Academic Resources

The following academic articles on gender and intellectual property provide a useful overview of the academic literature in this rapidly-emerging area for policy-makers, academics, researchers, etc.

Articles marked with a * were kindly selected by Professor Dan L. Burk, Chancellor's Professor of Law at the University of California, Irvine.

Empirical

Robert Brauneis and Dotan Oliar, An Empirical Study of the Race, Ethnicity, Gender and Age of Copyright Registrants, 86(1) George Washington Law Review, 101-154 (2018).

Waverly W. Ding, Fiona Murray, and Toby E. Stuart, Gender Differences in Patenting in the Academic Life Sciences, 313 Science, 665-667(2006).*

Rainer Frietsch, Inna Haller, Melanie Funken-Vrohlings, and Hariolf Grupp, Gender-specific patterns in patenting and publishing, 38 Research Policy, 590–599 (2009).*

Serena Hanes, Katharine Ku, Lisa Primiano and Ann M. Arvin, Gender Analysis of Invention Disclosures and Companies Founded by Stanford University Faculty from 2000-2014, les Nouvelles (2018).

Karin Hoisl and Myriam Mariani, It’s a Man’s Job: Income and the Gender Gap in Industrial Research, 63 Management Science, 766-790 (2016).

Jennifer Hunt, Jean-Philippe Garant, Hannah Herman, and David J. Munroe, Why are women underrepresented amongst patentees?, 42 Research Policy, 831–843 (2013).

Taehyun Jung and Olof Ejermo, Demographic patterns and trends in patenting: Gender, age, and education of inventors, 86 Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 110–124 (2013).

Annette I. Kahler, Examining Exclusion in Woman-Inventor Patenting: A Comparison of Educational Trends and Patent Data in the Era of Computer Engineer Barbie, 19 American University Journal of Gender Social Policy and Law, 773-798 (2011).*

B. Zorina Khan, "Not for Ornament": Patenting Activity by Nineteenth-Century Women Inventors, 31 Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 159-195 (2000).

Kordula Kugele, Chapter 7 Analysis of women's participation in high-technology patenting, in Pooran Wynarczyk, Susan Marlow (ed.) Innovating Women: Contributions to Technological Advancement (Contemporary Issues in Entrepreneurship Research, Volume 1), Emerald Group, 123–151 (2010).

Francesco Lissoni, Fabio Montobbio, and Lorenzo Zirulia, Inventorship and authorship as attribution rights: An enquiry into the economics of scientific credit, 95 Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 49–69 (2013).

Gema Lax Martinez, Julio Raffo and Kaori Saito, Identifying the gender of PCT inventors, Economic Research Working paper No.33, World Intellectual Property Organization (2016).

G. Steven McMillan, Gender Differences in Patenting Activity: An Examination of the US Biotechnology Industry, 80 Scientometrics 685–693 (2009).*

Yu Meng, Collaboration Patterns and Patenting: Exploring Gender Distinctions, 45 Research Policy, 56-67 (2016).

Fiona Murray and Leigh Graham, Buying science and selling science: gender differences in the market for commercial science, 16, Industrial and Corporate Change, 657-689 (2007).

National Women’s Business Council, Qualitative Analysis:  Intellectual Property and Women Entrepreneurs, Part I, Part II (2012).

Cassidy R. Sugimoto, Chaoqun Ni, Jevin D. West, and Vincent Larivière, The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting. PLoS ONE 10(5): e0128000 (2015). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0128000

Jerry G. Thursby and Marie C. Thursby, Gender Patterns of Research and Licensing Activity of Science and Engineering Faculty, 30 Journal of Technology Transfer, 343-353 (2005).

Kjersten Bunker Whittington and Laurel Smith-Doerr, Gender and Commercial Science: Women’s Patenting in the Life Sciences, 30 Journal of Technology Transfer, 355–370 (2005).*

Kjersten Bunker Whittington and Laurel Smith-Doerr, Women Inventors in Context: Disparities in Patenting across Academia and Industry, 22 Gender & Society, 194-218 (2008).*

Kjersten Bunker Whittington, Mothers of Invention? Gender, Motherhood, and New Dimensions of Productivity in the Science Profession, 38 Work and Occupations, 417-456 (2011).

Legal: Patent

Burk, Dan L, Do Patents Have Gender?, 19 American University Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law 881-919 (2011).*

Eileen M. Kane, Molecules and Conflict: Cancer, Patents, and Women's Health, 13 American University Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law 305-335 (2007).*

Kara Swanson, Getting a Grip on the Corset: Gender, Sexuality and Patent Law, 23 Yale Journal of Law and Feminism 57-115 (2011).*

Legal: Copyright

Dan L. Burk, Copyright and Feminism in Digital Media, 14 American University Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law 519-549 (2006).*

Carys Craig, Reconstructing the Author-Self: Some Feminist Lessons for Copyright Law, 15 American. University Journal of Gender, Social. Policy & the Law 207-267 (2007).*

Sonia K. Katyal, Performance, Property, and the Slashing of Gender in Fan Fiction, 13 American. University Journal of Gender, Social. Policy & the Law 461-518 (2005).*

Rebecca Tushnet, My Fair Ladies: Sex, Gender, and Fair Use in Copyright Law, 15 American. University Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law, 273-303 (2007).*

Shelley Wright, A Feminist Exploration of the Legal Protection of Art, 7 Canadian Journal of Women & Law 59-96 (1994).*

Legal: Traditional Knowledge

Boatema Boateng, Walking the Tradition-Modernity Tightrope: Gender Contradictions in Textile Production and Intellectual Property Law in Ghana, 13 American University Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law 341-357 (2007).*

K.J. Greene, Intellectual Property at the Intersection of Race and Gender: Lady Sings the Blues, 16 American University Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law 365-385 (2008).*

Laura A. Foster, Patents, Biopolitics, and Feminisms: Locating Patent Law Struggles Over Breast Cancer Genes and the Hoodia Plant, 19 International Journal of Cultural Property 371–400 (2012).

Victoria Phillips, Commodification, Intellectual Property and the Quilters of Gee's Bend, 13 American. University Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law 359-377 (2007).*

Legal: Jurisprudence

Dan L. Burk, Feminism and Dualism in Intellectual Property, 13 American University Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law 183-206 (2007).*

Laura A. Foster, Situating Feminisms, Patent Law, and the Public Domain, 20 Columbia Journal of Gender and Law, 261- 347 (2011).*

Deborah Halbert, Feminist Interpretations of Intellectual Property, 14 American University Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law 431-460 (2006).*

Malla Pollack, Toward a Feminist Theory of the Public Domain, or Rejecting the Gendered Scope of United States Copyrightable and Patentable Subject Matter, 12 William & Mary Journal of Women & the Law 603-626 (2006).*