Database on Flexibilities in the Intellectual Property System

1373 record(s) found.

Type of flexibility Country / Organization Title Update(s) by member states
Regulatory review exceptionUnited States of America35 USC § 271(e)
Patentability of substances existing in natureAlbaniaArt.4 no.7-11, Art. 5(2) (a) and(5) and Art.6 (2) and (3) of the Industrial Property Law Nr. 9977 of 07/07/2008
Patentability of substances existing in natureCosta RicaArticle 1 (2) (a) of the Law No.6867 of 25/04/1983 as last amended on 12/10/2000 and Article 78 1), 3), 6) of the Law no. 7788 of 23/04/1998 on Biodiversity
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsCosta RicaArticle 1 (2) (a) of the Law on Patents, Industrial Designs and Utility Models No. 6867 of 25/04/1983 as last amended by Law No. 8632 of 25/05/2008
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsHungaryArticle 1 (2) (c) and (3) of the Law on the Protection of Inventions by Patents No. XXXIII of 1995 (Consolidated text of 01/03/2011)
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsIcelandArticle 1 (2) 3) of the Patent Act No. 17 of 1991 as last amended by Act No. 167/2007
Exclusion from patentability of plantsCosta RicaArticle 1 (3) and (4) (c) and (d) of the Law No.6867 of 25/04/1983 as last amended on 12/10/2000
Compulsory licenses and government useEuropean UnionArticle 1 of the Regulation (EC) No 816/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 May 2006 on the compulsory licensing of patents relating to the manufacture of pharmaceutical products for export to countries with public health problems
Exclusion from patentability of plantsIcelandArticle 1 §§ 4 and 5 of the Patents Act No. 17/1991 as last amended by Law no. 167/2007
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsSwedenArticle 1(2) 3) of the Patents Act 1967:837, as amended up to 01/07/2011
Exhaustion of rightsEgyptArticle 10 (1) of the Law on the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights No. 82 of 2002
Research exceptionGreeceArticle 10 (2) a) of the Law 1733 of 1987 "Technology transfer, inventions and technological innovation"
Exclusion from patentability of plantsArmeniaArticle 10 (3) (a) and (e) of the Industrial Property Law of 10/06/2008
Regulatory review exceptionEgyptArticle 10 (5) of the Intellectual Property Law 82 of 2002
Exclusion from patentability of plantsBrazilArticle 10 (IX) and 18 of the Industrial Property Law No. 9.279 of 14/05/1996 (as last amended by Law No.10.196, of 14/02/2001)
Research exceptionEgyptArticle 10 no. 1 of the Intellectual Property Law 82 of 2002
Exhaustion of rightsBelarusArticle 10 of the Law No. 160-Z on Patents for Inventions, Utility Models and Industrial Designs of 16/12/ 2002
Research exceptionBelarusArticle 10 of the Law of the Republic of Belarus on "Patents for Inventions, Utility Models and Industrial Designs" of 16/12/2002, No. 160-Z
Substantive examinationMongoliaArticle 10 of the Patent Law of 25/06/1993, as last amended in 1999
Disclosure related flexibilitiesViet NamArticle 102 (1) and (2) (a) of the Law on Intellectual Property No. 50/2005/QH11 of 29/11/2005 as last amended by Order No. 12/2009/L-CTN of 29/06/2009 and Rule 15.2.(a) and (b) (i) of the Regulations thereto
Regulatory review exceptionPortugalArticle 102 c) of the Industrial Property Code (approved by Decree-Law 36/2003 of 5 March and amended by Decree-Law 318/2007 of 26 September, Decree- Law360/2007 of 2 November, Decree-Law 143/2008 of 25 July and Law 16/2008 of 1 April)
Research exceptionPortugalArticle 102 c) of the Industrial Property Code (approved by Decree-Law 36/2003 of 5/03/2003 as last amended by Law No. 16 of 01/04/2008)
Exhaustion of rightsPortugalArticle 103 of the Industrial Property Code, Decree-Law No. 36 of 05/03/2003 as last amended by Law No. 16 of 01/04/2008
Patentability of substances existing in natureEl SalvadorArticle 105 (a) of the Intellectual Property Legislative Decree No. 604 of 15/07/1993 No. 604 as last amended by Legislative Decree No. 912 of 14/12/2005
Compulsory licenses and government useRepublic of KoreaArticle 107 of the Patent Act promulgated on 28/11/1949 by Military Act No. 950, as last amended by Act No. 9381 of 30/01/2009
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementKenyaArticle 109 of the Industrial Property Act of 27/07/2001
Patentability of substances existing in natureSloveniaArticle 11 (1) of the Industrial Property Act of 23/05/2001 as last amended on 06/02/2006 and the Decree on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions of 2003
Patentability of substances existing in natureMauritiusArticle 11 (3) (a) and (f) of the Patents, Industrial Designs and Trademarks Act No. 25 of 2002
Exhaustion of rightsEl SalvadorArticle 116 (d) of the Legislative Decree No. 604 of 15/07/1993 on the Promotion and Protection of Intellectual Property Rights as last amended by Legislative Decree No. 912 of 14/12/2005
Research exceptionEl SalvadorArticle 116 b) and c) of the Legislative Decree No. 604 of 15/07/1993 on the Promotion and Protection of Intellectual Property Rights as last amended by Legislative Decree No. 912 of 14/12/2005
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementMontenegroArticle 119 of the Law on Patents of 31/10/2008
Patentability of substances existing in natureBelizeArticle 12 (1) (a) of the Patents Act (Ch. 253), No. 14 of 21/06/2000
Research exceptionAlgeriaArticle 12 (1) n. 1 of the Ordinance on Patents No. 03-07 of 19/07/2003
Exhaustion of rightsAlgeriaArticle 12 no.2 of the Patent Ordinance No. 03-07 of 19/07/2003
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsDemocratic Republic of the CongoArticle 12 of the Law No. 82-001 of 07/01/1982 on Industrial Property
Exhaustion of rightsUzbekistanArticle 12 of the Law on Inventions, Utility Models and Industrial Designs No. 1068-XII of 29/08/2002
Exhaustion of rightsKazakhstanArticle 12 of the Patent Act No. 427 of 16/07/1999
Research exceptionKazakhstanArticle 12 of the Patent Act of 16/07/1999
Compulsory licenses and government useKyrgyzstanArticle 12 of the Patent Law of 14/01/1998 as last amended in 2003
Research exceptionViet NamArticle 125 (2) a) of the Intellectual Property Law No. 50/2005/QH11 of 29/11/2005
Regulatory review exceptionViet NamArticle 125 (2) a/ of the Intellectual Property Law No. 50/2005/QH11 of 29/11/2005
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsEcuadorArticle 125 (d) of the Intellectual Property Law (Consolidation No. 2006-13)
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementSamoaArticle 125 of the Intellectual Property Act of 11/10/2011
Exclusion from patentability of plantsEcuadorArticle 126 (c) of the Intellectual Property Law, Codification No. 2006-013
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementItalyArticle 127 (1) of the Industrial Property Code, Legislative Decree No. 30 of 2005, as last amended on 24/01/2012 and Article 473 of the Criminal Code
Transition periodsUruguayArticle 127 of the Law No. 17.164 Regulating Rights and Obligations Relating to Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs No. 1.827*R of 02/09/1999
Disclosure related flexibilitiesBelarusArticle 13 (1) and (2) 2), 3) and 4) of the of the Law No. 160-Z on Patents for Inventions, Utility Models and Industrial Designs of 16/12/2002 as last amended on 29/10/2004
Patentability of substances existing in natureUruguayArticle 13 (a), (b) and (g) of the Law No. 17.164 Regulating Rights and Obligations Relating to Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs No. 1.827*R of 02/09/1999
Exclusion from patentability of plantsUruguayArticle 13 (b) of the Law No. 17.164 Regulating Rights and Obligations Relating to Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs No. 1.827*R of 02/09/1999
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsUruguayArticle 13 (e) of the Law No. 17.164 of 02/09/1999 Regulating Rights and Obligations Relating to Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs
Research exceptionKyrgyzstanArticle 13 no. 2 of the Patent Law of 14/01/1998 # 8 (as last amended in 2003)
Exhaustion of rightsKyrgyzstanArticle 13 no.4 of the Patent Law of 14/01/1998, as last amended on 27/02/2003
Disclosure related flexibilitiesEuropean UnionArticle 13 of the Directive 98/44/EC of 06/07/1998
Research exceptionArmeniaArticle 13 of the Law on Patents of October 26, 1999
Substantive examinationEthiopiaArticle 13 of the Proclamation concerning Inventions, Minor Inventions and Industrial Designs No. 123 of 10/05/1995
Research exceptionGuatemalaArticle 130 b) and c) of the Industrial Property Law, Decree No. 57-2000 of 18/09/2000
Exhaustion of rightsGuatemalaArticle 131 of the Industrial Property Law, Decree No. 57 of 18/09/2000
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementNicaraguaArticle 132 (a), (e) and (f) of the Law No. 354 of 21/11/2000, Law on Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs as last amended by Law No. 634 of 13/09/2007
Exclusion from patentability of plantsRussian FederationArticle 1350 (1) and (6) 1) of the Civil Code (Chapter 72)
Patentability of substances existing in natureRussian FederationArticle 1350 (5) 1) and (6) 1)of the Patent Act (Chapter 72)
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsRussian FederationArticle 1350 (5) 5) of the Civil Code (Chapter 72)
Utility modelsRussian FederationArticle 1351 of the Patent Law (Chapter 72)
Exhaustion of rightsRussian FederationArticle 1359 no. 6 of the Patent Law (Chapter 72) Article 1359. Acts which Shall Not Constitute an Infringement of the Exclusive Right to an Invention, Utility Model, or Industrial Design
Research exceptionRussian FederationArticle 1359 no.2 of the Patent Law (Chapter 72)
Disclosure related flexibilitiesRussian FederationArticle 1375 (2) 2) of the Patent Act (Chapter 72)
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsPanamaArticle 14 4) of the Law No. 35 of 10/05/1996 on Industrial Property
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementMongoliaArticle 141 of the Criminal Code of 2002
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsViet NamArticle 144 of the Law on Intellectual Property No. 50/2005/QH11 of 29/11/2005 as last amended by Order No. 12/2009/L-CTN of 29/06/2009
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementRussian FederationArticle 147 of the Criminal Code No. 63-FZ of 13/06/1996 (as amended by the Federal Law of 07.12.2011 N 420-FZ, the Federal Law of 07.03.2011 N 26-FZ, the Federal Law of 08.12.2003 N 162-FZ)
Exclusion from patentability of plantsCabo VerdeArticle 15 (1) (c) and (e), (2), and (3) of the Industrial property code, Law Decree No. 4/2007 of 20/08/2007
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsAndean CommunityArticle 15 (e) of the Decision No. 486 of 14/09/ 2000 of the Commission of the Andean Community - Common Industrial Property Regime (Cartagena Agreement)
Exclusion from patentability of plantsPanamaArticle 15 1), 2) and 5) of the Law No. 35 of 10/05/1996 Enacting Provisions on Industrial Property
Utility modelsArmeniaArticle 15 of the Law on Inventions, Utility Models and Industrial Designs of 10/06/2008
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementTurkmenistanArticle 153 of the Criminal Code number 222-I of 12 June 1997 (as amended November 9, 2013)
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementTajikistanArticle 156 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Tajikistan of 01/09/1998
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementArmeniaArticle 159 of the Criminal Code of Armenia
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsGeorgiaArticle 16 (1) (c) of the Patent Law of 05/02/1999 as east amended on 2010
Exhaustion of rightsCosta RicaArticle 16 (2) (d) of the Patents Law No. 6867 of 25/04/1983, as last amended by Law No. 8039 of 12/10/2000
Regulatory review exceptionCosta RicaArticle 16 (2) (e) of the Law on Patents, Industrial Designs and Utility Models No. 6867 of 25/04/1983, as amended by Law No. 7979 of 12/10/2000
Research exceptionCosta RicaArticle 16 (2) b) and c) of the Law on Patents, Industrial Designs and Utility Models No. 6867 of 25/04/1983, as amended by Law No. 7979 of 10/12/2000
Research exceptionIndonesiaArticle 16 (3) of the Patent Law No. 14 of 2001
Exclusion from patentability of plantsMexicoArticle 16 I), II), III)and V) of the Industrial Property Law of June 27, 1991, as last amended on 09/04/2012
Exhaustion of rightsSlovakiaArticle 16 of the Act No. 435/2001 Coll. on Patents, Supplementary Protection Certificates and on Amendment of Some Acts as Amended by Act No. 402/2002 Coll., Act No. 84/2007 Coll. and Act No. 517/2007 Coll.
Utility modelsSloveniaArticle 16 of the Industrial Property Act of 23/05/2001 as last amended on 06/02/2006
Disclosure related flexibilitiesBahrainArticle 16 of the Industrial Property Law as last amended by Law No. 14 of 28/05/2006
Substantive examinationEgyptArticle 16 of the Law on the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights No 82 of 03/06/2002
Exclusion from patentability of plantsGeorgiaArticle 17 (c) of the Patent Law of 05/02/1999
Security exceptionsSloveniaArticle 17 of the Industrial Property Act (ZIL-1-UPB3) of 23/05/2001 as last amended on 06/02/2006
Exclusion from patentability of plantsBurundiArticle 17 of the Law No. 1/13 of 28/07/2009 on Industrial Property
Transition periodsBurundiArticle 17 of the Law No. 1/13 of 28/072009 on Industrial Property
Substantive examinationItalyArticle 170 (1) (b) and (3) of the Code of the Industrial Property, Legislative Decree No. 30 of 15/02/2005
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementMozambiqueArticle 175 of the Industrial Property Code, approved by Decree No. 04/2006 of 12/04/2006
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementUkraineArticle 177 of the Criminal Code of 15/04/2001 (version of 2010)
Patentability of substances existing in natureRwandaArticle 18 (1) 1), 4) and 6) of the Law No. 31/2009 of 26/10/2009 on the protection of intellectual property
Transition periodsRwandaArticle 18 (1) 8) of the Law No. 31/2009 of 26/10/2009 on the protection of intellectual property
Research exceptionSlovakiaArticle 18 (1) f) of the Act No. 435/2001 Coll. on Patents, Supplementary Protection Certificates and on Amendment of Some Acts as Amended (The Patent Act)
Regulatory review exceptionSlovakiaArticle 18 (1) f) of the Act No. 435/2001 Coll. on Patents, Supplementary Protection Certificates as last amended by Act No. 517/2007 Coll.
Disclosure related flexibilitiesMadagascarArticle 18 (1) of the Industrial Property Law, Ordinance No. 89 019 of 31/07/1989
Research exceptionMongoliaArticle 18 (2) no. 2 of the Patents Act of 25/06/1993, as last amended in 1997
Exhaustion of rightsMongoliaArticle 18 (2) no.1 of the Patents Act of 25/06/1993, as last amended in 1997
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsRwandaArticle 18 (2) of the Law No. 31/2009 of 26/10/2009 on the Protection of Intellectual Property
Exhaustion of rightsHondurasArticle 18 of the Industrial Property Law, Decree Law No. 12-99-E of 30/12/1999
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsBurundiArticle 18 of the Law No. 1/13 of 28/07/2009 on Industrial Property
Research exceptionHondurasArticle 18 of the Law on Industrial Property, Decree Law No. 12-99-E of 30/12/1999
Exhaustion of rightsArmeniaArticle 19 (1) and (2) of the Law on Inventions, Utility Models and Industrial Designs of 10/06/2008
Regulatory review exceptionHungaryArticle 19 (6) (b) of the Law on the Protection of Inventions by Patents No.XXXIII of 1995 (Consolidated text of 01.10.2009)
Research exceptionHungaryArticle 19 (6) b)of the Law on the Protection of Inventions by Patents No. XXXIII of 1995 (Consolidated text of 01.10.2009)
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsMexicoArticle 19 IV of the Industrial Property Law of 27/06/1991, as last amended on 09/04/2012
Exhaustion of rightsPanamaArticle 19 No. 3 of the Industrial Property Law No. 35 of 10/05/1996
Research exceptionSloveniaArticle 19 b) of the Industrial Property Act of 23/05/2001 as last amended on 06/02/2006
Research exceptionPanamaArticle 19 no. 1 and 2 of the Law on Industrial Property No. 35 of 10/05/1996
Substantive examinationBahrainArticle 19 of the Industrial Property Law as last amended by Law No. 14 of 28/05/2006
Utility modelsGreeceArticle 19 of the Law no. 1733/1987 "Technology transfer, Inventions and Technological innovation"
Security exceptionsAlgeriaArticle 19 of the Ordinance No.03-07 of 19/07/2003
Substantive examinationLithuaniaArticle 19 of the Patent Law No. I-372 of 18/01/1994 as last amended by Law No. X-1119 of 10/05/2007
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementLithuaniaArticle 195 of the Criminal Code, Law No. VIII-1968 of 26/09/2000 as last amended on 02/07/2010
Patentability of substances existing in natureLiechtensteinArticle 1a (II) of the Federal Patent Law of 25/06/1954 as last amended on 24/03/1995
Exclusion from patentability of plantsSwedenArticle 1a §§ 1 and 2 of the Patents Act No. 837 of 01/12/1967 as last amended by Law No. 161 of 01/04/2004
Patentability of substances existing in natureOmanArticle 2 (1) (a) and (d) of the Law on Industrial property Rights, Royal Decree No. 67 of the 2008
Patentability of substances existing in natureDominican RepublicArticle 2 (1) (a) and (g) of the Industrial Property Law No. 20-00 of 08/05/2000
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsDominican RepublicArticle 2 (1) e) 3 of the Law on Industrial Property No. 20-00 of 18/04/2000 as least amended by Law No. No. 424-06 of 2006
Patentability of substances existing in natureAndorraArticle 2 (2) (a) of the Patent Law of 1999
Patentability of substances existing in natureSan MarinoArticle 2 (2) (a), (4) (c) and (d), (5), (6) and (7) of the Law on Industrial Property No. 79 of 25/05/2005
Exclusion from patentability of plantsSwitzerlandArticle 2 (2) (b) of the Federal Patents Law of 25/06/1954 as last amended on 01/07 2009
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsSan MarinoArticle 2 (2) (c) and (3) of the Law No. 79 of 25/05/2005 - Industrial Property Consolidation Act
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsNetherlandsArticle 2 (2) (c) and (3) of the Patent Act of 15/12/1994, (Text as it applies on 03/06/2009)
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsLithuaniaArticle 2 (2) 3) of the Patent Law No. I-372 of 18/01/1994 as last amended by Law No. X-1119 of 10/05/2007
Patentability of substances existing in natureBelarusArticle 2 (2) of the Law No. 160-Z on Patents for Inventions, Utility Models and Industrial Designs of 16/12/2002 as last amended on 29/10/2004
Patentability of substances existing in natureEgyptArticle 2 (2), (4) and (5) of the Law on the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights No 82 of 03/06/2002
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsJapanArticle 2 (3) and (4) of the Patent Law No. 121 of 13/04/1959, as last amended by Act No. 63 of 2011
Exclusion from patentability of plantsBelarusArticle 2 (3) of the Law No. 160-Z of 16/12/2002 on Patents for Inventions, Utility Models, Industrial Designs, as last amended on 15/07/2010
Exclusion from patentability of plantsSan MarinoArticle 2 (4) (c), (5) and (7) (b) of the Law on Industrial Property No. 79 of 25/05/2005 as last amended in 2011
Exclusion from patentability of plantsEgyptArticle 2 (4) of the Law on the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights No 82 of 03/06/2002
Exclusion from patentability of plantsLebanonArticle 2 (e) and (f) of the Patent Law No. 240 of 14/08/2000
Security exceptionsSaint Kitts and NevisArticle 2 of the Patents (Public Officers) Regulations
Utility modelsChinaArticle 2 of the Rules for the implementation of the Patent Law (Decree No. 306 of 15/06/2001) and Articles 22 and 25 of the Patent Law of 12/03/1984 as last amended on 27/12/2008
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsAndorraArticle 2(2) (c) and (3) of the Patent Act of 10/06/1999
Exclusion from patentability of plantsDominican RepublicArticle 2(2) (c) of the Industrial Property Law No. 20-00 of 08/05/2000 as last amended by Law No. 424-06
Patentability of substances existing in natureLithuaniaArticle 2(2) 1 and 5, (3.2) and (5) of the Patent Law No. I-372 of 18/01/1994 as last amended by Law No. X-1119 of 10/05/2007
Exclusion from patentability of plantsRepublic of KoreaArticle 2(i) of the Patent Act of the Republic of Korea as last amended on January 30, 2009 by Act No. 9381.
Exclusion from patentability of plantsLithuaniaArticle 2, § 3 2) of the Patent Law No. I-372 of 18/01/1994 as last amended by Law No. X-1119 of 10/05/2007
Research exceptionBulgariaArticle 20 (1) no. 2 of the Law on Patents and Utility Models Registration No. 27/2 of 1993 as last amended by Law No. 59/20 of July 2007
Regulatory review exceptionBulgariaArticle 20 (7) of the Law on Patents and Utility Models Registration No. 27/2 of 1993 as last amended by Law no. 59/20 of July 2007
Exhaustion of rightsHungaryArticle 20 of the Law on the Protection of Inventions by Patents No. XXXIII of 1995 (Consolidated text of 01.10.2009)
Substantive examinationAndorraArticle 20 of the Patent Law of 10/06/1999
Compulsory licenses and government useMongoliaArticle 20 of the Patent Law of 25/06/1993, as last amended in 1997
Security exceptionsBahrainArticle 20 of the law on Patents and Utility Models No. 1 of 2004 as last amended by Law No. 14 of 2006
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementSerbiaArticle 201 (1), (2) and (5) of the Criminal Code of 29/12/2009
Exhaustion of rightsBulgariaArticle 20a (1) of the Law on Patents and Utility Models Registration No. 27/2 of 1993 as last amended by Law no. 59/20 of July 2007
Exclusion from patentability of plantsCubaArticle 21 (3) (d) and (j) and Article 22 (b) of the Law-Decree Nº 290 of 20/11/2011 on Inventions, Industrial Designs and Models
Research exceptionJordanArticle 21 C of the Patent Act 1999, No. 32 as last amended by Act No. 71/2001
Regulatory review exceptionJordanArticle 21 C of the Patent Act No. 32 of 1999, as last amended by Act No. 71/2001
Security exceptionsLithuaniaArticle 21 and 24 §3 of the Law on Patents of 18/01/1994, No. I-372, as last amended on 10/05/2007 by Law No. X-1119
Research exceptionRepublic of MoldovaArticle 22 (1) b) of the Law on the protection of Inventions No. 50-XVI of 07/03/2008
Research exceptionMexicoArticle 22 (1) of the Industrial Property Law of 25/06/1991, last amended version of 06/12/2005
Exclusion from patentability of plantsPhilippinesArticle 22 4) of the Intellectual Property Code, Act No. 8293 of 06/06/1997 as last amended by Act No. 9502 of 2008
Exhaustion of rightsMexicoArticle 22 II of the Industrial Property Law of 25/06/1991, last amended version of 06/12/2005
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsSaudi ArabiaArticle 22 of the Law of Patents, Layout-Designs of Integrated Circuits, Plant Varieties, and Industrial Designs of 2004
Security exceptionsMongoliaArticle 22 of the Patents Act of 25/06/1993 as last amended on 19/01/2006
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementCubaArticle 227 (e) of the Criminal Code, Law No. 62 of 29/12/1987, as last amended on 16/02/1999
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsMoroccoArticle 23 (3) of the Law No. 17-97 of 15/02/2000 concerning Protection of Industrial Property as implemented by the Decree No. 2-00-368 of 07/06/2004
Exhaustion of rightsAndorraArticle 23 (4) (a) of the Patent Act of 10/06/1999
Research exceptionAndorraArticle 23 (4) of the Patent Act of 10/06/1999
Patentability of substances existing in natureMoroccoArticle 23 1) of the Law No. 17-97 concerning Protection of Industrial Property as implemented by Law No. 31-05 of 02/03/2006
Security exceptionsLibyaArticle 23 of the Law No. 8 of 1959 on Patents and Industrial Designs and Models
Substantive examinationSan MarinoArticle 23 of the Law on Industrial Property No. 79 of 25/05/2005
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementSloveniaArticle 234 of the Criminal Code (KZ-1) of 01/09/2008
Exclusion from patentability of plantsMoroccoArticle 24 (b) of the Law No. 97-17 on the Protection of Industrial Property (2000)
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementQatarArticle 24 of the Decree Law No. 30 for the year 2006 To Issue Patents Law
Patentability of substances existing in natureChinaArticle 25 (1) of the Patent Law of 28/12/2008
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsNorth MacedoniaArticle 25 (3) 3) of the Law on Industrial Property No. 07-1006/1 of 12/02/2009
Exclusion from patentability of plantsChinaArticle 25 (4) of the Patent Law of 28/12/2008
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsRepublic of MoldovaArticle 26 (7) of the Law on the protection of Inventions No. 50-XVI of 07/03/2008
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsDjiboutiArticle 26 (g) of the Protection of Industrial Property Law No. 50/AN/09/6th L of 21/06/2009
Research exceptionLithuaniaArticle 26 of the Patent Law No. I-372 of 18/01/1994(as last amended by Act - No. X-1119 of 10/05/2007)
Substantive examinationBelgiumArticle 26 of the Patents Act (Ch. 253) No. 14 of 21/06/2000
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementCabo VerdeArticle 267 (a), 268 (1), 269 and 275 to 279 of the Industrial Property Code (Decree-Law No. 4/2007 of 20/08/2007)
Research exceptionCyprusArticle 27 (3) (ii) and (iii) of the Patent Act of 1998 (amended in 2000,2002 and 2006 but English version not available.)
Regulatory review exceptionMaltaArticle 27 (6) (d) of the Patents and Designs Act, Chapter 417, of 01/06/2002, as last amended by Acts IX of 2003 and XVIII of 2005
Research exceptionMaltaArticle 27 (6) lett. b) of the Patents and Designs Act, Chapter 417, of 01/06/2002, as amended by Acts IX of 2003 and XVIII of 2005
Exhaustion of rightsMaltaArticle 27 (9) of the Patents and Designs Act, Chapter 417, of 01/06/2002, as amended by Acts IX of 2003 and XVIII of 2005
Compulsory licenses and government useSlovakiaArticle 27 of the Act No. 435/2001 Coll. on Patents, Supplementary Protection Certificates and on Amendment of Some Acts as Amended by Act No. 402/2002 Coll., Act No. 84/2007 Coll. and Act No. 517/2007 Coll.
Research exceptionBelgiumArticle 28 (1) b) of the Patent Law of 28/03/1984 (as of 01/01/2010)
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsPolandArticle 28 (v) of the Industrial Property Law of 30/06/2000, as amended by Act of 23/01/2004 and Act of 29/06/2007
Substantive examinationAlbaniaArticle 28 of the Industrial Property Law Nr. 9977 of 07/07/2008
Utility modelsEgyptArticle 29 of the Industrial Property Law No. 82 of 2002
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsCooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC)Article 3 (1) 1) of the Patent Regulation of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (as at 23/04/2002)
Exclusion from patentability of plantsBahrainArticle 3 (1) and (2) of Law No. (14) for the year 2006 Amending some Provisions of Law Number (1) of the Year 2004 In respect of Patents and Utility Models
Exhaustion of rightsIcelandArticle 3 (2) no.2 of the Patents Act No. 17 of 1991 as last amended according to Act No. 167/2007
Regulatory review exceptionIcelandArticle 3 (2) no.3 of the Patents Act No. 17/1991 as last amended by Act No.167/2007
Research exceptionIcelandArticle 3 (2) no.3 of the Patents Act No. 17of 1991 as last amended by Act No. 167/2007
Utility modelsMongoliaArticle 3 (3) & (5) and Article 4 of the Patent Law of 25/06/1993 as last amended in 1997
Exclusion from patentability of plantsVanuatuArticle 3 (3) (a) and (b) of the Patents Act No. 2 of 21/07/2003
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsBelgiumArticle 3 §§1 3) and 2 of the Patent Law of 28/03/1984 (Official Consolidation of 01/01/2010)
Exclusion from patentability of plantsTunisiaArticle 3, § 1 of the Patents Law No.2000-84 of 24/08/2000
Patentability of substances existing in natureMozambiqueArticle 30 (1) (b) and (2) (b)of the Industrial Property Code, Decree No. 04 of 12/04/2006
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsMozambiqueArticle 30 (1) d) of the Industrial Property Code, Decree No. 4 of 12/04/2006
Exclusion from patentability of plantsMozambiqueArticle 30 (2) (b) of the Industrial Property Code, Decree No. 04 of 12/04/2006
Exhaustion of rightsDominican RepublicArticle 30 (d) of the Law on Industrial Property No. 20-00 of 18/04/2000
Regulatory review exceptionDominican RepublicArticle 30 (g) of the Law on Industrial Property No. 20-00 of 18/04/2000
Research exceptionDominican RepublicArticle 30 b) and c) of the Law on Industrial Property No. 20-00 of 18/04/2000
Compulsory licenses and government useUkraineArticle 30 of the Law on the Protection of Rights to Inventions and Utility Models No. 3687-XII of 15/12/1993 as last amended in 2003
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementColombiaArticle 306 of the Criminal Code as last amended on 22/06/2006
Security exceptionsMalaysiaArticle 30A of the Patents Act of 1983 as last amended in 2006
Research exceptionUkraineArticle 31 (2) of the Law on the Protection of Rights to Inventions and Utility Models (The translation is not official) No. 3687-XII of 15/12/1993 as last amended in 2003
Exhaustion of rightsUkraineArticle 31 (3) of the Law on the Protection of Rights to Inventions and Utility Models No. 3687-XII of 15/12/1993 as last amended in 2003
Security exceptionsAlbaniaArticle 31 of the Industrial Property Law No. 9977 of 07/07/2008
Security exceptionsBelgiumArticle 31 ° 4 of the Patent Law of 28/03/1984 (Consolidated version as of 01/01/2010) and Article 2 of the Law of 08/07/1977 on the approval of the Strasbourg convention, PCT and the Convention on the European Patent and its Regulations.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementEgyptArticle 32 of the Law No. 82 of 2002 on the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights
Security exceptionsBelarusArticle 32 of the Law of the Republic of Belarus No. 160-Z of December 16, 2002, on Patents for Inventions, Utility Models, Industrial Designs (as amended up to December 22, 2011)
Compulsory licenses and government useUzbekistanArticle 32 of the Law on Inventions, Utility Models and Industrial Designs of 29/08/2002
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementNorth MacedoniaArticle 321 (1) 2) of the Law on Industrial Property of 12/02/2009
Exhaustion of rightsDominicaArticle 33 (4) (a) of the Patent Act No. 8 of 07/10/1999
Exhaustion of rightsBelizeArticle 33 (4) (a) of the Patents Act, Chapter 253, of 21/06/2000
Research exceptionBelizeArticle 33 (4) c) of the Patents Act (Ch. 253) of 2000
Research exceptionDominicaArticle 33 (4) c) of the Patents Act No. 8 of 07/10/1999
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementJordanArticle 33 A and B of the Patents Law No. 32 of 1999 as last amended in 2006
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsDominican RepublicArticle 33 of the Industrial Property Law No. 20-00 of 08/05/2000
Substantive examinationRwandaArticle 33 of the Law No. 31/2009 of 26/10/2009 on the protection of intellectual property
Exhaustion of rightsParaguayArticle 34 (c) of the Patents Law No. 1.630 of 29/11/2000
Exhaustion of rightsRomaniaArticle 34 (d) of the Patent Law no. 64 of 1991 as republished in the Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, No. 456/18.VI.2008
Research exceptionParaguayArticle 34 a) and b) of the Law on Patents for Invention No.1630 of 29/11/2000
Compulsory licenses and government useAndorraArticle 34 of the Patent Act of 10/06/1999
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementAndorraArticle 35 of the Law on Patents of 10/06/1999
Exhaustion of rightsArgentinaArticle 36 (c) of the Patents and Utility Models Law no. 24.481 of 1996
Research exceptionArgentinaArticle 36 a) of the Law on Patents and Utility Models No. 24.481 of 1996
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementYemenArticle 36 of the Law No. 2 of 2011 on Patents, Utility Models, Layout Designs of Integrated Circuits and Undisclosed Information
Transition periodsLebanonArticle 36 of the Law on Patents of Invention No. 32 for the Year 1999(as last amended by Law No. 71 of 2001)
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsParaguayArticle 36 of the Patents Law No. 1630 of 29/11/2000
Patentability of substances existing in natureChileArticle 37 (a), (b) and (f) of the Industrial Property Law No. 19.039 of 24/01/1991 (consolidated version of 2005 as last amended on 2007),
Exclusion from patentability of plantsChileArticle 37 (b) and (f) of the Industrial Property Law No. 19.039 of 24/01/1991 (consolidated version of 2005 as last amended on 2007)
Exhaustion of rightsJordanArticle 37 of the Law on Patents No. 32 of 1999, as last amended by Law No. 71 of 2001
Security exceptionsKazakhstanArticle 37 of the Law on Patents of the Republic of Kazakhstan No. 427-I of July 16, 1999 (as amended up to Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan No. 34-V of July 10, 2012)
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsAlgeriaArticle 37 of the Ordinance No. 03-07 of 19/07/2003
Research exceptionAlbaniaArticle 38 (1) b) of the Patent Law No. 9947 of 07/07/2008
Compulsory licenses and government useBelarusArticle 38 of the Law No. 160-Z on Patents for Inventions, Utility Models and Industrial Designs of 16/12/2002
Compulsory licenses and government useTurkmenistanArticle 38 of the Patent Act No. 867-XII of 01/10/1993
Compulsory licenses and government useBelizeArticle 38 of the Patent Act, Chapter 253, of 21/06/2000
Security exceptionsLuxembourgArticle 38 of the Patents Law of July 20, 1992, as amended by the Law of 24/05/1998 and Law of 8/07/1967
Research exceptionUruguayArticle 39 D) and E) of the Industrial Property Law No. 17.164 of 02/09/1999 Secci�n III Excepciones, alcance y agotamiento del derecho
Regulatory review exceptionUruguayArticle 39 D) of the Industrial Property Law No. 17.164 of 02/09/1999
Exhaustion of rightsAlbaniaArticle 39 of the Patents Act of 07/07/2008
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsQatarArticle 4 (2) (a) of the Decree Law No. 30 of 2006 To Issue Patents Law
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsLuxembourgArticle 4 (2) (c) and (3) of the Patent Act of 20/07/1992
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsMaltaArticle 4 (2) (c) and (3) of the Patents and Designs Act, Chapter 417, of 01/06/2002, as amended by Acts IX of 2003 and XVIII of 2005
Patentability of substances existing in natureJordanArticle 4 (4), (6) and (7) of the Law on Patents of Invention No. 32 for the Year 1999(as last amended by Law No. 71 of 2001)
Patentability of substances existing in natureMongoliaArticle 4 (5) 1) and 6) of the Patent Law of 25/06/1993, as last amended in 1999
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsMongoliaArticle 4 (5) 2) of the Patent Law of 25/06/1993, as last amended in 1999
Exclusion from patentability of plantsMongoliaArticle 4 (5) 6) of the Patent Law of 25/06/1993, as last amended in 1999
Patentability of substances existing in natureIran (Islamic Republic of)Article 4 (a) and (d) of the Patents, Industrial Designs and Trademarks Registration Act of 29/10/2007
Exclusion from patentability of plantsQatarArticle 4 (b) of the Patent Law no. 30 of 2006
Patentability of substances existing in natureQatarArticle 4 (b) of the Patent Law no. 30 of 2006
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsParaguayArticle 4 (d) of the Patents Law No. 1630 of 29/11/2000 as last amended by Law No. 2.593/2005
Exclusion from patentability of plantsCambodiaArticle 4 (v) and (vi) of the Law on Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs of 22/01/2003
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsSpainArticle 4 4) (c) and 5) of the Law about Patents of Invention and Utility Models No. 11 of 20/03/1986 as last amended by Law No. 14/2011.
Exclusion from patentability of plantsJordanArticle 4 6) and 7) of the Law on Patents of Invention No. 32 for the Year 1999(as last amended by Law No. 28 of 2007)
Utility modelsRepublic of MoldovaArticle 4 of the Law on the Protection of Invention No. 50-XVI of 07/03/2008
Exclusion from patentability of plantsBelgiumArticle 4 of the Patent Law of 28/03/1984 (Consolidated version as of 01/01/2010)
Exhaustion of rightsUruguayArticle 40 of the Industrial Property Law No. 17.164 of 02/09/1999
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementLebanonArticle 40 of the Law No. 240/2000 of 2000 on Patents
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementGuinea-BissauArticle 41 of the Industrial Property Code, Decree No. 6/96 of 03/03/1996
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementBahrainArticle 41 of the Law No. 1 of 2004 on Patents and Utility Models as last amended by Law 14 of 2006
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementMadagascarArticle 41 of the Ordinance No. 89-019 Establishing Arrangements for the Protection of Industrial Property of 31/07/1989
Security exceptionsRepublic of KoreaArticle 41 of the Patent Act No. 950 of 31/12/1961 as last amended by Act No. 11690 of 2013
Utility modelsCroatiaArticle 41 of the Patent Act No.173 of 2003, as amended by Acts no.87 of 2005 and no.76 of 2007
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementDemocratic People's Republic of KoreaArticle 42 of the Invention Law of 13/05/1998 as last amended by Decree No. 597 of 11/03/1999
Research exceptionLebanonArticle 42 of the Law No. 240 of 07/08/2000
Security exceptionsMoroccoArticle 42 of the Law No. 97-17 on the Protection of Industrial Property of 15/02/2000 as last amended by Law No. 31-05
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementGambia (the)Article 43 (1) and (3) of the Industrial Property Act of 1989 as last amended on 02/04/2007
Regulatory review exceptionBrazilArticle 43 (VII) of the Industrial Property Law No. 9.279 of 14/05/1996 as last amended by Law No. 10.196 of 14/02/2001
Research exceptionBrazilArticle 43 II of the Patent Law No. 9.279 of 14/05/1996 as last amended by Law No. 10.196 of 14/02/2001
Exhaustion of rightsBrazilArticle 43 IV of the Industrial Property Law No. 9.279 of 14/05/1996 as last amended by Law No. 10.196 of 14/02/2001
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementLibyaArticle 44 of the Law No. 8 of 1959 on Patents and Industrial Designs and Models
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsItalyArticle 45 (2) (b) and (3) of the Industrial Property Code, Legislative Decree No. 30 of 15/02/2005
Patentability of substances existing in natureItalyArticle 45 (2)(a) and (5) of the Code of the Industrial Property, Legislative Decree No. 30 of 15/02/2005 and Article 3 of the Decree-Law No. 3 of 2006
Patentability of substances existing in natureSaudi ArabiaArticle 45 (a) and (c) of the Law of Patents, Layout-Designs of Integrated Circuits, Plant Varieties, and Industrial Designs of 2004
Exclusion from patentability of plantsSaudi ArabiaArticle 45 (c) of the Law of Patents, Layout-Designs of Integrated Circuits, Plant Varieties, and Industrial Designs of 16/07/2004
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsRwandaArticle 45 of the Law No. 31/2009 of 26/10/2009 on the protection of intellectual property
Research exceptionNicaraguaArticle 46 a) and b) of the Law on Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Design No. 354 of 19/09/2000
Exhaustion of rightsTunisiaArticle 47 (d) of the Patents Law No. 2000-84 of 24/08/2000
Regulatory review exceptionTunisiaArticle 47 (e) of the Patents Law No. 2000-84 of 24/08/2000
Research exceptionLuxembourgArticle 47 b) of the Patent Law of 20/07/1992
Research exceptionTunisiaArticle 47 b) of the Patents Law No. 2000-84 of 24/08/2000
Exhaustion of rightsNicaraguaArticle 47 of the Industrial Property Law No. 354 of 19/09/2000
Exhaustion of rightsLuxembourgArticle 48 of the Patents Law of 20/07/1992
Security exceptionsTurkmenistanArticle 49 of the Law of Turkmenistan No. 220-III of October 23, 2008, on Inventions and Industrial Designs (as amended up to Law No. 14-IV of June 22, 2013)
Security exceptionsSaudi ArabiaArticle 49 of the implementing regulations of Law of Patents, Layout-Designs of Integrated Circuits, Plant Varieties, and Industrial Designs of 26/12/2004
Patentability of substances existing in natureGreeceArticle 5 (2) (a) and (8) (b) of the Law on "Technology transfer, inventions, and technological innovation" No. 1733/1987 (FEK 171, A' of 22/9/1987) as last amended by Law No. 2359 of 15/11/1995
Patentability of substances existing in natureCyprusArticle 5 (2) (a)) of the Patent Law N° 16(1) of 01/04/1998
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsAlbaniaArticle 5 (2) (c) and (3) of the Law on Industrial Property No. 9947 of 07/07/2008
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsCyprusArticle 5 (2) (c) of the Patent Law of 01/04/1998, No. 16(1) (version of 2006 not available in English)
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsMontenegroArticle 5 (2) 4) and (3) of the Law on Patents of 22/10/2008
Exclusion from patentability of plantsLuxembourgArticle 5 (2) of the Patent Act of 20/07/1992 as last amended by Law of 24/05/1998
Exclusion from patentability of plantsTurkmenistanArticle 5 (3) and (4) of the Law of Turkmenistan No. 220-III of October 23, 2008, on Inventions and Industrial Designs (as amended up to Law No. 14-IV of June 22, 2013)
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsSlovakiaArticle 5 (3) d) and (4) of the Act No. 435/2001 Coll. on Patents, Supplementary Protection Certificates as last amended by Act No. 202/ 2009 Coll.
Exclusion from patentability of plantsAlbaniaArticle 5 (5) (a), (b) and (c) of the Law No. 9947 of 07/ 07/2008 "On Industrial Property"
Exclusion from patentability of plantsGreeceArticle 5 (8) (b) of the Law on "Technology transfer, inventions, and technological innovation" No. 1733/1987 (FEK 171, A' of 22/9/1987) as last amended by Law No. 2359 of 15/11/1995
Exclusion from patentability of plantsKyrgyzstanArticle 5 (9) 11) of the Patent Law No. 8 of 14/01/1998, as last amended by Law No. 8 of 25/01/2013
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsKyrgyzstanArticle 5 (9) 6) of the Patent Law No. 8 of 14/01/1998 as last amended by Law No. 8 of 25/01/2013
Exclusion from patentability of plantsParaguayArticle 5 (b) of the Patents Law No. 1630 of 29/11/2000
Exclusion from patentability of plantsSpainArticle 5 2) and 3) of the Law about Patents of Invention and Utility Models No. 11 of 20/03/1986 as last amended by Law No. 10 of 29/04/2002
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsHondurasArticle 5 6) of the Industrial Property Law, Decree Law No. 12-99-E of 30/12/1999
Exhaustion of rightsItalyArticle 5 of the Industrial Property Code, Legislative Decree No.30 of 10/02/2005
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsCroatiaArticle 5(6) 5) of the Patents Law No. 173/2003 as last amended by Act No. 76/2007
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsNicaraguaArticle 50 of the Law on Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs No. 354 of 19/09/2000 as last amended by Law No. 634 of 13/09/2007
Compulsory licenses and government useChileArticle 51 of the Industrial Property Law No. 19.039 of 24/01/1991 as last revised in 2005
Research exceptionSpainArticle 52 (1) b) of the Law about Patents of Invention and Utility Models No.11/1986 of 20/03/1986 as last amended by Law No. 10 of 29/04/2002
Regulatory review exceptionSpainArticle 52 (1) b) of the Law about Patents of Invention and Utility Models No.11/1986 of 20/03/1986 as last amended by Law No. 10 of 29/04/2002
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsPortugalArticle 52 (1) d) of the Industrial Property Code, Decree-Law No. 36 of 05/03/2003 as last amended by Law No. 16 of 01/04/2008
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsEuropean Patent Office (EPO)Article 52 (2) (c) and (3) of the European Patent Convention
Exhaustion of rightsSpainArticle 52 (2) of the Law about Patents of Invention and Utility Models No.11/1986 of 20/03/1986 as last amended by Law No. 10 of 29/04/2002
Exhaustion of rightsGeorgiaArticle 52 (a) of the Patent Law of 05/02/1999
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsUruguayArticle 52 of the Law No. 17.164 Regulating Rights and Obligations Relating to Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs No. 1.827*R of 02/09/1999
Security exceptionsHungaryArticle 53 (5) of the Act XXXIII of 1995 on the protection of inventions by patents (consolidated text of 15/03/2014) and Decree No. 141 of 2008 (V. 16.) on the Detailed Rules of the Procedure to Declare a Patent Application a State Secret (version 2011: text available only in Hungarian)
Exhaustion of rightsNetherlandsArticle 53 (5) of the Patent Act of 15/12/1994, (Text as it applies on 03/06/2009)
Research exceptionAndean CommunityArticle 53 (b) of the decision no. 486 of 14/09/2000 of the Commission of the Andean Community
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementSpainArticle 534 of the Criminal Code
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementEquatorial GuineaArticle 534 of the Criminal Code of 03/04/1980
Research exceptionCubaArticle 54 no. 3 of the Decree Law No. 68 of 14/05/1983
Exhaustion of rightsAndean CommunityArticle 54 of the Cartagena Agreement, Decision No. 486 of 14/09/2000 of the Commission of the Andean Community
Substantive examinationHondurasArticle 54 of the Industrial Property Law, Decree Law No. 12-99-E of 30/12/1999
Exhaustion of rightsMoroccoArticle 55 (d) of the Law No. 17-97 of 15/02/2000 concerning Protection of Industrial Property as implemented by the Decree No. 2-00-368 of 07/06/2004
Research exceptionMoroccoArticle 55 b) of the Industrial Property Law No. 17-97, 1997 as implemented by the Decree No. 2-00-368 of 07/06/2004
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementDenmarkArticle 57 of the Consolidated Patents Act, Act No. 108 of 24/01/2012
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementSwedenArticle 57 of the Patents Act (1967:837) as last amended on 01/07/2011
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementIcelandArticle 57 of the Patents Act No. 17/1991 as last amended by Act No. 126/2011
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementFinlandArticle 57 of the Patents Act, Act No. 550 of 15/12/1967 as last amended by Act No. 101/2013
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsAndean CommunityArticle 58 of the decision No. 486 of 14/09/2000 of the Commission of the Andean Community- Common Industrial Property Regime
Patentability of substances existing in natureViet NamArticle 59 1) and 6) of the Law on Intellectual Property No. 50/2005/QH11 of 29/11/2005 as last amended by Order No. 12/2009/L-CTN of 29/06/2009
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsViet NamArticle 59 2) of the Law on Intellectual Property No. 50/2005/QH11 of 29/11/2005 as last amended by Law No. 36/2009/QH12
Exclusion from patentability of plantsViet NamArticle 59 5) and 6) of the Law on Intellectual Property No. 50/2005/QH11 of 29/11/2005 as last amended by Order No. 12/2009/L-CTN of 29/06/2009
Security exceptionsSlovakiaArticle 59 and 60 of the Act No. 435/2001 Coll. on Patents, Supplementary Protection Certificates and Amendment of Some Acts (The Patent Act)
Regulatory review exceptionSerbiaArticle 59 no. 2 of the Patent Law No. 15 of 02/07/2004
Research exceptionSerbiaArticle 59 no.2 of the Patent Law No. 15 of 02/07/2004
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsUnited Arab EmiratesArticle 59 of the Federal Law No (31) of 2006 pertaining to the Industrial Regulation and Protection of Patents, Industrial Drawings, and Designs
Patentability of substances existing in natureUnited Arab EmiratesArticle 6 (1) (a) and (c) of the Federal Law No (31) of 2006 pertaining to the Industrial Regulation and Protection of Patents, Industrial Drawings, and Designs
Exclusion from patentability of plantsUnited Arab EmiratesArticle 6 (1) (a) of the Federal Law No (31) of 2006 pertaining to the Industrial Regulation and Protection of Patents, Industrial Drawings, and Designs
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsTurkeyArticle 6 (1) (c) of the Decree-Law on the Protection of Patent Rights No. 551 of 27/06/1995 (version of 2009 available only in Turkish)
Research exceptionBarbadosArticle 6 (1) of the Patents Act, 2001-18
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsRepublic of MoldovaArticle 6 (2) (c) and (3) of the Law on the protection of Inventions No. 50-XVI of 07/03/2008
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsBulgariaArticle 6 (2) 3) and (3) of the Patent Law No. 27/2 of 1993 as last amended by Law No. 59/20 of July 2007
Exclusion from patentability of plantsKazakhstanArticle 6 (2) Law on Patents of the Republic of Kazakhstan No. 427-I of July 16, 1999 (as amended up to Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan No. 34-V of July 10, 2012)
Exclusion from patentability of plantsUkraineArticle 6 (2) and (3) of the Law on the Protection of Rights to Inventions and Utility Models No. 3687-XII of 15/12/1993 as last amended in 2003
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsKazakhstanArticle 6 (3) of the Law on Patents of the Republic of Kazakhstan No. 427-I of July 16, 1999 (as amended up to Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan No. 34-V of July 10, 2012)
Disclosure related flexibilitiesMongoliaArticle 6 (3), 10 (2) and 26 (2) of the Patent Law of 25/06/1993, as last amended in 1999
Exclusion from patentability of plantsBosnia and HerzegovinaArticle 6 (4) and (5) of the Patent Law of 28/05/2010
Exclusion from patentability of plantsHungaryArticle 6 (4), (5), (6), (7), (8) and (9) of the Act XXXIII of 1995 on the protection of inventions by patents (Consolidated text of 01.03.2011)
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsBosnia and HerzegovinaArticle 6 (6) and (7) of the Patent Law of 28/05/2010
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsTajikistanArticle 6 (6) of the Law on Inventions of 28/02/2004
Patentability of substances existing in natureNicaraguaArticle 6 (a), (b) and (c) of the Law on Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs No. 354 of 19/09/2000 as last amended by Law No. 634 of 13/09/2007
Patentability of substances existing in natureAfrican Intellectual Property OrganizationArticle 6 (b) and (c) of the Bangui Agreement of 02/03/1977, as revised on 24/02/1999
Exhaustion of rightsBarbadosArticle 6 (b) of the Patent Act No. 18 of 26/07/2001
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsAfrican Intellectual Property OrganizationArticle 6 (g) of the Agreement Revising the Bangui Agreement of 02/03/1977, on the Creation of an African Intellectual Property Organization (Bangui Agreement) as last revised in 1999
Exclusion from patentability of plantsYemenArticle 6 4) of the Law No. 2 of 12/01/2011 on Patents, Utility Models, Layout Designs of Integrated Circuits and Undisclosed Information
Security exceptionsCroatiaArticle 6 of the Data Secrecy Act of 13/07/2007
Exclusion from patentability of plantsUzbekistanArticle 6 of the Law on Inventions, Utility Models and Industrial Designs of 29/08/2002 (as amended by Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan No. ZRU-312 of December 26, 2011)
Utility modelsKyrgyzstanArticle 6 of the Patent Law of 14/01/1998 # 8, as last amended on 27/02/2003
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsArgentinaArticle 6( c) of the Patents Act No. 24.481 of 1996 as amended by Law 25.859 of 2003 and Annex III of the Patentability Guidelines of INPI
Patentability of substances existing in natureTurkeyArticle 6(1) (a) and (2) (b) of the Decree-Law No. 551 on the Protection of Patent Rights of 27/06/1995 as last amended by Law No. 4128 of 7/11/1995
Security exceptionsUnited Arab EmiratesArticle 6(2) of the Federal Law No. 31 of 2006 Pertaining to the Industrial Regulation and Protection of Patents, Industrial Drawings, and Designs
Patentability of substances existing in natureKazakhstanArticle 6(3) of the Patent Law of 16/07/1999
Exclusion from patentability of plantsArgentinaArticle 6(g) and 7(b) of the Law No. 24.481 of 23/05/1995 on Patents and Utility Models (as last amended by Law No. 25.859)
Exclusion from patentability of plantsTurkeyArticle 6, § 3 (b) of the Decree-Law No. 551 on the Protection of Patent Rights of 27/06/1995 as last amended by Law No. 4128 of 7/11/1995
Exclusion from patentability of plantsTajikistanArticle 6, § 8 of the Law on Inventions of 28/02/2004
Exhaustion of rightsSerbiaArticle 60 of the Patents Law No. 15 of 02/07/2004
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementIran (Islamic Republic of)Article 61 (1) of the Patent, Industrial Design and Trademark Registration Act of 29/10/2007
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementPapua New GuineaArticle 61 of the Patents and Industrial Designs Act of 01/07/2000
Security exceptionsSri LankaArticle 62 (3) of the Intellectual Property Act No. 36 of 2003
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementUnited Arab EmiratesArticle 62 of the Federal Law No. 31 for the Year 2006 Pertaining to the Industrial Regulation and Protection of Patents, Industrial Drawings, and Designs
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementBelizeArticle 63 (1), (7), (11) and (12) of the Patents Act - Cap. 253 of 21/06/2000 as last amended by the Act No. 40 of 2005
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementChinaArticle 63 A of the Patent Law (as amended up to the Decision of December 27, 2008)
Research exceptionCroatiaArticle 63 no. 2 of the Patent Act No. 173 of 2003, as amended by Acts No. 87/2005 and No. 76/2007
Regulatory review exceptionCroatiaArticle 63 no.2 of the Patent Act No. 173 of 2003, as amended by Acts No. 87/2005 and No. 76/2007
Exhaustion of rightsMozambiqueArticle 68 (b) of the Industrial Property Code, Decree No. 4 of 12/04/2006
Research exceptionMozambiqueArticle 68 no. 1 of the Industrial Property Code, Decree No. 4 of 12/04/2006
Regulatory review exceptionItalyArticle 68 of the Industrial Property Code, Legislative Decree No. 30 of 10/02/2005
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementAngolaArticle 68 of the Law No. 3/92 on Industrial Property of 28/02/1992
Exhaustion of rightsChinaArticle 69 (1) of the Patent Law of 12/03/1984 as last amended on 27/12/2008
Research exceptionPolandArticle 69 (1), (iii) of the Industrial Property Law of 30/06/2000 as last amended by Act of 29/06/2007
Regulatory review exceptionPolandArticle 69 (1), (iv) and (5) of the Industrial Property Law of 30/06/2000 as amended by Act of 23/01/2004 and Act of 29/06/2007
Research exceptionChinaArticle 69 (4) of the Patent Law of 12/03/1984 as last amended on 27/12/2008
Regulatory review exceptionChinaArticle 69 (5) of the Patent Act of 12/03/1984 as last amended on 27/12/2008
Research exceptionJapanArticle 69 no. 1 of the Patent Act Act No. 121 of 1959 as last amended by Act No. 109 of 2006
Exclusion from patentability of plantsMontenegroArticle 7 (1) 3) and (2) of the Patent Law of 31/10/2008
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsAzerbaijanArticle 7 (8) of the Law on Patents N 312-IQ as amended in 2009
Exclusion from patentability of plantsAzerbaijanArticle 7 (8) of the Law on Patents N 312-IQ as amended in 2009
Exclusion from patentability of plantsIndonesiaArticle 7 (d) of the Law on Patents No. 14 of 01/08/2001 and Section 4 (1) and (2) (b) and (c) of the European Communities (Legal Protection of Biotechnological Inventions) Regulations of 2000
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsAlgeriaArticle 7 6) of the Ordinance No. 03-07 of 19/07/2003
Security exceptionsArmeniaArticle 7 of the Law on Inventions, Utility Models and Industrial Designs of 10/06/2008
Utility modelsUzbekistanArticle 7 of the Law on Inventions, Utility models and Industrial designs of 06/05/1994
Security exceptionsGeorgiaArticle 7 of the Law on Patents of 05/02/1999 as last amended in 2010 and Article 2 of the Law on State Secrets of 29/10/1996 as last amended in 1999
Utility modelsKazakhstanArticle 7 of the Patent Law No. 427 of 16/07/1999
Exclusion from patentability of plantsIsraelArticle 7 of the Patents Law No. 5727 of 08/08/1967 as last amended by Law No. 5760-1999
Security exceptionsViet NamArticle 7(3) of the Law No. 50/2005/QH11 of 29/11/2005, on Intellectual Property as last amended by Law No. 36/2009/QH12 of 19/06/2009 and Articles 23a to 23c of the Government's Decree No. 103/2006/ND-CP of 22/09/2006, detailing and guiding a Number of Articles of the Law on Intellectual Property regarding Industrial Property as last amended by Decree No. 122/2010/ND-CP
Patentability of substances existing in natureIndonesiaArticle 7(d) of the Law on Patents No. 14 of 01/08/2001
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsSerbiaArticle 7, paragraph (5) 4) and (6), of the Law on Patents of 27/12/2011
Exhaustion of rightsPolandArticle 70 of the Industrial Property Law of 30/06/2000, as amended by Act of 23/01/2004 and Act of 29/06/2007
Security exceptionsIcelandArticle 70 of the Patents Act No. 17/1991, as last amended by Act No. 126/2011
Research exceptionTurkeyArticle 75 b) of the Patent Act No.551 of 27/06/1995
Security exceptionsBrazilArticle 75 of the Industrial Property Law No. 9.279 of 14/05/1996, as last amended by Law No. 10.196 of 14/02/2001 and Article 1 to 3 of the Decree No. 2.553 of 16/04/1998 (Implementation of Articles 75, 88 to 93 of Law No. 9.279 of May 14, 1996 on Industrial Property
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementNetherlandsArticle 79 of the Patents Act of 15/12/1994 (Text as it applies on: 03/06/2009)
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsRomaniaArticle 8 (1) (c) and (2) of the Patent Law no. 64 of 1991 as republished in the Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, No. 456/18.VI.2008
Exhaustion of rightsAfrican Intellectual Property OrganizationArticle 8 (1) a) of annex I patents, title I of the revised Bangui Agreement of 02/03/1977 (as on 24/02/1999)
Disclosure related flexibilitiesJordanArticle 8 (1) and (2) of the Law on Patents of Invention No. 32 for the Year 1999(as last amended by Law No. 71 of 2001)
Research exceptionAfrican Intellectual Property OrganizationArticle 8 (1) c) of the Bangui Agreement of 02/03/1977 (Annex I), as last amended in February 1999
Substantive examinationGreeceArticle 8 (1)-(10) of the Law on "Technology transfer, inventions, and technological innovation" No. 1733/1987 (FEK 171, A' of 22/9/1987) as last amended by Law No. 2359 of 15/11/1995
Patentability of substances existing in natureNamibiaArticle 8 (a) and (c) of the Industrial Property Act of 1999
Exclusion from patentability of plantsRwandaArticle 8 6) and 7) of the Law No. 31/2009 of 26/10/2009 on the protection of intellectual property
Security exceptionsKyrgyzstanArticle 8 of the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic on Secret Inventions (as amended by Law No. 38 of March 22, 2007)
Exclusion from patentability of plantsAlgeriaArticle 8(1) of the Ordinance No. 03-07 of 19/07/2003
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementBelgiumArticle 8, § 1 (2) and § 2 (2) of the Law on the Punishment of Counterfeiting and Piracy of Intellectual Property Rights of 05/05/2007 as last amended on 25/02/2011
Regulatory review exceptionRomaniaArticle 80 (1) a) of the Patent Law No. 64 of 1991 as republished in the Official Gazette of Romania No. 456/18.VI.2008
Research exceptionRomaniaArticle 80 (1) c)of the Patent Law No. 64/1991 as republished in the Official Gazette of Romania No. 456/18.VI.2008
Research exceptionSwitzerlandArticle 9 (1) b) of the Patent Law of 25/06/1954 (as on 01/07/2009)
Regulatory review exceptionSwitzerlandArticle 9 (1) c. of the Patent Law of 25/06/1954 (as on 01/07/2009)
Substantive examinationOmanArticle 9 of the Law on Industrial Property Rights (Royal decree No. 67/2008)
Security exceptionsMadagascarArticle 9 of the Ordinance No. 89-019 Establishing Arrangements for the Protection of Industrial Property of 31/07/1989
Exclusion from patentability of plantsGuatemalaArticle 91 (c) of the Industrial Property Law, Decree No. 57-2000 of 18/09/2000
Regulatory review exceptionNorth MacedoniaArticle 91 2) of the Law on Industrial Property adopted on 12/02/2009
Research exceptionRepublic of KoreaArticle 96 (1) (i) of the Patent Act No. 950 of 1959 (as last amended on 30/01/2009 by Act No. 9381)
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementCroatiaArticle 97 of the Patents Act of 15/10/2003 as last amended by OG No. 76/2013
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementVenezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)Article 98 of the Industrial Property Law of 02/09/1955
Exhaustion of rightsSwitzerlandArticle 9a of the Patent Law of 25 June 1954 (as on 01/07/ 2009)
Exclusion from patentability of plantsFranceArticle L 611-19 of the Intellectual Property Code of 01/07/1994, updated version of 2010
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsFranceArticle L611-10 (2) (c) and (3) of the Intellectual Property Code, Law No. 92-597 of 01/07/1992 (as last amended on 13/08/2013)
Utility modelsFranceArticle L611-2 of the Intellectual Property Code, Law No. 92-597 of 01/07/1992 as last amended by Law No. 2007-1544
Regulatory review exceptionFranceArticle L613-5 (d) of the Intellectual Property Code, Law No. 92-597 of 01/07/1992 as last amended by Law No. 2007-1540
Research exceptionFranceArticle L613-5 b) of the Intellectual Property Code, Law No. 92-597 of 01/07/1992 as last amended by Law No. 2007-1544
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsArmeniaArticle10 (c) of the Patent Law of 10/06/2008
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsBrazilArticle10 V of the Industrial Property Law No. 9.279 of 14/05/1996 as last amended by Law No. 10.196 of 14/02/2001
Regulatory review exceptionSloveniaArticle19 (b) of the Industrial Property Act of 23/05/2001 as last amended on 06/02/2006
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsCubaArticle21.3 (i) of the Decree-Law No. 290 of 20/11/2011 on Inventions and Industrial Designs and Models
Patentability of substances existing in natureIcelandArticles 1 (2.1), (5) and (6) and 1a of the Patents Act No. 17/1991 as last amended by Law no. 167/2007
Patentability of substances existing in natureSwedenArticles 1 1), 1a (2) and (3), and 1b of the Patents Act No. 837 of 01/12/1967 as last amended by Law No. 161 of 01/04/2004
Utility modelsMozambiqueArticles 1 d), 89-91 of the Industrial Property Code, Decree No. 18/99 of 04/05/1999, as last amended by Law No. 04 of 12/04/2006
Patentability of substances existing in natureHungaryArticles 1(2) (a) and 5a of the of the Act XXXIII of 1995 on the protection of inventions by patents (Consolidated text of 01.04.2010)
Exclusion from patentability of plantsNetherlandsArticles 1, 2a (2) (c) and (d), and 3 (1) (c) and (d) of the Patents Act of 15/12/1995(Text as it applies on 03/06/2009)
Utility modelsRomaniaArticles 1, 3 and 4 of the Utility Models, Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, No. 851/12 December 2007
Utility modelsUnited Arab EmiratesArticles 1, 4, 5 and 6 of the Patent Law No. 44 of 12/10/1992-1413
Utility modelsUkraineArticles 1, 6 (1-4) and 7 (2-6 and 8) of the Law on the Protection of Rights to Inventions and Utility Models No.7 of 1994
Utility modelsAfrican Intellectual Property OrganizationArticles 1-4 of Annex II Utility Models, Title I, of the revised Bangui Agreement of 02/03/1977 (as on 24/02/1999)
Utility modelsHungaryArticles 1-4 of the Act on the Protection of Utility models No. XXXVIII of 1991
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementJapanArticles 101, 196 and 196-2 of the Patent Act, Act No. 121 of 1959 as amended up to Act No. 63 of 2011)
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementUruguayArticles 106 and 107 of the Law No. 17.164 of 02/09/1999 Regulating Rights and Obligations Relating to Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs
Compulsory licenses and government usePortugalArticles 106-110 of the Industrial Property Code, Decree-Law No. 36 of 05/03/2003 as last amended by Law No. 16 of 01/04/2008
Disclosure related flexibilitiesGuatemalaArticles 108, 109, 118 and 139 (a) of the Industrial Property Law, Decree No. 57-2000 of 18/09/2000
Substantive examinationViet NamArticles 109, 113 and 114 of the Law on Intellectual Property No. 50/2005/QH11 of 29/11/2005 as last amended by Order No. 12/2009/L-CTN of 29/06/2009
Disclosure related flexibilitiesLithuaniaArticles 11 §1 2), 13, 19, and 45 2) of the Patent Law No. I-372 of 18/01/1994 as last amended by Law No. X-1119 of 10/05/2007
Disclosure related flexibilitiesNamibiaArticles 11(3), 14, 15 (6) and 20 (2) of the Industrial Property Act of 1999
Substantive examinationGuatemalaArticles 113, 117 and 118 of the Industrial Property Law, Decree No. 57-2000 of 18/09/2000
Security exceptionsSpainArticles 119 to 122 of the Law No. 11/1986 of 20/03/1986 on Patents, as last amended by Law No. 14/2011 of 01/06/2011
Disclosure related flexibilitiesSan MarinoArticles 12 (1), 17, 23 (5) and 35 (1) (b) of the Law on Industrial Property No. 79 of 25/05/2005
Substantive examinationSaudi ArabiaArticles 12 and 13 of the Law of Patents, Layout-Designs of Integrated Circuits, Plant Varieties, and Industrial Designs of 2004 and Articles 34, 35 and 36 of the Regulations thereto
Substantive examinationLebanonArticles 12 and 16 of the Patent Law No. 240 of 14/08/2000
Disclosure related flexibilitiesAndorraArticles 12 and 20(1), (2) and (3) of the Patent Law of 10/06/1999
Utility modelsEl SalvadorArticles 120-122 of the Intellectual Property Law, legislative decree No. 604 of 15/07/1993 as last amended by Law No. No. 912 of 14/12/2005
Security exceptionsTurkeyArticles 125 to 128 of the Decree Law No.551 pertaining to the protection of patent rights of 24/06/1995 as last amended by the Decision of the Constitutional Court No. 2009/19 of 5/02/2009
Compulsory licenses and government useSloveniaArticles 125-126 of the Industrial Property Act of 23/05/2001 as last amended on 06/02/2006
Disclosure related flexibilitiesMaltaArticles 13 (1) (b), 15 and 44 (1) (b) of the Patents and Designs Act, Chapter 417, of 01/06/2002 as last amended by Act XVIII of 2005
Disclosure related flexibilitiesEgyptArticles 13 and 14 of the Law on the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights No. 82 of 03/06/2002
Substantive examinationJordanArticles 13 and 16 of the Law on Patents of Invention No. 32 for the Year 1999(as last amended by Law No. 71 of 2001)
Utility modelsGeorgiaArticles 13 and 16 of the Patent Law of 05/02/1999
Disclosure related flexibilitiesEgyptArticles 13, 22 (2), (5) and (6) and 34 (1) (c) and (e) of the Industrial Property Law No. 20-00 of 08/05/2000
Compulsory licenses and government useGreeceArticles 13- 14 of the Law on "Technology transfer, Inventions and Technological innovation" No. 1733 of 1987
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementIndonesiaArticles 130 to 135 of the Patents Law No. 14 of 01/08/2001
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsGuatemalaArticles 132 and 133 of the Industrial Property Law, Decree No. 57-2000 of 18/09/2000
Compulsory licenses and government useViet NamArticles 132, 133, 136, 137 and 145-146 of the Law on Intellectual Property No. 50/2005/QH11 of 29/11/2005
Compulsory licenses and government useEl SalvadorArticles 133 and 134 of the Intellectual Property Legislative Decree No. 604 of 15/07/1993, as last amended by the Intellectual Property Legislative Decree Amendment No. 912 of 14/12/2005
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementCambodiaArticles 133 and 134 of the Law on Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs of 22/01/2003
Utility modelsSerbiaArticles 134-135 of the Patent Law No. 15 of 02/07/2004
Security exceptionsRussian FederationArticles 1349 (1), (2) and (3), 1390 (5), 1395 (1) and 1401 to 1405 of the Civil Code, Chapter 72
Compulsory licenses and government useRussian FederationArticles 1360 and 1362 of the Patent Act (Chapter 72)
Disclosure related flexibilitiesEl SalvadorArticles 138, 153 and 163 (1) (b) of the Intellectual Property Legislative Decree No. 604 of 15/07/1993 No. 604 as last amended by Legislative Decree No. 912 of 14/12/2005
Substantive examinationRussian FederationArticles 1384- 1386 of the Patent Act (Chapter 72)
Disclosure related flexibilitiesAfrican Intellectual Property OrganizationArticles 14 (1) (d) (i) and (2), 24 (4) and (5) and 39 (1) (c), Annex I, of the Bangui Agreement of 02/03/1977, as revised on 24/02/1999
Disclosure related flexibilitiesMauritiusArticles 14 (2) (b) and (3), 17, 19 (1), 20 (2) and 25 (1) and (2) of the Patents, Industrial Designs and Trademarks Act No. 25 of 2002
Disclosure related flexibilitiesRomaniaArticles 14 (c), 18, 28 (c) and 52 (b) of the Patent Law No. 64/1991 as republished in the OJ, Part I, No. 638/18.IX.2007
Patentability of substances existing in naturePanamaArticles 14 2) and 15 1), 3) and 4) of the Law No. 35 of 10/05/1996 Enacting Provisions on Industrial Property
Security exceptionsItalyArticles 141, 142 and 143 of the Industrial Property Code of 2005
Utility modelsGuatemalaArticles 142-144 of the Industrial Property Law, Decree No. 57 of 18/09/2000
Utility modelsSpainArticles 143-146 of the Law on Patents and Utility Models No. 11/1986 of 20/03/1986 as last amended by Law No. 10 of 29/04/2002
Disclosure related flexibilitiesBelgiumArticles 15 (1) 2), 4) and 6), 17 (1), 20 (1), 22 (3) and 49 (1) 2) of the Patent Law of 28/03/1984 (Consolidated version as of 01/01/2010)
Substantive examinationNamibiaArticles 15 (5), (6) and (7) and 16 of the Industrial Property Act of 1999
Patentability of substances existing in natureAndean CommunityArticles 15 (a) and (b) and 20 (c) of the Decision No. 486 of 14/09/2000 of the Commission of the Andean Community - Common Industrial Property Regime
Disclosure related flexibilitiesCyprusArticles 15 and 58 (1) (ii) of the Patent Law No. 16(1) of 01/04/1998
Substantive examinationIcelandArticles 15, 16 and 19 of the Patents Act No. 17/1991 as last amended by Law no. 167/2007 and Articles 26-28 of Regulations thereto
Disclosure related flexibilitiesParaguayArticles 15, 16, 25 (3), 26 and 38 (c) of the Patents Law No. 1630 of 29/11/2000
Substantive examinationEl SalvadorArticles 151-153 of the Intellectual Property Legislative Decree No. 604 of 15/07/1993 No. 604 as last amended by Legislative Decree No. 912 of 14/12/2005
Utility modelsTurkeyArticles 154 -156 of the Patent Act No. 551 of 27/06/1995
Patentability of substances existing in natureMexicoArticles 16 (I), (II) and (IV) and 19 (II) of the Industrial Property Law of 25/06/1991as last amended on 06/12/2005
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementPanamaArticles 164 1), 2), 3) and 4) and 165 of the Law No. 35 of May 10, 1996, on Industrial Property as last amended by Law N° 61 of 05/10/2012
Disclosure related flexibilitiesBelizeArticles 17 (1) (b) and (4), 23 and 27 of the Patents Act (Ch. 253), No. 14 of 21/06/2000
Security exceptionsEgyptArticles 17 and 25 of the Law No. 82 of 2002 Pertaining to the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights, Patents of Invention, Utility Models, Layout Designs of Integrated Circuits and Undisclosed Information
Substantive examinationAfrican Intellectual Property OrganizationArticles 18 and 20, Annex I; of the Bangui Agreement of 02/03/1977, as revised on 24/02/1999
Disclosure related flexibilitiesKyrgyzstanArticles 18 § 2 2), 3), 4) and 5) and 22 §1 of the Patent Law No. 8 of 14/01/1998, as last amended by Law No. 46 of 27/02/2003
Disclosure related flexibilitiesCambodiaArticles 18, 30, 31, 32, 36, 38 and 66 of the Law on Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs of 22/01/2003
Compulsory licenses and government useCosta RicaArticles 18-20 of the Law on Patents, Industrial Designs and Utility Models No. 6867 of 25/04/1983 as last amended on 12/10/2000
Substantive examinationBelarusArticles 18-21 of the Law No. 160-Z on Patents for Inventions, Utility Models and Industrial Designs of 16/12/2002 as last amended on 24/12/2007
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementBrazilArticles 183 to 186 of the of the Industrial Property Law No. 9.279 of 14/05/1996, as last amended by Law No. 10.196 of 14/02/2001
Disclosure related flexibilitiesLuxembourgArticles 19 (1) (b), 22, 39 (2) and (5) and 73 (1) (b) of the Patent Act of 20/07/1992
Disclosure related flexibilitiesBrazilArticles 19 (II), 24, 34 (I) and 50 (2) of the Industrial Property Law No. 9.279 of 14/05/1996 (as last amended by Law No.10.196, of 14/02/2001) and Article 31 of the Provisional Act No. 2,186-1 16 of 23/08/2001
Substantive examinationSwedenArticles 19 and 20 of the Patents Act No. 837 of 01/12/1967 as last amended by Law No. 161 of 01/04/2004
Substantive examinationDominican RepublicArticles 19 and 22 of the Industrial Property Law No. 20-00 of 08/05/2000
Disclosure related flexibilitiesAlbaniaArticles 19, 28 and 73(1) (b) of the Industrial Property Law Nr. 9977 of 07/07/2008
Patentability of substances existing in natureSwitzerlandArticles 1a, 1b and 2 (2) (b) of the Federal Patents Law of 25/06/1954 as last amended on 01/07 2009
Exclusion from patentability of plantsSloveniaArticles 2 (1) (b), (2) and (3) and 4 of the Decree on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions of 2003
Patentability of substances existing in natureTunisiaArticles 2 (2) (b) and (f) and 3 of the Patents Law No.2000-84 of 24/08/2000
Patentability of substances existing in natureNetherlandsArticles 2 (2)(a), 2a and 3 (1) (b) and (d) of the Patents Act of 15/12/1995(Text as it applies on 03/06/2009)
Patentability of substances existing in natureBelgiumArticles 2, 3 (1) 1) and 4 (4) of the Patent Law of 28/03/1984 (Consolidated version as of 01/01/2010)
Utility modelsRepublic of KoreaArticles 2-5 of the Utility Model Act Promulgated on 31/12/1961 by Act No. 952 ( Last amended by Act No. 9371 of 30/01/2009)
Disclosure related flexibilitiesCroatiaArticles 20 (4), (5) and (6), 34 (1) 1), (2) and (4) and 79 4) of the Patent Act No. 173/2003 of 31/10/ 2003as last amended by Law OG No 76/2008 of 23/07/2007
Substantive examinationBrazilArticles 20 and 30-37 of the Industrial Property Law No. 9.279 of 14/05/1996 (as last amended by Law No.10.196, of 14/02/2001)
Substantive examinationUzbekistanArticles 20, 21 and 23 of the Law on Inventions, Utility Models and Industrial Designs of 29/08/2002
Disclosure related flexibilitiesArgentinaArticles 20, 27 (1 and 2) and 59 of the Law No. 24.481 of 23/05/1995 on Patents and Utility Models (as last amended by Law No. 24.572)
Disclosure related flexibilitiesBurundiArticles 20-23, 35 and 175 of the Law No. 1/13 of 28/07/2009 on Industrial Property
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementDjiboutiArticles 200 to 204 of the Law No. 50/AN/09/6th L on the Protection of Industrial Property of 21/06/2009
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementGuatemalaArticles 206 to 208 of the Industrial Property Law, Decree No. 57-2000 of 18/09/2000 and Article 275 (k) of the Criminal Code
Disclosure related flexibilitiesSpainArticles 21 (1) (b), 25, 35 and 112 (1) (b) of the Law about Patents of Invention and Utility Models No. 11 of 20/03/1986 as last amended by Law No. 10 of 29/04/2002
Disclosure related flexibilitiesNicaraguaArticles 21 (1), 22, 23, 35 and 57 (c) of the Law on Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs No. 354 of 19/09/2000 as last amended by Law No. 634 of 13/09/2007
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsGreeceArticles 21 and 22 of the Law on "Technology transfer, inventions, and technological innovation" No. 1733/1987 (FEK 171, A' of 22/9/1987) as last amended by Law No. 2359 of 15/11/1995
Substantive examinationCyprusArticles 21 and 22 of the Patent Law N° 16(1) of 01/04/1998
Substantive examinationBelgiumArticles 21 and 22 of the Patent Law of 28/03/1984 (Consolidated version as of 01/01/2010)
Disclosure related flexibilitiesTunisiaArticles 21, 24 (3), 29 (1) and (2) and 55 of the Patents Law No.2000-84 of 24/08/2000
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementMexicoArticles 213 XI, XII, XII and XIV and 223 I of the Industrial property Law as last amended on 09/04/2012
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementMoroccoArticles 213 to 217 of the Law No. 97-17 on the Protection of Industrial Property of 15/02/2000 as last amended by Law No. 31-05
Disclosure related flexibilitiesUruguayArticles 22 (d), 25, 32 (a) and 44 (b) of the Law No. 17.164 Regulating Rights and Obligations Relating to Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs No. 1.827*R of 02/09/1999
Disclosure related flexibilitiesAlgeriaArticles 22, 30 and 53 2) of the Ordinance No. 03-07 of 19/07/2003
Substantive examinationParaguayArticles 22- 26 of the Patents Law No. 1630 of 29/11/2000
Compulsory licenses and government useJordanArticles 22-26 of the Law on Patents No. 32 of 1999, as last amended by Law No. 71 of 2001
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementRepublic of KoreaArticles 225, 230, 231 and 232 of the Patent Act (Act No. 950 of 31/12/1961, as last amended by Act No. No. 11654 of 22/03/2013
Disclosure related flexibilitiesRwandaArticles 23 2), 25, 31, 33 (3), 34 (1) and 36 (2) of the Law No. 31/2009 of 26/10/2009 on the protection of intellectual property
Substantive examinationMaltaArticles 23 and 24 (1) of the Patents and Designs Act, Chapter 417, of 01/06/2002 as last amended by Act XVIII of 2005
Compulsory licenses and government useEgyptArticles 23 and 24 of the Law on the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights No. 82 of 2002
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementHaitiArticles 23 to 26 of the Law on Patents of Inventions and Industrial Designs of 14/12/1922 as last amended in 1924
Substantive examinationKyrgyzstanArticles 23, 23-1, 23-2 and 24 of the Patent Law No. 8 of 14/01/1998, as last amended by Law No. 46 of 27/02/2003
Compulsory licenses and government useLibyaArticles 23, 28, 29 and 30 of the Law on Patents and Industrial Designs and Models No. 8 of 1959
Substantive examinationUruguayArticles 23, 31 and 32 of the Law No. 17.164 Regulating Rights and Obligations Relating to Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs No. 1.827*R of 02/09/1999
Utility modelsHondurasArticles 23-26 of the Industrial Property Law, Decree Law No. 12-99-E of 30/12/1999
Disclosure related flexibilitiesNetherlandsArticles 24 (1) (e) and (4), 25 (1), (2) and (3), 35 and 75 (1) (b) of the Patents Act of 15/12/1995(Text as it applies on 03/06/2009)
Disclosure related flexibilitiesIndonesiaArticles 24 (2) (i), 52(1), 53, 56 and 91 (1) (a) of the Law on Patents No. 14 of 01/08/2001
Substantive examinationArgentinaArticles 24 and 27 of the Law No. 24.481 of 23/05/1995 on Patents and Utility Models (as last amended by Law No. 24.572)
Security exceptionsBulgariaArticles 24, 25 and 45a of the Law on Patents and Utility Model Registration No. 27/2 of 1993 as last amended on 20/07/2007 (version of 2010 available only in Bulgarian) and Regulation on the Secret Patents of 20/12/2008 (available only in Bulgarian)
Compulsory licenses and government useSaudi ArabiaArticles 24- 26 of the Law of Patents, Layout-Designs of Integrated Circuits, Plant Varieties, and Industrial Designs of 2004
Compulsory licenses and government useUnited Arab EmiratesArticles 24-25 and 30 of the Law No. 17 of 2002 pertaining to the Industrial Regulation and Protection of Patents, Industrial Drawings, and Designs
Substantive examinationMadagascarArticles 24-26 (1) of the Industrial Property Law, Ordinance No. 89 019 of 31/07/1989
Substantive examinationRomaniaArticles 24-27 of the Patent Law No. 64/1991 as republished in the OJ, Part I, No. 638/18.IX.2007
Utility modelsPanamaArticles 24-28 of the Law No. 35 of 10/05/1996, enacting Provisions on Industrial Property
Patentability of substances existing in natureNorth MacedoniaArticles 25 (2), (3) 1) and 5), (5) and 26 of the Law on Industrial Property No. 07-1006/1 of 12/02/2009
Security exceptionsAzerbaijanArticles 25 and 30 of the Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan on Patents of 2009
Compulsory licenses and government useMoroccoArticles 25, 31, 38-39, 60, 62, 66-67 and 75 of the Law No. 17-97 of 15/02/2000 concerning Protection of Industrial Property as implemented by the Decree No. 2-00-368 of 07/06/2004
Disclosure related flexibilitiesSerbiaArticles 25, 43 (1) 4), 45 and 87 (1) 4) of the Patent Law of 10/07/2004
Utility modelsCosta RicaArticles 25-26 and 31 of the Patent Law No.6867 of 25/04/1983, as last amended in 2000
Disclosure related flexibilitiesSwitzerlandArticles 26 (1) (b), 49 (2) (b) and (d), 49a, 50 and 50a of the Federal Patents Law of 25/06/1954 as last amended on 01/07 2009 and Article 67 of the Regulations thereto
Patentability of substances existing in natureDjiboutiArticles 26 (a) and (c) and 27(a) of the Protection of Industrial Property Law No.50/AN/09/6th L of 21/06/2009
Disclosure related flexibilitiesAndean CommunityArticles 26 (b), (h) and (j), 28, 29, 46 and 75 (d) of the Decision No. 486 of 14/09/2000 of the Commission of the Andean Community - Common Industrial Property Regime
Exclusion from patentability of plantsDjiboutiArticles 26 (d) and 27 (a) of the Protection of Industrial Property Law No.50/AN/09/6th L of 21/06/2009
Disclosure related flexibilitiesChinaArticles 26 and 36 of the Patent Law of 27/12/2008
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementRwandaArticles 261 to 263 of the Law No. 31/2009 of 26/10/2009 on the Protection of Intellectual Property
Security exceptionsBrunei DarussalamArticles 27 (3), 32 and 33 of the Patents Order of 12/10/2011
Security exceptionsKenyaArticles 27 and 28 of the Industrial Property Act of 27/07/2001
Utility modelsMexicoArticles 27-28 and 30 of the Industrial Property Law of 25/06/1991 (Consolidation of 2005)
Substantive examinationAlgeriaArticles 27-31 of the Ordinance No. 03-07 of 19/07/2003
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsNorth MacedoniaArticles 272 and 273 of the Law on Industrial Property No. 07-1006/1 of 12/02/2009
Patentability of substances existing in naturePolandArticles 28 (i), 29(1) (ii) and (2) and 931- 933 of the Industrial Property Law of 30/06/2000, as last amended by Act of 29/06/2007
Exhaustion of rightsEuropean UnionArticles 28 and 30 of the Treaty of Rome and Article 28 of the Convention for the European Patent
Compulsory licenses and government useRepublic of MoldovaArticles 28-29 of the Law on the Protection of Inventions No.50-XVI of 07/03/2008
Exclusion from patentability of plantsPolandArticles 29 (1) (ii) and (2), 75¹, 93 1 (iii) and 93 2 (iii) of the Industrial Property Law of 30/06/2000, as last amended by Act of 29/06/2007
Substantive examinationIrelandArticles 29, 30, 31, 34 and 35 of the Patent Act No. 1 of 1992 as last amended by Act No. 31 of 2006
Substantive examinationCroatiaArticles 29, 36 and 37 of the Patent Act No. 173/2003 of 31/10/ 2003 as last amended by Law OG No 76/2008 of 23/07/2007
Substantive examinationTunisiaArticles 29-31 of the Patents Law No.2000-84 of 24/08/2000
Patentability of substances existing in natureLebanonArticles 3 (1) of the Patent Law No. 240 of 14/08/2000
Exclusion from patentability of plantsSlovakiaArticles 3 (b), (c) and (d), 5 (2) (b) and (c), and 6 (1) (a) and (b) of the Patent Act No. 435/2001 as last amended by Act No. 202/ 2009 Coll.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementKazakhstanArticles 3 and 199 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan of 03/07/2014 ? 226-V ???
Exclusion from patentability of plantsNorth MacedoniaArticles 3 and 26, §1, of the Law on Industrial Property No. 07-1006/1 of 12/02/2009
Utility modelsNicaraguaArticles 3, 62-65 of the Law No. 354 on Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs of 19/09/2000
Utility modelsJapanArticles 3-4 of the Utility Model Act No. 123 of 1959 as last amended by Act No. 55 of 2006
Patentability of substances existing in natureEuropean UnionArticles 3-6 of the Directive 98/44/EC of 06/07/1998 on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions
Disclosure related flexibilitiesPanamaArticles 30, 31 and 50 of the Law No. 35 of 10/05/1996 Enacting Provisions on Industrial Property and Article 23 (f) of the Executive Decree No. 257 of 17/10/2006
Substantive examinationNetherlandsArticles 30, 32, 34 and 35 of the Patents Act of 15712/1995 (text as it applies on 03/09/2009)
Substantive examinationNicaraguaArticles 30, 34 and 35 of the Law on Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs No. 354 of 19/09/2000 as last amended by Law No. 634 of 13/09/2007
Compulsory licenses and government useHungaryArticles 31, 32,33A of the Law on the Protection of Inventions by Patents No. XXXIII of 1995 (Consolidated text of 01/10/2009)
Substantive examinationSpainArticles 31-34 and 39 of the Law about Patents of Invention and Utility Models No. 11 of 20/03/1986 as last amended by Law No. 10 of 29/04/2002
Compulsory licenses and government useBelgiumArticles 31-38 of the Patent Law of 28/03/1984 (Official Consolidation of 01/01/2010)
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementEcuadorArticles 319 (a) and (b), 327, 328 and 329 of the Intellectual Property Law (Consolidation No. 2006-13)
Substantive examinationIndonesiaArticles 32 and 48-53 of the Law on Patents No. 14 of 01/08/2001
Compulsory licenses and government useBulgariaArticles 32, 32a, 66 and 74c of the Patent Law No. 27/2 of 1993 as last amended by Law No. 59/20 of July 2007
Disclosure related flexibilitiesDjiboutiArticles 32, 34, 35, 41 (g) and 84 (b) of the Protection of Industrial Property Law No.50/AN/09/6th L of 21/06/2009
Compulsory licenses and government useLebanonArticles 32-39 of the Patents Law No. 240 of 07/08/2000
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementPortugalArticles 321 and 341 of the Industrial Property Code (consolidated as of 2008)
Disclosure related flexibilitiesRepublic of MoldovaArticles 33 (1) (b) and (d) and (4), 36, 48 (2) (a), (3) and (4), 57 (2) (b) and 64 (1) (b) of the Law on the protection of Inventions No. 50-XVI of 07/03/ 2008
Disclosure related flexibilitiesPolandArticles 33 (1) and 93.6 of the Industrial Property Law of 30/06/2000, as last amended by Act of 29/06/2007
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementBelarusArticles 33 and 201 of the Penal Code of the Republic of Belarus No. 275-Z of 9 July, 1999 (as amended up to July 12, 2013)
Disclosure related flexibilitiesMoroccoArticles 34 and 85 (1) (b) of the Law No. 17-97 concerning Protection of Industrial Property as implemented by Law No. 31-05 of 02/03/2006
Substantive examinationChinaArticles 34-36 of the Patent Law of 27/12/2008
Substantive examinationLuxembourgArticles 35, 36, 39 and 41 of the Patent Act of 20/07/1992
Substantive examinationCambodiaArticles 35-37 of the Law on Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs of 22/01/2003
Disclosure related flexibilitiesJapanArticles 36 (2), (3) and (4), 49 (iv) and (v), 123 and 134-2 (1) (iv) of the Patent Act No. 121 of 1959 as last amended by Act No. 109 of 2006(Effective September 30, 2007)
Compulsory licenses and government useSwitzerlandArticles 36-40e of the Federal Patents Law of 25/06/1954 as on 01/07/2009
Disclosure related flexibilitiesSlovakiaArticles 37 (4) and (5) (b), 38, 40 (4) and 46 (1) (b) of the Patent Act No. 435/2001as last amended by Act No. 202/ 2009 Coll.
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsAfrican Intellectual Property OrganizationArticles 37 and 38 of the Bangui Agreement of 02/03/1977, as revised on 24/02/1999
Disclosure related flexibilitiesBulgariaArticles 37 and 46a of the Law on Patents and Utility Model Registration No. 27/2 of 1993 as last amended on 20/07/2007
Security exceptionsLebanonArticles 38 and 39 of the Law No. 240/2000 of 2000 on Patents
Compulsory licenses and government useAlgeriaArticles 38 and 47-49 of the Ordinance No. 03-07 of 19/07/2003 - 1424
Compulsory licenses and government useLithuaniaArticles 38-39 of the Patent Law No. I-372 of 18/01/1994 as last amended by Law No. X-1119 of 10/05/2007
Security exceptionsDemocratic Republic of the CongoArticles 39 to 46 of the Law No. 82-001 of 07/01/1982 on Industrial Property
Disclosure related flexibilitiesHondurasArticles 39, 50 and 57 of the Industrial Property Law, Decree Law No. 12-99-E of 30/12/1999
Compulsory licenses and government useMaltaArticles 39-40 of the Patents and Designs Act, Chapter 417, of 01/06/2002, as amended by Acts IX of 2003 and XVIII of 2005
Compulsory licenses and government useDominican RepublicArticles 39-42 and 44-48 of the Law on Industrial Property No. 20-00 of 18/04/2000
Patentability of substances existing in natureMaltaArticles 4 (1), (2) (a) and (5) (b), (f) and (g) of the Patents and Designs Act, Chapter 417, of 01/06/2002 as last amended by Act XVIII of 2005
Patentability of substances existing in natureLuxembourgArticles 4 (2) (a) and 5 (2) of the Patent Act of 20/07/1992
Patentability of substances existing in natureSpainArticles 4 (2), (3), (4) (a) and 5 (3) and (4) of the Law about Patents of Invention and Utility Models No. 11 of 20/03/1986 as last amended by Law No. 10 of 29/04/2002
Compulsory licenses and government useKazakhstanArticles 4 (4-5) and Section 14 (6) of the Patent Law No. 427 of 16/07/1999
Transition periodsCambodiaArticles 4 (iv) and 136 of the Law on Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs of 22/01/2003
Patentability of substances existing in natureParaguayArticles 4 and 5 of the Patents Law No. 1630 of 29/11/2000
Patentability of substances existing in natureCambodiaArticles 4(i) and (v) of the Law on Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs of 22/01/2003
Security exceptionsTajikistanArticles 4, 5, 8 and 10 of the Law of the Republic of Tajikistan on Secret Inventions of 21/07/2010
Utility modelsSlovakiaArticles 4-9 of the Act No. 517/2007 Coll. on Utility Models
Security exceptionsRomaniaArticles 40 and 41 of the Patent Law No. 64/1991 as republished on Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, no. 541/ 8 august 2007 and Article 7 (3) to (20) of the Implementing Regulations of the Patent Law No. 64/1991 of 21/05/2008
Security exceptionsNetherlandsArticles 40 to 46 of the Patents Act of 15/12/1994 (Text as it applies on: 03/06/2009)
Substantive examinationPanamaArticles 40, 45-49 and 52 of the Law No. 35 of 10/05/1996 Enacting Provisions on Industrial Property
Substantive examinationSlovakiaArticles 40- 44 of the Patent Act No. 435/2001as last amended by Act No. 202/ 2009 Coll.
Substantive examinationBurundiArticles 40-43 of the Law No. 1/13 of 28/07/2009 on Industrial Property
Substantive examinationSerbiaArticles 40-45 of the Patent Law of 10/07/2004
Substantive examinationMoroccoArticles 41 and 47 of the Law No. 17-97 concerning Protection of Industrial Property as implemented by Law No. 31-05 of 02/03/2006
Disclosure related flexibilitiesTurkeyArticles 42 (1) (b), 46, and 129 (b) of the Decree-Law No. 551 on the Protection of Patent Rights of 27/06/1995 as last amended by Law No. 4128 of 7/11/1995
Disclosure related flexibilitiesHungaryArticles 42 (1) (b), 60, 63 and of the Act XXXIII of 1995 on the protection of inventions by patents (Consolidated text of 01.04.2010)
Disclosure related flexibilitiesRepublic of KoreaArticles 42 (2) (iii), (3), (5) and (7), 62 (iv) and 133 (1) (i) of the Patent Act No. 950 on 28/11/1949, as last amended by Act No. 9381 of 30/01/2009
Compulsory licenses and government useParaguayArticles 42- 46 of the Patents Law No. 1.630 of 29/11/2000
Compulsory licenses and government useArgentinaArticles 42- 47 of the Patents Act No. 24.481 of 1996 as amended by Law 24.572 T.O. 1996 - B.O. 22/3/96
Disclosure related flexibilitiesNorth MacedoniaArticles 43 (1) 2), 4) and 5), 45, 56 (1) 4) and 57 (1) and (3) of the Industrial Property Law of 12/01/2009
Transition periodsEgyptArticles 43 and 44 of the Law on the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights No 82 of 03/06/2002
Disclosure related flexibilitiesChileArticles 43, 43bis and 46 of the Industrial Property Law No. 19.039 of 24/01/1991 (consolidated version of 2005 as last amended on 2007) and Article 39 of the Regulations thereto
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementMonacoArticles 44 to 48 of the Patents Law No. 606 of 20/06/1955
Substantive examinationPolandArticles 44-47 of the Industrial Property Law of 30/06/2000, as last amended by Act of 29/06/2007 and Articles 34 and 35 of the Regulations thereto
Substantive examinationAndean CommunityArticles 44-48 of the Decision No. 486 of 14/09/2000 of the Commission of the Andean Community - Common Industrial Property Regime
Exclusion from patentability of plantsItalyArticles 45 (4) (b), (5) and (5 bis), 81 ter (1) (b) and (2) and 81 quarter (1) (e) of the Code of the Industrial Property, Legislative Decree No. 30 of 15/02/2005 as last amended by Legislative Decree No. 131 of 13/08/2010
Substantive examinationChileArticles 45- 47 of the Industrial Property Law No. 19.039 of 24/01/1991 (consolidated version of 2005 as last amended on 2007) and Articles 17, 82 and 83 of the Regulations thereto
Compulsory licenses and government useIcelandArticles 45-49 of the Patent Act No. 17 of 1991 as last amended by Act No. 167/2007
Substantive examinationBulgariaArticles 45a-46b and 47 of the Law on Patents and Utility Model Registration No. 27/2 of 1993 as last amended on 20/07/2007
Disclosure related flexibilitiesMozambiqueArticles 46 (1), 49 and 54 of the Industrial Property Code, Decree No. 04 of 12/04/2006
Substantive examinationDjiboutiArticles 46 and 47 of the Protection of Industrial Property Law No.50/AN/09/6th L of 21/06/2009
Substantive examinationRepublic of MoldovaArticles 46- 51 of the Law on the protection of Inventions No. 50-XVI of 07/03/ 2008
Compulsory licenses and government useRomaniaArticles 46-47 of the Patent Law no. 64 of 1991 as republished in the Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, No. 456/18.VI.2008
Compulsory licenses and government useAfrican Intellectual Property OrganizationArticles 46-57 of the Agreement Revising the Bangui Agreement of 02/03/1977, on the Creation of an African Intellectual Property Organization (Bangui (Central African Republic), 24/02/ 1999)
Disclosure related flexibilitiesMexicoArticles 47 I, 54 and 78 I of the Industrial Property Law of 25/06/1991as last amended on 06/12/2005
Substantive examinationJapanArticles 47-49 of the Patent Act No. 121 of 1959 as last amended by Act No. 109 of 2006(Effective September 30, 2007)
Compulsory licenses and government useChinaArticles 48-54 of the Patent Law of 12/03/1984 as last amended on 27/12/2008 and Article 1 State Intellectual Property Office Order # 37 of November 2005
Compulsory licenses and government useBarbadosArticles 49 and 50 of the Patent Act No. 18 of 26/07/2001
Utility modelsDominican RepublicArticles 49-51 of the Industrial Property Law No. 20-00 of 08/05/2000
Compulsory licenses and government useCyprusArticles 49-56 of the Patent Law of 01/04/1998, No. 16(1) (Amended in 2000, 2002 and 2006, no text available in English)
Patentability of substances existing in natureSlovakiaArticles 5 (2) and (3) (a) and 6 (1) (b) and (d) of the Patent Act No. 435/2001 as last amended by Act No. 202/ 2009 Coll.
Patentability of substances existing in natureCroatiaArticles 5 (2), (3), (4), (5), (6.1) and 6 (1) and (2) of the Patent Act No. 173/2003 of 31/10/ 2003as last amended by Law OG No 76/2008 of 23/07/2007
Patentability of substances existing in natureHondurasArticles 5 (3) and (4) and 7 (1) of the Industrial Property Law, Decree Law No. 12-99-E of 30/12/1999
Disclosure related flexibilitiesOmanArticles 5 (3) and (4) and 8 of the Law on Industrial Property Rights (Royal Decree No. 67/2008)
Exclusion from patentability of plantsCroatiaArticles 5 (4) and (5) and 6 1) of the Patent Act No. 173/2003 of 31/10/2003 as last amended by Law OG No 76/2008 of 23/07/2007
Patentability of substances existing in natureSerbiaArticles 5, 6 and 7 (3) of the Patent Law of 10/07/2004
Compulsory licenses and government useAlbaniaArticles 50 and 51 of the Law on Industrial Property No. 9947 of 07/07/2008
Substantive examinationMexicoArticles 50, 52, 53, 54, 55 and 55bis of the Industrial Property Law of 25/06/1991as last amended on 06/12/2005
Utility modelsParaguayArticles 50-53 of the Patents Law No. 1630 of 29/11/2000
Substantive examinationArmeniaArticles 51 and 54 of the Industrial Property Law of 10/06/2008
Security exceptionsSerbiaArticles 51 to 56 of the Law on Patents no. 99/11 of 27/12/2011
Disclosure related flexibilitiesItalyArticles 51, 76 (1) (b) and 162 (1) of the Code of the Industrial Property, Legislative Decree No. 30 of 15/02/2005
Patentability of substances existing in naturePortugalArticles 52 (1) (a) and (b), 53 (3) (a) and (b), 54 (1) (c), (e) and (f), (2), (3) and (4) of the Industrial Property Code, Decree-Law No. 36 of 05/03/2003 as last amended by Law No. 16 of 01/04/2008
Disclosure related flexibilitiesArmeniaArticles 53 (2) and (3), 57 (1) and 58 of the Industrial Property Act of 10/06/2008
Exclusion from patentability of plantsPortugalArticles 53 (3) (b) and 54 (1) (d), (e) and (f), (2) and (3) of the Industrial Property Code, Decree-Law No. 36 of 05/03/2003 as last amended by Law No. 16 of 01/04/2008
Utility modelsArgentinaArticles 53, 55 and 58 of the Patents and Utility Models Law No. 24.481 of 1996
Compulsory licenses and government useUruguayArticles 54-55, 60-61, 69-70 and 73 of the Law No. 17.164 of 13/01/2000 Regulating Rights and Obligations Relating to Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs
Utility modelsChileArticles 54-56 of the Industrial Property Law No. 19.039 of 24/01/1991, as last amended in 2005
Substantive examinationTurkeyArticles 54-59, 62 and 63 of the Decree-Law No. 551 on the Protection of Patent Rights of 27/06/1995 as last amended by Law No. 4128 of 7/11/1995
Security exceptionsPolandArticles 56 to 62 of the Industrial Property Law of 30/06/2000 as last amended by act of 29 June 2007
Substantive examinationNorth MacedoniaArticles 56, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65 and 66 of the Industrial Property Law of 12/01/2009
Compulsory licenses and government useNetherlandsArticles 57-59 of the Patent Act of 15/12/1994, (Text as it applies on 03/06/2009) and Policy Rules on issuing compulsory licenses pursuant to WTO decision WT/L/540 on the implementation of paragraph 6 of the Doha declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and public health, under section 57 of the Act on Patent of 1995, of 23/12/2004
Substantive examinationRepublic of KoreaArticles 57-61 of the Patent Act No. 950 on 28/11/1949, as last amended by Act No. 9381 of 30/01/2009
Utility modelsViet NamArticles 58 (2), 59 and 60 of the Law on Intellectual Property No. 50/2005/QH11 of 29/11/2005
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementAfrican Intellectual Property OrganizationArticles 58 to 65 and 67 of Annex I on Patents of the Bangui Agreement
Substantive examinationSwitzerlandArticles 59 and 59a of the Federal Patents Law of 25/06/1954 as last amended on 01/07 2009 and Articles 47, 53, 61a, 63 and 67 of the Regulations thereto
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementRomaniaArticles 59 and 60 of the Patent Law No.64/1991 as republished on Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, no. 541/ 8 august 2007
Compulsory licenses and government useLuxembourgArticles 59-60 and 62-63 bis of the Patent Act of 20/07/1992
Disclosure related flexibilitiesCosta RicaArticles 6 (1) and (4), 13 (1), (3) and (4) and 14 (1), (3) and (4) of the Patents Law No. 6867of 25/04/1983 (as last amended by Law No. 8039 of 12/10/2000) and Article 80 of the Law no. 7788 of 23/04/1998 on Biodiversity
Patentability of substances existing in natureRepublic of MoldovaArticles 6 (2) (a) and (4) and 7 (1) (c) and (d) and (2) of the Law on the protection of Inventions No. 50-XVI of 07/03/ 2008
Exclusion from patentability of plantsRepublic of MoldovaArticles 6 (4) (b) and (c) and 7 (1) (b) and (c) of the Law on the Protection of Inventions No. 50-XVI of 07/03/ 2008
Exclusion from patentability of plantsNicaraguaArticles 6 (c) and 7 (a) of the Law on Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs No. 354 of 19/09/2000 as last amended by Law No. 634 of 13/09/2007
Utility modelsIndonesiaArticles 6 and 104 of the Patents Law No. 14 of 2001
Patentability of substances existing in natureBulgariaArticles 6(2) (1), 7 (1) 4), 7a of the Law on Patents and Utility Model Registration No. 27/2 of 1993 as last amended on 20/07/2007
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementAlgeriaArticles 61 and 62 of the Ordonnance n° 03-07 du 19 Joumada El Oula 1424 correspondant au 19 juillet 2003 relative aux brevets d'invention
Compulsory licenses and government useAndean CommunityArticles 61 and 65-68 of the Decision No. 486 of 14/09/ 2000 of the Commission of the Andean Community - Common Industrial Property Regime (Cartagena Agreement)
Disclosure related flexibilitiesPortugalArticles 62 (1) (b) and (4), 63, 73 (1) (d) and 113 (d) of the Industrial Property Code, Decree-Law No. 36 of 05/03/2003 as last amended by Law No. 16 of 01/04/2008
Compulsory licenses and government useSerbiaArticles 63, 65, 66 and 68 of the Patents Law No. 15 of 02/07/2004
Substantive examinationPortugalArticles 65, 65A, 66 and 68 of the Industrial Property Code, Decree-Law No. 36 of 05/03/2003 as last amended by Law No. 16 of 01/04/2008
Compulsory licenses and government useHondurasArticles 65-70 of the Industrial Property Law, Decree Law No. 12-99-E of 30/12/1999
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementUzbekistanArticles 66 and 149 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Uzbekistan (as amended in accordance with the Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan ? 93 of 25.04.2007)
Substantive examinationHungaryArticles 68, 69, 69A, 71 and 74-75 of the of the Act XXXIII of 1995 on the protection of inventions by patents (Consolidated text of 01.04.2010)
Compulsory licenses and government useCroatiaArticles 68-69b of the Patents Law No. 173/2003 as last amended by Act No. 76/2007
Compulsory licenses and government useBrazilArticles 68-74 of the Industrial Property Law No. 9.279 of 14/05/1996 as last amended by Law No. 10.196 of 14/02/2001
Compulsory licenses and government useTunisiaArticles 69- 70, 78 and 80 of the Patents Law No. 2000-84 of 24/08/2000
Compulsory licenses and government useArmeniaArticles 69-70 of the Patent Law of 10/06/2008
Compulsory licenses and government useCubaArticles 69-73 of the Law No. 68 of 14/05/1983
Disclosure related flexibilitiesGreeceArticles 7 (1) (b) and (4), 11 (a) and 15 (1) (c) of the Law on "Technology transfer, inventions, and technological innovation" No. 1733/1987 (FEK 171, A' of 22/9/1987) as last amended by Law No. 2359 of 15/11/1995
Exclusion from patentability of plantsBulgariaArticles 7 (1) 3) and 4) and 7a (3) and (4) of the Law on Patents and Utility Model Registration No. 27/2 of 1993 as last amended on 20/07/2007
Patentability of substances existing in natureAlgeriaArticles 7 (1) and 8 (1) of the Ordinance No. 03-07 of 19/07/2003
Patentability of substances existing in natureRomaniaArticles 7 (2) (a), (c) and (d), 8 (a) and 9 (b) and (c) of the Patent Law No. 64/1991 as republished in the OJ, Part I, No. 638/18.IX.2007
Exclusion from patentability of plantsRomaniaArticles 7 (b) and 9 (b) of the Patent Law No. 64/1991 as republished in the OJ, Part I, No. 638/18.IX.2007
Exclusion from patentability of plantsSerbiaArticles 7, § 3 and 9, § 1 3) and § 2 of the Patent Law of 27/12/2011
Compulsory licenses and government useMexicoArticles 70, 73 and 77 of the Industrial Property Law of 25/06/1991, last amended version of 06/12/2005
Compulsory licenses and government useItalyArticles 70- 72 of the Industrial Property Code, Legislative Decree No. 30 of 15/02/2005
Security exceptionsNorth MacedoniaArticles 71 to 73 of the Law on Industrial Property No. 07-1006/1 of 12/02/2009
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsIndonesiaArticles 71-73 of the Law on Patents No. 14 of 01/08/2001
Compulsory licenses and government useJapanArticles 72, 79-83 and 92-97 of the Patent Law No. 121 of 13/04/1959, as last amended by Act No. 109 of 2006
Utility modelsBulgariaArticles 73-73d of the Law on Patents and Utility model Registration (Title amended, State Gazette No. 64/2006; in force as from 09/11/2006)
Compulsory licenses and government useIndonesiaArticles 74-77, 79 and 99-103 of the Patent Law No. 14 of 01/08/2001
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementArgentinaArticles 75 to 80 of the Law on Patents and Utility Models (Consolidated Text of Law No. 24.481 of March 30, 1995, as last amended by Law No. 25.859/2003)
Security exceptionsSwedenArticles 78 and 79 of the Patents Act (1967:837) as last amended on 01/01/2011 and Defence Inventions Act (1971:1078) (available only in Swedish)
Compulsory licenses and government useTurkeyArticles 79, 93, 96-99, 101-103, 114 and 116 of the Decree-Law on the Protection of Patent Rights No. 551 of 27/06/1995 and Sections 39, 40 and 43 of the Implementing Regulations under Decree-Law No. 551 pertaining to the Protection of Patent Rights, including Amended Regulation of 06/12/1998
Disclosure related flexibilitiesLebanonArticles 8 (2) (b) 1) and (3) and 31 3) of the Patent Law No. 240 of 14/08/2000
Disclosure related flexibilitiesSwedenArticles 8 (2) and (3), 8a and 25 (2) of the Patents Act No. 837 of 01/12/1967 as last amended by Law No. 161 of 01/04/2004
Disclosure related flexibilitiesIcelandArticles 8 §§ (2), (6) and (7), 21 2) and 52 2) of the Patents Act No. 17/1991 as last amended by Law no. 167/2007 and Article 29 of the regulations thereto
Utility modelsAndean CommunityArticles 81, 82 and 85 of the Cartagena Agreement, Decision No. 486 of 14/09/2000 of the Commission of the Andean Community
Utility modelsUruguayArticles 81,82, 83 and 85 of the Law Regulating Rights and Obligations Relating to Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs no. 17.164 of 02/09/1999
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementTunisiaArticles 82 and 83 of the Law No. 2000-84 of 24/08/2000, on Patents
Utility modelsItalyArticles 82 and 86 of the Industrial Property Code, Legislative Decree No. 30 of 10/02/2005
Compulsory licenses and government usePolandArticles 82-83 and 88 of the Industrial Property Law of 30/06/2000, as amended by Act of 23/01/2004 and Act of 29/06/2007
Compulsory licenses and government useMozambiqueArticles 83, 85-88 of the Industrial Property Code, Decree No. 4 of 12/04/2006
Compulsory licenses and government useSpainArticles 83-86, 88-90 and 101-104 of the Law about Patents of Invention and Utility Models No. 11 of 20/03/1986 as last amended by Law No. 10 of 29/04/2002
Security exceptionsCubaArticles 84 to 90 of the Decree-Law No. 290 of November 20, 2011 on Inventions and Industrial Designs and Models
Substantive examinationSloveniaArticles 85 and 88 of the Industrial Property Act of 23/05/2001 as last amended on 06/02/2006
Disclosure related flexibilitiesSloveniaArticles 87 (2) and (3) and 112 (1) (b) of the Industrial Property Act of 23/05/2001 as last amended on 06/02/2006
Security exceptionsMontenegroArticles 87 to 91 of the Law on Patents of 31/10/2008
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementDemocratic Republic of the CongoArticles 88, 93 and 94 of the Law No. 82-001 of January 7, 1982 on Industrial Property
Utility modelsAlbaniaArticles 88-89 and 92-93 of the Law on Industrial Property No. 9947 of 07/07/2008
Substantive examinationCosta RicaArticles 9 and 13 of the Patents Law No. 6867of 25/04/1983 (as last amended by Law No. 8039 of 12/10/2000)
Utility modelsBrazilArticles 9-11 of the Industrial Property Law No. 9.279 of 14/05/1996 as last amended by Law No. 10.196 of 14/02/2001
Patentability of substances existing in natureGuatemalaArticles 91 (a), (b) and (c) of the Industrial Property Law, Decree No. 57-2000 of 18/09/2000
Utility modelsPolandArticles 94 and 100 (1) of the Industrial Property Law of 30 June 2000, as amended by Act of 23/01/2004 and Act 29/06/2007
Security exceptionsIsraelArticles 94 to 111 of the Patents Law 5727-1967, as consolidated in 2014
Compulsory licenses and government useNorth MacedoniaArticles 97-98, 100, 102, 104,107-108 of the Law on Industrial Property No. 07-1006/1 of 12/02/2009
Security exceptionsIndonesiaArticles 99 to 103 of the Patents Law No. 14 of 01/08/2001 and Articles 2, 3 and 4 of the Government Regulation No. 27 of 2004 regarding the Procedure of Exploitation of Patent by the Government
Compulsory licenses and government useFranceArticles L. 613-11 - L. 613-20 of the Intellectual Property Code, Law No.92-597 of 01/07/1992 (as last amended by Law No. 2007-1544 ) and sections R613-4 to R613-42 of the regulation part
Patentability of substances existing in natureFranceArticles L611-10 (2) (a) and (4) and L611.18-L611.19 (3) of the Intellectual Property Code No. 92-597 of 01/07/1992 (Consolidated version of 2010)
Patentability of substances existing in natureFranceArticles L611-10 (2) (a) and (4) and L611.18-L611.19 (3) of the Intellectual Property Code No. 92-597 of 01/07/1992 (Consolidated version of 2010)
Substantive examinationFranceArticles L612-11-L612-15 of the Intellectual Property Code No. 92-597 of 01/07/1992 (Consolidated version of 2010) and Articles R612-56-1 and Article R612-57 of the Regulations thereto
Disclosure related flexibilitiesFranceArticles L612-5, L612-12 6) and L613-25 (b) of the Intellectual Property Code No. 92-597 of 01/07/1992 (Consolidated version of 2010)
Security exceptionsFranceArticles L612-8, L612-9, L612-10, L613-20 and L613-21 of the legislative part and Articles from R612-26 to R612-32 of the Regulation Part of the Intellectual Property Code as on 17/09/2012
Exhaustion of rightsFranceArticles L613-2-4 and L613-6 of the Intellectual Property Code, Law No. 92-597 of 01/07/1992 as last amended by Law No. 2007-1544
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementFranceArticles L615-14, L615-14-1, L615-14-2 and L615-14-3 of the Intellectual Property Code (consolidated as of January 1, 2014)
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementComorosArticles from 40 to 44 of the Patents Law of 05/07/1844
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementSwitzerlandArticles from 66 to 71 and 81 of the Patents Law of 25/06/1954, as of 01/01/2012
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsBelarusArticle… 2 (2) of the Law No. 160-Z on Patents for Inventions, Utility Models and Industrial Designs, as amended on 15/07/2010
Security exceptionsChinaCHINA: Articles 4, 14 and 20 of the Patents Law of 28/12/2008 and Articles from 7 to 9 of the Regulation on National Defense Patent of 17/09/2004
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsTunisiaChapter I, Article 2 (2) (c) of the Patents Law No. 2000-84 of 24/08/2000
Regulatory review exceptionEuropean UnionDirective 2001/82/EC (for veterinary medicinal products) and 2001/83/EC (medicinal products for human use) and the amending Directives 2004/27/EC and 2004/28/EC
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsUnited Arab EmiratesFederal Law No. 31 of 2006 Pertaining to the Industrial Regulation and Protection of Patents, Industrial Drawings, and Designs
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsSwitzerlandFederal Patents Law of 25/06/1954 as on 01/01/2012
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsAfrican Regional Industrial Property Organization (ARIPO)Harare Protocol on Patents and Industrial Designs of 10/12/1982 as last amended on 14/11/2006
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsNigeriaIndustrial Property Act (Chapter 344) No. 60 of 1970 (as last amended in 1990)
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsTongaIndustrial Property Act No. 19 of 09/11/1994
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsKenyaIndustrial Property Act No. 3 of 27/07/2001
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsPapua New GuineaIndustrial Property Act No. 30 of 19/07/2000
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsGambia (the)Industrial Property Act of 1989 as last amended on 2007
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsLiberiaIndustrial Property Act of 2003
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsSloveniaIndustrial Property Act of 23/05/2001 as last amended on 06/02/2006
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsBhutanIndustrial Property Act of the Kingdom of Bhutan of 2001
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsGuinea-BissauIndustrial Property Code of 1996
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsCabo VerdeIndustrial Property Code, Decree-Law No. 4/2007 of 20/08/2007 Industrial Property Code
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsChileIndustrial Property Law No. N° 19.039 (Consolidated Law of 2006)
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsMadagascarIndustrial Property Law, Ordinance No. 89-019 of 31/07/1989
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsLesothoIndustrial Property Order No. 5 of 1989, as last amended by Act No. 4 of 1997
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsSri LankaIntellectual Property Act No. 36 of 2003
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsLao People's Democratic RepublicIntellectual Property Law of 14/01/2008
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsDemocratic People's Republic of KoreaInvention Law of 13/05/1998
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsBahrainLaw No (1) for the year 2004 On Patents and Utility Models amended by 2006
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsUzbekistanLaw No. 1062-XII of May 6, 1994 on Inventions, Utility Models and Industrial Designs (as last amended by Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan No. ZRU-312 of December 26, 2011).
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsIndonesiaLaw No. 14 of 10/08/2001 regarding Patents
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsYemenLaw No. 2 of 2011 on Patents, Utility Models, Layout Designs of Integrated Circuits and Undisclosed Information
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsIraqLaw No. 28 of 1999
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsAngolaLaw No. 3/92 on Industrial Property of 28/02/1992
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsSao Tome and PrincipeLaw No. 4/2001 of 31/12/2001 on Industrial Property
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsSaudi ArabiaLaw of Patents, Layout-Designs of Integrated Circuits, Plant Varieties, and Industrial Designs of 16/07/2004
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsJordanLaw on Patents No. 32 of 1999, as last amended by Law No. 28 of 2007
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsLibyaLaw on Patents and Industrial Designs and Models No. 8 of 1959
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsCambodiaLaw on Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs of 22/01/2003, as supplemented by Decree No. 706 of 29/06/2006
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsEl SalvadorLaw on the Promotion and Protection of Intellectual Property Rights (Legislative Decree No. 604 of 15/07/1993)
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsEgyptLaw on the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights No. 82 of 2002
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsUkraineLaw on the Protection of Rights to Inventions and Utility Models No. 3687-XII of 15/12/1993 as last amended in 2003 (version of 2009 available only in Ukranian)
Security exceptionsSouth SudanNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementAzerbaijanNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementAustraliaNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementBahamasNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementBeninNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementBolivia (Plurinational State of)No provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementBosnia and HerzegovinaNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementBrunei DarussalamNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementBulgariaNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementBurundiNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementCanadaNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementCentral African RepublicNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementChileNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementCosta RicaNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementCôte d'IvoireNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementCyprusNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementDominicaNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementDominican RepublicNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementEl SalvadorNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementEstoniaNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementEthiopiaNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementGeorgiaNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementGreeceNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementHondurasNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementIndiaNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementIrelandNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementIsraelNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementJamaicaNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementKyrgyzstanNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementLatviaNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementLuxembourgNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementMalawiNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementMalaysiaNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementMaliNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementMaltaNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementMauritiusNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementNauruNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementNew ZealandNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementNigeriaNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementPakistanNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementParaguayNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementRepublic of MoldovaNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementSaint LuciaNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementSan MarinoNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementSao Tome and PrincipeNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementSaudi ArabiaNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementSenegalNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementSingaporeNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementSouth AfricaNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementTimor-LesteNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementTrinidad and TobagoNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementTurkeyNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementUgandaNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementUnited KingdomNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementUnited States of AmericaNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementVanuatuNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementZambiaNo provision of law.
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementZimbabweNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsAntigua and BarbudaNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsArgentinaNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsAustriaNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsBelizeNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsBhutanNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsBosnia and HerzegovinaNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsBotswanaNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsBurundiNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsCabo VerdeNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsCambodiaNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsChileNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsCyprusNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsDemocratic People's Republic of KoreaNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsDjiboutiNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsDominicaNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsDominican RepublicNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsEcuadorNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsEl SalvadorNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsEthiopiaNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsGambia (the)No provision of law.
Security exceptionsGhanaNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsGuatemalaNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsGuinea-BissauNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsHondurasNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsIran (Islamic Republic of)No provision of law.
Security exceptionsIrelandNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsJamaicaNo provision of law.
Transition periodsJapanNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsJordanNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsLao People's Democratic RepublicNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsLiberiaNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsMaltaNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsMauritiusNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsMexicoNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsMozambiqueNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsNepalNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsNicaraguaNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsNigeriaNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsOmanNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsPanamaNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsPapua New GuineaNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsParaguayNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsPhilippinesNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsPortugalNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsRepublic of MoldovaNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsRwandaNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsSamoaNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsSao Tome and PrincipeNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsSeychellesNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsSierra LeoneNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsSudanNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsEswatiniNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsSwitzerlandNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsThailandNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsTongaNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsTrinidad and TobagoNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsTunisiaNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsUgandaNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsUnited Republic of TanzaniaNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsUruguayNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsYemenNo provision of law.
Security exceptionsGreeceNo provision of law.
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsCanadaPatent Act ( R.S., 1985, c. P-4, Act current to 28/02/2011)
Exclusion from patentability of plantsJapanPatent Act (Act No. 121 of 13/04/1959, as last amended by Act No. 30 of 08/05/2012)
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsZimbabwePatent Act (Chapter 26:03) of 01/02/1972 as last amended by Act No. 14/2002
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsAntigua and BarbudaPatent Act No. 23 of 2003
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsDominicaPatent Act No. 8 of 07/10/1999
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsAustraliaPatent Act No. 83 of 30/10/1990 as last amended by Act No. 35 of 2012
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsZambiaPatent Act of 1958 (Chapter 400) as last amended by Act No. 26 of 28/12/1987
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsRepublic of KoreaPatent Act promulgated on 28/11/1949 by Military Act No. 950, as last amended by Act No. 11117 of 02/12/2012
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsGhanaPatent Act, Act No. 657 of 2003
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsSudanPatent Law No. 58 of 1971
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsIsraelPatent Law no. 5727 of 1967 as last amended by Law No. 5760-1999
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsChinaPatent Law of 12/03/1984 as last amended on 27/12/2008
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsIran (Islamic Republic of)Patent, Industrial Design and Trademark Registration Act of 29/10/2007
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesPatents Act (Act No. 39 of 2004)
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsSaint Kitts and NevisPatents Act (Cap. 18.25) of 31/12/2002
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsGrenadaPatents Act (Cap. 227)
Exclusion from patentability of plantsSingaporePatents Act (Chapter 221) 2005
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsUnited Republic of TanzaniaPatents Act No. 1 of 1987, Chapter 217, as last revised in 1994
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsTrinidad and TobagoPatents Act No. 21 of 1996 as last amended by the Act No. 18 of 2000
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsSingaporePatents Act No. 21 of 25/11/1994 as of 09/10/2009
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsMalaysiaPatents Act No. 291 of 1983 as last amended on 2006
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsUgandaPatents Act of 15/10/1993 as last amended in 2002
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsJamaicaPatents Act of 1857 as last amended in 1975
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsSamoaPatents Act of 1972
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsBarbadosPatents Act, Cap. 314, No. 18 of 26/07/2001
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsSeychellesPatents Act, Chapter 156 of 1901 (version of 1991)
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsBelizePatents Act, Chapter 253, of 21/06/2000 as last amended in 2005
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsMalawiPatents Act, Chapter 49:02 of 1957
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsLebanonPatents Law No. 240 of 07/08/2000
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsBrunei DarussalamPatents Order of 17/10/2011
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsPakistanPatents Ordinance No. LXI of 02/12/2000 (as amended by the Patents Amendment Ordinance of 2002)
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsGuyanaPatents and Designs Act (Cap. 90:03) of 01/01/1938 as last revised in 1972
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsMauritiusPatents, Industrial Designs and Trademarks Act No. 25 of 2002
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsEswatiniPatents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs Act No. 6 of 1997
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementCzech RepublicProvision 151 of the Criminal Code, Act 40/2009
Utility modelsPhilippinesRules 200-201 of the Rules and Regulations on Utility Models and Industrial Designs (as amended by Order No.61 series 2001 and Office Order No. 09 series of 2000)
Exclusion from patentability of plantsUnited KingdomSchedule A2, section 76A (3) (f), (4) and (11) of the Patents Act of 1977, consolidated version of 01/10/2011
Patentability of substances existing in natureUnited KingdomSection 1 (2) (a) and 76A and Schedule A2 (Section 76) (1)-(6) and (11) of the Patents Act of 1977, consolidated version of 01/01/2010
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsUnited KingdomSection 1 (2) (c) of the Patents Act of 1977(unofficial consolidation of 01/10/2011)
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsDenmarkSection 1 (2) (iii) of the Consolidate Patent Act No. 108 of 24/01/2012
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsAustriaSection 1 (2) 3) and (3) of the Patents Law 1970 (BGBl. No. 259/1970), as last amended by Act No. 143/2001 (last amended version of 2010 not available in English)
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsGermanySection 1 (3) 3) and (4) of the Patent Law of 16/12/1980 (as last amended by the Act on Improvement of Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights of 31/07/2009)
Exclusion from patentability of plantsNigeriaSection 1 (4) (a) of the Patents and Designs Act, Chapter 344, of 01/12/1971, version of 1990
Exclusion from patentability of plantsDenmarkSection 1 (4) and (5) of the Consolidated Patent Act No.91 of 28/01/2009
Exclusion from patentability of plantsFinlandSection 1 (4) and (5) of the Patents Act No. 550 of 15/12/1967 as last amended by Act No. 743/2011 of 17/06/2011
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsFinlandSection 1(2) 3) of the Patents Act No. 550 of 15/12/1967 as last amended by Act No. 743 of 17 /06/2011
Patentability of substances existing in natureGhanaSection 1(3) (a) and (b) of the Patent Law No. 305A of 30/12/1992
Exclusion from patentability of plantsGermanySection 1, 2a (1) 1), (2) and (3) 2), 3) and 4) of the Patent Act of 16/12/1980 as last amended by Act of 31/07/2009
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsNorwaySection 1, §2 3) of the Patent Act No. 9 of 15/12/1967 (as amended up to Act No. 8 of 01/07/2010)
Exclusion from patentability of plantsNorwaySection 1, §§ 4 and 5 of the Patents Acts No.9 of 15/12/1967
Transition periodsMadagascarSection 1. 8 (1) (v) of the Ordinance No. 89 019 Establishing Arrangements for the Protection of Industrial Property of 31/07/1989
Patentability of substances existing in natureArmeniaSection 10 (1) (a) and (3) of the Industrial Property Law of 10/06/2008
Substantive examinationEswatiniSection 10 (3), (4) and (5) of the Industrial Property Law No. 6 of 04/09/1997
Substantive examinationGrenadaSection 10 (5)-(7) of the Industrial Property Act of 2002
Exclusion from patentability of plantsIrelandSection 10 (b) of the Patent Act No. 1 of 1992 as last amended by Act no. 31 of 2006
Exhaustion of rightsIndiaSection 107A of the Patent Act No. 39 of 1970 as last amended in 2005
Regulatory review exceptionIndiaSection 107A of the Patent Act of 1970 as last amended in 2005
Exclusion from patentability of plantsBarbadosSection 11 (1) (e) of the Patents Act No. 18, Cap. 314, of 26/07/2001
Exclusion from patentability of plantsMauritiusSection 11 (3) (d), (e), (f) and (g) of the Patents, Industrial Designs and Trademarks Act No. 25 of 2002
Substantive examinationBhutanSection 11 (3), (4) and (5) of the Industrial Property Act of 2001
Exhaustion of rightsAntigua and BarbudaSection 11 (4) (a) of the Patent Act No. 23 of 2003
Research exceptionAntigua and BarbudaSection 11 (4) c) of the Patent Bill No. 23 of 2003
Regulatory review exceptionGermanySection 11 no. 2 b of the Patent Act as last amended by the Act on Improvement of Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights of 31/07/2009
Research exceptionGermanySection 11 no. 2 of the Patent Act as last amended by the Act on Improvement of Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights of 31/07/2009
Compulsory licenses and government useNigeriaSection 11 of the Industrial Property Act (Chapter 344) No. 60 of 1970 (amended law of 1990 not available)
Substantive examinationTongaSection 11 of the Industrial Property Act No. 19 of 09/11/1994
Security exceptionsLatviaSection 11 of the Patent Law of 15/02/2007
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementNepalSection 11 of the Patent, Design and Trade Mark Act, 2022 (1965), as last amended on 24/11/2006
Substantive examinationZimbabweSection 11 of the Patents Act (Chapter 26:03) No. 26 of 1971 as last amended by Act 20/1994 (S.7)
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsNew ZealandSection 11 of the Patents Act No. 68 of 2013
Patentability of substances existing in natureBarbadosSection 11(a) and (e) of the Patents Act No. 18 of 26/07/2001
Regulatory review exceptionAustraliaSection 119 A of the Patent Act 1990 as last amended by Law No. 106 of 2006
Exhaustion of rightsGrenadaSection 12 (4) (a) (i) of the Industrial Property Act of 2002
Research exceptionGrenadaSection 12 (4) (a) of the Industrial Property Act of 2002
Exhaustion of rightsEswatiniSection 12 (4) (a) of the Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs Act No. 6 of 04/09/1997
Research exceptionEswatiniSection 12 (4) c) of the Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs Act No. 6 of 1997
Disclosure related flexibilitiesUkraineSection 12 (5) and (7) of the Law on the Protection of Rights to Inventions and Utility Models No. 3687-XII of 15/12/1993 as last amended in 2003
Patentability of substances existing in natureTrinidad and TobagoSection 12 (a) of the Patents Act No. 21 of 1996
Research exceptionUzbekistanSection 12 of the Law on Inventions, Utility Models and Industrial Designs No. 1068-XII of 29/08/2002
Compulsory licenses and government useEswatiniSection 12 paragraph 6 of the Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs Act No. 6 of 1997
Patentability of substances existing in natureDominicaSection 12(1) (a) of the Patents Act No. 8 of 07/10/1999
Exhaustion of rightsViet NamSection 125 (2) (b) of the Intellectual Property Law No. 50/2005/QH11 of 29/11/2005
Exclusion from patentability of plantsMalaysiaSection 13 (1) (b) of the Patents Act No. 291 of 1983 as last amended by Act No. 1264 of 2006
Patentability of substances existing in natureBrunei DarussalamSection 13 (2) (a) of the Emergency Patents Order of 29/06/1999
Exclusion from patentability of plantsSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSection 13 (2) (h) of the Patents Act, Chapter 314, Act No. 39 of 2004
Research exceptionTongaSection 13 (4) (4) of the Industrial Property Act No. 19 of 09/11/1994
Exhaustion of rightsBhutanSection 13 (4) (i) of the Industrial Property Act of the Kingdom of Bhutan, 2001
Research exceptionBhutanSection 13 (4) a) of the Industrial Property Act of 2001
Transition periodsPakistanSection 13 (9) of the Patent Ordinance No. LXI of 2000 as last amended by Patent Ordinance No. 2(1)/2002
Exhaustion of rightsTongaSection 13 4 (a) of the Industrial Property Act No. 19 of 09/11/1994
Security exceptionsGermanySection 13 of the Patent Law of 05/051936 as last amended by the Law of 31/07/2009
Patentability of substances existing in natureMalaysiaSection 13(1) (a) and (b) of the Patents Act No. 291 of 1983 as last amended by Act No. 1264 of 2006
Substantive examinationUnited States of AmericaSection 131 of the 35 U.S.C, as last amended on 01/11/ 2005 and § 1.56, 1.98 (a) (1) and (2), § 1.104 (a) and (b) and § 1.105 of the United States Code of Federal Regulations, as amended Dec. 2009, Title 37 - Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementBotswanaSection 134 (6) and (7) of the Industrial Property Act (Act No. 8 of 2010)
Research exceptionCooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC)Section 14 (1) of the Patent Regulation of the GCC (approved by the Supreme Council of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf) of 1992 (as at 23/0472002)
Patentability of substances existing in natureZambiaSection 14 (7) of the Patent Act of 1958 (Chapter 400) as last amended by Act No. 26 of 28/12/1987
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementGermanySection 142 of the Patent Law as amended on 31/07/2009
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsAustraliaSection 144 of the Patents Act No. 83 of 1990 as amended by Act No. 106 of 2006
Compulsory licenses and government useBhutanSection 15 (1)-(3) of the Industrial Property Act of the Kingdom of Bhutan of 2001
Substantive examinationLiberiaSection 15 (3), (4) and (5) of the Industrial Property Act of 20/03/2003
Security exceptionsVanuatuSection 15 of the Patents Act No. 2 of 2003
Research exceptionEstoniaSection 16 no.3 of the Patent Act of 16/03/1994, as last amended by the Act of 10/03/2004
Substantive examinationUkraineSection 16 of the Law on the Protection of Rights to Inventions and Utility Models No. 3687-XII of 15/12/1993 as last amended in 2003
Substantive examinationZambiaSection 16 of the Patent Act of 1958(Chapter 400) as last amended by Act No. 26 of 28/12/1987
Exhaustion of rightsNamibiaSection 17 (3) (a) of the Industrial Property Bill of 1999
Research exceptionNamibiaSection 17 (3) c) of the Unified Bill on Intellectual Property Rights 2000-2001
Exhaustion of rightsLiberiaSection 17 (4) (a) (i) of the Industrial Property Act of 20/03/2003
Research exceptionLiberiaSection 17 (4) a) (iii) of the Industrial Property Act of 20/03/2003
Security exceptionsBarbadosSection 17 (6) of the Patents Act No. 18 of 26/07/2001
Exhaustion of rightsEstoniaSection 17 of the Patent Act of 16/03/1994, as last amended by the Act of 10/03/2004
Exhaustion of rightsUnited Arab EmiratesSection 17 of the Patent Law No. 44 of 12/10/1992 - 1413
Utility modelsAustraliaSection 18 (1A) and (2) of the Patent Act No. 83 of 1990 as amended by Act No. 106 of 2006
Exclusion from patentability of plantsAustraliaSection 18 (3) and (4) of the Patents Act No. 83 of 1990 as last amended by Act No. 106 of 2006
Regulatory review exceptionCzech RepublicSection 18 (e) of the Patents Act No. 527 of 1990 as last amended by Act No. 378/2007
Research exceptionCzech RepublicSection 18 e) of the Patents Act No. 527 of 1990 as last amended by Act No. 378/2007
Compulsory licenses and government useNamibiaSection 19 of the Industrial Property Bill of 1999
Compulsory licenses and government useCooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC)Section 19 of the Patent Regulation of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (as at 23704/2002)
Patentability of substances existing in natureAntigua and BarbudaSection 2 (2) (i), (iv) and (v) of the Patents Act No. 23 of 29/12/2003
Exclusion from patentability of plantsAntigua and BarbudaSection 2 (2) (iv), (v) and (vi) of the Patents Act No. 23 of 29/12/2003
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsOmanSection 2 (2) of the Royal Decree No. 67/2008 on Industrial Property Rights and their Enforcement
Patentability of substances existing in natureAustriaSection 2 (3) of the Patents Law BGBl. No. 259/1970 as last amended by BGBl No. 143/2001
Exclusion from patentability of plantsGhanaSection 2 (e), (f) and (g) of the Patents Act, Act No. 657 of 2003 Section 2 - Matter Excluded from Patent Protection
Exclusion from patentability of plantsAustriaSection 2 3) of the Patents Law BGBl. No.259/1970 as last amended by BGBl. No. 143/2001 (version of 2011 not available in English)
Research exceptionLatviaSection 20 no.2 of the Patent Law adopted on 15/02/2007
Regulatory review exceptionLatviaSection 20 no.3 of the Patent Law adopted on 15/02/2007
Compulsory licenses and government useCzech RepublicSection 20 of the Law on Inventions, Industrial Designs and Rationalization Proposals No. 527 of 27/11/1990 as last amended by Act No. 207/2000 Coll. and Act No. 378/2007
Security exceptionsZimbabweSection 20 of the Patents Act, Chapter 26:03 of 01/02/1972, as last amended by Act No. 14/2002
Patentability of substances existing in natureKenyaSection 21 (3) (a) of the Industrial Property Act No. 3 of 27/07/2001
Exclusion from patentability of plantsLao People's Democratic RepublicSection 21 of the Intellectual Property Law of 14704/2008
Patentability of substances existing in natureLao People's Democratic RepublicSection 21 of the Intellectual Property Laws No. 08/NA of 24/12/2007
Exhaustion of rightsLatviaSection 21 of the Patent Law of 15/02/2007
Research exceptionMauritiusSection 21(4)(d) of the Patents, Industrial Designs and Trademarks Act of 2002
Security exceptionsBangladeshSection 21A of the Patents and Designs Act (Act No. II of 1911)
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementSri LankaSection 22 (g) and 181 of the Intellectual Property Act, No. 36 of 2003
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsPhilippinesSection 22 2of the Intellectual Property Code, Act No. 8293 of 06/06/1997(as last amended by Act No. 9502 of 2008)
Substantive examinationBotswanaSection 22 of the Industrial Property Act No. 14 of 21/08/1996
Exhaustion of rightsBotswanaSection 24 (3) (a) (i) of the Industrial Property Act No. 14 of 1996
Security exceptionsZambiaSection 24 of the Patents Act (Chapter 400) of 1957 as last amended on 28/12/1987
Security exceptionsMalawiSection 24 of the Patents Act, Chapter 49:02 of 1957 (version as of 1986)
Research exceptionBotswanaSection 24(3)(a) (iii) of the Industrial Property Act No. 14 of 1996
Research exceptionEthiopiaSection 25 (1) b of the Industrial Property Law (Proclamation) No. 123 of 10/05/1995
Patentability of substances existing in natureSouth AfricaSection 25 (2) (a) and (4) (b) of the Patents Act No. 37 of 1952 as last amended by Act No. 20 of 2005
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsSouth AfricaSection 25 (2) f) and (3) of the Patents Act No. 57 of 1978 as last amended by Act, No. 20 of 2005
Exclusion from patentability of plantsSouth AfricaSection 25 (4) (b) of the Patents Act No. 37 of 1952 as last amended by Act No. 20 of 2005
Substantive examinationPapua New GuineaSection 26 of the Industrial Property Act No. 30 of 19/07/2000
Substantive examinationDominicaSection 26 of the Patents Act No. 8 of 07/10/1999
Exclusion from patentability of plantsKenyaSection 26(a)(b)of The Industrial Property Act, 2001
Exhaustion of rightsUgandaSection 28 (b) of the Patents Act (Chapter 216) of 15/10/1993
Research exceptionUgandaSection 28 a) of the Patent Act of 15/10/1993
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementSlovakiaSection 282 of the Criminal Code, Act No. 300/2005
Exhaustion of rightsPapua New GuineaSection 29 (4) (a) of the Industrial Property Act No. 30 of 19/07/2000
Research exceptionPapua New GuineaSection 29 (4) c) of the Patent and Industrial Act No. 30 of 19/07/2000
Exclusion from patentability of plantsZimbabweSection 2A of the Patents Act (Chapter 26:03) No. 26 of 1971 as last amended by Act 9 of 2002
Disclosure related flexibilitiesAfrican Regional Industrial Property Organization (ARIPO)Section 3 (1) (ii) and (1A) of the Harare Protocol of 10/12/1982 as last amended on 26/11/1999
Exclusion from patentability of plantsUnited Republic of TanzaniaSection 3 (1) (vi) and (vii) of the Industrial Property Act No. 4 of 28/03/2008
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsCzech RepublicSection 3 (2) (c) and (3) of the Law on Inventions, Industrial Designs and Rationalization Proposals No. 527 of 27/11/1990 as last amended by Act No. 207/2000 Coll. and Act No. 378/2007
Research exceptionFinlandSection 3 (2) no. 3 of the Patent Act No. 550 of 15/12/1967, as last amended by Act 684/2006 of 21/07/2006
Regulatory review exceptionFinlandSection 3 (2) no. 4 of the Patent Act No. 550 of 15/12/1967, as last amended by Act 684/2006 of 21/07/2006.
Exhaustion of rightsSwedenSection 3 (2) no.2 of the Patent Act No. 837 of 01/12/1967 as last amended by Law No. 159 of 01/04/2004
Exhaustion of rightsFinlandSection 3 (2) no.2 of the Patents Act No. 550 of 15/12/1967 as last amended on 21/07/2006
Exhaustion of rightsNorwaySection 3 (2) of the Patent Act No. 9 of 15/12/1967 (as last amended by Act No.80 of 29/06/2007)
Regulatory review exceptionNorwaySection 3 (3) (5) of the Act No. 9 of 15/12/1967 on Patents (The Norwegian Patents Act) (as last amended by Act No.80 of 29/06/2007)
Patentability of substances existing in natureGrenadaSection 3 (3) (a) of the Industrial Property Act of 2002
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsVanuatuSection 3 (3) (f) of the Patents Act No. 2 of 2003
Exhaustion of rightsDenmarkSection 3 (3) (ii) of the Consolidate Patent Act No. 91 of 28/01/2009
Exclusion from patentability of plantsGambia (the)Section 3 (3) (ii) of the Industrial Property, Chapter 95:03; Act No. 12 of 1997, version of 2007
Research exceptionDenmarkSection 3 (3) (iii) of the Patent Act no. 91 of 28/01/2009
Regulatory review exceptionDenmarkSection 3 (3) (iv) of the Consolidate Patent Act No. 91 of 28/01/2009
Research exceptionNorwaySection 3 (3) no. 3 of the Act No. 9 of 15/12/1967 on patents (The Norwegian Patents Act) (as last amended by Act No. 80 of 29/06/2007)
Research exceptionSwedenSection 3 (3) no. 3 of the Patents, Act No. 837 of 01/12/1967 as last amended by Law No. 159 of 01/04/2004
Patentability of substances existing in natureEswatiniSection 3 (a) of the Industrial Property Law No. 6 of 04/09/1997
Patentability of substances existing in natureIndiaSection 3 (c) and (j) of the Patent Act No. 39 of 1970 as last amended by Act No. 15 of 2005
Exclusion from patentability of plantsIndiaSection 3 (i) and (j) of the Patent Act No. 39 of 1970 as last amended by Act No. 15 of 2005
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsIndiaSection 3 (k) of the Patent Act No. 39 of 1970 as last amended by the Patents Amendment Act No. 15 of 2005
Utility modelsBelarusSection 3 of the Law on Patents for Inventions, Utility Models and Industrial Designs No. 160-Z of 16/12/2002
Substantive examinationAfrican Regional Industrial Property Organization (ARIPO)Section 3, (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7) and (8) of the Harare Protocol of 10/12/1982 as last amended on 26/11/1999
Exhaustion of rightsMadagascarSection 30 (2) of the Industrial Property Law, Ordinance No. 89-019 of 31/07/1989
Exhaustion of rightsPakistanSection 30 (5) a) of the Patents Ordinance No. LXI of 02/12/2000 (as amended by the Patents Amendment Ordinance of 2002)
Research exceptionPakistanSection 30 (5) of the Patents Ordinance of 2000 (as amended by Patents (Amendment)Ordinance, 2002)
Exhaustion of rightsGhanaSection 30 (b) of the Patent Law No. 305A of 30/12/1992, repealed by Patent Act, 2003 (Act 657)
Research exceptionGhanaSection 30 a) of the Patent Law No. 305A of 30/12/1992
Compulsory licenses and government useBotswanaSection 31 of Industrial Property Act, Act No. 14 of 1996
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementEswatiniSection 32 (1), (2) and (3) of the Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs Act of 04/09/1997
Compulsory licenses and government usePapua New GuineaSection 32 of the Industrial Property Act No. 30 of 19/07/2000
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementHungarySection 329 D of the Criminal Code, Act No. IV of 1978
Disclosure related flexibilitiesKenyaSection 34 (1) (b) and (5), 38, 41 (7) (b) and (d) and (8), 43 (5) (a), 44 (3) (b) and (8) and 103 (3) (f) and (g) of the Industrial Property Act No. 3 of 27/07/2001
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementAntigua and BarbudaSection 34 of the Patents Act, Act No. 23 of 2003
Regulatory review exceptionThailandSection 36 (2) (4) of the Patent Act B.E. 2522 of 11/03/1979 as Amended by the Patent Act (No.2) B.E 2535 and the Patent Act (No.3) B.E. 2542
Exhaustion of rightsThailandSection 36 (2) no. 7 of the Patent Act B.E. 2522 of 11/03/1979 as amended by the Patent Act No.2 B.E 2535 and the Patent Act No.3 B.E. 2542
Research exceptionThailandSection 36 (2) no.1 of the Patent Act B.E. 2522 of 11/03/1979 as Amended by the Patent Act (No.2) B.E 2535 and the Patent Act (No.3) B.E. 2542
Compulsory licenses and government useAustriaSection 36 of the Patents Law 1970 (BGBl. No. 259/1970), as last amended by Act No. 143/2001 (last amended version of 2010 not available in English)
Research exceptionUnited Republic of TanzaniaSection 37 (1) of the Patents Act No. 1 of 1987 as amended by Acts No.13 and 18 of 1991
Research exceptionMalaysiaSection 37 (1) of the Patents Act of 1983 as last amended in 2006
Regulatory review exceptionMalaysiaSection 37 (1A) of the Patents Act of 1983 as last amended in 2006
Exhaustion of rightsUnited Republic of TanzaniaSection 37 (2) of the Patents Act No. 1of 20/01/1987
Exhaustion of rightsMalaysiaSection 37 (2) of the Patents Act No. 291 of 1983 as last amended on 2006
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementGhanaSection 37 of the Patent Act, Act No. 657 of 2003
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsPakistanSection 37 of the Patent Ordinance No. LXI of 2000 as last amended by Patent Ordinance No. 2(1)/2002
Exclusion from patentability of plantsEthiopiaSection 4 (1) (b) of the Proclamation concerning Inventions, Minor Inventions and Industrial Designs No. 123 of 10/05/1995
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsEthiopiaSection 4 (1) (c) of the Proclamation of the Industrial Property Law No. 123 of 10/05/1995
Patentability of substances existing in natureBhutanSection 4 (3) (i) of the Industrial Property Act of 2001
Exclusion from patentability of plantsMaltaSection 4 (5) (e) and (f) and (6) of the Patents and Designs Act, Chapter 417, of 01/06/2002 as last amended by Act XVIII of 2005
Patentability of substances existing in natureTongaSection 4 (a) of the Industrial Property Act No. 19 of 09/11/1994
Exclusion from patentability of plantsLesothoSection 4 (b) of the Industrial Property Order, Order No. 5 of 1989, as last amended by Act No. 4 of 1997
Exclusion from patentability of plantsCzech RepublicSection 4 (b) of the of the Law on Inventions, Industrial Designs and Rationalization Proposals No. 527 of November 27/11/1990 as last amended by Law No.116 of 06/04/2000 and Sections 2 (b) and (c) and 3 (c) of the Law of 21/06/2000, on the Protection of Biotechnological Inventions
Substantive examinationNigeriaSection 4 of the Industrial Property Act (Chapter 344) No. 60 of 1970 (version of 1990)
Patentability of substances existing in natureEthiopiaSection 4(1) (b) and (d) of the Proclamation concerning Inventions, Minor Inventions and Industrial Designs No. 123 of 10/05/1995
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementBhutanSection 41 (3) of the Industrial Property Act of 13/07/2001
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsGhanaSection 41 of the Patent Law No. 305A of 30/12/1992
Research exceptionTrinidad and TobagoSection 42 b) of the Patent Act No. 21 of 1996 as last amended by the Act No. 18 of 2000
Research exceptionIrelandSection 42 b) of the Patents Act No. 1 of 27/02/1992 as last amended in 2006 42.-
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementTongaSection 43 (1) and (4) of the Industrial Property Act, Act No. 19 of 1994 as last amended by Act No. 42 of 2002
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementLesothoSection 43 of the Industrial Property Order of 1989 (Order No. 5 of 1989, as last amended by Act No. 4 of 1997)
Exhaustion of rightsTrinidad and TobagoSection 43 of the Patents Act No. 21 of 1996 as last amended by the Act No. 18 of 2000
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsZimbabweSection 44 of the Patent Act (Chapter 26:03) No. 26 of 1971 as last amended by Act 20/1994 (S.7)
Research exceptionIndiaSection 47 of the Patent Act No. 39 of 1970 (as last amended in 2005)
Compulsory licenses and government useEstoniaSection 47 of the Patent Act of 16/03/1994, as last amended by the Act of 10/03/2004
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsSaint LuciaSection 47 of the Patents Act No. 16 of 27/08/2001
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsZambiaSection 49 of the Patent Act of 1958(Chapter 400) as last amended by Act No. 26 of 28/12/1987
Security exceptionsCzech RepublicSection 5 (3), 24 (4) of the Law No. 527/1990 of 27/11/1990 on Inventions and Rationalization Proposals (as last amended by Act No. 207/2000 Coll.)
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsUnited KingdomSection 50 A. of the Patents Act of 1977, consolidated version of 01/01/2010
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementSouth SudanSection 50 of the Patent Law No. 58 of 1971
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementSudanSection 50 of the Patent Law No. 58 of 1971
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementLiberiaSection 51 (1), (2) and (3) of the Industrial Property Act of 20/03/2003
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsSingaporeSection 51 of the Patents Act No. 21 of 25/11/1994 as of 01/12/2008
Research exceptionNetherlandsSection 53 (3) of the Kingdom Act of 15/12/1994, containing rules in respect of patents (Text as it applies on 03/06/2009)
Regulatory review exceptionNetherlandsSection 53 (4) of the Kingdom Act of 15/12/1994, containing rules in respect of patents (the Dutch Patents Act) (Text as it applies on 03/06/2009)
Regulatory review exceptionKenyaSection 54 (2) of the Industrial Property Act No. 3 of 27/07/2001
Compulsory licenses and government useLatviaSection 54 of the Patent Law of 15/02/2007
Regulatory review exceptionIsraelSection 54a of the Patents Law 5727-1967
Regulatory review exceptionCanadaSection 55.2 (1), (5) and (6) of the Patent Act (R.S., 1985, c. P-4) (Act current to 21/01/ 2010) and Manufacturing and Storage of Patented Medicines Regulations
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementNorwaySection 57 of the Patents Act No. 9 of 15/12/1967, as amended up to Act No. 8 of 01/07/2010
Research exceptionKenyaSection 58 (1) of the Industrial Property Act No. 3 of 27/07/2001
Exhaustion of rightsKenyaSection 58 (2) of the Industrial Property Act No. 3 of 27/07/2001
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsNicaraguaSection 6 (f) of the Industrial Property Law No. 354 of 19/09/2000 as last amended by Decree No. 16-2006
Regulatory review exceptionUnited KingdomSection 60 (5) (i) of the Patents Act of 1977(unofficial consolidation of 01/01/2010)
Research exceptionUnited KingdomSection 60 (5) b) of the Patents Act of 1977 (unofficial consolidation of 01/01/2010)
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementSaint Kitts and NevisSection 62 (1) of the Patents Act (Cap. 18.25) of 31/12/2002
Research exceptionSaint LuciaSection 62 (2) a) of the Patents Act No. 16 of 27/08/2001
Patentability of substances existing in natureSri LankaSection 62 (3) (a) and (b) of the Intellectual Property Act No. 36 of 2003
Exclusion from patentability of plantsSri LankaSection 62 (3) (b) of the Intellectual Property Act No. 36 of 2003
Utility modelsIrelandSection 63 (1), (2), (3), (4) of the Patents Act No. 1 of 27/02/1992, as last amended by law No. 31 of 2006
Utility modelsThailandSection 65bis and 65decies of the Patent Act B.C.E. 2522 of 11/03/1979 as amended by the Patent Act (No.2) B.E. 2535 and the Patent Act (No.3) B.E. 2542
Exhaustion of rightsSingaporeSection 66 (2) (g), (3), (4), (5), (5A) and (6) of the Patents Act No. 21 of 25/11/1994 as of 01/12/2008
Regulatory review exceptionSingaporeSection 66 (2) (h) of the Patent Act (Chapter 221) No. 21 of 25/11/1994 as of 01/12/2008
Research exceptionSingaporeSection 66 (2) b) of the Patent Act (Chapter 221) No. 21 of 25/11/1994 as of 01/12/2008
Regulatory review exceptionNew ZealandSection 68B of the Patents Act of 1953 (as at 01/08/2008)
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsKenyaSection 69 of the Industrial Property Act No. 3 of 27/07/2001
Regulatory review exceptionSouth AfricaSection 69A of the Patents Act No. 57 of 1978 (as last amended by Act No. 58 of 2002)
Patentability of substances existing in natureUgandaSection 7 (2) (a) and (b) of the Patents Act of 15/10/1993
Patentability of substances existing in naturePakistanSection 7 (2) (a) and (e) and (4) (b) of the Patent Ordinance No. LXI of 2000 as last amended by Patent Ordinance No. 2(1)/2002
Exclusion from patentability of plantsUgandaSection 7 (2) (b) of the Patents Act of 15/10/1993 as last amended on 05/03/2002
Patentability of substances existing in natureUnited Republic of TanzaniaSection 7 (2)(a) and (b) of the Patents Act No. 1 of 20/01/1987
Exclusion from patentability of plantsPakistanSection 7 (4) (b) of the Patent Ordinance No. LXI of 2000 as last amended by Patent Ordinance No. 2(1)/2002
Patentability of substances existing in natureIsraelSection 7(2) of the Patents Law No. 5727 of 08/08/1967
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementUnited Republic of TanzaniaSection 70 of Chapter 217, the Patents (Registration) Act of 1995
Security exceptionsDenmarkSection 70 of the Consolidated Patents Act No. 108 of 24/01/2012 and Sections 1, 2, 2a and 3 of the Consolidate Secret Patents Act No. 107 of 24/01/2012
Exhaustion of rightsPhilippinesSection 72 no.1 of the Intellectual Property Code, Act No. 8293 of 06/06/1997a last amended by Act No. 9502 of 2008
Research exceptionPhilippinesSection 72 no.3 of the Intellectual Property Rights Code, Act No. 8293 of 1997as last amended by Act no. 9502 of 2008
Regulatory review exceptionPhilippinesSection 72(4) of the Intellectual Property Code, Act No. 8293 of 06/06/1997 as last amended by Act No. 9502 of 2008
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementSierra LeoneSection 73 of the Patents and Industrial Design Act, Act No. 10 of 2012
Exhaustion of rightsTurkeySection 76 of the Decree-Law on the Protection of Patent Rights No. 551 of 27/06/1995
Exclusion from patentability of plantsMadagascarSection 8 (1) (ii) of the Industrial Property Law, Ordinance No. 89 019 of 31/07/1989
Patentability of substances existing in natureLiberiaSection 8 (3)(I) of the Industrial Property Act of 20/03/2003
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsIrelandSection 83 of the Patent Act No. 1 of 1992 as last amended by Act no. 31 of 2006
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementPhilippinesSection 84 of the Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines, Republic Act No. 8293 of 06/06/1997 as last amended by Act No. 10372 of 28/02/2013
Research exceptionSri LankaSection 86 (1) (i) of the Intellectual Property Act, No. 36 of 2003
Exhaustion of rightsSri LankaSection 86 (1) (iv) of the Intellectual Property Act No. 36 of 2003
Compulsory licenses and government useSri LankaSection 86 of the Intellectual Property Act No. 36 of 2003
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementThailandSection 86 of the Patent Act B.E. 2522 of 11/03/1979 as last amended on 01/01/1999
Patentability of substances existing in natureBotswanaSection 9 (1) (a) of the Industrial Property Act No. 14 of 21/08/1996
Exclusion from patentability of plantsBahamasSection 9 (1) (b) of the Industrial Property Act of 1965 - Cap. 324
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsBotswanaSection 9 (1) (e) of the Industrial Property Act of 24/04/2010
Patentability of substances existing in natureSaint LuciaSection 9 (2) (a) (i) of the Patents Act No. 16 of 27/08/2001
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsSaint LuciaSection 9 (2) (a) (iii) of the Patents Act No. 16 of 27/08/2001
Exclusion from patentability of plantsBotswanaSection 9 (2) (c) and (d) of the Industrial Property Act of 24/04/2010
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsLatviaSection 9 (2) 3) and (3) of the Patent Law of 15/02/2007
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsThailandSection 9 (3) of the Patent Act B.E. 2522 of 11/03/1979 as amended by the Patent Act No.3 B.E. 2542 of 1999
Patentability of substances existing in natureZimbabweSection 9 (7) of the Patents Act (Chapter 26:03) no. 26 of 1971 as last amended by Act 20/1994 (S.7)
Exclusion from patentability of plantsThailandSection 9 1) of the Patent Act B.E. 2522 of 11/03/1979 as amended by the Patent Act (No.2) B.E 2535 and the Patent Act (No.3) B.E. 2542
Patentability of substances existing in natureThailandSection 9 1) of the Patent Act B.E. 2522 of 11/03/1979 as amended by the Patent Act (No.2) B.E 2535 and the Patent Act (No.3) B.E. 2542
Substantive examinationAntigua and BarbudaSection 9 of the Patents Act No. 23 of 29/12/2003
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsIrelandSection 9(2) (c) and (3) of the Patent Act No. 1 of 27/02/1992, as last amended by Law No. 31 of 2006
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsSouth AfricaSection 90 of the Intellectual Property Law, Act No. 57 of 1978
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsGuatemalaSection 91 (g) of the Industrial Property Law, Decree No. 57 of 2000 entered into force on 1/11/2000
Research exceptionNorth MacedoniaSection 91 no.2 of the Law on Industrial Property adopted on 12/02/2009
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementOmanSection 93 of the Royal Decree No. 67/2008 on Industrial Property Rights and their Enforcement for the Sultanate of Oman of 12/05/2008
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsSri LankaSection 94 of the Intellectual Property Act No. 36 of 2003
Exclusion from patentability of plantsLatviaSections 1 (13) and 14) and 10 (1) 2) and 3) and (2) of the Patent Law of 15/02/2007
Patentability of substances existing in natureDenmarkSections 1 (2) (i), (5) and (6) and 1a of the Consolidated Patent Act No.91 of 28/01/2009
Patentability of substances existing in natureNorwaySections 1 (2) 1), (3) and (5), 1a and 3c of the Patents Acts No.9 of 15/12/1967 as last amended by Act No.80 of 29/06/2007
Patentability of substances existing in natureFinlandSections 1 (2.1), (5) and (6) and 1a of the Patents Act No. 550 of 15/12/1967 as last amended by Act No. 684 of 21/07/2006
Compulsory licenses and government useOmanSections 1 and 15-16 of the Royal Decree Promulgating the Patent Law No. 82 of 21/05/2000
Patentability of substances existing in natureGermanySections 1(2) and (3.1), 1a, 2a (2.2) and (3) of the Patent Act of 16/12/1980 as last amended by Act of 31/07/2009
Utility modelsFinlandSections 1-2 of the Utility Model Act No. 800 of 10/05/1991
Utility modelsAustriaSections 1-3 of the Utility Model Act No. 211/1994 as amended by BGB1. No. 175 of 1998 and 143 of 2001
Utility modelsGermanySections 1-3 of the Utiliy models Act of 28/08/1986 as last amended in 1994 (Consolidate version of 31/07/2009 not available in English)
Utility modelsDenmarkSections 1-4 of the Utility Model Act No. 130 of 26. February 1992, as amended by Act No. 972 of 17/12/1997
Utility modelsCzech RepublicSections 1-5 of the Utility Models Act No. 478 of 1992 as implemented by Act No. 116 of 2000 Coll.
Disclosure related flexibilitiesNew ZealandSections 10 (3), 12 (2), 21 (1) (g) and 41 (1) (h) of the Patents Act No 64 of 1953 (as at 01/01/2011)
Patentability of substances existing in natureBrazilSections 10 (I) and (IX) and 18 II of the Industrial Property Law No. 9.279 of 14/05/1996 (as last amended by Law No.10.196, of 14/02/2001) and Article 31 of the Provisional measure No. 2.186-16
Transition periodsArgentinaSections 100 and 101 of the Law No. 24.481 of 23/05/1995 on Patents and Utility Models (as last amended by Law No. 24.572)
Compulsory licenses and government useIsraelSections 104-107 and 116-126 of the Patent Law no. 5727 of 08/08/1967
Disclosure related flexibilitiesLiberiaSections 11 (3) and 14 of the Industrial Property Act of 20/03/2003
Utility modelsPortugalSections 117-120 of the Industrial Property Code (approved by Decree Law 36/2003 of 5 March and attended by Decree Law 318/2007 of 2s September, Decree-Law 360/2007 of 2 November, Decree-Law 143/2008 of 25 July and Law 16/2008 of 1 April)
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementSeychellesSections 118 (1) and 119 of the Industrial Property Act, Act No. 7 of 2014
Substantive examinationIndiaSections 11A, 11B, 12, 13 and 14 of the Patent Act No. 39 of 1970 as last amended by Act No. 15 of 2005
Disclosure related flexibilitiesGhanaSections 12 (1) (b), 16, 20 (4) (c) and 56 (2) (a) of the Patent Law No. 305A of 30/12/1992
Substantive examinationNew ZealandSections 12, 13, 14, 15 and 18 of the Patents Act No 64 of 1953 (as at 01/08/2008)
Disclosure related flexibilitiesIsraelSections 12, 18 and 27 of the Patents Law No. 5727 of 08/08/1967
Compulsory licenses and government useTongaSections 13 and 15 of the Industrial Property Act No. 19 of 09/11/1994
Disclosure related flexibilitiesBotswanaSections 13(1) (b), and 20 of the Industrial Property Act No. 14 of 21/08/1996
Disclosure related flexibilitiesUgandaSections 13(2) (a), 17 and 36 (1) (c) of the Patents Act of 15/10/1993
Compulsory licenses and government useGermanySections 13, 24 and 81-85a of the Patent Law of 16/12/1980 (as last amended by the Act on Improvement of Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights of 31/07/2009)
Compulsory licenses and government useAntigua and BarbudaSections 13-14 of the Patent Act No. 23 of 2003
Disclosure related flexibilitiesUnited States of AmericaSections 131-134 of the 35 U.S.C, as last amended on Sept. 2007 and § 1.105 and 1.1801 of the United States Code of Federal Regulations, as amended Dec. 2009, Title 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights
Security exceptionsNew ZealandSections 132 to 139 of the Patents Act No. 68 of 2013
Compulsory licenses and government useAustraliaSections 133, 135 and 163, 167 and 168 of the Patent Act No. 83 of 30/10/1990 as last amended by Law No. 106 of 2006
Compulsory licenses and government useGuatemalaSections 134- 137 of the Industrial Property Law, Decree No. 57 of 18/09/2000
Disclosure related flexibilitiesZambiaSections 14 (1), (2) and (3), 22 (1) (f) and (h) and 50 (1) of the Patent Act of 1958(Chapter 400) as last amended by Act No. 26 of 28/12/1987
Disclosure related flexibilitiesUnited KingdomSections 14 (2) (b) and (3), 72 (1) (c) and 125A of the Patents Act of 1977, consolidated version of 01/01/2010
Compulsory licenses and government useGrenadaSections 14 and 14 A of the Industrial Property Bill of 2002
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementLao People's Democratic RepublicSections 145 and 157 of the Intellectual Property Law No. 01/NA of 20/12/2011
Security exceptionsAustraliaSections 147, 152 and 153 of the Patents Act No. 83 of 1990 as amended by Act No. 35 of 2012 and Section 1(4) of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation (Safeguards) Act of 1987 (version of 20/04/2012)
Disclosure related flexibilitiesPakistanSections 15 (1), (2), (2A), (2B) and (3), 20 and 23 (1) (c) of the Patent Ordinance No. LXI of 2000 as last amended by Patent Ordinance No. 2(1)/2002
Utility modelsEswatiniSections 15 and 16 (1) and (2) of the Patents, Utility Models and Industrial Designs Act No. 6 of 04/09/1997
Substantive examinationUnited KingdomSections 15A-18 of the Patents Act of 1977, consolidated version of 01/01/2010
Security exceptionsUnited KingdomSections 16 (2), 22 and 23 of the Patents Act of 1977 as on October 2011 (consolidated version).
Patentability of substances existing in natureGeorgiaSections 16 (a) and 17 (c) of the Patent Law of 05/02/1999
Substantive examinationPakistanSections 16, 17, 19, 20, 21 and 22 of the Patent Ordinance No. LXI of 2000 as last amended by Patent Ordinance No. 2(1)/2002
Exclusion from patentability of plantsUnited States of AmericaSections 161 to 164 of the Patent Law, 35 U.S.C. of 01/01/1953, 2007 version
Utility modelsTongaSections 17 (1) and 18 (1) of the Industrial Property Act No. 19 of 1994
Disclosure related flexibilitiesBarbadosSections 17 (2) (a) and (b), 20 (1) (a), 23, 26 (1) (d), (2) and (3) and 27 (1) (d), (2), (3), (4) and (5) of the Patents Act No. 18 of 26/07/2001
Disclosure related flexibilitiesDominicaSections 17 (4) and 23 of the Patents Act No. 8 of 07/10/1999
Disclosure related flexibilitiesThailandSections 17 3), 24 (1), 27 and 28 (1) of the Patent Act B.E. 2522 of 11/03/1979 as amended by the Patent Act (No.2) B.E 2535 and the Patent Act (No.3) B.E. 2542
Utility modelsMalaysiaSections 17 and 17A of the Patent Act of 1983 as last amended in 2006
Substantive examinationIsraelSections 17, 18, 18A and 18B of the Patents Law No. 5727 of 08/08/1967
Disclosure related flexibilitiesUnited Republic of TanzaniaSections 18 (1) (a) (ii) and (3), 22, 27 and 63 (2) (c) of the Patents Act No. 1 of 20/01/1987
Disclosure related flexibilitiesTrinidad and TobagoSections 18 (2) (b) and (3), 21, 22, 24 (1), 26 (2) and 60 (b) of the Patents Act No. 21 of 1996
Substantive examinationGhanaSections 18 and 20 of the Patent Law No. 305A of 30/12/1992
Disclosure related flexibilitiesPapua New GuineaSections 19 (2) (a) (ii), (5) and (6) (c), 24 and 26 of the Industrial Property Act No. 30 of 19/07/2000
Substantive examinationUgandaSections 19 (4) and 20 of the Patents Act of 15/10/1993
Substantive examinationMauritiusSections 19 and 20 (1) of the Patents, Industrial Designs and Trademarks Act No. 25 of 2002
Substantive examinationFinlandSections 19 and 20 of the Patents Act No. 550 of 15/12/1967 as last amended by Act No. 684 of 21/07/2006
Compulsory licenses and government useCanadaSections 19, 21 and 65 of the Patent Act ( R.S., 1985, c. P-4, Act current to 21/01/2010)
Disclosure related flexibilitiesIrelandSections 19, 30 (1), (2), (3), (4) and (5) and 58 (b) of the Patent Act No. 1 of 1992 as last amended by Act no. 31 of 2006
Exclusion from patentability of plantsOmanSections 2 (1) (e) of the and 11 (2) (c) and (d) and (4) (b) of the Law on Industrial Property Rights, Royal Decree No. 67 of the 2008
Utility modelsKenyaSections 2, 82 (1) and (2) of the Industrial Property Act No. 3 of 27/07/2001
Security exceptionsCanadaSections 20 to 22 of the Patent Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. P-4), as last amended on 21/09/2006
Disclosure related flexibilitiesGermanySections 21 (1) 2), 22, 34 (4), (7) and (8) and 34a of the Patent Act of 16/12/1980 as last amended by Act of 31/07/2009
Disclosure related flexibilitiesSaint LuciaSections 21 (3) (b) and (4), 25 (3), 75 and 76 (1) (c) of the Patents Act No. 16 of 27/08/2001
Patentability of substances existing in naturePhilippinesSections 22 (1) and (4) of the Intellectual Property Code, Act No. 8293 of 06/06/1997 as last amended by Act No. 9502 of 2008
Substantive examinationUnited Republic of TanzaniaSections 22, 25 and 27 of the Patents Act No. 1 of 20/01/1987
Disclosure related flexibilitiesCzech RepublicSections 23 (1) (b) and 26 (2) of the Law on Inventions, Industrial Designs and Rationalization Proposals No. 527 of November 27/11/1990 as last amended by Law No. 116 of 06/04/2000
Substantive examinationTrinidad and TobagoSections 23 and 24 of the Patents Act No. 21 of 1996
Compulsory licenses and government useMauritiusSections 23-24 of the Patents, Industrial Designs and Trademarks Act No. 25 of 2002
Substantive examinationSaint LuciaSections 24 and 25 of the Patents Act No. 16 of 27/08/2001
Substantive examinationThailandSections 24-29 of the Patent Act B.E. 2522 of 11/03/1979 as amended by the Patent Act (No.2) B.E 2535 and the Patent Act (No.3) B.E. 2542
Disclosure related flexibilitiesSingaporeSections 25 (3) and (4), 29 (2) (c) and 80 (1) (c) of the Patents Act No. 21 of 25/11/1994 as of 01/12/2008
Security exceptionsPakistanSections 25 and 26 of the Patents Ordinance No. LXI of 2000
Disclosure related flexibilitiesGeorgiaSections 26 (3) and (4), 42 (1) (d) and 57 (1) (b) of the Patent Law of 05/02/1999
Substantive examinationBarbadosSections 26 and 27 of the Patents Act No. 18 of 26/07/2001
Utility modelsAntigua and BarbudaSections 26- 27 of the Patents Act No. 23 of 2003
Disclosure related flexibilitiesLatviaSections 27 (1) 2), 28 (7), 30 (1) and (2) and 37 (1), (3) and (4) of the Patent Law of 15/02/2007
Disclosure related flexibilitiesCanadaSections 27 (3), (6) and (7), 38.1, 38.2 and 47 (1) of the Patent Act (R.S., 1985, c. P-4) as on 30/04/2010
Substantive examinationCanadaSections 27 and 35 of the Patent Act (R.S., 1985, c. P-4) as on 30/04/2010 and Rules 28-30 of the regulations thereto
Disclosure related flexibilitiesMalaysiaSections 28 (1) (c), 29A (4) and (5) (b) and 56 (2) (b) of the Patents Act No. 291 of 1983 as last amended by Act No. 1264 of 2006 and Rule 12 of the Patent Regulations P.U.(A) 327/86 as last amended on 19/06/2003
Substantive examinationSingaporeSections 28, 29 and 38A of the Patents Act No. 21 of 25/11/1994 as of 01/12/2008
Security exceptionsSaint LuciaSections 29 and 30 of the Patents Act No. 16 of 2001
Compulsory licenses and government useUgandaSections 29 and 30 of the Patents Act of 15/10/1993
Substantive examinationMalaysiaSections 29, 29A and 30 of the Patents Act No. 291 of 1983 as last amended by Act No. 1264 of 2006
Compulsory licenses and government useEthiopiaSections 29-33 of the Proclamation of the Industrial Property Law No. 123 of 10/05/1995
Disclosure related flexibilitiesNigeriaSections 3 (1) (a) (ii) and (2) and 9 (1) (b) of the Industrial Property Act (Chapter 344) of 1990
Patentability of substances existing in natureCzech RepublicSections 3 (2) (a), (3) and (4) and 4 (b) of the Law on Inventions, Industrial Designs and Rationalization Proposals No. 527 of November 27/11/1990 as last amended by Law No. 116 of 06/04/2000 and Act No. 206/2000 Coll. of 21/06/2000 on the Protection of Biotechnological Inventions
Utility modelsLao People's Democratic RepublicSections 3 (no. 6 and 7),14 and 21 of the Intellectual Property Law of 14/01/2008
Disclosure related flexibilitiesSouth AfricaSections 30 (3A) and (3B), 32 and 61 (1) (e) and (g) of the Patents Act No. 37 of 1952 as last amended by Act No. 20 of 2005
Disclosure related flexibilitiesLao People's Democratic RepublicSections 30 3) and 35 of the Intellectual Property Law of 14704/2008
Utility modelsNamibiaSections 30-31 of the Industrial Property Bill of 1999
Substantive examinationCzech RepublicSections 30-35 of the Law on Inventions, Industrial Designs and Rationalization Proposals No. 527 of November 27/11/1990 as last amended by Law No. 116 of 06/04/2000
Substantive examinationGeorgiaSections 32-36 of the Patent Law of 05/02/1999
Security exceptionsSingaporeSections 33 and 34 of the Patents Act, Chapter 221, Act 21 of 1994, consolidated version of 10/03/2014
Security exceptionsGuyanaSections 33 and 34 of the Patents and Designs Act - Cap. 90:03 of 1937 (current version of 1972)
Substantive examinationLatviaSections 34 and 37 of the Patent Law of 15/02/2007
Substantive examinationSouth AfricaSections 34, 35, 42 and 43 of the Patents Act No. 37 of 1952 as last amended by Act No. 20 of 2005
Utility modelsBotswanaSections 34-35 of the Industrial Property Act No. 14 of 21/08/1996
Disclosure related flexibilitiesPhilippinesSections 35 (1), 39 and 61 (1) (b) of the Intellectual Property Code, Act No. 8293 of 06/06/1997 as last amended by Act No. 9502 of 2008
Compulsory licenses and government useDominicaSections 35, 38 and 39 of the Patent Act No. 8 of 07/10/1999
Compulsory licenses and government useMadagascarSections 36 of the Industrial Property Law, Ordinance No. 89-019 of 31/07/1989
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsArgentinaSections 37, 38 and 41 of the Law No. 24.481 of 23/05/1995 on Patents and Utility Models (as last amended by Law No. 24.572)
Substantive examinationLao People's Democratic RepublicSections 37, 39 and 40 of the Intellectual Property Laws No. 08/NA of 24/12/2007
Compulsory licenses and government useZambiaSections 37-38 and 40-41 of the Patent Act of 1958 (Chapter 400) as last amended by Act No. 26 of 28/12/1987
Utility modelsEthiopiaSections 38-40 of the Law on Inventions, Minor Inventions and Industrial Designs No. 123 of 1995
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsUgandaSections 39 and 40 of the Patents Act of 15/10/1993
Security exceptionsIndiaSections 4 and 35 to 42 of the Patents Act of 1970 as last amended by Act no. 15 of 2005, Rules 71 and 72 of the Patent Rules of 2003 and Section 20 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1962
Disclosure related flexibilitiesGuyanaSections 4, 5 (2), 9 (2), (3) and (4), 14 (1) (d) and 29 (2) (h) and (j) of the Industrial Property, Act (Consolidation Ch. 90.3) No. 9 of 1937 as last amended by Act No. 4 of 23/09/1972
Substantive examinationKenyaSections 41 (7), (8) and (9) and 44 of the Industrial Property Act No. 3 of 27/07/2001
Exhaustion of rightsIrelandSections 41 and 43 of the Patents Act No. 1 of 27/02/1992, as last amended by Law No. 31 of 2006
Utility modelsUgandaSections 41-42 of the Patent Act of 15/10/1993
Substantive examinationGermanySections 42, 43 and 44 of the Patent Act of 16/12/1980 as last amended by Act of 31/07/2009
Substantive examinationPhilippinesSections 42-44 and 48-49 of the Intellectual Property Code, Act No. 8293 of 06/06/1997 as last amended by Act No. 9502 of 2008
Substantive examinationAustraliaSections 44, 45, 47 and 48 of the Patens Act No. 83 of 1990 as last amended by Act No. 106 of 2006
Compulsory licenses and government useSwedenSections 44-49 of the Patents Act No. 837 of 01/12/1967 as last amended by Law No. 159 of 01/04/2004
Compulsory licenses and government useGhanaSections 45- 50 of the Patents Law No.305A of 30/12/1992
Compulsory licenses and government useThailandSections 45-47 bis and 50-52 of the Patent Act B.E. 2522 of 11/03/1979 as amended by the Patent Act No.2 B.E 2535 and the Patent Act No.3 B.E. 2542
Compulsory licenses and government useFinlandSections 45-50 of the Patents Act No. 550 of 15/12/1967 as last amended by Act 684/2006 of 21/07/2006
Compulsory licenses and government useNorwaySections 45-50a and 107 of the Patent Act No. 9 of 15/12/1967 (as last amended by Act No.80 of 29/06/2007) and Sections 107-108 of the Patent Regulations No. 1162 of 20/12/1996 (as last amended by Royal Decree of 14/05/2004)
Compulsory licenses and government useNew ZealandSections 46, 55-56 and 58-58A of the Patents Act No. 64 of 1953 (as at 01/08/2008)
Compulsory licenses and government useTrinidad and TobagoSections 46-48 of the Patents Act No. 21 of 1996 as last amended by the Act No. 18 of 2000
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsUnited Republic of TanzaniaSections 47 and 48 of the Patents Act No. 1 of 20/01/1987
Disclosure related flexibilitiesAustriaSections 48 (1) 2) and 3), 87a and 102 (2) 2) and 4) of the Patents Law BGBl. No. 259/1970 as last amended by BGBl. No. 143/2001
Compulsory licenses and government useUnited KingdomSections 48-51, 55, 57 and 59 of the Patents Act of 1977(unofficial consolidation of 01/01/2010)
Utility modelsBelizeSections 49-50 of the Patents Act (Ch. 253) No. 14 of 21/06/2000
Utility modelsDominicaSections 49-50 of the Patents Act No. 8 of 07/10/1999
Compulsory licenses and government useMalaysiaSections 49-51 and 84 of the Patents Act No. 291 of 1983 as last amended on 2006
Disclosure related flexibilitiesAntigua and BarbudaSections 5 (5), 8, 9 (5) and (6), 10 (3) and 15 (2) of the Patents Act No. 23 of 29/12/2003
Transition periodsIndiaSections 5 and 24A, 24B and 24D of the Patent Act No. 39 of 1970 as last amended by Act No. 15 of 2005
Utility modelsEstoniaSections 5-7 of the Utility Model Act of 16/03/1994 (consolidated version of 09/02/2000)
Compulsory licenses and government useNicaraguaSections 51, 53 and 54 of the Industrial Property Law No. 354 of 19/09/2000
Compulsory licenses and government useSaint LuciaSections 51-52, 57-59 and 61 of the Patents Act No. 16 of 27/08/2001
Compulsory licenses and government useUnited Republic of TanzaniaSections 52-59 and 61 of the Patents Act No. 1 of 1987
Compulsory licenses and government useLao People's Democratic RepublicSections 53-54 of the Intellectual Property Law of 14/01/2008
Compulsory licenses and government useSouth AfricaSections 55-56 of the Patents Act No. 57 of 1978 as last amended by Act, No. 58 of 2002
Compulsory licenses and government useSingaporeSections 55-57 and 60 of the Patents Act No. 21 of 25/11/1994 as of 01/12/2008
Compulsory licenses and government useBrunei DarussalamSections 55-65 of the Patents Order No. S42/99 of 1999
Substantive examinationAustriaSections 57a, 99 and 100 of the Patents Law BGBl. No. 259/1970 as last amended by BGBl. No. 143/2001
Compulsory licenses and government usePakistanSections 58 and 59 of the Patents Ordinance No. LXI of 02/12/2000 (as amended by the Patents Amendment Ordinance of 2002)
Disclosure related flexibilitiesEswatiniSections 6 (3), 9, 10 (4), 11 (1) and 14 (2) of the Industrial Property Law No. 6 of 04/09/1997
Disclosure related flexibilitiesGrenadaSections 6 (4), 9, 10 (6) and 11 (1) of the Industrial Property Act of 2002
Patentability of substances existing in natureArgentinaSections 6 (a) and (g) and 7 (b) of the Law No. 24.481 of 23/05/1995 on Patents and Utility Models (as last amended by Law No. 24.572)
Disclosure related flexibilitiesAustraliaSections 6, 8, 40 (1) and (2) (a), 41 (1) and (2), 45 (3), (4) and (5), 59 (c), 100A (1) and (2) and 100 (1) and (2) of the Patens Act No. 83 of 1990 as amended by Act No. 106 of 2006
Compulsory licenses and government useGeorgiaSections 61-62 of the Patent Law of 05/02/1999
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementBarbadosSections 62 and 63 of the Patents Act No. 18 of 26/07/2001
Utility modelsTrinidad and TobagoSections 64 and 65 of the Patents Act No. 21 of 1996 as last amended by the Act No. 18 of 2000
Utility modelsGhanaSections 64-65 of the Patent Law No. 305A of 30/12/1992
Disclosure related flexibilitiesTongaSections 7 (4), 10, 12 (1) and 16 (2) of the Industrial Property Act No. 19 of 09/11/1994
Disclosure related flexibilitiesBhutanSections 7(1) and (3), 10 and 16 (2) of the Industrial Property Act of 2001
Security exceptionsNorwaySections 70 and 71 of the Patents Act No. 9 of 15/12/1967, as amended up to Act No. 8 of 01/07/2010 and Act on Inventions of Importance to the Defence of the Realm (Act No. 8 of 26/06/1953, as last amended on 01/01/2002) (available only in Norwegian)
Compulsory licenses and government useIrelandSections 70-78 of the Patent Act No. 1 of 27/02/1992, as last amended by Law No. 31 of 2006
Disclosure related flexibilitiesSri LankaSections 71 (1) (a) (ii), (3), (4), (5) and (6), 73 (3), 75 (1), 78 (1) (d) (g) and (2), and 99 (1) (b) of the Intellectual Property Act No. 36 of 2003
Utility modelsUnited Republic of TanzaniaSections 72 (1) and 73 (1) a) and b) of the Patent Act No. 1 of 20/01/1987
Compulsory licenses and government useKenyaSections 72- 75 and 80 of the Industrial Property Act No. 3 of 27/07/2001
Substantive examinationSri LankaSections 73 and 78 of the Intellectual Property Act No. 36 of 2003
Compulsory licenses and government usePhilippinesSections 74, 93-97 and 100 of the Intellectual Property Code, Act No. 8293 of 06/06/1997 (as last amended by Act No. 9502 of 2008)
Security exceptionsFinlandSections 75 and 76 of the Patents Act of No. 550 of 15/12/1967 as last amended on 17/06/2011 and Sections 1 and 2 of the Act on Inventions of Importance to the Defence of the Country No 551 of 15/12/1967 as last amended in 1997
Security exceptionsSouth AfricaSections 78 to 80 of the Patents Act, Act No. 57 of 1978, as last amended by Act No. 20 of 2005
Disclosure related flexibilitiesDenmarkSections 8 (2), 8a, 21 (2) (ii) and 52 (1) (ii) of the consolidated Patents Act No. 91 of 28/01/2009 and Rule 3 (4) and (5) of the Order No. 93 of 29/01/2009
Disclosure related flexibilitiesFinlandSections 8 (2), 8a, 25 (1) 2) and 52 (1) 2) of the Patents Act No. 550 of 15/12/1967 as last amended by Act No. 684 of 21/07/2006
Disclosure related flexibilitiesIndiaSections 8, 10 (1), (2), (3), (4), (4A) and (7), 25 (1) (g), (h) and (j) of the Patent Act No. 39 of 1970 as last amended by Act No. 15 of 2005
Disclosure related flexibilitiesNorwaySections 8-8c, 25 (1) 2) and 52 (1) 2) of the Patents Acts No.9 of 15/12/1967 as last amended by Act No.80 of 29/06/2007 and Section 30 of the Regulations thereto
Compulsory licenses and government useIndiaSections 82-85, 88-94 and 99-101 of the Patent Act No. 39 of 1970 as last amended by the Patents Amendment Act No. 15 of 2005
Ex-officio IP office control of anti-competitive clauses in licensing agreementsPhilippinesSections 86, 87, 91 and 92 of the Intellectual Property Code, Act No. 8293 of 06/06/1997 as last amended by Act No. 9502 of 2008
Patentability of substances existing in natureLatviaSections 9 (1) and (2.1) and 10 of the Patent Law of 15/02/2007
Disclosure related flexibilitiesZimbabweSections 9 (2) and (3) (a) and (b), 17 (1) (f) and (h) and 45 (1) of the Patents Act (Chapter 26:03) No. 26 of 1971 as last amended by Act 20/1994 (S.7)
Patentability of substances existing in natureIrelandSections 9 (2)(a) and 10 (1) (b) of the Patent Act No. 1 of 1992 as last amended by Act no. 31 of 2006 and the European Communities (Legal Protection of Biotechnological Inventions) Regulations of 2000
Disclosure related flexibilitiesEthiopiaSections 9 (3) and (4) (b), 10 and 36 (1) (b) of the Proclamation concerning Inventions, Minor Inventions and Industrial Designs No. 123 of 10/05/1995 and Section 17 14) of the Proclamation No. 482/2006 to provide for access to Genetic resources and Community Knowledge and Community Right
Substantive examinationDenmarkSections 9, 15 and 19 of the Consolidated Patent Act No. 91 of 28/01/2009 and rules 37-43 of the Order on Patents and Supplementary Protection Certificates No. 93 of 29/01/2009
Substantive examinationNorwaySections 9, 15, 15 a and 19 of the Patents Acts No.9 of 15/12/1967 as last amended by Act No.80 of 29/06/2007
Security exceptionsUnited States of AmericaSections from 181 to 188 of the U.S.C. 35 of 01/01/1953 (Consolidated Patent Laws as of May 2014) and Sections 151 and 152 of the Nuclear Regulatory Legislation of 2013
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsNepalThe Patent, Design and Trade Mark Act No. 2022 of 1965 (version of 2006)
Compulsory licenses and government useUnited States of AmericaTitle 28, part IV, Chapter 91, paragraph 1498 letter a) of the USC
Patentability or exclusion from patentability, of software-related inventionsUnited States of AmericaTitle 35 of the USC of 19/07/1952 as last amended on 14/01/2013
Transition periodsArgentinaWWW Sections 100 and 101 of the Law No. 24.481 of 23/05/1995 on Patents and Utility Models (as last amended by Law No. 24.572)
Criminal sanctions for patent infringementAustria§ 159 of the Patents Act 1970 (as last amended by Federal Law Gazette (BGBl) I No. 135/2009)
Security exceptionsEstonia§ 18 and § 19 (4) and (5) of the Patent Act (Act No. RT I 1994, 25, 406, as last amended by Act No. RT I, 28.12.2011, 1)
Disclosure related flexibilitiesEstonia§ 19 (1) 2) and (2) 3), 23 (3) and 50 (1) and (2) 2) of the Patent Act (RT I 1994, 25, 406) of 16/03/1994 as last amended by Law RT I 2004, 20, 141 of 10/03/2004
Substantive examinationEstonia§ 23 of the Patent Act (RT I 1994, 25, 406) of 16/03/1994 as last amended by Law RT I 2004, 20, 141 of 10/03/2004
Patentability of substances existing in natureEstonia§ 6(1), (2.1) and (3) and 7 of the Patent Act (RT I 1994, 25, 406) of 16/03/1994 as last amended by Law RT I 2004, 20, 141 of 10/03/2004
Exclusion from patentability of plantsEstonia§§ 6 (2) 8) and 7 (2) 5) and 6) and (3) of the Patent Act (RT I 1994, 25, 406) of 16/03/1994 as last amended on 07/12/2011