00, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place for an active ingredient.

A composition, i.e. a mixture of two or more active ingredients is classified in the last of groups A01N 27/00-A01N 65/00 that provides for at least one of these active ingredients.

Any part of a composition which is not identified by classification according to the last appropriate place of an active ingredient, and which itself is determined to be novel and non-obvious, must also be classified. The part can be either a single ingredient or a composition in itself.

Any part of a composition which is not identified by the classification according the last appropriate place, and which is considered to represent information of interest for search, may also be classified. This can for example be the case when it is considered of interest to enable searching of compositions using a combination of classification symbols. Such non-obligatory classification should be given as "additional information".

Where a compound is described as existing in tautomeric forms, it is classified as if existing in the form which is classified last in the system.

Compounds that are covered by different main groups because of alternatively specified functional groups or other structural features of their formulae are classified in each relevant main group.

Salts formed between two or more organic compounds are classified as the compound providing the essential ion and is also classified as the compound providing the other ion.

Salts or metal chelates of an organic compound are classified as the compound.

In this subclass, a foodstuff is not considered to be an active ingredient.

Different materials applied in sequence, at different times, are considered to be a mixture of all materials employed.

Synergistic or potentiated compositions are classified as if the synergist or potentiator is an active ingredient.

In groups A01N 25/00-A01N 65/00, the symbol X means nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur or a halogen; Y means nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur. A dotted line between atoms indicates an optional bond, e.g. .... indicates one or two single bonds or a double bond.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Acaricide

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying mites and ticks or making them less harmful.

Alkali metal

One of the following elements: Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr.

Alkaline earth metal

One of the following elements: Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra.

Arthropodicide

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying arthropods, e.g. insects, arachnids, crustaceans or making them less harmful.

Biocide

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or mitigating any living organism (e.g., plant, animal). Examples of a biocide are: acaricide, arthropodicide, fungicide, insecticide, molluscicide, rodenticide (see Synonyms and Keywords).

Disinfectant

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or mitigating microorganisms.

Fungicide

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying moulds and fungi or making them less harmful.

Halogen

One of the following elements: F, Cl, Br, I, At.

Heavy metal

A metal other than light metal.

Herbicide

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying plant life or making it less harmful.

Insecticide

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying insects or making them less harmful.

Light metal

One of the following elements: alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, Be, Al, Mg.

Metal

An element other than non-metal.

Molluscicide

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying molluscs, e.g. snails, clams or making them less harmful.

Non-metal

One of the following elements: H, B, C, Si, N, P, O, S, Se, Te, noble gas, halogen.

Pesticide

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying any pest (e.g., insects, rodents) or making it less harmful.

Plant

A young tree, shrub, vegetable, or flower newly planted, or intended for planting

Plant growth regulator

Materials which alter the plant or may affect plant growth through a chemical modification of the plant metabolism, such as auxins.

Rodenticide

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying rodents, e.g. rats, mice or making them less harmful.

A01N 25/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Apparatus for the destruction of noxious animals or noxious plants

A01M

A01N 25/18 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Fumigators

A01M 13/00

A01N 31/14 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0031140000_0.gif

A01N 33/18 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0033180000_0.gif

A01N 35/06 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0035060000_0.gif

A01N 37/22 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0037220000_0.gif

A01N 37/52 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0037520000_0.gif

A01N 43/28 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043280000_0.gif

A01N 43/36 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043360000_0.gif

A01N 43/38 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043380000_0.gif

A01N 43/40 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043400000_0.gif

A01N 43/60 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043600000_0.gif

2. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043600000_1.gif

3. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043600000_2.gif

A01N 43/64 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043640000_0.gif

2. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043640000_1.gif

3. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043640000_2.gif

A01N 43/653 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043653000_0.gif

A01N 43/70 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043700000_0.gif

A01N 43/713 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043713000_0.gif

A01N 43/78 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043780000_0.gif

A01N 43/80 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043800000_0.gif

2. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043800000_1.gif

3. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043800000_2.gif

A01N 43/82 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043820000_0.gif

2. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043820000_1.gif

3. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043820000_2.gif

4. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043820000_3.gif

5. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043820000_4.gif

6. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043820000_5.gif

A01N 43/84 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043840000_0.gif

2. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043840000_1.gif

A01N 43/86 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043860000_0.gif

2. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043860000_1.gif

A01N 43/88 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043880000_0.gif

2. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043880000_1.gif

3. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043880000_2.gif

4. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043880000_3.gif

5. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043880000_4.gif

6. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043880000_5.gif

7. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043880000_6.gif

8. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043880000_7.gif

9. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043880000_8.gif

A01N 43/90 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043900000_0.gif

2. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0043900000_1.gif

A01N 47/04 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0047040000_0.gif

A01N 47/06 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0047060000_0.gif

A01N 47/10 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0047100000_0.gif

A01N 47/24 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0047240000_0.gif

A01N 47/30 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0047300000_0.gif

2. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0047300000_1.gif

A01N 47/36 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0047360000_0.gif

A01N 47/38 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0047380000_0.gif

A01N 47/42 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0047420000_0.gif

A01N 47/46 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0047460000_0.gif

A01N 47/48 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0047480000_0.gif

A01N 55/04 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0055040000_0.gif

A01N 57/14 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0057140000_0.gif

A01N 57/16 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0057160000_0.gif

A01N 57/20 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0057200000_0.gif

A01N 57/28 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

1. structure (.cdx) - structure (.skc)

A01N0057280000_0.gif

A23B - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods for preserving meat, sausages, fish, fish products, eggs, egg products, fruit, vegetables (preservation of raw potatoes) or edible seeds by heating, drying, freezing, irradiating, smoking, using chemicals or micro-organisms, etc. and compositions therefor.

Apparatus for preserving meat, sausages, fish, fish products, eggs, egg products, fruit, vegetables or edible seeds using liquids, solids or gases.

Apparatus, methods, and compositions for coating meat, sausages, fish, fish products, eggs, egg products, fruit, vegetables or edible seeds with a protective layer.

Apparatus for compressing sauerkraut.

Chemical ripening of fruit or vegetables with liquids, solids or gases.

Preserved, ripened or canned products (i.e., meat, sausages, fish, fish products, eggs, egg products, fruit, vegetables or edible seeds), per se.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Preservation of foods or foodstuffs in general is classified in group A23L 3/00 while A23B includes the methods of preserving meat, sausages, fish, , fish products, eggs, egg products, fruit, vegetables or edible seeds as well as the chemical ripening of fruit or vegetables. A classification in A23B is proper if the preservation method is for specific types of foods which are covered in A23B. If a food in general is being preserved by a specific preservation method it is classified in A23L 3/00.

Preserving, protecting, or purifying packages or package contents in association with packaging and apparatus therefor are classified in B65B 55/00. Preserving meat, sausages, fish, fish products, eggs, egg products, fruit, vegetables or edible seeds and apparatus therefor not restricted to packaging are classified in A23B.

B65D 81/00 deals with containers, packaging elements or packages, for contents presenting particular transport or storage problems, or adapted to be used for non-packaging purposes after removal of contents. More specifically, B65D 81/28 deals with applications of food preservatives, fungicides, pesticides or animal repellants to the container or the packaging material, per se to prevent deterioration or decay. A23B deals with preserving meat, sausages, fish, fish products, eggs, egg products, fruit, vegetables or edible seeds, per se.

References

Limiting references:

Marmalades; Jams; Jellies; Other similar fruit or vegetable compositions; Simulated fruit products; Their preparation or treatment

A23L 21/10

Preparation of cooked potatoes

A23L 19/12

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Applying food preservatives in packages

B65D 81/28

Informative references:

Preparation of fruits or vegetables

A23L 19/00

Preparation of fruits or vegetables by pickling, e.g. sauerkraut

A23L 19/20

Preserving foodstuffs in general

A23L 3/00

Machines for washing or blanching fruits or vegetables in bulk in combination with subsequent drying

A23N 12/06

Machines for drying or roasting fruits or vegetables in bulk

A23N 12/08

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Egg product

All or portion of the contents found inside eggs separated from the shell and that may be pasteurized in a food processing plant, with or without added ingredients, intended for human consumption, such as dried frozen or liquid eggs. Egg products do not include food which contains eggs only in a relatively small proportion, such as cake mixes.

Fish

Any fish, including shellfish and crustaceans, and marine animals (marine being defined as "of, found in, produced by the sea"), and any parts, products or by-products thereof.

Fish product

A product containing a predominant amount of fish

A23B 4/20 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Acid fermentation

A23B 4/12

A23B 5/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Preserving dough or bakery products

A21D

A23B 7/154 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Acid fermentation

A23B 7/10

A23D - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Edible oil or fat compositions containing an aqueous phase, e.g. margarines, and their working-up and the preservation of finished products.

Other edible oils or fats, e.g. shortenings, cooking oils, microbial oils and their working-up and the preservation of finished products.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Foods or foodstuffs containing edible oils or fats are classified in the relevant parts A21D, A23G, A23L. Fats derived from milk are classified in A23C (e.g. A23C 13/00 and A23C 15/00).

C07C covers acyclic and carbocyclic compounds, e.g. esters of carboxylic acids (C07C 69/00), but not their use in food stuff which is covered by A23D.

C11B covers the production and purification/refining of oils and fats as well as their recovery from waste material, but not limited to those oils and fats which are suitable for use in foodstuffs. C11B does not cover mixtures of fats or oils with water or other edible oils or fats, which are covered by A23D.

C11C covers fatty acids that are not or no longer esterified with glycerol (although the process or esterification of said fatty acids with glycerol is covered) and their modifications, as well as candles.

A23L 33/00 covers food with modified nutritive qualities, e. g. dietetic food, functional food.

References

Informative references:

Animal-feeding stuff

A23K 10/00

Use of substance as emulsifying, wetting, dispersing or foam-producing agents

B01F 17/00

Mineral oil (kerosene, paraffin waxes, petroleum, gasoline, diesel), biodiesel

C10

Preparation of fats or fatty oils by using microorganism or enzymes

C12P 7/64

Investigating or analyzing edible oils or fats by specific methods

G01N 33/03

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Oil

An oil is a substance that is in a viscous liquid state ("oily") at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water) and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally). This general definition includes compound classes with otherwise unrelated chemical structures, properties, and uses, including vegetable oils, petrochemical oils, and volatile essential oils. Oil is a nonpolar substance.

The word "oil" is used for any substance that does not mix with water and has a greasy feel, such as petroleum (or crude oil) and heating oil, regardless of its chemical structure.

Edible oil

Edible or cooking oil is fat of plant, animal or microbial origin, which is liquid at room temperature and is suitable for food use.

Some of the many different kinds of edible vegetable oils include: olive oil, palm oil, soybean oil, canola oil, pumpkin seed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil, peanut oil, grape seed oil, sesame oil, argan oil and rice bran oil. Many other kinds of vegetable oils are also used for cooking.

The generic term "vegetable oil" when used to label a cooking oil product refers to a blend of a variety of oils often based on palm, corn, soybean or sunflower oils.

Edible oil of animal origin is e.g. fish oil. Microbial oil are also encompassed.

Fat

Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. Chemically, fats are generally triesters of glycerol and fatty acids. Fats may be either solid or liquid at normal room temperature, depending on their structure and composition. Although the words "oils", "fats", and "lipids" are all used to refer to fats, "oils" is usually used to refer to fats that are liquids at normal room temperature, while "fats" is usually used to refer to fats that are solids at normal room temperature. "Lipids" is used to refer to both liquid and solid fats, along with other related substances.

Fats form a category of lipid, distinguished from other lipids by their chemical structure and physical properties. This category of molecules is important for many forms of life, serving both structural and metabolic functions. They are an important part of the diet of most heterotrophs (including humans). Fats or lipids are broken down in the body by enzymes called lipases produced in the pancreas.

Shortening

is a fat used in food preparation, especially baked goods, and is so called because it promotes a "short" or crumbly texture (as in shortbread). The term "shortening" can be used more broadly to apply to any fat that is used for baking and which is solid at room temperature, such as lard, but as used in recipes it refers to a hydrogenated vegetable oil that is solid at room temperature. Shortening generally has a higher smoke point than butter and margarine, and it may have 100% fat content, compared to about 80% for butter and margarine.

A23D 7/05 - Definition fr

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Essential cooling

The cooling is an essential, i.e. indispensable characteristic of the working-up.

A23F - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Tea.

Tea substitutes, e.g. mate, lemon balm, rose hips.

Extracts or infusions of tea and tea substitutes.

Tea flavour, tea oil.

Methods of manufacturing, preparing and modifying tea and tea substitutes, e.g. oxidation, fermentation, removing caffeine, extraction, drying, concentrating, flavouring.

Coffee.

Coffee substitutes, e.g. grain coffee.

Extracts or infusions of coffee and coffee substitutes.

Coffee flavour, coffee oil.

Methods of manufacturing, preparing and modifying coffee and coffee substitutes, e.g. treating green coffee, roasting, grinding, removing caffeine, extraction, drying, concentrating, flavouring.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

This subclass does not cover chemical compounds, e.g. alkaloids such as caffeine, theophylline, theobromine, or their preparation as such, which subject matter is covered by classes C07 (organic chemistry) and C08 (organic macromolecular compounds).

Physical or chemical processes or apparatus in general, e.g. boiling, extraction or filtration, are covered by class B01.

References

Limiting references:

Picking of tea

A01D 46/04

Picking of coffee

A01D 46/06

Synthetic tea flavours

A23L 27/20

Synthetic coffee flavours

A23L 27/28

Machines for cleaning, blanching, drying or roasting fruits or vegetables, e.g. coffee

A23N 12/00

Coffee mills

A47J 42/00

Medicinal preparations containing plantmaterial from tea or tea substitutes or from coffee or coffee substitutes

A61K 36/00

e.g.

e.g.

A61K 36/74, A61K 36/82, A61K 36/28

Informative references:

Chocolate, confectionery or ice-cream containing coffee or tea

A23G

Preservation of foods or foodstuffs, in general, e.g. freeze-drying or spray-drying

A23L

Shaping or working of foodstuffs, not fully covered by a single other subclass, e.g. agglomerating, granulating or tabletting

A23P

Coffee or tea pots

A47G 19/14

Tea infusers, e.g. egg-shaped infusers

A47G 19/16

Tea or coffee pot cosies

A47G 19/20

Apparatus for making beverages, e.g. coffee or tea

A47J 31/00

Packaging of substances, e.g. tea, which are intended to be infused in the package, i.e. filling tea bags

B65B 29/02

Attaching, or forming and attaching, string handles or tags to tea bags

B65B 29/04

Disposable containers or packages with contents which are infused or dissolved in situ

B65D 85/804

Disposable tea bags

B65D 85/808

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Alkaloid

The stimulant xanthine drugs caffeine, theobromine and theophylline contained in coffee beans and/or tea leaves.

Coffee

Stimulant product or beverage made from roasted seeds, commonly called coffee beans, which come from a plant of the genus Coffea, e.g. Coffea arabica or Coffea canephora.

Coffee substitutes

Coffee substitutes (solid or liquid) are non-coffeeproducts normally without caffeine, used to substitute coffee while preserving its taste. Grain coffee and other substitutes can be made by roasting or decocting various organic substances. Common ingredients include acorn, barley and malt, beech nut, chicory root, corn, fig and rye.

Decaffeination

Process of removing the alkaloid caffeine from coffee beans or tea leaves.

Herbal tea

Any Camellia sinensis-free product or beverage prepared by hot water infusion of plantmaterial, usually leaves but also including fruits, flowers and possibly even bark or other parts. Herbal teas are belonging to the group of tea substitutes.

Tea

Stimulant product or beverage made from the leaves of the traditional teaplant (Camellia sinensis).

Tea substitutes

Tea substitutes (solid or liquid) are non-teaproducts, i.e. not coming from the traditional teaplant (Camellia sinensis), e.g. mate (Ilex paraguariensis), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), rose hips (Rosa canina), etc.; cf. herbal tea.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the words "Lyophilisation" and "freeze-drying" are often used as synonyms.

A23J - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Obtaining of protein compositions for foodstuffs, e.g. from meat, fish or sea animals, blood, eggs, hair, cereals, leguminous or other vegetable seeds, waste water, yeasts or milk.

Bulk opening of eggs and separation of yolks from whites.

Working-up of proteins for foodstuffs, e.g. by texturising using freezing, extrusion, expansion, coagulation from or in a bath; by hydrolysis using chemical agents or enzymes.

Phosphatide compositions for foodstuffs, e. g. lecithin.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Phosphatides in oils or fats are classified in C11B

References

Limiting references:

Treatment of flour or dough by adding proteins before or during baking

A21D 2/26

Dairy products, e.g. milk, butter, cheese; milk or cheese substitutes; making thereof 

A23C 9/00, A23C 11/00, A23C 17/00-A23C 23/00

Cocoa products

A23G 1/44

Sweetmeats, confectionery or marzipan

A23G 3/44

Chewing gum

A23G 4/14

Frozen sweets containing peptides or proteins

A23G 9/38

Food or foodstuffs containing proteins as gelling or thickening agents

A23L 29/281

Dietetic products containing proteins as additive

A23L 33/17

Proteins as adding ingredients for non-alcoholic beverages

A23L 2/66

Informative references:

Animal feeding-stuff

A23K 10/00

Protein compositions or phosphatide compositions for pharmaceuticals or cosmetics

A61K 8/64, A61K 9/38, A61K 9/64

Phosphatides per se

C07F

General processes for the preparation of peptides

C07K 1/00

Peptides e.g. oligopeptides, proteins

C07K 4/00-C07K 14/00

Immunoglobulins

C07K 16/00

Carrier-bound or immobilised peptides and preparation thereof

C07K 17/00

Hybridpeptides

C07K 19/00

Macromolecular materials from blood

C08H

Preparation of glue

C09H

Gelatin not for foodstuffs

C09H 1/00-C09H 9/04

Analysis of food

G01N 33/02

Enzymes and preparation thereof

C12N 9/00

Preparation of peptides or proteins using fermentation or enzymes

C12P 21/00

Use of substances as emulsifying, wetting, dispersing or foam-producing agents

B01F 17/30

Special rules of classification

In groups A23J 3/04-A23J 3/20, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

Subject matter classified in groups A23J 3/22-A23J 3/30 is also classified in groups A23J 3/04-A23J 3/20, if the nature of the protein is of interest.

A23K - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Feeding-stuffs that are specially adapted, processed or formulated for non-human animals;

Processes that are specially adapted for production of such animal feeding-stuffs;

Processes that are specially adapted for preservation of materials (e.g. grass or roots) in order to produce such animal feeding-stuffs.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Animal feeding-stuffs

This subclass only covers feeding-stuffs that are disclosed as being specially adapted, processed or formulated for non-human animals. Foods or foodstuffs that are of unspecified use or specially adapted for human beings are covered by other subclasses for foodstuffs (see the references below), for example the other subclasses of A23.

Production of animal feeding-stuffs

Processes for production of foods or foodstuffs that are of unspecified use, or specially adapted for human beings, are covered by the relevant subclasses therefor, see the references below.

Apparatus that is specially adapted for production of animal feeding-stuffs is covered by A23N 17/00.

Mechanical aspects that are of general utility are covered by other subclasses, see the references below.

Preservation of materials in order to produce animal feeding-stuffs

This subclass only covers processes for preservation that are specially adapted for production of animal feeding-stuffs. Preservation of foods or food-stuffs that are of unspecified use or specially adapted for human beings, are covered by the relevant subclasses therefor, for example A23Band A23L 3/00 (see the references below).

Mechanical aspects of processes for preservation of materials in order to produce animal feeding-stuffs are classified in other subclasses, for example A01F 25/00 and F26B(see the references below).

Haymaking

Haymakers, i.e. apparatus for working on mown forage crop lying on the ground with the intention to make hay, are classified in A01D 76/00-A01D 84/00. Haymakers may include means for mechanical treatment of mown crops in the field, for example for crop-conditioning.

References

Limiting references:

Mechanical aspects of methods that are specially adapted for storing agricultural or horticultural crops (e.g. in silos)

A01F 25/00

Informative references:

Apparatus specially adapted for cutting or disintegrating straw, hay or like harvested products of plant origin

A01F 29/00

Manufacture of dairy products

A01J

Animal husbandry; Care of birds, fishes or insects

A01K

Preparation of bait for angling

A01K 97/04

Preservation of plants in general

A01N 3/00

Biocides, pest repellants or pest attractants

A01N 25/00-A01N 65/00

Machines or equipment for making or processing doughs

A21C

Treating of flour or dough

A21D

Processing meat, poultry or fish

A22C

Preserving meat, fish, eggs, fruit, vegetables or edible seeds; The preserved products

A23B

Dairy products; Making dairy products

A23C

Edible oils or fats

A23D

Protein compositions for foodstuffs; Working-up proteins for foodstuffs; Phosphatide compositions for foodstuffs

A23J

Foods or foodstuffs not covered by subclasses A23Bto A23J Their preparation or treatment

A23L 5/00-A23L 35/00

Preservation of foods or foodstuffs in general

A23L 3/00

Machines or apparatus for treating harvested fruit or vegetables in bulk, not otherwise provided for

A23N 1/00-A23N 15/00

Apparatus specially adapted for preparing animal feeding-stuffs

A23N 17/00

Shaping or working of foodstuffs

A23P

Veterinary methods

A61D

Medicinal preparations

A61K

Mixing in general

B01F

Disintegrating in general

B02C

Granulating materials

B01J 2/00

Cutting in general

B26D

Presses in general, e.g. for making briquettes

B30B

Polysaccharides; Derivatives thereof

C08B

Derivatives of natural macromolecular compounds

C08H

Producing animal or vegetable oils, fats, fatty substances or waxes

C11B

Preparation of fats, oils, or fatty acids

C11C

Micro-organisms or enzymes; Compositions thereof

C12N

Fermentation or enzyme-using processes to synthesise a desired chemical compound or composition

C12P

Sugar industry

C13

Drying solid materials

F26B

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the expressions "feed" and "feedstuff" are often used instead of "feeding-stuffs", which is used in the classification scheme of this subclass.

A23K 10/24 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Proteins from blood

A23J 1/06

A23L - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Any foods, foodstuffs or non-alcoholic beverages that are not covered by the following subclasses:

A21D (Treatment, e.g. preservation, of flour or dough for baking, e.g. by addition of materials; Baking; Bakery products; Preservation thereof)

A23B (Preserving, e.g. by canning, meat, fish, eggs, fruit, vegetables, edible seeds; Chemical ripening of fruit or vegetables; The preserved, ripened, or canned products)

A23C (Dairy products, e.g. milk, butter, cheese; Milk or cheese substitutes; Making thereof)

A23D (Edible oils or fats, e.g. margarines, shortenings, cooking oils)

A23F (Coffee; Tea; Their substitutes; Manufacture, preparation, or infusion thereof)

A23G (Cocoa; Cocoa products, e.g. chocolate; Substitutes for cocoa or cocoa products; Confectionery; Chewing gum; Ice-cream; Preparation thereof)

A23J (Protein compositions for foodstuffs; Working-up proteins for foodstuffs; Phosphatide compositions for foodstuffs).

Examples of foods, foodstuffs or non-alcoholic beverages covered by this subclass are:

Foods or foodstuffs containing gelling or thickening agents;

Marmalades, jams, jellies or similar products;

Honey, royal jelly or other apiculture products;

Cereal-derived products including pasta;

Malt products, puddings or cream substitutes;

Spices, flavouring agents or condiments, whether natural or synthetic; artificial sweeteners; table salts;

Meat, poultry, egg, fish or seafood products;

Food consisting mainly of nut meat or seeds, e.g. peanut butter;

Soups or sauces; and

Non-alcoholic beverages, e.g. fruit or vegetable juices; dry compositions or concentrates thereof; preparation thereof.

Preparation or treatment of the above foods, foodstuffs or non-alcoholic beverages provided for in this subclass, including:

Cooking e.g. by roasting or frying;

Removing unwanted matter;

Physical treatment e.g. with wave energy, electric or magnetic fields;

Preparation of fruit or vegetables, e.g. to make snacks, chips, sauerkraut or pickles;

Colouring or decolouring; and

Modifying the nutritive qualities, e.g. by adding vitamins, minerals or dietary fibres.

Modification of such foods or beverages to change their nutritional content for dietary reasons, and these modified foods or beverages per se.

Preservation of foods or foodstuffs in general, e.g. by pasteurising, sterilising, heating, freezing, drying, pressurising, irradiation or treatment with chemicals, specially adapted for foods or foodstuffs.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

In relation to foods, foodstuffs or non-alcoholic beverages per se, and in relation to their preparation and treatment including physical treatment, this subclass is residual to subclasses A21D, A23B, A23C, A23D, A23F, A23G or A23J. These subclasses relate to flour or dough (A21D), dairy products (A23C), edible oils or fats (A23D), coffee, tea or their substitutes (A23F), cocoa, chocolate, confectionery or ice-cream (A23G) and protein compositions (A23J).

In relation to preservation of foods or foodstuffs in general, this subclass is the primary home for this subject-matter. However, preservation subject matter specifically adapted for certain foods can also be found in any of the above subclasses. For example, preservation of flour or dough or bakery products is subject-matter for subclass A21D, and preservation of meat, fish, eggs, fruit, vegetables and edible seeds e.g. cereals is subject matter for subclass A23B. Preservation of milk or milk preparations is subject matter for subclass A23C.

In relation to preservation, deciding between this subclass and the other subclasses listed above is generally a matter of function or application (see Guide Paragraphs 85-87). Where the particular preservation technology is the main point of interest classification is made in this subclass, and where the application to particular foodstuffs is the main interest classification is made in the subclasses listed above. Some double-classification is evident.

References

Limiting references:

Treating harvested fruit or vegetables in bulk

A23N

Machines or apparatus for extracting juice

A23N 1/00, A47J 19/00

Shaping or working of foodstuffs not fully covered by this or a single other subclass

A23P

Preserving foods or foodstuffs in association with packaging

B65B 55/00

Packages for foodstuffs with provision for absorbing fluids

B65D 81/26

Preparation of malt for brewing

C12C

Preparation of non-alcoholic beverages by removal of alcohol

C12H 3/00

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Edible extracts or preparations for medicinal purposes

A61K

Places in relation to which this subclass is residual:

See above.

Informative references:

Apiculture

A01K 47/00-A01K 59/00

Machines for making

A21C

Enriched flour

A21D 2/00

Processes specially adapted for particular foods or foodstuffs

A23

Milk products

A23C

Milk preparations

A23C 9/00

Milk substitutes, coffee whitener compositions

A23C 11/00

Coffee, tea or their substitutes

A23F

Natural coffee or tea flavour

A23F 3/40, A23F 5/46

Working-up proteins for foodstuffs

A23J 3/00

Animal foods

A23K

Apparatus for baking, roasting, grilling or frying

A47J 37/00

Emulsifiers in general

B01F 17/00

Purifying water, e.g. by ion-exchange

C02F, C02F 1/42

Essential oils in general

C11B 9/00

Preservation of alcoholic beverages

C12H

Devices for drying foodstuffs

F26B

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Food

In addition to the commonly accepted foods or foodstuffs, the term in this subclass also extends to cover less traditional items such as thickening agents (e.g. starch), flavouring agents, artificial sweeteners, food colouring agents, etc.

A23L 7/122 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Hollow ready-to-eat cereals coated, filled or multilayered, e.g. cheese snack comprising a cereal-based core and a cheese coating.

A23L 7/126 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Cereals grains or pieces bonded, shaped or compacted to form snacks, e.g. cereal bars with or without fruits, baked snack comprising fibrous cereals, apple.

A23L 7/13 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Formed cereal dough fried oil to make snacks, e.g. corn-based snack made by frying a corkscrew-shaped food piece, crisp-fried tortilla chips.

References

Limiting references:

Donuts, churros and soft tortillas. They are not considered as snacks as they contain higher water content compared to snack and they are classified in

A21D 13/00

A23L 7/135 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Flakes, granules in individual form, loose blends of individual pieces not agglomerated, e.g. cereal-based flakes easily dispersed in a cold liquid.

A23L 7/139 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Individual flakes made from wholegrain or grains pieces, e.g. cereal grains.

A23L 7/161 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Puffed cereals, e.g. "natural" release of pressure from the cereals under heat.

A23L 7/165 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Puffed cereals preparation comprising a step comprising meal or dough making before the final step for obtaining the aerated cereals.

A23L 7/17 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Puffed cereals prepared with a step involving meal or dough making followed by a step of extrusion.

A23L 7/174 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Puffed cereals prepared from whole grain or grain pieces with no step of meal or dough making.

A23L 7/178 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Puffed cereals prepared from whole grain or grain pieces by pressure release, i.e. external pressure, e.g. mechanical, being applied and released e.g. puffed-food starch material snack prepared from starch material grain such as corn and expansion of the food starch in a puffing chamber.

A23L 7/183 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Puffed cereals prepared from whole grain or grain pieces by heating without the use of external pressurizing device, e.g. process for the preparation of expanded millets comprising the step of treating dried polished grains at high temperature in order to obtain the puffed millets.

A23L 7/187 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Puffed cereals prepared from whole grain or grain pieces by heating without pressure release in an apparatus working intermittently, e.g. domestic apparatus for making pop-corn.

Industrial processes, i.e. continuous processes for making popcorn are not classified in this group.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Meal

The edible whole or coarsely ground grains of a cereal grass

Farinaceous

Made from, rich in, or consisting of starch, having a mealy or powdery texture

Snack

Food products with low water content and a long shelf life

Semi-finished or partly finished products e.g. oil

Food products that needs an extra step, frying, before being ready-to-eat

A23L 27/12 - Definition fr

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Essential oil

A concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants

A23L 33/20 - Definition fr

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Nutritive value

The nutritive value represents the energetic or calorific content of nutrition

A41C - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Corsets or girdles being a special type of undergarments for shaping or correction of a figure, with or without stays or steels, auxiliary belts, straps or fasteners; corsets with or without brassieres, e.g. of annular or tubular shape; girdles, e.g. with high waist part, with open bottom, or girdles of panty type, e.g. with elongated thigh part with or without suspenders.

Brassieres being a type of undergarments for supporting or shaping breast having connected or separate cups including strapless, backless brassieres, e.g. self-adhesive bra cups, or brassieres with stiffening or bust-forming inserts, e.g. with pads containing gel or foam filling, with pockets; bra specially adapted for nursing mothers, e.g. fold-down convertible bra or with replaceable absorbing pads or cups; bra cups with massage elements.

Details of corsets, girdles or brassieres relating to materials used in making process thereof, e.g. elastic corsets including corsets made of rubber, or of layered materials; special materials for nursing mother brassieres or brassieres for sport activities.

Machines or appliances for manufacturing corsets or brassieres, such as integrated manufacturing system or production lines including, e.g. cutting or sewing machines, ironing-machines, attachment mechanisms for assembling component parts, circular knitting machines, machine for molding cup-shaped parts.

Methods for manufacturing corsets or brassieres, mostly the combination of individual process steps such as mechanical treatment e. g. pattern cutting or sewing, physical treatment with the use of high temperature or pressure e.g. hot pressing forming die for a brassiere cup, thermoforming for shape retention or hardening of the articles, high temperature adhering and pressing process without sewing, ultrasonic adhering, antibacterial treatment, aromatizing or steeping by perfume, chemical methods for densification of the knitted stitches; methods of manufacturing one piece bra; finishing edges.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Group A41B 17/00 "Selection of special materials for underwear" is used not only with groups A41B 9/00 Undergarments or A41B 13/00 Baby linen but it should be also used together with groups A41C 1/00 and A41C 3/00 if the material of articles is of interest.

Manufacturing of corsets, girdles or bras is classified in group A41C 5/00 "Machines, appliances, or methods for manufacturing corsets or brassieres". However provided that a subject of the invention concerns also an individual step of the combined method or an individual machine of the aggregated plant such information can be separately classified in the appropriate places of the IPC in section B or section D, e.g. in groups:

B32B 37/00 Methods or apparatus for laminating, e.g. by curing or by ultrasonic bonding;

B29C 51/00 Shaping by thermoforming, e.g. shaping sheets in matched moulds or by deep-drawing; Apparatus therefore;

D04B 1/24 Weft knitting processes for the production of fabrics or articles not dependent on the use of particular machines; Fabrics or articles defined by such processes specially adapted for wearing apparel;

D04B 21/14 Fabrics characterized by the incorporation by knitting, in one or more thread, fleece, or fabric layers, of reinforcing, binding, or decorative threads; Fabrics incorporating small auxiliary elements, e.g. for decorative purposes;

D06C 29/00 Finishing or dressing, of textile fabrics;

D06M 23/14 Processes for the fixation or treatment of textile materials in three-dimensional forms

D05C 7/00 Special-purpose or automatic embroidering machines

References

Limiting references:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Non-implantable mammary prostheses

A61F 2/52

Orthopaedic corsets

A61F 5/02

Nursing devices in the form of corsets or bandages for abdomen, teat, or breast support, with or without pads

A61F 5/03

Bandages specially adapted for breast or abdomen

A61F 13/14

Absorbent pads for external application to the body

A61F 13/15

Informative references:

Combined undergarment

A41B 9/08

Waistbands forming part of the undergarments

A41B 9/14

Shoulder-straps forming part of undergarments

A41B 9/16

Maternity clothing

A41D 1/22

Swim-suits, beach suits

A41D 7/00

Corset fasteners

A41F 1/04

Shoulder or like straps in general

A41F 15/00

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Corset

(n) tight-fitting undergarments often reinforced by stays, worn to support and shape the waistline, hips, and breasts.

Girdle

(n) a woman's corset extending from waist to thigh

Stay

(n) a flat strip of steel, plastic, etc., used especially for stiffening corsets, collars, etc.

(in.pl.) hist. a corset esp. with whalebone etc. stiffening, and laced

Steel

(n) a steel stiffener in a corset, etc.

Synonyms and Keywords

Bra

Brassiere

In patent documents the following expressions/words "girdle", "stays" and "corset" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the expression/word "foundation garment" is often used instead of "bra" which is used in the classification scheme of this subclass.

A42C - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Manufacturing hats;

Appliances for hat-making;

Apparatus for changing the form or size of finished hats;

Fittings or trimmings for hats;

Manufacturing helmets by processes not otherwise provided for.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Subclass A42C covers manufacturing or trimming hats or other head coverings. Hats or head coverings per se are classified in subclass A42B.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following terms "headwear", "hat", "helmet", "headpiece", "headgear", "head covering" and "bonnet" are often used as synonyms.

A42C 1/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Making textile fabrics, e.g. from fibres or filamentary material; fabrics made by such processes or apparatus, e.g. felts, non-woven fabrics

D04H

A42C 5/00 - Definition fr

References

Limiting references:

Ventilating arrangements for helmets

A42B 3/28

Informative references:

Artificial flowers or feathers

A41G

A44B - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

The following fasteners or their essential parts:

Buttons;

Pins;

Buckles or strap fasteners that are actuated or operated directly by hand and intended to releasably connect either (1) the ends of a single web or strap, or (2) the ends of two or more webs or straps together (e.g. safety belt buckles);

Slide fasteners;

"Other types" of fasteners that are actuated or operated directly by hand and frequently utilized or associated with accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery (e.g. snap fasteners, collar-studs). Appropriate 'other types' of fasteners must also be readily reusable and their normal securing or releasing operation not destructive or damaging to either the fastener itself or the structure it secures.

Making slide fasteners, touch-and-close fasteners (e.g. VELCRO®, hook-and-loop, barb-and-pile fabrics), and other fasteners of this subclass.

Accessories or ancillary devices for the fasteners of this subclass when they are used exclusively with one of the varieties of fasteners (e.g. button cards) or have their operations either influencing or being influenced by the operation of the fastener (e.g. slide fastener pulling cords).

The following additional devices associated with either the fasteners of this class or accoutrements, garments, and haberdashery:

key rings;

clamping or holding devices; and

mock-fastening devices that merely look like the fasteners, or one of their essential parts, of this subclass but do not function as fasteners (e.g. ornamental buttons on coats, fake zippers on clothing).

Note

The only "other types" of fasteners appropriate for this subclass are those that are capable of use with or actually used with accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery. Therefore, it must be either a commonly known practice to use a particular type of fastener with accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery (e.g., snap fasteners) or the patent documents for a particular type of fastener must frequently disclose their use with accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery. However, it is not required that all, or even the majority, of the fasteners covered by a particular category of fastener be specially adapted for use, or disclose their intended use, with accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

General relationship of A44B with F16B

Fasteners per se that either (a) require a tool for completing their normal fastening (e.g. screws, nails, stitches) or (b) are destroyed or destructively deformed to fasten or unfasten (e.g. staples, rivets) are excluded from A44B. These fasteners per se

However, when F16B types of fasteners or other tool driven or deformed fasteners are used to mount fasteners or fastener components appropriate for A44B, and are attached to or cooperate with at least one of their components, they are properly classified within A44B as an additional feature of the fasteners with which they are utilized.

General relationship of A44B with subclasses for accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery

Fasteners appropriately classified within A44B are often broadly claimed or disclosed in combination with the structure they secure or fasten. If the detail of the structure they secure or fasten specifies only the portion of the structure (e.g. dress belt tip or holes) necessary for either completing the fastening operation or mounting the fastening means, the combinations are proper for A44B.

If the details of the accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery being secured are more than that needed to complete the fastening operation or mount the fastener, then the combination is appropriate for the accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery subclasses (e.g. A41D, A41F).

References

Limiting references:

Fastening devices specially adapted for specific types of garments

A41F

Buttonholes or eyelets for buttonholes

A41F 1/02

Corset fasteners

A41F 1/04

Glove fasteners

A41F 1/06

Garter fasteners

A41F 1/08

Belts, girdles, or waistbands for trousers or skirts

A41F 9/00

Thumbtacks

B43M 15/00

Devices for fastening or securing constructional elements or machine parts together

F16B

Hand-manipulated hooks or eyes (e.g. swivel hook for dog leash)

F16B 45/00

Places covering apparatus or methods for making, or for positioning on the structure being fastened, fasteners or components of fasteners appropriate for this subclass

Appliances or methods for marking-out, perforating, or making buttonholes

A41H 25/00

Appliances or methods for setting fasteners on garments

A41H 37/00

Processing sheet metal, tubes or profiles to make haberdashery

B21D 53/46

Processing sheet metal, tubes or profiles to make buttons

B21D 53/48

Processing sheet metal, tubes or profiles to make metal slide fasteners parts

B21D 53/50

Wire-working to produce devices for fastening (e.g. slide fastener elements, buttons)

B21F 45/16

Pressure or injection die casting of slide fasteners and slide fastener parts

B22D 17/16

Producing slide fastener elements from plastic or other substances in a plastic state

B29D 5/00

Producing buttons or semi-finished button parts from plastic or other substances in a plastic state

B29D 19/00

Informative references:

For garments in general

A41D

For protective aprons having fastening devices

A41D 13/04

For neckties having fastening or holding devices associated with the knot or collar

A41D 25/00

For hats having fastening devices

A42B 1/00

For head covering fastening means other than hatpins

A42B 7/00

For laces in general and for footwear having fastening devices

A43C

For machines, tools, equipment, or methods for setting fasteners on footwear

A43D 100/00

For brooches or clips having decorative or ornamental aspects

A44C 1/00

For medals or badges having pin fastening devices

A44C 3/00

For hair-holding devices

A45D 8/00

For work bench type holding clamps

B25B 5/00

For paper clips or like paper fasteners for temporarily attaching sheets together

B42F 1/02

For elements specially adapted for fastening, fixing, or finishing upholstery

B68G 7/12

For sewing apparatus or machines with mechanism for lateral movement of the needle or the work or both for making ornamental pattern seams, for sewing buttonholes, for reinforcing openings, or for fastening articles (e.g. buttons) by sewing

D05B 3/00

For sewing needles

D05B 85/00

For hand operated latches or bolts for doors or windows (e.g., door hooks)

E05C

Special rules of classification

Decorative mock-fastening devices that do not function as fasteners (e.g. ornamental buttons on coats, fake zippers on clothing), but that look like the fasteners or one of their essential parts covered by A44B, are classified within the main groups of this subclass that provide for the fasteners they are intended to resemble.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Button

A hand manipulated fastener that includes a rigid or semirigid portion (i.e. button) which is attached (e.g. sewn) to the structure it is intended to fasten or secure (e.g. clothing) in a manner that allows its reorientation by either movement about its attachment or movement of the structure it secures. A button is intended to be used with a complementary opening having a flaccid portion (e.g. buttonholes, looped cords) that forms the second essential part of the fastener.

Buckle

A hand manipulated fastener including engaging or holding means and structure for guiding during fastening, which can selectively hold a cooperating strap or belt that is either the structure secured (e.g. end of a dress belt) or a second portion of the fastener (e.g. securing strap of a backpack flap).

Pin

A hand manipulated fastener that includes both (1) a portion specifically shaped (e.g. pointed) to facilitate impaling of and penetration into the structure fastened or secured and (2) a remaining portion (e.g. head) intended to be manually pushed on that does not penetrate the structure fastened or secured.

Slide fastener

A hand manipulated fastener that includes (1) two, opposed, elongated, configured surfaces that are each attached by mounting means to a secured structure and are intended to directly contact and interlock with each other when fastened and (2) a sliding device that is much shorter in length than the surfaces and which travels along their length to forcibly shift them into or out of interlocking engagement.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the words slide fastener and zipper are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the words cufflink and sleeve-link are often used as synonyms.

A44B 1/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Setting on garments

A41H 37/10

Setting on footwear

A43D 100/08

Processing sheet metal, tubes or profiles to make buttons

B21D 53/48

Producing buttons or semi-finished parts of buttons from plastic or other substances in a plastic state

B29D 19/00

Special machines for making cotton buttons

D05C 7/12

A44B 9/06 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Other fastening means for head coverings

A42B 7/00

A44C - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Brooches or clips in their decorative or ornamental aspect;

Medals; Badges;

Bracelets; Wrist-watch straps; Fastenings for bracelets or wrist-watch straps;

Ear-rings; Devices for piercing the ear-lobes;

Finger-rings;

Watch chains; Ornamental chains;

Jewellery;

Gems or the like;

Devices for preventing pilfering of watches or jewellery;

Coins;

Rosaries;

Fancy ware for personal wear, e.g. crosses, crucifixes, charms;

Making jewellery or other personal adornments.

References

Informative references:

Jewel boxes

A45C 11/16

Frames or housings for storing medals, badges, or the like

A47G 1/12

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following terms "bracelet", "arm band", "armlet" and "bangle" are often used as synonyms.

Also, "necklace", "necklet", "locket", and "pendant" can be used as keywords.

A44C 1/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Brooches with safety pins

A44B 9/16

A44C 3/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Frames or housings for storing same

A47G 1/12

A44C 5/00 - Definition fr

References

Limiting references:

Buckles; Similar fasteners for interconnecting straps or the like, e.g. for safety belts

A44B 11/00

Informative references:

Cases; Suspending devices, supports, or stands for time-pieces in so far as they form part of the case

G04B 37/14

Wearable computers, e.g. on a belt

G06F 1/16

Identification tags

G09F 3/00

Portable transmitters, e.g. to be carried on the body

H04B 1/034

Portable receivers, e.g. to be carried on the body

H04B 1/08

A44C 21/00 - Definition fr

References

Limiting references:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Coins specially adapted to operate coin-freed mechanisms

G07F 1/06

Informative references:

Machines or apparatus for embossing decorations or marks, e.g. embossing coins

B44B 5/00

A45B - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Sticks covers walking sticks and sticks for umbrellas, including sticks with supporting, hanging or carrying means, sticks combined with other objects, hunting sticks and details such as details of the handles or heads.

Umbrellas covers sunshades similar in construction to umbrellas; umbrellas characterised by their shape or attachment, umbrellas with detachable covers, tiltable, foldable or telescopic umbrellas, umbrellas convertible into walking sticks and details of umbrellas such as umbrellas’ frames, runners, crowns and others.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

General relationship of A45B with A61H.

A61H covers physical therapy apparatus. A61H 3/00 covers appliances for aiding patients or disabled persons to walk about. Specifically, A61H 3/06 covers walking aids for blind persons.

References

Limiting references:

Cane or umbrella stands or holders

A47G 25/12

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a large system:

Walking aids for blind persons

A61H 3/06

Informative references:

Crutches

A61H 3/02

Umbrella type tents

E04H 15/28

Supports for positioning apparatus nor articles; Means for steadying hand-held apparatus or articles; for use as a walking-cane

F16M 13/08

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following terms "walking stick", "cane", "walking aid", "stick", "crutch" and "rod" are often used as synonyms. Also, these terms can be used as keywords.

In patent documents the following terms "umbrella", "brolly", "sunshade", "parasol" and "gamp" are often used as synonyms. Also, these terms can be used as keywords.

A45B 1/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Holders or carriers for hand articles or for use while travelling or camping

A45F 5/00

A45B 3/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Structural combinations of lighting devices with other articles

F21V 33/00

A45B 5/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Stools for specified purposes

A47C 9/00

A45B 7/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Crutches for aiding patients or disabled persons to walk about

A61H 3/02

Ski-sticks

A63C 11/22

A45B 25/00 - Definition fr

References

Limiting references:

Walking sticks; sticks for umbrellas

A45B 1/00A45B 9/00

Sticks combined with illuminating devices

A45B 3/02

Umbrella with detachable covers

A45B 15/00

Sticks with name-plates or the like

A45B 9/06

A45C - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Purses; money-bags; wallets;

Flexible luggage or hand bags;

Rigid or semi-rigid luggage;

Collapsible or extensible luggage, bags or the like;

Luggage or bags convertible into objects for other use;

Receptacles for other purposes;

Details and accessories therefor;

Purses, bags, luggage or other receptacles combined with other articles.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

General relationship of A45C with A45F

A45F covers traveling or camp equipment, attention should be paid specially for sacks or packs carried on the body, A45F 3/00.

General relationship of A45C with B65D

B65D covers containers for storage or transport of articles or materials, e.g. bags, barrels, bottles, boxes, cans, cartons; accessories, closures, or fittings therefor; packaging elements; packages. B65D 27/00B65D 37/00 cover general kinds of flexible containers, such as sacks, bags or like containers and details or accessories therefor.

References

Informative references:

Travelling or camp equipment; sacks or packs carried on the body

A45F

Containers for storage or transport of articles or materials, e.g. bags, barrels, bottles, boxes, cans, cartons; accessories, closures, or fittings therefor

B65D

Making articles from leather, canvas, or the like

B68F

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Flexible bags

bags deformed by, or taking up the shape of, their contents; and bags adapted to be permanently deformed to expel their contents.

Rigid or semi-rigid bags

bags not deformed by, or not taking up the shape of, their contents; bags adapted to be temporarily deformed to expel their contents.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following terms "luggage", "baggage" and "equipment" are often used as synonyms. Also, these terms can be used as keywords.

In patent documents the following terms "bag", "handbag", "pack", "sack", "case", "clutch", "purse" and "pocket" are often used as synonyms. Also, these terms can be used as keywords.

A45C 1/00 - Definition fr

References

Limiting references:

Bags or wallets for holding keys

A45C 11/32

Informative references:

Holders or carriers for hand articles or for use while travelling or camping

A45F 5/00

Containers, packaging elements, or packages, for contents presenting particular transport or storage problems; adapted to be used for non-packaging purposes after removal of contents

B65D 81/36

Safes or strong-rooms for valuables

E05G 1/00

Handling of coins or of paper currency or similar valuable papers

G07D

A45C 3/00 - Definition fr

References

Limiting references:

Collapsible or extensible luggage, bags or the like

A45C 7/00

Informative references:

Pocket or handbag mirrors

A45D 42/04

Sacks or packs carried on the body by means of one or two strap(s) passing over the shoulder(s)

A45F 3/02, A45F 3/04

A45C 5/00 - Definition fr

References

Limiting references:

Collapsible or extensible luggage, bags or the like

A45C 7/00

Informative references:

Making articles from leather, canvas, or the like

B68F

A45C 9/00 - Definition fr

References

Limiting references:

Travelling or trunk wardrobes

A47B 61/06

Trunk beds; travelling-case or like beds

A47C 17/82

Sacks or packs carried on the body and convertible into other articles

A45F 4/02

Informative references:

Garments convertible into other articles

A41D 15/04

Furniture convertible into other kinds of furniture

A47B 85/00

Trunk chairs, i.e. chairs collapsible to trunk shape

A47C 4/52

A45C 11/00 - Definition fr

References

Limiting references:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Boxes, cases, etuis or the like specially adapted therefor for manicure or pedicure sets

A45D 29/20

Receptacles for hair brushes or tooth brushes as travelling equipment

A45D 44/18

Sewing kits

A45F 3/48

Informative references:

Holders or carriers for hand articles; Holders or carriers for use while travelling or camping

A45F 5/00

Making paper articles; working paper

B31

Writing implement receptacles functioning as, or combined with, writing implements

B43K 31/00

Containers, packaging elements or packages, specially adapted for particular articles or materials; for pencils or pens

B65D 85/28

Containers, packaging elements or packages, specially adapted for particular articles or materials; for optical or other delicate measuring, calculating, or control apparatus

B65D 85/38

A45C 13/00 - Definition fr

References

Limiting references:

Detachable handles; Handles foldable into the luggage

A45C 13/22

Handles for carrying purposes for use while travelling or camping

A45F 5/10

Informative references:

Haberdashery; jewellery

A44

Containers for storage or transport of articles or materials, e.g. bags, barrels, bottles, boxes, cans, cartons; accessories, closures, or fittings therefor

B65D

Handles for rigid or semi-rigid containers

B65D 25/28

Handles for sacks or bags

B65D 33/06

Non-removable lids or covers; hinged for upward or downward movement

B65D 43/16

Locks; accessories therefor

E05B

Devices holding the wing by magnetic or electromagnetic attraction

E05C 19/16

Hinges or other suspension devices for doors, windows, or wings

E05D

A45C 15/00 - Definition fr

References

Limiting references:

Combinations of purses and wallets

A45C 1/08

Bags combined with hand-muffs

A45C 3/14

A45D - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Processes of waving, straightening or curling hair;

Hair-curling or hair-waving appliances, e.g. curling-tongs;

Devices for heating or accessories for hair curling appliances;

Hair holding devices;

Devices for washing or colouring the hair or scalp;

Hair drying devices or accessories therefor;

Devices for removing superfluous hair, e.g. tweezers;

Hair combs or accessories therefor;

Shaving accessories;

Manicuring or pedicuring implements;

Artificial nails;

Containers, casings or accessories for handling toilet or cosmetic substances;

Sachet pads for liquid substances;

Hand, pocket, or shaving mirrors;

Hairdressers’ equipment, e.g. protecting mantles, stands for performing hairdressing work, specially adapted furniture;

Other toilet or cosmetic equipment.

References

Limiting references:

Removing hair using electrosurgical instruments

A61B 18/04

Removing hair using electrosurgical instruments

A61B 18/18

Preparations for care of the hair

A61Q 5/00

Preparations for removing hair or for aiding hair removal

A61Q 9/00

Devices for sharpening razor blades

B24D 15/06

Scissors combined with auxiliary implements, e.g. manicure instruments

B26B 13/22

Hair-trimming devices using a razor blade

B26B 21/00

Devices for dispensing new razor blades

B65D 83/10

Informative references:

Receptacles in general, e.g. etuis for traveling

A45C 11/00

Hairdressers’ chairs

A47C 1/04

Handbags or purses with mirrors

A45C 15/04

Cabinets for shaving tackle

A47B 67/02

Mirrors as household equipment

A47G 1/02

Devices for collecting used scalpel blades

A61B 17/3217

Chiropodists’ instruments

A61B 17/54

Wigs, toupees or the like

A61G 3/00

Guards or sheaths for hand cutting tools

B26B 29/00

Sample tables or the like

G09F 5/00

A45D 2/06 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Base clamps per se

A45D 6/08

A45D 2/34 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Base clamps per se

A45D 6/10

A45D 7/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Preparations for waving or straightening the hair

A61K 8/00, A61Q 5/04

A45D 27/22 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Cabinets for shaving tackle

A47B 67/02

Containers in general

B65D

A45D 27/42 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Masks for marking lips or eyelashes

A45D 40/30

Ear, face or lip protectors for other toilet or cosmetic purposes

A45D 44/12

A45D 29/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Chiropodists' instruments

A61B 17/54

A45D 29/02 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Hand cutting tools with two jaws which come into abutting contact

B26B 17/00

A45D 29/04 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Files in general

B23D 71/00

A45D 29/20 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Receptacles for travelling or like purposes

A45C 11/00

A45D 33/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

For applying therapeutic or disinfecting substances

A61M 35/00

A45D 40/26 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

For applying liquid paint

A45D 34/04

A45D 42/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Mirrors as household equipment

A47G 1/02

A45D 44/08 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Hairdressers' coats

A41D 13/00

A45D 44/10 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Combined with chairs

A47C 1/10, A47C 7/36

A45F - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Travelling or camp articles such as water-bottles, mess-tins, cups, hammocks and accessories for them, hanging seats, picnic sets, sewing kits, map cases, nets affording protection against insects;

Travelling or camp articles which may be converted into articles for other use, e.g. coats or capes convertible into tent coverings

Sacks or packs carried on the body by means of one strap passing over the shoulder or by means of two straps passing over the two shoulders including sacks or packs specially adapted for military purposes;

Sacks and packs specially adapted for children , e.g. for schoolchildren;

Carrying-frames and frames combined with sacks; carrying-straps, e.g. with adjustable fastenings of straps or belts; shoulder-pads;

Sacks or packs carried on the body and convertible into other articles e.g. into tents, beds or mattresses, hammocks, litters or sleeping-bags, boats, sledges, coats or capes

Holders or carriers for hand articles and holders or carriers for use while travelling or camping, such as fastening articles to the garment, handles, book-carriers; holders for spades, hatchets or the like

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Travelling or camp equipment is normally classified in the classes for the equipment concerned, e.g. in subclasses A47B (for example, travelling or trunk tables A47B 3/10; tables specially adapted for use in the open air A47B 37/04), A47C (for example, travelling or camp beds A47C 17/64; suspended beds A47C 17/84, foldable, collapsible or dismountable chairs A47C 4/00, camp, travelling, or sports stools A47C 9/10), A47G (for example, travelling rugs A47G 9/06; sleeping bags A47G 9/08), A47J (for example, camp cooking devices A47J 33/00, A47J 36/26).

References

Limiting references:

Lunch or picnic boxes

A45C 11/20

Travelling rugs

A47G 9/06

Informative references:

Hand implements for working earth, e.g. shovels, picks

A01B 1/00

Veils

A01K 55/00

Boxes for needles or pins

A41H 19/00

Hand carried bags or luggage

A45C

Handles for suitcases or bags

A45C 13/26

Straps, bands as travelling accessories

A45C 13/30

Wheeled carriers

A45C 13/38

Camping vehicles

B60P 3/32

Foldable sledges

B62B 13/16

Foldable vessels

B63B 7/00

Rigid or semi-rigid containers

B65D 1/00

Sacks, bags or like containers

B65D 30/00

Transportable devices to obtain potable water

C02F 1/18

Matches for starting fires

C06F 5/00

Tools, implements, or accessories for hand sewing

D05B 91/00

Tents convertible, e.g. from one type tent to another type tent

E04H 15/30

Stands or trestles as supports for apparatus or articles placed thereon

F16M 11/00

Portable lighting

F21L

Stoves with special adaptation for travelling, e.g. collapsible:

stoves in which the type of fuel or energy supply is not specified

stoves in which the type of fuel or energy supply is not specified

F24C 1/16

stoves for gaseous fuels

F24C 3/14

stoves for liquid fuels

F24C 5/20

stoves heated by electric energy

F24C 7/10

Portable water heaters

F24H 1/06

Gun-slings

F41C 33/00

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Knapsack

A bag with shoulder straps, carried on the back

Synonyms and Keywords

"water-bottle ", "canteen" and "flask;

"knapsack", "sack", "pack", "backpack" and "rucksack".

A47B - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Storing articles in warehouses or magazines

B65G 1/00

Built-in cupboards as part of a building

E04F 19/08

Step-stools

A47C 12/00

Furniture joints

F16B

A47J - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Devices for domestic (or restaurant) use for preparing, cooking, or warming food or for making beverages. Storing and handling arrangements for these devices. Devices for storing food.

Preparing, cooking, or warming food refers to the various possible stages when preparing a meal:

food is prepared before cooking / consumption: e.g. peeled, cut, shaped, strained, mashed, sifted, washed, opening of eggs, separating contents of eggs, nut cracking, introducing fat etc. into meat

food is cooked: e.g. boiled, fried, deep fat fried, broiled, braised, grilled, roasted, toasted, baked, steamed (i.e. a raw potato becomes a cooked one)

food is prepared after cooking: e.g. mashed, held or clamped during cutting after being cooked

food is warmed: cold prepared or cooked food is warmed for consumption (i.e. a cold cooked potato becomes a warmcooked potato)

Devices for preparing, cooking, or warming food therefore include:

Domestic implements or machines for preparing food, e.g.

for shaping butter or the like,

for peeling, stringing, or paring foodstuffs,

for mashing or straining foodstuffs,

for coring, for stoning, or for removing stalks from, fruit,

kitchen robots, devices for mixing, beating, stirring, grating, whipping food

for holding, gripping or clamping food, e.g. during peeling or during cutting after being cooked

Cutting boards

Coffee mills, spice mills

Domestic cooking implements, e.g.

Cooking vessels or accessories therefor

Household vessels or apparatuses for boiling, frying, deep fat frying, broiling, stewing, grilling, roasting, toasting, baking, steaming, e.g. pressure cookers, steamers, rice cookers, deep fat fryers

Egg cookers

Camp cooking devices without integral heating means

Devices for warming drinks or food

Warming vessels containing drinks or food

Heat insulated chambers to warm or to keep food warm

Devices for gripping, lifting or supporting above devices (pincers, pads)

Culinary hand implements for handling or supporting food during preparing/cooking/warming

Making beverages refers to:

extracting flavor from solids by a liquid: e.g. extracting flavor from coffee grounds or tea leaves by brewing with hot water

diluting concentrate powders or liquids by diluents: e.g. diluting coffee concentrate with hot water

changing the consistency of a beverage: shaking a beverage, foaming milk

Devices for making beverages therefore include:

Household apparatuses for making beverages, e.g. by brewing or diluting

Beverage shakers, devices for foaming milk

Storing and handling of devices for preparing, cooking, or warming food or for making beverages refer to:

fastening these devices in order to immobilise them for use , irremovably fixing them

arranging these devices when temporally not in use or for warming them

Storing and handling arrangements therefore include:

Devices for fastening kitchen utensils to tables, walls, or the like

Stands, or holders for kitchen articles

Grids, racks, or other supports irremovably mounted in, on, or over sinks

Devices for warming kitchen utensils, e.g. dishes

Storing food refers to:

storing food or ingredients to be prepared/cooked/warmed or ingredients for making beverages, e.g. storage containers for flour, sugar, coffee beans, ground coffee, tea leaves or rice, storage boxes for leftovers

storing prepared/cooked/warmed food or beverages, e.g. thermally insulated vessels or flasks

Devices for storing food therefore include:

Kitchen containers

Thermally insulated vessels, e.g. flasks, jugs or jars

Relationship between large subject matter areas

This subclass is primarily intended for domestic kitchen equipment for preparing/cooking/warming food. Preparing/cooking/warming foodstuff on an industrial scale is not covered by this subclasses and will be classified in the following places:

subclass A01J for machines or implements for shaping butter or the like used in dairies, e.g. for forming slabs of butter

subclass A21B for bakers’ ovens, machines or equipment for industrial baking

subclass A23J for industrial machines for opening eggs

subclass A23N for machines for preparing foodstuffs or fruit in bulk, e.g. peeling vegetables or fruit in bulk

Implements for table use will be classified in A47G.

Subclass A47J further covers the domestic making of (hot) beverages, in particular the preparing of tea or coffee by extraction with hot water. Other apparatuses and methods for preparing beverages mostly on industrial scale are classified in the following subclasses:

subclass A23F for the industrial making of coffee or tea

subclass C12C for brewing of beer

subclass C12G for preparation of wine or other alcoholic beverages

subclass B67D for dispensing beverages, e.g. on draught

subclass A23L for preparation of non-alcoholic beverages, e.g. by adding ingredients to fruit or vegetable juices

In relation to the subclasses that cover domestic stoves or ranges for solid or liquid fuel in general, this subclass is an application place. Features of stoves or ranges which are of general interest should be classified in the relevant general place, such as F24B, F24C.

Storing arrangements in A47J does not cover cabinets or racks in general even with provision for attachment of kitchen implements. This subject matter is classified with the subclass for cabinets or general details of furniture A47B. Devices for fastening household utensils are classified in A47G. Storage containers (both thermally insulated as without thermal insulation) in general are classified in B65D.

References

Limiting references:

Apparatus for treating milk in dairies, e.g. appliances for preventing or destroying milk foam, aerating or de-aerating milk

A01J 11/00

Hand devices for forming slabs of butter in dairies

A01J 19/00

Machines for forming slaps of butter in diaries

A01J 21/00

Apparatus for smoking food

A23B 4/044

Machines or apparatus for treating harvested fruit or vegetables in bulk

A23N

Machines or apparatus for extracting juice

A23N 1/00

Machines for coring or stoning fruits in bulk

A23N 3/00

Machines for stoning fruits or removing seed containing sections

A23N 4/00

Peeling vegetables or fruit in bulk

A23N 7/00

Machines for removing stalks from fruit

A23N 15/00

Making ice cream

A23G 9/00

Washing or rinsing machines for crockery or table-ware

A47L 15/00

Apparatus or implements used in manual washing or cleaning of crockery, table-ware, cooking-ware or the like

A47L 17/00

Drying devices for crockery or table-ware, e.g. tea-cloths

A47L 19/00

Polishing of table-ware, e.g. knives, forks, spoons

A47L 21/00

Table devices or equipment, e.g. table ware

A47G

Brewing of beer

C12C

Preparation of wine or other alcoholic beverages

C12G

Traveling cookers heated by gaseous fuels

F24C 3/14

Domestic stoves or ranges

F24B, F24C

Microwave ovens

F24C 7/02, H05B 6/64

Induction heating hobs

H05B 6/12

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Lunch boxes, picnic boxes or the like

A45C 11/20

Table service

A47G 19/00

Vessels or pots for table use

A47G 19/12

Coffee or tea pots

A47G 19/14

Tea infusers, e.g. tea eggs

A47G 19/16

Table ware

A47G 21/00

Devices for fastening household utensils, or the like, to tables, walls, or the like

A47G 29/087

Weighing spoons

G01G 19/56

Informative references:

Bakers’ ovens, non-domestic baking apparatus or equipment

A21B

Machines or equipment for making or processing dough; handling baked articles made from dough

A21C

Provers, i.e. apparatus permitting dough to rise

A21C 13/00

Preparation of non-alcoholic beverages, e.g. by adding ingredients to fruit or vegetable juices

A23L 2/00

Machines for roasting coffee in bulk

A23N 12/08

Racks or shelf units

A47B

Kitchen cabinets

A47B 77/00

Disintegrating, e.g. mincing

B02C

Spouts in general

B05B 1/22

Hand-held cutting tools not otherwise provided for

B26B

Cutting characterised by the cutting member or nature of the cut performed; Details of apparatus for severing

B26D

Containers with thermal insulation in general

B65D 81/38

Dispensing beverages on draught

B67D 1/00

Removing cooking fumes from domestic stoves or ranges

F24C 15/20

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

cooking

boiling, braising, steaming, pressure cooking, frying, baking, roasting, grilling or barbecuing food

note: in A47J/27 cooking includes only boiling, braising, steaming and pressure cooking

boiling

cooking food by submerging it in boiling water, or other water-based liquid (stock, milk); keeping liquid foodstuff (or water) at a boiling temperature

braising

cooking food with moist heat , e.g. stewing, pot roasting

steaming

cooking food in an atmosphere with hot steam

pressure cooking

cooking food at a pressure different than that of the atmosphere

super-atmospheric cooking

pressure cooking at a pressure higher than that of the atmosphere

note: often called "pressure cooking"

sub-atmospheric cooking

pressure cooking at a pressure lower than that of the atmosphere, e.g. by using a pump to remove the air from the cooking environment

note: sometimes called "vacuum cooking", although "vacuum cooking" refers more often to vacuum flask cooking

vacuum flask cooking

cooking food inside a removable pot sealed inside a vacuum flask for prolonged heating with minimum heat loss

frying

Cooking food in hot oil or fat, e.g. pan frying, deep frying

Frying inside a frying pan or wok

cooking food on a hot surface such as a frying pan, wok, griddle or grill pan, usually in a thin layer of hot oil or fat

note:

frying pan: called skillet in American English

griddle: a sheet of metal of appropriate thickness with a flat frying surface

grill pan: frying pan which has raised metal ridges for the food to sit on (often used for "frying" without the use of oil or fat, to get a pattern similar than that achieved by direct barbecuing, called "grilling" in American English)

deep (fat) frying

cooking food by submerging it in hot oil or fat

baking

cooking food by dry heat acting by conduction

note: normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones; baked food products are dough-based products like pastries, cakes or bread, or baked potatoes, baked apples, baked beans,...

roasting

cooking food with dry high heat, in an oven or near hot coals

note: usually resulting in a caramelised surface; the food surface is often basted during roasting

grilling

applying direct dry high heat to food, most commonly from above, with heat transfer primarily via thermal radiation, e.g. by using the upper heating element of an electric oven, or inside a drawer below the flame of a gas oven

note: grilled food products are for instance the grilled cheese on top of lasagna or the caramelised surface of crème brûlée; grilling is called "broiling" in American English

barbecuing

cooking food with a "barbecue" by the heat and hot gases of a fire, smoking wood or hot coals of charcoal, or of an electrical heating element

note: depending on the heat source, the barbecues are called gas barbecues, electrical barbecues or charcoal barbecues

barbecuing, direct method

barbecuing food directly over high heat, e.g. food is cooked on a grate directly over hot charcoal, or food is cooked in a frying vessel on a grate directly over hot charcoal

note: this method is sometimes called "grilling" in American English; meat is often marinated before direct barbecuing

barbecuing

barbecuing food using indirect heat and/or hot smoke, i.e. a slow barbecue-cooking process, e.g. food is cooked on a grate with the coals dispersed to the sides of the food, or at a significant distance of the food

note: this method is sometimes called "barbecuing" in American English

smoking

flavoring, cooking or preserving food by exposing it to the smoke from burning or smoldering plant materials, most often wood

note: smokers are not classified in A47J, only smoking inserts as accessories for a barbecue

cooking by smoking on a barbecue

very slow cooking of food on a barbecue with hot smoke which is drawn past the food by convection

toasting

browning sliced bread by exposure to dry radiant heat, i.e. grilling of sliced bread on both sides

warming

raising temperature of food, not cooking it

grating

disintegrating e.g. cheese with tool with several sharp protrusions; different from slicing, no specific shape of cut particles of food

A47J 27/05 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Tier cooking-vessels in general

A47J 27/13

A47J 27/082 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Inserts for cooking-vessels in general

A47J 36/16

A47J 27/212 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Signalling milk-boiling vessels

A47J 27/57

A47J 27/56 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Preventing foaming in boiling in general

B01B 1/02

A47J 31/18 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Infusing bags

A47G 19/16

A47J 33/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Other travelling cookers heated by petroleum, gasoline, spirit, or the like

F24C

A47J 36/14 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Spouts in general

B05B 1/22

A47J 36/38 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Removing cooking fumes from domestic stoves or ranges

F24C 15/20

A47J 41/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Containers with thermal insulation in general

B65D 81/38

A47J 42/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

As part of universal or multi-purpose machines

A47J 43/04, A47J 44/00

Grinding or pulverising in general

B02C

A47J 42/48 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Attachment of household machines in general to tables, walls, or the like

A47J 45/02

A47J 42/52 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Coffee-roasting devices per se

A23N 12/00

A47J 45/02 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

For household utensils

A47G 29/087

A47J 45/08 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Of detachable type

A47J 45/07

A47L - Definition fr

References

Limiting references:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Pneumatically taking-up undesirable matter from roads or like surfaces

E01H 1/08

A61B - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Apparatus, instruments, implements, or processes that are either specially adapted or intended to be solely utilized for evaluating, examining, measuring, monitoring, studying, or testing particular characteristics and aspects of either living or dead human and animal bodies for medical purposes (i.e., diagnosis). Diagnosis consists of scrutinizing the following characteristics or aspects of bodies:

internal or external portions of the bodies (e.g., lungs),

abnormal bodily conditions (e.g., sickness, broken bones, detecting foreign bodies, pregnancy),

mental conditions (e.g., psychotechnics), and

bodily functions (e.g., heart beat, vision).

Apparatus, instruments, implements, or processes that are either specially adapted or intended to be solely utilized for medical procedures employing physical actions (e.g., laser cutting, pressure of fluid) on portions of human or animal bodies to correct, enhance, or inspect (e.g., autopsies) them for medical purposes (i.e., surgery). Surgery consists of the following medical procedures:

repositioning (e.g. aligning broken bones, opening wounds) parts of bodies,

stabilizing (e.g., inserting bone pins) to prevent harmful movement of parts of bodies,

repairing (e.g., fastening skin together, removing cancerous tissue) bodies,

facilitating the occurrence of naturally occurring bodily functions (e.g., child birth, passing kidney stones) that are out of the ordinary,

introducing, collecting, or removing cells and organs (e.g., inseminations, tissue sampling, hair transplants, skin grafting, biopsies, organ harvesting) to or from bodies, and

introducing or taking out foreign objects (e.g., replacement heart valves, bullets) to or from bodies.

Apparatus, instruments, implements, or processes that are either specially adapted or intended to be solely utilized in procedures for identifying individual human beings (e.g., finger printing, by recognition of shape or dimension of body part) using unique characteristics of their bodies or behaviour (i.e. identification).

Adjunct or supplementary means specially adapted for use in, or intended for exclusive use in, diagnosis, surgery, or identification. These adjunct or supplementary means contribute to the effectiveness (e.g., surgical drapes) or safety (e.g., operating gloves) of a medical procedure, but may or may not (e.g., protective covers for scalpels) themselves involve any direct contact with a body.

Components of diagnosis, surgery, or identification means with structural features limiting their usefulness to medical procedures.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Several subclasses provide for subject matter that is used for 'diagnosis'. The relationship between these subclasses with regard to the type of 'diagnosis' covered by each is as follows:

Subclass A61B provides for diagnosis in general.

A61B also provides for any surgical or identification apparatus or methods when

the apparatus or methods are combined with diagnosis means or

the apparatus can be used for diagnosis and either surgery or identification.

A61B additionally provides for any diagnostic apparatus or methods combined with therapy apparatus or method normally covered by subclass A61H or A61N when

the same apparatus or methods are used for both purposes or

combined together but only useable separately.

Subclass A61H provides for diagnostic means or steps that are combined with massage and physical therapy apparatus or methods used for the treatment of disease or disability (i.e., an abnormal condition of the body) by utilization of direct mechanical energy; when the diagnostic means or step is used solely for operational feedback purposes to enhance therapy.

Subclass A61N provides for diagnostic means or steps that are combined with medical treatment therapy apparatus or methods used for the treatment of disease or disability by utilization of forms of energy other than direct mechanical energy; when the means or step is used solely for operational feedback purposes to enhance therapy.

References

Limiting references:

Tools or instruments for operating on the mouth portion of a human being (e.g., tooth saws)

A61C 3/00

Saliva removers combined with instruments for opening or keeping open the mouth (e.g., mouth props, tongue guards, tongue depressors, cheek spreaders)

A61C 17/10

Medical instruments, implements, tools, or methods specially adapted so as to limit their usefulness to only animals

A61D

Methods or devices for treatment of eyes, putting in contact lenses, eye surgery, or correcting squinting

A61F 9/00

Ear surgery

A61F 11/00

Physical therapy apparatus that includes diagnostic feedback means for influencing operation

A61H

Syringes and suction, pumping or atomizing devices for medical use (e.g. cups, breast relievers, irrigators, sprays, powder insufflators, atomizers, inhalers), apparatus for general or local anesthetics, devices or methods for causing a change in the state of consciousness, catheters, dilators, and apparatus for introducing medicines into the body other than orally

A61M

Non-surgical treatment of medical conditions or physical injuries by utilization of forms of energy not directly generated by mechanical apparatus, devices, or means that includes diagnostic feedback means for influencing its operation

A61N

Clinical thermometers for measuring the temperature of body parts

G01K 5/00

Informative references:

Operating tables and auxiliary devices for these tables

A61G 13/00

Operating chairs

A61G 15/00

Apparatus for artificial respiration or heart stimulation

A61H 31/00

Containers specially adapted for medical or pharmaceutical purposes

A61J 1/00

Devices for administering medicines orally

A61J 7/00

Materials for surgical sutures or for ligaturing blood vessels

A61L 17/00

Surgical adhesives or cements and adhesives for colostomy devices

A61L 24/00

Materials for colostomy devices

A61L 28/00

Measuring or testing processes involving enzymes or micro organisms

C12Q 1/00

Analyzing samples of biological material

G01N

Obtaining records using waves other than optical waves and viewing such records by using optical means

G03B 42/00

A61B 1/24 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Mouth openers for animals

A61D 15/00

A61B 3/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Devices for treatment of the eyes

A61F 9/00

Exercisers for the eyes

A61H 5/00

Optical systems in general

G02B

A61B 3/04 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Lenses per se

G02C 7/02

A61B 3/125 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Contact lenses per se

G02C 7/04

A61B 5/0215 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Solid probes

A61B 17/00, A61M 25/09, A61M 29/00

Catheters

A61M 25/00

A61B 5/025 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Electric stethoscopes

A61B 7/04

A61B 5/04 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Electrically conductive preparations for use in therapy or testing in vivo

A61K 50/00

A61B 5/055 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Arrangements or instruments for measuring magnetic variables involving electronic or nuclear magnetic resonance, in general

G01R 33/20

A61B 5/103 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Measuring aids for tailors

A41H 1/00

A61B 5/117 - Definition fr

References

Limiting references:

Methods or arrangements for reading or recognizing patterns, e.g. fingerprints

G06K 9/00

Recognizing, identifying, or verifying the identity of human beings by analyzing their voice or speech

G10L 17/00

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system: (style "S" for this standard text only)

Identification means for patients specially adapted for use in surgery or diagnosis

A61B 90/90

Informative references:

Dental impression cups

A61C 9/00

Articulators

A61C 11/00

A61B 5/22 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Measuring of work or force, in general

G01L

A61B 6/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

X-ray contrast preparations

A61K 49/04

Preparations containing radioactive substances

A61K 51/00

X-ray photographic processes

G03C 5/16

X-ray apparatus or circuits therefor

H05G 1/00

Irradiation devices

G21K

Radiation therapy per se

A61N 5/00

A61B 6/02 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Stereoscopic photography

G03B 35/00

A61B 6/03 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Data processing equipment for medical or biological purposes

G06F 17/00, G06F 19/00

A61B 6/10 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Protection against dangerous radiation in general

G21F

A61B 8/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Ultrasound therapy

A61N 7/00

Systems using the reflection or reradiation of acoustic waves, e.g. acoustic imaging

G01S 15/00

A61B 8/06 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Measuring volume flow in general

G01F, G01F 1/66, G01F 1/72

Measuring speed of fluids in general

G01P 5/00

A61B 10/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Vaccination prophylaxis, vaccination therapy

A61B 17/20

Menstruation tables

G06C 3/00

A61B 17/02 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Drainage appliances for wounds

A61M 27/00

A61B 17/04 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Suture materials

A61L 17/00

A61B 17/06 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Nerve needles for teeth

A61C 5/02

A61B 17/10 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Containers, packaging elements or packages specially adapted for particular articles or with special means for dispensing contents

B65D 83/00, B65D 85/00

A61B 17/12 - Definition fr

References

Limiting references:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Specially adapted for vas deferens or fallopian tubes

A61F 6/20

Informative references:

Materials for ligaturing blood vessels

A61L 17/00

A61B 17/135 - Definition fr

References

Limiting references:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

For measuring blood pressure

A61B 5/022

Informative references:

Inflatable pressure pads

A61F 5/34

A61B 17/20 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Diagnosis by vaccination

A61B 10/00

A61B 17/22 - Definition fr

References

Limiting references:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

For biopsy

A61B 10/02

Gynaecological or obstetrical instruments or methods

A61B 17/42

Places in relation to which this subclass is residual:

Dilators

A61M 29/00

Informative references:

Ultrasound therapy

A61N 7/00

A61B 17/225 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Ultrasound therapy

A61N 7/00

A61B 17/42 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Dilators

A61M 29/00

A61B 17/425 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Specially adapted for use with animals

A61D 19/00

A61B 17/46 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

For animals

A61D 1/10

A61B 17/50 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Locating otherwise

A61B 5/06

Locating by radiation

A61B 6/00

A61B 17/56 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Orthopaedic methods or devices for non-surgical treatment of bones or joints

A61F 5/00

A61B 17/60 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Bandages, dressings or absorbent pads

A61F 13/00

A61B 18/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Electrically conductive preparations for use in therapy or testing in vivo, e.g conductive adhesives or gels to be used with electrodes

A61K 50/00

A61B 18/04 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Hyperthermia using electric or magnetic fields, radiation or ultrasound

A61N

A61B 50/10 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Supports for surgeons

A61B 90/60

Supports for patients

A61G 13/00, A61G 15/00

A61B 50/20 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Supports for surgical microscopes

A61B 90/25

Supports for devices illuminating a surgical field

A61B 90/35

Supports for surgical instruments

A61B 90/50

A61C - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Apparatus (i.e. instruments, implements, machines, structures, tools) or processes that are specially adapted for, or limited to use in, creating artificial teeth, mounting artificial teeth, supporting artificial teeth, or repairing artificial teeth or their supports (e.g. denture articulators), and wherein the dental prostheses made or fixed by the apparatus or process are used exclusively for humans or both humans and animals.

Apparatus or methods utilized to prevent, discourage, or cure oral diseases (i.e. diseases occurring exclusively within the oral cavity such as enamel caries or periodontitis) in humans or both humans and animals.

Apparatus, devices, or methods used for one or more of the following:

correcting abnormalities or injuries that prevent the proper or desired bringing together of the cooperating surfaces of natural teeth, or their artificial replacements that are permanently affixed within the mouth, located on opposite jaws;

preserving or rectify the appropriate or desired relative positioning, separation gaps, or alignment of natural teeth; or

preventing or repairing damage to natural teeth or their appropriate or desired relative positioning, separation gaps, or alignment (e.g. devices that surround or cover teeth to prevent grinding).

Apparatus (i.e. instruments, implements, machines, structures, tools) or processes that are specially adapted for, or limited to use in, the treatment, reconstruction, removal, insertion, replacement, repair, transfixing or testing of either natural teeth, artificial teeth that are permanently affixed within the oral cavity, gums, or other portions of the oral cavity having an effect on their operation (e.g. portions of jawbone supporting teeth), and wherein the apparatus or processes are used exclusively for humans or both humans and animals.

Apparatus, devices, or methods used for

sanitizing the oral cavity or dental prostheses (e.g. gargling devices, washing means);

removing foreign matter (e.g. food) or undesirable naturally occurring matter (e.g. plaque, calculus) from the surfaces of teeth, gums, or dental prostheses; or

stimulating gums.

Dental prostheses devices or artificial dental implant devices per se or their components (e.g. artificial teeth, mounting or attaching means for artificial teeth, devices for supplementing jawbones, crowns) used within the oral cavity.

Dental implants formed from biological material or consisting of oral cavity parts originating either from a donor source or from the patient that are intended to be introduced, or reintroduced, into the patient’s oral cavity to correct a dental or oral hygiene problem (e.g. modified natural teeth or jawbone material from a donor).

Adjunct, auxiliary, or supplementary means or structures that contribute to the effectiveness or safety of dental procedures or their products and are specially adapted to be used either:

during dentistry procedures (e.g. saliva removers, medication suppliers, drainage treatment);

with the products of dental procedures (e.g. artificial teeth supports); or

during the making of dental prostheses (e.g. stands for impression trays).

Specially adapted components of apparatus having structural features limiting them to use with at least one of the dental apparatus types specified above (e.g. dust collectors, illumination devices).

Accessories specially adapted for use with at least one of the above types of apparatus, means, or structures (e.g. devices for measuring the length of the root canal of a tooth).

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Subclass A61C(this subclass) provides for devices used by others to clean an individual’s teeth. It also provides for devices used by individuals upon their own teeth to remove foreign matter from the surface of their teeth or enhance the appearance of their teeth when the device is not specifically provided for elsewhere.

Subclass A46Bcovers manually moved or powered brushes, and in particular toothbrushes, used for cleaning that are not specifically provided for elsewhere. It also covers arrangements of brush bristles per se and the handle structure for brushes.

Subclass A61Dcovers devices used by individuals to remove foreign matter from the surface of the teeth of animals or enhance the appearance of the teeth of animals when the device is not specifically provided for elsewhere and is limited to use solely on animals.

Subclass A61Kcovers preparations that are used for medical, dental, or cosmetic purposes in the oral cavity.

References

Limiting references:

Manual toothbrushes

A46B

Positioning or arrangements of toothbrush bristles per se for manual or powered toothbrushes

A46B 9/04

Instruments for depressing the tongue

A61B 13/00

Tongue scrapers

A61B 17/24

Dental apparatus and methods peculiar to animals

A61D 5/00

Preparations used in dentistry for purposes other than cleaning

A61K 6/00

Preparations used for cosmetic cleaning of teeth or mouth

A61K 8/00

Dental or operating chairs

A61G 15/00

Dental work stands

A61G 15/14

Dental hypodermic syringes

A61M 5/178

Informative references:

Non-dental implants or prostheses

A61F

Apparatus for passive exercising

A61H 1/00

Gum massage

A61H 13/00

Exercising apparatus specially adapted for particular parts of the body

A63B 23/00

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Oral cavity

The part of human or animal mouth that includes the inside lining of the lips and cheeks (buccal mucosa), the teeth or their artificial permanently affixed replacements, the gums, the front two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth below the tongue, the bony roof of the mouth (hard palate), and the area immediately behind the wisdom teeth (retromolar trigone).

A61C 1/18 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Flexible shafts in general

F16C

Clutches in general

F16D

A61C 13/08 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Kilns for artificial teeth

F27B

A61C 13/225 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Bases for prostheses

A61C 13/01

A61C 13/38 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Implanting tools

A61C 8/00

A61C 17/10 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Mouth opening devices per se

A61B 1/24

Tongue depressors per se

A61B 13/00

A61D - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Apparatus (i.e. instruments, implements, machines, structures, tools) or processes for enhancing or controlling the breeding of companion, domesticated, exotic, or wild animals (e.g. artificial vaginas, uterus disinfecting means), wherein the apparatus or processes are specially adapted to be only usable with animals.

Apparatus (i.e. instruments, implements, machines, structures, tools) or processes limited to use in the treatment, reconstruction, removal or replacement of the teeth, gums, or other parts within the mouth of companion, domesticated, exotic, or wild animals for medical purposes (i.e. dentistry), wherein the apparatus or processes are specially adapted to be only usable with animals and for dental procedures.

Apparatus (i.e. instruments, implements, machines, structures, tools) or processes for introducing medication (e.g. vaccines) or other material having an effect on bodily functions (e.g. seminal fluids, euthanasia poisons, stimulants) into or onto the bodies of companion, domesticated, exotic, or wild animals, wherein the apparatus or processes are specially adapted to be only usable with animals and for medical purposes.

Apparatus (i.e. instruments, implements, machines, structures, tools) or processes for medical procedures that employ physical actions on portions of companion, domesticated, exotic, or wild animal bodies to correct, enhance, inspect, or treat them (i.e. surgery), wherein the apparatus or processes are specially adapted to be only usable with animals and for medical procedures. Animal surgery consists of the following medical procedures:

repositioning (e.g. aligning broken bones, opening wounds) or removing (e.g. cropping tails) parts of animal bodies;

stabilizing (e.g. inserting bone pins) to prevent harmful movement of parts of animal bodies;

repairing (e.g. cauterizing beaks) animal bodies;

facilitating the occurrence of naturally occurring bodily functions (e.g. degassing stomachs, death) that are out of the ordinary;

introducing, collecting, or removing cells or organs to or from animal bodies; and

introducing or taking out foreign objects (e.g. bullets) to or from animal bodies.

Apparatus (i.e. instruments, implements, machines, structures, tools) or processes for evaluating, examining, measuring, monitoring, studying, or testing particular characteristics and aspects of the bodies of companion, domesticated, exotic, or wild animals (i.e. diagnosis), wherein the apparatus or processes are specially adapted to be only usable with animals and for medical purposes. Animal diagnosis consists of scrutinizing the following characteristics or aspects of animal bodies:

internal (e.g. lungs) or external (e.g. hooves) portions of the bodies,

abnormal bodily conditions (e.g. detecting foreign bodies),

inappropriate mental conditions (e.g. neurobiological-based compulsions or unacceptable psychological behavior), and

bodily functions (e.g. vision).

Implements, devices, or materials that are:

designed to be placed on or cover sores (e.g. blisters, boils) or wounds (e.g. cuts, abrasions) for extended periods of time (i.e. at least several minutes, but frequently for days) during their healing process to absorb fluids from, protect, or medicate them (e.g. poultices) and

specially adapted to be only usable with companion, domesticated, exotic, or wild animals.

Adjunct, auxiliary, or supplementary structures or means (e.g. operating tables, clean rooms) that are specially adapted to be only usable with companion, domesticated, exotic, or wild animals during their diagnosis, dentistry, surgery, or for other medical purposes. These adjunct, auxiliary, or supplementary structures or means contribute to the effectiveness (e.g. washing devices) or safety (e.g. handling gloves, mouth openers) of medical procedures, but may or may not themselves involve direct contact with the animal's body (e.g. thermometer holder).

Specially adapted components of apparatus having structural features limiting them to use with diagnostic, dental, or surgical apparatus for animals.

Accessories specially adapted for use with the above types of apparatus, means, or structures.

All other types of apparatus (i.e. instruments, implements, machines, structures, tools) or processes that are not specifically provided for in another subclass which are

utilized for medical treatment of companion, domesticated, exotic, or wild animals,

typically used only in an animal hospital-like facility or by animal medical personnel, and

only useable with animals.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Embodiments of apparatus, instruments, implements, structures, tools, or processes that are used on both humans and animals (i.e. have a more general utility) for maintaining their health or for other medical purposes are classified in another subclass based on their human usage and not in subclass A61D.

References

Limiting references:

Apparatus or methods normally used by non-medical personnel in the care of animals to maintain their health e.g. animal husbandry

A01K

Animal feed bags

A01K 5/00

Sucking apparatus for young stock

A01K 9/00

Animal dehorners

A01K 17/00

Apparatus to help wean animals

A01K 19/00

Devices for assisting or preventing mating

A01K 21/00

Animal feeding-stuffs with antibiotics

A23K 20/195

Mouth openers for use on humans and animals

A61B 1/24

A61D 1/02 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Milking catheters

A01J 3/00

A61D 3/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Apparatus for fettering animals to be slaughtered

A22B 1/00

A61D 7/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Syringes

A61M

A61D 9/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Fetlock-joint protecting rings

A01K 13/00

A61D 11/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Accessories for milking machines for treating of udders or teats

A01J 7/04

A61D 15/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Fetlock-joint protecting rings or devices to prevent crib-biting

A01K 13/00

A61F - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Apparatus, devices or methods for physically correcting or altering the body of patients or disabled persons that are directly and for prolonged periods of time (i.e. not just during acute exceptional circumstances) used on or in the body of the patient or the disabled person:

Stents and similar devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body;

Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body that are either implantable into the body (e.g. blood vessels, eye parts, heart valves, bones, joints) or not implantable in the body (e.g. mammary prostheses, artificial arms, hands, legs or feet or parts thereof);

Specially adapted electrical, bioelectrical or fluid operating or control means for prostheses or sphincters;

Specially adapted means for connecting prostheses with or to the body (e.g. bandages, harnesses, sockets, stockings for the limb stump);

Specially adapted means for protecting prostheses;

Filters implantable into blood vessels;

Lengthening pieces for natural legs;

Orthopaedic methods or devices for non-surgical treatment of bones or joints, e.g. splints, casts, corsets, devices for stretching including equipment for beds or treatment tables, medical insertions for shoes, pressure pads, suspensory bandages;

Methods or devices for physically treating or correcting of the eyes (e.g. eye surgery using laser);

Apparatus specially adapted for guiding the blind by supplementing or replacing their visual perception;

Methods or devices for treatment of the ears, e.g. surgical.

Methods or devices (e.g. head or eye-gaze-direction actuated control devices, oral communication actuated control devices) for enabling patients or disabled persons to operate independent apparatus or machines (i.e. apparatus such as room lights or doors that is not a part of, or used in conjunction with the functioning of, artificial or natural parts of their body) without the application of direct force from the part of the human body that would normally be used by individuals for controlling operation of the independent apparatus or machine such as a hand, foot or their artificial equivalents.

Contraceptive devices for males (e.g. condoms, vas deferens occluders) or females (e.g. pessaries, intra-uterine type, fallopian occluders).

Devices for medical or hygienic care of living individuals that are worn by the individual or directly contact the body of the individual during their care:

Devices worn by the patient for reception of urine, faeces; colostomy devices;

Bandages or dressings, e.g. plasters, elastic stockings;

Absorbent pads, e.g. sanitary towels, absorbent garments, e.g. diapers, tampons, e.g. catamenial tampons, surgical swabs; supporting and fastening means for pads.

Heating or cooling devices for medical or therapeutic treatment of the human body and for body cavities, e.g. compresses, warming pads, pans or mats, hot water bottles, ice bags.

Protective devices for the eyes, e.g. goggles, eye-masks worn to prevent particulates or chemicals from striking the eyes.

Devices for inserting contact lenses.

Protective devices for the ears, e.g. ear plugs or earmuffs.

Auxiliary appliances for wound dressings; dispensing containers for dressings or bandages; packages or wrapping arrangements for used pads, e.g. for disposal.

Containers having various emergency medical supplies such as bandages, simple medical tools, and medicines (i.e. first-aid kits) that are intended to be used for administering initial treatment to injured or sick individuals.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

If an apparatus, method, device, or material is usable for both humans and animals for the same purpose and in the same manner, and it is otherwise proper for this subclass, classification is made only in subclass A61F. Similar devices or processes to those covered by subclass A61F that are usable exclusively for animals or are used in animals in a different manner or for different purposes than for humans, are classified in subclass A61D.

Surgical apparatus or processes in general are covered by subclass A61B.

Subclass A61H provides for massage, chiropractic, or physical therapy apparatus or processes used for the treatment of disease, injuries or disability (i.e. an abnormal condition of the body) by utilization of direct mechanical energy.

Chemical and materialaspects of prostheses, structures inserted into tubular structures of human bodies, bandages, dressings, absorbent pads or surgical articles are covered by subclass A61L.

With regard to human organs and their parts, the exact distinction between the artificial devices implantable into human bodies that are proper for subclass A61F and those proper for subclass A61M is somewhat imprecise. Therefore, for analogous situations that are not specifically covered by existing groups of these subclasses, the following listings are intended to provide guidance.

Subclass A61F provides for the following replacements or substitutes for internal body organs or their parts: hollow or tubular parts of organs (e.g. bladders, tracheae, bronchi, heart valves and blood vessels, bile ducts), structural supporting or maintaining devices for such parts (e.g. stents), artificial eyes and artificial ears.

Subclass A61M provides for the following replacements or substitutes for internal body organs or their parts: artificial hearts (based on catchword index), artificial livers, artificial lungs, artificial pancreas, artificial kidneys and catheters in general.

Devices for introducing media into or onto the body, devices for taking media from the body are also covered by subclass A61M.

Spectacles, sunglasses, contact lenses or goggles insofar as they have the features of vision correction or protection against high levels of visible and ultraviolet light are covered by subclass G02C.

References

Limiting references:

Brassieres

A41C 3/00

Cosmetic articles, e.g. wigs, hair pieces

A41G

Caps with means for protecting the eyes or the ears

A42B 1/06

Ordinary arch supports for shoes

A43B 7/14

Artificial nails

A45D 31/00

Heating or cooling means in connection with bedsteads or mattresses

A47C 21/00

Surgical instruments

A61B 17/00

Devices for closing wounds, or holding wounds closed

A61B 17/03

Dental prostheses

A61C 13/00

Chiropractic methods or devices

A61H 1/00

Appliances for aiding patients or disabled persons to walk

A61H 3/00

Massage of the genitals

A61H 19/00

Chemical aspects of contraception

A61K

Chemical aspects of, or use of materials for, bandages, dressings or absorbent pads

A61L 15/00, A61L 26/00

Adhesives for costolomy devices

A61L 24/00

Surgical adhesives or cements

A61L 24/00

Materials for prostheses

A61L 27/00

Materials for costolomy devices

A61L 28/00

Artificial hearts, kidneys

A61M 1/00

Irrigators

A61M 3/02

Drainage appliances for wounds

A61M 27/00

Dilators

A61M 29/00

Valves specially adapted for medical use

A61M 39/00

Making artificial eyes from organic plastic material

B29C, B29D 11/02

Arm rests for use as writing aids

B43L 15/00

Arrangements of tyre-inflating valves to tyres or rims

B60C 29/00

Safety devices for welding in general

F16P 1/06

Removable contact lenses

G02C 7/04

Sunglasses or goggles having the same features as spectacles

G02C

Electric heating elements

H05B

Informative references:

Undergarments

A41B 9/00

Baby linen

A41B 13/00

Corsets or girdles

A41C 1/00

Surgical drapes

A61B 46/00

Transdermal drug delivery patches

A61K 9/70

Exercising apparatus specially adapted for particular parts of the body

A63B 23/00

Goggles for swimming

A63B 33/00

Diving masks

B63C 11/12

Materials for prostheses

A61L 27/00

Balloon catheters

A61M 25/10

Dilators

A61M 29/00

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Absorbent articles

Articles adapted to absorb liquid excreted by the body.

Dilator

A (surgical) device or instrument used to dilate, distend, enlarge, expand, stretch an opening, organ, passage, tube, canal or cavity of a human or animal body (e.g. urethrotomy, tracheotomy, nasal, anal or cervix (Hegar's dilator) or vaginal dilation, bougienage, percutaneous dilation of tissues (Byrd dilator), whereas stents are not dilators but prostheses for providing patency, or preventing collapsing of tubular structures of the body.

Disabled person

A human being that is unable to do certain basic physical tasks (e.g. walking) due to a physical or mental impairment/condition.

Patient

A human being awaiting or undergoing any form of (a) medical care (e.g. testing) or treatment by medical staff (e.g. doctors, dentists, midwives, chiropractors), or (b) physical tending (e.g. feeding) by care giver (e.g. hospice or nursing home staff) due to impairment.

Stent

Balloon- or self-expandable tubular device for use in the treatment of duct-like organs typified for example by a blood vessel, biliary tract, urinary tract, digestive tract, and the like providing patency.

Stent graft

Stent with a tubular member made of a synthetic resin affixed to the inside or outside of the stent.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the expression "device for fluid management" is often used with the meaning of incontinence article.

A61F 2/07 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Stent-grafts for blood vessels. Stent-grafts are tubular grafts with stents embedded therein or attached to the graft material. The stent-graft for blood vessels is usually deployed within an aneurysm. The stent anchors the graft to the blood vessel wall. The graft is usually made from fabric material.

References

Informative references:

Stent-grafts for tubular structures of the body other than blood vessels

A61F 2/04

A61F 2/82 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Stents with tubular structures deployed within a stenosis in order to widen and support the vessel. The stent is usually made from a rigid material, e.g. metal or polymer.

References

Limiting references:

Instruments for closing wounds, or holding wounds closed

A61B 17/03

Dilators

A61M 29/00

Stent-grafts for tubular structures of the body other than blood vessels

A61F 2/04

Stent-grafts for blood vessels

A61F 2/07

Instruments for placement or removal of stents or stent-grafts

A61F 2/95

A61F 2/856 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Single tubular stent with a passage in side of the stent for allowing access to secondary lumen (see passage 60 in the example drawing).

1. A61F0002856000_0.gif

A61F 2/89 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Stent rings which are connected in order to allow flexibility of the whole structure (see connectors 4 between stent rings 2 in the example drawing).

1. A61F0002890000_0.gif

A61F 2/90 - Definition fr

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the words "net", "net-like", "mesh" and "mesh-like" are often used as synonyms.

A61F 2/91 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Net- or mesh-like stents made from perforated sheet material or tubes. Perforated sheet material or tubes are created by methods including, for example, laser cutting, etching or some other techniques.

1. A61F0002910000_0.gif

A61F 2/915 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Stents having a meander or wave-like pattern. The stent comprises several meander bands. Each meander band forms peaks and throughs. The bands are connected to each other by struts (see connector 50 between bands 40 and 60 in the example drawing) or directly connected without struts.

1. A61F0002915000_0.gif

A61F 2/92 - Definition fr

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the words "rolled-up" and "coiled" are often used as synonyms.

A61F 2/95 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Instruments for closing wounds, or holding wounds closed

A61B 17/03

Catheters; hollow probes

A61M 25/00

A61F 5/02 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Arm-rests for use as writing aids

B43L 15/00

A61F 5/34 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Connection of valves to inflatable elastic bodies

B60C 29/00

A61F 5/458 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Connection of valves to inflatable elastic bodies

B60C 29/00

A61F 7/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Electric heating elements

H05B

A61F 9/00 - Definition fr

References

Informative references:

Appliances for aiding patients or disabled persons to walk

A61H 3/00

A61G - Definition fr

Definition statement

This place covers:

Specially adapted vehicles (e.g., ambulances), handling apparatus (e.g., wheelchair lifts), or methods or devices (e.g., stretchers) for moving patients or disabled persons who are passive participants in their relocation (e.g., the persons are handled in a manner similar to loads).

Personal conveyances

Specially adapted structures (e.g., hospital or treatment rooms for medical purposes, baby incubators) or devices (e.g., bedpans, hospital beds, trapeze or pull-up bars) used

by patients or disabled persons for their personal physical needs and convenience or

for controlling the local environment of patients or disabled persons during treatment or recovery.

Specially adapted supporting surfaces for sustaining patients in a recumbent or seated position during recovery, surgery, dental work, or similar types of medical treatment.

Funeral devices

Auxiliary appliances (e.g., trolleys for medicine) or accessories (e.g., prescription list) specially adapted for use with the other invention information covered by this subclass.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

General relationship of A61G with subclasses for care or alteration of the human body

A61G does not cover apparatus or methods that are directly used on an individual's body to perform medical care and therapy or to alter it after death. The types of medical care, therapy, and body alterations not covered by A61G consist of:

treating a part of the body (e.g., filling teeth - A61C),

monitoring the body (e.g., eye testing - A61B),

determining a medical condition or illness of the body (e.g., radiation diagnosis – A61B),

investigating the body (e.g., autopsy equipment – A61B),

physically correcting or altering the body of living individuals (e.g., cataract surgery – A61F), and

physically preparing or altering the body of deceased individuals (e.g., embalming equipment - A01N, cremation furnaces – F23G).

Subclasses A01N, A61B, A61C, A61F, A61H, A61K, A61M, A61N, and F23G provide appropriately for apparatus or methods for medical care, therapy, or body alterations of these types. The specific classifications that are of interest for search purposes are specified in the references of A61G or its groups.

However, A61G does provide for specific structural modifications that merely facilitate the use of apparatus or methods of these types for medical care or therapy when in combination with subject matter that is otherwise appropriate for this subclass (e.g., special supports for patients with burns).

A61G also provides for life supporting or sustaining devices that control the local environment during treatment or recovery of patients (e.g., baby incubators).

General relationship of A61G with vehicles adapted for use by disabled

A61G covers personal conveyances and "vehicle-like" conveyances (e.g., wheelchairs, stretchers) that are explicitly designed for use by only a single patient or disabled person and intended to normally travel relatively short distances along the ground or similar support surface (e.g., hallway).

The subclass for a specific type of standard roadway vehicle (i.e., vehicles designed and intended for general thoroughfare usage over long distances, such as B62K for cycles) covers their vehicles that have been specially adapted for use by a disabled operator.

The subclass for a specific type of "special-utility" vehicle (i.e., vehicles that have another primary purpose other than transport, such as riding lawn mowers or forklifts) covers their vehicles that have been specially adapted for use by a disabled operator.

References

Limiting references:

Devices per se for enabling disabled persons to operate an apparatus or device not forming part of the body

A61F 4/00

Restraining devices for the body or for body parts and restraining shirts that are used for non-surgical treatment of patients' bones or joints

A61F 5/37

Equipment for beds, treatment tables, floor frames or the like for extending or stretching

A61F 5/045

Appliances for aiding invalids to walk about

A61H 3/00

Bathing devices for special therapeutic or hygienic purposes

A61H 33/00

For bicycles specially adapted for disabled riders

B62K 3/16

Inclined lifts associated with stairways for transporting disabled persons or wheelchairs

B66B 9/08

Illumination of operating tables

F21L,