The Economic Performance of Copyright-Based Industries
Industries that make use of copyright and related rights protection are often referred to as the copyright-based or the creative industries. They generate direct and indirect contributions to economic performance and development and are considered of growing importance for the achievement of important national economic and social objectives.
WIPO has undertaken activities to support countries in the collection of evidence on the economic performance of the copyright industries and on establishing the impact that copyright has had on them. While a number of projects seek to develop methodological advice and guidance to member states and stakeholders in undertaking studies, others are providing assistance in training, policy development and research in the economics of copyright.
Measuring the size of copyright industries
WIPO provides assistance to member states seeking to determine the economic contribution of their copyright-based industries in terms of their share in gross domestic product, generation of employment and trade. This assistance follows the methodology outlined in the 2015 WIPO Guide on Surveying the Economic Contribution of the Copyright-based Industries . The guide:
- summarizes existing experience in surveying creative industries, which operate on the basis of copyright and related rights protection;
- presents a practical instrument in the form of guidelines, recommendations and survey methods to be considered and applied when undertaking surveys on the economic contribution of a nation's creative industries; and
- establishes a basis for comparison of future surveys built on reliable data and common methodologies.
Results of national studies (prepared by local researchers with the assistance of WIPO experts, under the responsibility and copyright of the national authority)
- Argentina (2014)
- Australia (2011) | (2012) | (2014) | (2017) | (2020)
- Bhutan (2012)
- Botswana (2019)
- Brunei Darussalam (2012)
- Bulgaria (2008)
- Canada (2004) | (2020)
- China (2011)
- Colombia (2010)
- Croatia (2010)
- Dominica (2014)
- Ecuador (2017)
- Ethiopia (2014)
- Finland (2011) | (2014) | (2015)
- France (2016)
- Ghana (2020)
- Grenada (2014)
- Hungary (2004) | (2017)
- Romania (2010)
- Russian Federation (2010)
- Saint Kitts and Nevis (2014)
- Saint Lucia (2014)
- Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (2014)
- Serbia (2014)
- Singapore (2004)
- Slovenia (2011)
- South Africa (2012)
- Thailand (2012)
- Trinidad and Tobago (2013)
- Turkey (2014) | (2018)
- Ukraine (2010)
- United Republic of Tanzania (2013)
- United States of America (2004) | (2006) | (2003-2007) | (2011) | (2013) | (2014) | (2016) | (2018) | (2020)
Organization of the East Caribbean States (2014)
Copyright performance studies
WIPO provides assistance to its member states in identifying the specific role that copyright and related rights have played in the performance of selected copyright industries. The following studies have resulted from this assistance:
The ‘International Survey of Text and Image Copyright Levies’ series, jointly published by WIPO and IFRRO analyzes the origins, scope and current use of text and image copyright levies around the world. It shows the role of this mechanism for ensuring easy legal access to copyright material and its major differences with audio and audio-visual private copying levies. The survey is based on data from IFRRO members and provides and overview of this important income stream for copyright holders.
These surveys provide a global view of private copying compensation (also known as private copying levies), an important element of the copyright and related rights infrastructure. They aim to facilitate evidence-based decision-making and to provide an update on important developments in the private copying law and practice of countries that have such an exception in their legal arsenals.
Copyright income studies
Through annual surveys on the law and practice of copyright, WIPO tracks the income generated by specific copyrights (e.g. private copying, text and image levies) in different countries. These studies present the results of the surveys.
Study on the publishing industry in Mexico
This study provides an economic analysis of the performance of the Mexican publishing industry. It confirms the importance of the publishing industry as a major sector contributing 48% of the added value from all the cultural and creative industries in Mexico, which represents 2.34% of the national GDP. (in Spanish)
Study on the impact of enhanced copyright protection on the development of the textile market industry in Nantong, China
This study offers a detailed analysis on the link between improved enforcement of copyright and its use by the market players to boost their revenues. It also looks at the multiple positive externalities created by the respect for copyright protection.
Study on the economic contribution of the software industry in Lebanon
This study describes and explains the economic performance of software industries in Lebanon and identifies the opportunities and main challenges these industries face. It confirms that Lebanon has an active software sector and signs are that it has a good growth potential over the next decade.
Study on the economic, social and cultural impact of IP in the creative industries
This study provides guidance for the development of new methods for evaluating the role of intellectual property (IP) laws in the development of creative industries and the role of those industries in economic, social and cultural development in general. It explores ways to complement existing measurement and evaluation exercises on the contribution of the creative industries to national economies.