World Intellectual Property Organization

Kenya

Chapter 326 - The Seeds and Plant Varieties Act

 

 


The Seeds and Plant Varieties Act Chapter 326

KSh. 84

1 of 1972.

Commencement: 1st January, 1975

An Act of Parliament to confer power to regulate transactions in seeds, including provision for the testing and certification of seeds; for the establishment of an index of names of plant varieties; to empower the imposition of restriction on the introduction of new varieties; to control the importation of seeds; to authorize measures to prevent injurious cross-pollination; to provide for the grant of proprietary rights to persons breeding or discovering new varieties; to establish a Tribunal to hear appeals and other proceedings; and for connected purposes

Part I Preliminary

Short title

1. This Act may be cited as the Seeds and Plant Varieties Act.

Interpretation

2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires— “authorized officer”, in connexion with any provision of this Act, means a public officer authorized by the Minister by notice in the Gazette to exercise the functions specified in such

provision;

“compulsory licence” means a licence granted by the Minister under section 23;

“the Index” means the index of names of plant varieties prepared under section 7;

“Minister” means the Minister for the time being responsible for matters relating to

agriculture;

“plant breeder’s rights” means rights granted under section 17;

“plant variety” means an assemblage of cultivated individuals which are distinguished by any character (morphological, physiological, cytological, chemical or others) significant for the purpose of agriculture, horticulture or forestry, and which when reproduced (sexually or asexually) retain their distinguishing characters;

“positive direction” means a positive direction given under paragraph 1 of the Third Schedule in regard to an application for planet breeders’ rights;

“seed” means that part of a plant which is or is intended to be used for propagation and includes any seed, seedling, corm, cutting, bulb, bulbil, layer, marcott, root, runner, scion, set, split, stem, stock, stump, sucker or tuber so used or intended to be so used;

“seed analyst” means a suitably qualified person on the staff of a testing station;

“sell” includes barter, exchange, and offering or exposing for sale;

“scheme” means a scheme relating to plant breeder’s rights made under Part V;

“seeds regulations” means regulations made under section 3;

“statutory statement” means a statement given in pursuance of seeds regulations, whether the statement be in the form of a notice or other document, or in the form of particulars given on any label, container or package, or in any other form, and includes a statement delivered under subsection (5) of section 30;

“testing station” means an official seed testing station established under section 11; “the Tribunal” means the Seeds and Plants Tribunal established under section 28.

Part II Seeds

Seeds Regulations

3.—(1) The Minister, after consultation with representatives seeds of such organizations as he deems to have a substantial interest in the matter to be regulated and of such other interests as appear to him to be concerned, may make regulations for the regulation and control of the production, processing, testing, certification and marketing of seeds, and without prejudice to the generality of this power, the regulations may, in particular, be made for any or all of the following purposes—

(a) for ensuring that reliable and adequate information is afforded as to the nature, condition and quality of seeds intended for sale;

(b) for preventing the sale of seeds which are deleterious, or which have not been produced in specified conditions, or which have not been tested for purity or germination, or which are of a plant variety of which the performance has not been subjected to trials;

(c) for requiring the registration of persons growing any specified crop for the main purpose of seed production, or of persons selling any seed;

(d) for preventing the spread of plant disease by the sale of seeds;

(e) for requiring the treatment of seed, by any specified means, for the Control of plant disease and regulating the importation, quality, testing and sale of any material used in such treatment;

(f) for regulating the descriptions under which seed is sold;

(g) for regulating, controlling or prohibiting the export of seeds;

(h) for prescribing anything which, under this Part, is to be prescribed or which, under any other provision of this Act, is to be prescribed by seeds regulations.

(2) Seeds regulations may include provisions as to the packets, bags, trays or other containers in which seed may be sold or delivered to purchasers, and requirements as to the marking of such containers.

(3) Without prejudice to any other provisions of this section, seeds regulations may—

(a) require information to be given in a prescribed manner, which may include the giving of it on any label, container, or package, as regards seeds which are sold, and may require the seller to deliver a statement, containing prescribed particulars, to the purchaser within such time as may be limited by the regulations;

(b) require any of the particulars contained in such statement to be particulars ascertained on a test of the seeds;

(c) prohibit the selling of seeds which have not been certified in the prescribed manner, or which contain more than a prescribed proportion of weed seeds, or of weed seeds of a prescribed kind, or which lack any other prescribed quality factor;

(d) prohibit the use, in relation to the sale of seeds, any prescribed name, designation or description except where the seeds have been grown or selected under the prescribed conditions;

(e) require persons who deal in seeds to supply to the prescribed authority information as to, and to keep records of—

(i) transactions in seeds generally or in seeds of specified kinds;

(ii) statutory statements given or received by them, and other statements or invoices given or received by them in connexion with the sale of seeds;

(iii) processes or treatments applied to seeds;

(iv) the results of tests of seeds, and authorize prescribed persons to call for production of such records;

(f) where persons who deal in seeds also grow seeds, require such persons to supply to the prescribed authority information as to, and to keep records of—

(i) acreages sown;

(ii) the yields of the crops, and authorize prescribed persons to call for production of such records;

(g) regulate the procedure to be observed at, and the conduct of testing stations and other establishments at which tests may be carried out for the purposes of the regulations;

(h) regulate the manner in which tests are to be made for the purposes of this Part.

(4) In prescribing the manner in which samples are to be taken for the purposes of this Part or of seeds regulations, the regulations.

(a) may impose conditions as to the persons empowered to take samples and the places where they may be taken;

(b) may require the person taking a sample to give part of it to the owner of the seeds or to some other person, may prescribe the manner in which the sample is to be divided into parts, and may impose duties in respect of the making or labelling and the preservation of the parts of the sample;

(c) may provide for the identification, by the labelling or marking of their container, or by some other method, of seeds from which a sample has been taken.

(5) Seeds regulations may exempt, or authorize the exemption of, any person or class of persons, or persons generally, from compliance with any of the provisions of the regulations, and may provide that such exemptions are to be, or may be made, subject to conditions.

(6) Any person who includes in a statutory statement anything which is false in a material particular shall be guilty of an offence.

Civil Liabilities of Sellers of Seeds

4.—(1) If and so far as seeds regulations provide that a statutory statement shall constitute a statutory warranty for the purposes of this section, the statutory statement, when received by a purchaser, and notwithstanding any contract or notice to the contrary, shall have effect as a written warranty by the seller that the particulars contained in the statutory statement are true.

(2) If and so far as seeds regulations apply this subsection to the particulars in a statutory statement and prescribe limits of variation in relation to those particulars, those particulars shall, for the purposes of any legal proceedings on a contract for the sale of the seeds to which the statutory statement relates, be deemed to be true except so far as there is a mis-statement in the particulars which exceeds the limits of variation so prescribed.

(3) If and so far as seeds regulations apply this subsection to the particulars in a statutory statement, such particulars shall, for the purposes of any legal proceedings on a contract for the sale of seeds to which the statutory statement relates, be deemed to be true unless it is made to appear on a test carried out at a testing station, and made on a sample taken in the prescribed manner and within the prescribed period, that the particulars were untrue.

(4) Where a purchaser intends to obtain a test of seeds for the purposes of subsection (3), the seller of the seeds shall give written notice of such intention not more than the prescribed period after delivery to the purchaser of the seeds under the sale, and seeds regulations shall prescribe a procedure for the taking of a sample of seeds to be tested for the purposes of that subsection which will afford to the seller of the seeds or his agent an opportunity of being present when the sample is taken, and of obtaining part of the sample.

(5) A contravention of seeds regulations shall not affect the validity of a contract for the sale of seeds or the right to enforce such a contract.

Defences in Proceedings for Offences against Seeds Regulations

5.—(1) If and so far as seeds regulations for the purposes of this section prescribed limits of variation in relation to the particulars in a statutory statement, it shall be a defence to proceedings under this Act for including in a statutory statement any false particulars to prove that the mis-statement in the particulars alleged to be false do not exceed the limits of variation so prescribed.

(2) Subject to this section, it shall be a defence to proceedings—

(a) under this Part for including false particulars in a statutory statement; or

(b) for an offence against seeds regulations relating to the nature, condition or quality of any seeds; or

(c) for an offence against seeds regulations relating to a prescribed name or designation or description, to prove—

(i) that the accused took all reasonable precautions against committing an offence of the kind alleged and had not at the time of the alleged offence any reason to suspect that an offence was being committed by him; and

(ii) where the accused obtained the seeds to which the alleged offence relates from some other person, that on demand by or on behalf of the prosecutor the accused gave all the information in his power with respect to the name and address of that other person and with respect to any statutory statement or other document in his possession or power relating to the seeds and the contract of sale.

(3) If, in any proceedings under this Part for including false particulars in a statutory statement, any of the particulars alleged to be false are particulars which, by seeds regulations, are to be particulars ascertained by means of a prescribed test, the defence under subsection

(2) shall not be available unless it is proved—

(a) that those particulars were ascertained on such a test and that the test was made not earlier than the date, if any, prescribed for the purpose; or

(b) that—

(i) the accused purchased the seeds from another person who, in connexion with the sale, duly delivered to the accused a statutory statement giving particulars of the seeds which were the same as the particulars alleged to be false; and

(ii) the accused had no reason to believe that paragraph (a) did not apply in relation to those particulars.

Presumption Regarding Statutory Statements

6. For the purposes of this Part and of any seeds regulations, any statutory statement made in respect of seeds which are in distinct portions shall be presumed to be made both in respect of the seeds as a whole and also in respect of each portion taken separately.

Index of Names of Plant Varieties

7.—(1) The Minister may, in accordance with this section, cause to be prepared an index of names of plant varieties for use in connexion with the sale of seeds of those varieties.

(2) The Index shall be compiled in sections, and each section shall define the class of plant varieties to which it relates in such terms as to make it possible to determine whether any plant variety belongs to the class or not, irrespective of whether that variety is for the time being in the Index or not.

(3) Different sections of the Index may be prepared, and may be brought into force, at different times.

(4) Notice of the coming into force of a section of the Index, and of all additions, corrections and erasures in a section of the Index after it has come into force, shall be published in the Gazette, and in such other manner as is appropriate for ensuring that persons particularly concerned with the Index, or with the class of plant varieties to which the section of the Index relates, have their attention drawn to it.

(5) After a section of the Index has come into force, any person who, in selling seed of a plant variety for which a name is given in that section, uses sonic name not given in the Index for that plant variety, being a name which serves or is intended by him to serve to distinguish the seed from seed of other plant varieties within the class to which the section relates, shall be guilty of an offence.

(6) The Minister may, for the purposes of this section, arrange for the establishment of a reference collection of plant material.

(7) The First Schedule shall have effect as to the procedure for compiling the Index and the other matters therein mentioned.

(8) In this section and sections 8 and 9 and the First Schedule—

“class” means a class of plant varieties to which a section of the Index relates;

“name” includes any designation, and for the purposes of those provisions, a plant variety shall not be regarded as distinct from another plant unless it is sufficiently distinguishable by one or more of such important characteristics as may be prescribed.

Restrictions on Sales of Seeds of Unindexed Plant Varieties

8.—(1) Subject to this section, after a section of the Index has come into force any person who, in selling seed of a plant variety which is within the class to which that section of the Index relates, but which is not in the Index, uses a name which serves or is intended by him to serve to distinguish such seed from seed of other plant varieties within that class, shall be guilty of an offence.

(2) Subsection (1) shall not apply to a person who reasonably believes that the seed—

(a) is to be used for scientific purposes or for the purposes of research; or

(b) will be used outside Kenya.

(3) Where any person makes, or proposes to make, arrangements under which some other person uses seed under the control of the first-mentioned person for the purposes of increasing the first-mentioned person’s stock, or of carrying out tests or trials, and under which the whole of the material produced, directly or indirectly, from the seed, and any unused seed, becomes or remains the property of the first-mentioned person, subsection (1) shall not apply—

(a) to a sale of the seed by the first-mentioned person to the other person as part of such arrangements; or

(b) to a sale by that other person to the first-mentioned person of seed produced, directly or indirectly, from that seed.

(4) Except as provided by paragraph 3 (3) of the First Schedule, an application for the inclusion of a plant variety in the appropriate section of the Index after it has come into force shall be granted only—

(a) when the agro-ecological value surpasses that of the existing ones in some aspect according to the results in official tests;

(b) is sufficiently distinguishable from any other variety whose existence is a matter of common knowledge at the time of application;

(c) is sufficiently varietal pure and stable in its essential characteristics.

(5) If at any time it appears to the Minister that a decision cannot be given on an application in respect of an Index mentioned in subsection (4) within three years from the time when the applicant has complied with the conditions prescribed under the First Schedule, or if so directed by the Tribunal, he shall cause an entry to be made in the Index giving to the plant variety concerned such provisional name as is appropriate, and when the decision is given such correction shall be made to the Index as may be necessary to give effect to the decision.

Performance Trials and Reports

9.—(1) The Minister may, by order, bring this section into force for any class of plant varieties within the index, and thereafter this section shall apply to any new plant variety within that class.

(2) For the purposes of this section, a plant variety shall be a new plant variety if it was not in the Index on the date when the order under subsection (1) came into force, unless it has been exempted under subsection (3).

(3) The Minister may, on an application from any person and on being satisfied that seed of a plant variety, although not in the Index, was in commercial use in Kenya before the order under subsection (1) came into force, exempt that plant variety from the provisions of this section.

(4) Subject to this section, it shall be an offence—

(a) to sell seed of a new plant variety to which this section applies; or

(b) to advertise any such seed for use,

until seed of that plant variety has been submitted for the purpose of performance trials in accordance with this section, and until a report on the result of such trials has been published in the prescribed manner, and this subsection shall apply whether or not an offer or advertisement relates only to sales after the trials and report.

(5) Subsection (4) shall not apply to a sale of any seed which is not in Kenya when The sale is made but, subject to this section, where a person has acquired seed of a new plant variety to which this section applies, being seed which was not in Kenya when he acquired it, he shall be guilty of an offence if, in the course of business, he—

(a) uses any of that seed in Kenya as reproductive material at any time when, under subsection (4), it is unlawful to sell seed of that pliant variety; or

(b) at any time so disposes of any of that seed, otherwise than by way of sale, while it is in Kenya as to make it available for use in Kenya as reproductive material.

(6) Subsection (4) shall not apply to any sale of the kind described in subsection (3) of section 8 and subsection (5) shall not apply to the use of seed for the purpose of carrying out tests or trials.

(7) If it appears to the Minister that a new plant variety to which this section applies has undergone performance trials and that an adequate report of the result of those trials is generally available, or that there is any other sufficient reason for exempting such variety from the provisions of subsections (4) and (5), he may direct that those subsections shall cease to apply to seed of that plant variety, but without prejudice to any liability for any offence previously committed.

(8) For all new plant varieties to which this section applies there shall be a time limit by which, so far as practicable, the report on the result of the performance trials is to be published, and if such report is not published within such time limit, subsections (4) and (5) shall cease to apply to seed of that plant variety, but without prejudice to any liability for any offence previously committed.

(9) The time limit in respect of an annual crop for the purposes of subsection (8) shall, except so far as seeds regulations may otherwise provide for any class or part thereof, be three years from the date on which the performance trials commence.

(10) Entries made in a section of the Index after an order under this section has come into force in relation thereto shall—

(a) be made in such a manner as will distinguish those entries from all earlier entries, and as will indicate which of the later entries relate to plant varieties exempted under subsection (3); and

(b) contain additional entries showing when subsections (4) and (5) have ceased to apply to seeds of the plant varieties concerned.

(11) Without prejudice to any other provision of this Part, seeds regulations may provide—

(a) for the manner of making applications under subsection (3) and of making applications for submitting plant varieties for performance trials;

(b) for the information to be afforded by an applicant and the materials to be submitted at the time of application or subsequently;

(c) for the manner in which reports are to be published and brought to the attention of those concerned;

(d) for the compiling of a register of applications for the submission of seeds for performance trials, of the reports of the results of such trials and of the dates of publication of the reports, and for including entries which will show the date when the time limit under subsection (8) will fall;

(e) for requiring the publication of notice of any direction under subsection (7) and of any class where a report is not published within the time limit under subsection (8);

(f) for the payment of fees in respect of matters under this section.

(12) Reference in this section to advertising are references to advertising in any medium, including sound and television broadcasting, but do not include the communication of information in any publication for scientific purposes or purposes of research.

Offences, etc

10.—(1) If any information submitted by or on behalf of—

(a) a person making an application or representations in respect of any matter connected with the compilation or alteration of the Index; or

(b) an applicant under subsection (3) of section 9,

is false in any material particular, and the person giving such information knows that it is false, or gives such information recklessly, he shall be guilty of an offence.

(2) Notwithstanding any provision of any other written law as to time limits in criminal proceedings, proceedings in respect of an offence under sections 7, 8 or 9 may be brought at any time not more than two years from the date upon which it is alleged that such offence was committed.

(3) It shall be a defence to proceedings in respect of an offence under sections 7, 8 or 9 to prove—

(a) that the accused took all reasonable precautions against committing an offence of the kind alleged and had not at the time of the alleged offence any reason to suspect that an offence was being committed by him; and

(b) where the accused obtained the seeds to which the alleged offence relates from some other person, that, on demand by or on behalf of the prosecutor, the accused gave all the information in his power with respect to the name and address of that other person and with

respect to any statutory statement or other document in his possession or power relating to those seeds and the contract of sale.

Part III Seed Testing

Seed Testing Stations

11. The Minister shall, either alone or in conjunction with any other body, establish one or more official seed testing stations.

Certificates of Test

12.—(1) A certificate of the result of a test by a seed analyst of a sample taken by an authorized officer for the purposes of any of the provisions of this Act shall be in the form prescribed by seeds regulations.

(2) A certificate of the result of a test at a testing station of any sample taken for the purposes of this Act, and purporting to be issued by a seed analyst—

(a) if the sample was taken by an authorized officer, shall, if a copy of the certificate has been served on the accused, be sufficient evidence of the facts stated in the certificate in any proceedings for an offence under this Act; or

(b) if the sample was taken by a person other than an authorized officer in order to obtain a test for the purposes of subsection (3) of section 4, shall be sufficient evidence of the facts stated in the certificate in any such legal proceedings as are mentioned in that subsection,

unless, in either case, either party to the proceedings requires that the person issuing the certificate be called as a witness.

Use of Samples in Criminal Proceedings

13.—(1) Evidence shall not be adduced in proceedings for an offence under Part II respecting a sample taken by an authorized officer unless the sample was taken in the manner prescribed by seeds regulations.

(2) Seeds regulations shall provide for samples being divided into at least two parts, and for one of the parts being given to the owner of the seeds or to such other person as may be prescribed by seeds regulations, and shall provide for a third part of the sample to be retained for production in all cases where use may be made of it by the court under this section.

(3) A certificate in the form prescribed by seeds regulations purporting to be issued by an authorized officer and stating that a sample was taken in the prescribed manner shall be sufficient evidence of the facts stated in the certificate.

(4) If part of a sample taken by an authorized officer is sent to a testing station, it shall be so sent as soon as practicable after the sample is taken.

(5) A copy of a certificate issued by a seed analyst stating the result of a test of part of a sample taken by an authorized officer shall be sent to the person to whom any other part of the sample is given.

(6) In any proceedings for an offence under this Act in respect of seeds which have been sampled by an authorized officer, the accused shall not be required to plead to the charge less than fourteen days from the day upon which he has received a copy of any certificate of a seed analyst which the prosecutor intends to adduce as evidence.

(7) In proceedings for including in a statutory statement false particulars concerning matters which are, under seeds regulations, to be ascertained for the purposes of the statement by a test of the seeds, if any sample of the seeds has been taken by an authorized officer the part of such sample required to be retained as mentioned in subsection (2) shall be produced at the hearing, and the court, if it thinks fit on the request of either party, shall cause the part so produced to be sent to a seed analyst who shall transmit to the court a certificate of the result of a test of that part of the sample.

(8) [Spent].

Tampering with Samples

14. If any person—

(a) tampers with any seeds so as to procure that a sample taken in the manner prescribed by seeds regulations for any purpose does not correctly represent the bulk of the seeds; or

(b) tampers with any sample so taken; or

(c) with intent to deceive, sends, or causes or allows to be sent, to any testing station, to be tested for any purpose, a sample of seeds which to his knowledge does not correctly represent the bulk of the seeds,

he shall be guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding five thousand shillings or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding six months or to both.

Part IV Control of Imports and Prevention of Cross-Pollination

Control of Imports of Potentially Deleterious Seeds

15.—(1) If it appears to the Minister that it is necessary or expedient that he should be able to exercise the powers conferred by this section for the purpose of preventing the importation into Kenya—

(a) of seeds which, if used as reproductive material in Kenya, will or may cause deterioration of domestic types of varieties of plants by cross-pollination, physical admixture or other means; or

(b) of seeds which are unsuitable for use in Kenya because they are of a type or variety which have been developed in countries with different climate, different hours of daylight or other different conditions, he may, by order, apply this section to seeds of any type or variety specified in the notice.

(2) An order under this section may provide for excepting from a specified type or variety any description of seeds defined in any manner and, in particular, any description of seeds defined by reference to the country or territory where they were grown or from which they have been consigned to Kenya, or any seeds which are the subject of a prescribed certificate.

(3) The importation of all seeds to which this section applies is prohibited except under the authority, and in accordance with the terms, of a licence granted by an authorized officer, and any person who imports or attempts to import any seeds in contravention of this subsection shall be guilty of an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding ten thousand shillings or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or to both.

(4) A licence under subsection (3) may be, to any degree, general or specific, and may be modified or revoked by an authorized officer alt any time.

(5) An order under this section shall be made after consultation with representatives of such interests as appear to the Minister to be concerned and may—

(a) include provision as to the methods by which importers may be required to prove whether consignments of seeds fall within any exception specified in the order;

(b) prescribe the form and manner in which applications are to be made for licences and the form of licences, and the fees payable therefor;

(c) contain such other transitional, supplemental and incidental provisions as appear to the Minister to be expedient.

Prevention of Injurious Cross-Pollination

16.—(1) This section shall have effect for the purpose of maintaining the purity of seeds of any types and varieties of plants specified in an order under subsection (2).

(2) The Minister may by order bring this section into force in an area in any part of Kenya in which persons are engaged in growing crops of seeds of any type or variety of plant specified in the order, if he is satisfied that in that area satisfactory arrangements, whether legally enforceable or not, have been made for locating such crops so as to isolate them from crops or plants which might cause injurious cross-pollination.

(3) An order under this section—

(a) shall be made after consultation with the persons responsible for the arrangements mentioned in sub-section (2) and with persons representative of such other interests as appear to the Minister to be concerned;

(b) shall state the types and varieties of plants which are to be protected by the order;

(c) shall specify the kinds and crops of plants which are to be controlled in the area to which the order relates; and

(d) may relate to more than one area and, if so, may make different provisions under paragraphs (a) and in respect of the different areas to which it relates.

(4) If in any area where this section is in force controlled crops or plants are growing and, on an application made in accordance with the Second Schedule, the Minister is satisfied—

(a) that they are causing, or may cause, injurious cross-pollination in a protected crop which is being grown in that area; and

(b) in the case of controlled crops or plants which are not self-sown, that the person growing them did not give to the persons responsible for the arrangements mentioned in subsection (2) such notice of his intention to grow those crops or plants to the flowering stage as would have enabled them to take any appropriate steps for altering the arrangements, he may serve a notice on the occupier of the land where the controlled crops or plants are growing requiring him to take such steps as may be specified in the notice for the purpose of preventing any of the controlled crops or plants from causing or continuing to cause injurious cross-pollination in the protected crops.

(5) If the person served with a notice under subsection (4) doses not comply with any requirement in the notice, the Minister may authorize any person to enter on the land concerned and do what the person so served has failed to do or, if in the opinion of the Minister that would no longer serve the purpose for which the notice was served, may take such other action as appears to the Minister appropriate for that purpose, and where, when the default occurs, further obligations remain under the notice, the Minister may also take such action as appears to him appropriate to meet the purposes for which those further obligations were imposed.

(6) Where the Minister takes any action under subsection (5), he may recover from the person on whom the notice was served a sum equal to the reasonable cost incurred by the Minister or his agents in taking such action, and such sum shall be a civil debt recoverable summarily by the Minister.

(7) Any person authorized in writing by the Minister may, on production if so required of his authority, at all reasonable times enter on any land, but not into any dwelling-house, in an area where this section is in force for the purpose of ascertaining whether controlled crops or plants are growing on the land or of inspecting and taking samples of any controlled crops or plants growing on the land.

(8) A notice under this section or the Second Schedule may be served by leaving it at, or sending it by pre-paid registered post to, the last known address of the person on whom it is to be served, and if it is not practicable after reasonable inquiry to ascertain his name and address, the notice may be served by addressing it to him as “the occupier” of the land and affixing it or a copy of it to some conspicuous object on the land.

(9) Without prejudice to any other proceedings under this section, any person who—

(a) unreasonably fails to comply with any requirement in a notice under this section; or

(b) obstructs or impedes, or attempts to obstruct or impede, a person acting in the exercise of the powers conferred by subsection (5) of this section,

shall be guilty of an offence.

(10) In this section, and in the Second Schedule—

“controlled crops or plants” means crops, grown for any purpose, of the types of varieties of plants which are protected by an order in the area concerned, and such additional kinds of crop or plants, whether grown or self-sown and whether of those or any other types or varieties, as may be specified in such order for the purposes of this definition;

“the occupier”, in the case of unoccupied land, means the person entitled to the occupation of the land;

“protected crop” means a crop of a type or variety of plant which is protected by an order in the area concerned, being a crop grown for the purpose of producing seeds.

Part V Plant Breeder’s Rights

Grant of Plant Breeder’s Rights

17.—(1) Rights may be granted in accordance with this Part in respect of plant varieties of such species or groups as may be specified by a scheme made by the Minister under this Part.

(2) Subject to this Part, plant breeder’s rights shall be granted by the authorized officer if he is satisfied that the conditions laid down in section 18 are fulfilled.

(3) The Third Schedule shall have effect for the protection of an applicant for plant breeder’s rights pending a decision on his application.

(4) Before making a scheme, the Minister shall consult representatives of such organizations as he deems to have a substantial interest in the matter to be regulated and of such other interests as appear to the Minister to be concerned, and any scheme—

(a) may make different provision for different species or groups of plant varieties;

(b) may contain such supplemental, incidental and transitional provisions as appear to the Minister to be appropriate;

(c) may be varied or revoked by a subsequent scheme,

so, however, that the variation or revocation of a scheme shall not prejudice a grant of plant breeder’s rights made before the variation or revocation takes effect.

Conditions for Grant of Rights

18.—(1) The conditions laid down in this section must be fulfilled as respect both the applicant for plant breeder’s rights and the plant variety to which the application relates.

(2) An applicant for plant breeder’s rights must be the person who bred or discovered the plant variety concerned, or his successor in title, and the provisions of Part I of the Fourth Schedule shall have effect regarding priorities between two or more persons who have independently bred or discovered a plant variety.

(3) A plant variety must conform to the rules set forth in Pact II of the Fourth Schedule.

(4) References in this section and in the Fourth Schedule to the discovery of a plant variety arc references to the discovery of a plant variety whether growing in the wild or occurring as a genetic variant, whether artificially induced or not.

Period for Which Rights Exercisable

19.—(1) A scheme shall prescribe the period, not exceeding twenty-five years, for which plant breeder’s rights are to be exercisable.

(2) As regards fruit trees and their root-stocks, forest and ornamental trees and grape vines, the period prescribed under this section shall be not less than eighteen years, and a statement in a scheme to the effect that a species or group of plant varieties fall under this subsection shall be conclusive.

(3) As regards plant varieties not coming within subsection (2), the period prescribed under this section shall be not less than fifteen years.

(4) Subject to the following provisions of this section, the period for which plant breeder’s rights are exercisable shall be the relevant period prescribed by the scheme concerned commencing on the day on which the grant of the plant breeder’s rights takes effect.

(5) If, on the application of the holder of any plant breeder’s rights, an authorized officer is satisfied that, for reasons beyond the control of the applicant, such holder has not been adequately remunerated by the grant of the rights, such officer may extend the period for which such rights are exercisable, subject to such restrictions, conditions and other provisions, if any, as the officer concerned may think appropriate so, however—

(a) that the period as extended shall not exceed twenty-five years; and

(b) where the period as extended is less than twenty-five years, no further extension shall be made under this subsection.

(6) A holder of plant breeder’s rights may at any time make an application to the authorized officer offering to surrender his rights and if, after notice of the application has been given in the prescribed manner, and after the prescribed procedure for hearing any person on whom the right to object has been conferred by the regulations has been followed, such officer is satisfied that the rights may properly be surrendered, he may accept the offer and terminate the rights concerned.

(7) The Minister shall cancel the grant of plant breeder’s rights in any case where he is satisfied—

(a) that any information submitted in the application for the grant of the rights, or any information submitted by or on behalf of the applicant in connexion with the application, was incorrect and that, if the authorized officer had known that such information was incorrect, he would have refused the grant; or

(b) that facts have been discovered which, if known before the grant, would have resulted in the grant being refused on the grounds that rule 1 or rule 2 in Part II of the Fourth Schedule was not satisfied in respect of the plant variety concerned.

(8) The authorized officer shall revoke or, if it has begun, terminate, any extension under subsection (5) if at any time he is satisfied that any information submitted in the application under that subsection or any information submitted by or on behalf of the applicant, was incorrect and that, if the true facts had been known before the extension had been allowed, the application would have been refused.

Nature of Rights

20.—(1) Subject to This Part, and of any other written law, the holder of plant breeder’s rights in a plant variety shall have the exclusive right to do, and to authorize others to do, the following—

(a) produce propagating material of the variety for commercial purposes, to commercialize it, to offer it for sale, to export it, to stock it for any of these purposes and to have any or all of their activities performed.

(b) in the circumstances described in the Fifth Schedule to exercise the other rights therein specified,

and, subject to this section, infringements of plant breeder’s rights shall be actionable at the suit of the holder of such rights, and in any proceedings for such an infringement all such relief, by way of damages, injunction, account or otherwise shall be available as is available in any corresponding proceedings in respect of infringements of other proprietary rights:

Provided that in so far as the production and the stocking for production of the propagating material of a variety for which plant breeder’s rights have been granted, is undertaken solely for research purposes or for developing new varieties in the breeder’s own nursery this shall not be deemed to be at variance with the exclusive right of the holder of a plant breeder’s rights.

(2) Paragraph (a) of subsection (1) shall not apply to the sale of reproductive material which is not in Kenya when it is sold, but if any person purchases such material outside Kenya and uses it in Kenya as reproductive material, the purchase and subsequent use shall together constitute an infringement of the plant breeder’s rights and the purchaser shall be liable to be proceeded against in respect of such infringement, and reference in this subsection to using reproductive material of a plant variety as reproductive material in Kenya includes reference to so disposing of that material (otherwise than by way of sale) while it is in Kenya as to make it available for use in Kenya as reproductive material.

(3) There shall be no right to damages in respect of an infringement of plant breeder’s rights—

(a) if the person infringing the rights was not aware, and had no reasonable grounds for suspecting, that the plant variety in question was the subject of such rights; or

(b) in a case where the infringement consists of a breach of conditions attached to a licence, if that person had no notice of any of those conditions, but the person who would, but for the foregoing provisions of this subsection, be entitled to damages shall be entitled to an account of profits in respect of the infringement, and to payment of any amount found due on the account, whether any other relief is granted under this section or not.

(4) The holder of plant breeder’s rights may, in authorizing other persons to exercise his exclusive rights, impose any conditions, limitations or restrictions which may be imposed by the holder of any other kind of proprietary rights, and plant breeder’s rights shall be assignable in the same manner as other kinds of proprietary rights.

(5) A sale of the reproductive material of a plant variety which is the subject of plant breeder’s rights, being a sale by the holder of such rights or by any other person authorized to grant a licence in those rights—

(a) shall not imply that the seller authorizes the purchaser to produce the reproductive material for the purpose of sale or export; but

(b) subject to any express terms or conditions imposed by the seller, shall imply that the seller authorizes the purchaser to sell the reproductive material sold to him.

(6) In this section and in the Fifth Schedule references to selling reproductive material include references to any transaction effected in the course of business—

(a) under which the property in the reproductive material passes from one person to another; or

(b) under which such material is made over by one person to another in pursuance of a contract under which he will use the material for growing further reproductive material or other crops,

and paragraph (b) shall apply irrespective of whether the contract provides that the property in the crop will be in the person to be regarded as the seller, or the person to be regarded as the purchaser, or a third party, and any reference to purchasing or a purchaser shall be construed accordingly.

Protected Plant Varieties

21.—(1) The Minister may by regulations under this section provide for the selection of names for plant varieties which are the subject of applications for plant breeder’s rights and for the keeping of a register of the names so selected.

(2) The Minister shall cause notice of all entries made in the register, including alterations, corrections and erasures, to be published in the Gazette and in such other manner as appears to the Minister to be convenient for bringing such entries to the attention of all persons connected therewith.

(3) After a section of the Index has come into force, the part of the register dealing with the class of plant varieties to which that section relates shall, so far as practicable, be combined with the Index.

(4) Without prejudice to the generality of Subsection (1), regulations made thereunder may in particular—

(a) prescribe the circumstances in which representations may be made regarding any decision as to the name to be registered in respect of any plant variety;

(b) make provision for the publication or service of notices of decisions which are to be made;

(c) prescribe the times at which, and the circumstances in which, the register may be inspected by members of the public.

(5) If, where a name is registered under this section for a plant variety, any person uses that name, or a name so nearly resembling it as to be likely to deceive or cause confusion, in selling—

(a) reproductive material of a different plant variety within the same class; or

(b) where under paragraph 1 of the Fifth Schedule plant breeder’s rights in the first-mentioned plant variety have been extended to material other than reproductive material, that other material from a different plant variety within the same class,

such use of the name shall be a wrong actionable in proceedings by the holder of plant breeder’s rights in such first-mentioned plant variety, but it shall be a defence to a claim for damages in any such proceedings to prove that the defendant took all reasonable precautions against committing a wrong of the kind alleged and had not, when using the name, any reason to suspect that it vas wrongful.

(6) In this section, “name” includes any designation, and references to plant varieties as being within the same class are references to them as all being within one class which is either—

(a) a class consisting of all plant varieties of the species or groups prescribed by any one scheme; or

(b) any other class of plant varieties prescribed for the purposes of this subsection by any scheme.

Maintenance of Reproductive Material

22.—(1) The provisions of this section shall apply in relation to all plant varieties except such as fall within any species or group which is excluded from such provisions by a scheme.

(2) Every holder of a plant breeder’s rights shall ensure that, throughout the period for which the rights are exercisable, he is in a position to produce to an authorized officer reproductive material which is capable of producing the variety to which the rights relate with the morphological and physiological and other characteristics taken into account when the rights were granted in respect of the variety.

(3) It shall be the duty of every holder of plant breeder’s rights to afford to an authorized officer all such information and facilities as such officer may request for the purpose of ascertaining whether such holder is fulfilling his obligation under subsection (2), including facilities for the inspection of the measures taken for the preservation of the plant variety.

(4) If at any time the Minister is satisfied that any holder of plant breeder’s rights—

(a) has failed to comply with any request made under subsection (3); or

(b) is no longer in a position to fulfil his obligations under subsection (2),

he shall cancel the grant of such rights.

Licences

23.—(1) The holder of plant breeder’s rights has the obligation to stock the market with propagating material at reasonable prices and he may do this by himself or he may grant such licences as are necessary to stock the market with propagating material on reasonable terms and conditions.

(2) The obligation referred to in subsection (1) shall include the obligation of the holder of plant breeder’s rights to furnish the licensee with the propagating material he needs at a reasonable price if he is to make proper use of the licence.

(3) If the Minister, upon the application of any person, is of the opinion that the stocking of the market with the propagating material is not adequately ensured, he shall communicate this to the holder of the plant breeder’s rights, stating the reasons for his opinion and shall enable him to remedy the situation and, if the holder fails to do so, grant any such rights as respects the plant variety in the form of a compulsory licence to interested parties.

(4) A scheme may prescribe for the purposes of this subsection a period or periods for any species or group, or different species or groups, of plant varieties and a compulsory licence in respect of such plant varieties shall not have effect during the specified period commencing on the date upon which the plant breeder’s rights concerned were granted.

(5) In entertaining applications for settling the terms of compulsory licences, the Minister shall endeavour to secure that the plant variety is available to the public at reasonable prices, that it is distributed as widely as possible, that it is maintained in quality, and that there is reasonable remuneration for the holder of the plant breeder’s rights concerned.

(6) A compulsory licence may include terms obliging the holder of the plant breeder’s rights to make reproductive material available to the licensee.

(7) Where—

(a) the holder of the plant breeder’s rights to which an application under subsection (3) relates is, or is represented by, a society or other organization which has as its main object, or one of its main objects, the negotiation or granting of licences to exercise plant breeder’s rights, either as the holder of the rights or as agent for holders;

(b) an organization, whether claiming to be representative of persons requiring licences or not, or a person whether requiring a licence or not, applies to the Minister for an opportunity of making representations concerning the application, and the Minister is satisfied that such organization or person has a substantial interest in the application and that the application involves issues which may affect other applicants for compulsory licences under this section; and

(c) if the applicant under paragraph (b) is an organization, the Minister is satisfied that it is reasonably representative of the class of persons which it claims to represent,

the Minister shall afford to the organization or person applying under paragraph (b) an opportunity of making representations to him and of being heard by the Minister or by a person appointed by the Minister for that purpose.

(8) The Minister, before granting a compulsory licence shall satisfy himself that the applicant is financially and otherwise in a position, and intends, to exploit the rights to be conferred upon him in a competent and businesslike manner, and that the grant of such licence will not compromise the maintenance of the reproductive material concerned.

(9) Without prejudice to the remedies available to the holder of a compulsory licence by the taking of proceedings in any court, the Minister may, if it is represented to him by any person that the holder of the plant breeder’s rights concerned has failed to meet any obligation imposed upon him by such licence, and if he is satisfied that the representations are correct, cancel the grant of such plant breeder’s rights.

(10) The Minister may at any time, on application made by any person concerned, extend or limit, or vary in any other respect, or revoke, a compulsory licence.

(11) A compulsory licence may be granted whether or not the holder of the plant breeder’s rights concerned has previously granted licences to the applicant for the compulsory licence or to any other person, and shall not be an exclusive licence.

(12) If and so far as any agreement purports to bind any person not to apply for a compulsory licence it shall be void.

Regulations

24.—(1) The Minister may make regulations for the purposes of this Part, and without prejudice to the generality of that power, the regulations may provide for—

(a) applications for the grant of plant breeder’s rights;

(b) the charging of fees, including periodical fees payable by the holders of plant breeder’s rights;

(c) anything which is to be prescribed under this Part.

(2) Regulations under this section may permit an authorized officer—

(a) in the case of any failure to pay any fees payable in connexion with an application to such officer under this Part, to refuse such application; and

(b) in the case of a failure of a holder of plant breeder’s rights to pay any fees payable in connexion with those rights, to cancel the grant of those rights,

with or without a right of appeal, and the regulations may provide for the restoration of the application or grant if the failure to pay fees is made good.

(3) Regulations under this section may, in particular—

(a) prescribe the information and facilities to be afforded by an applicant for the grant of plant breeder’s rights, and the reproductive and other plant material to be submitted at the time of the application or subsequently;

(b) prescribe the tests, trials, examinations and other steps to be taken by such applicant or an authorized officer before a grant of plant breeder’s rights is made, and the time within which any such steps are to be taken;

(c) restrict the making of repeated applications upon the same subject;

(d) prescribe the circumstances in which representations may be made upon any matter under this Part;

(e) make provision for the keeping of registers and records of matters under this Part, and the rectification of such registers and records, and prescribe the circumstances in which they may be inspected by members of the public;

(f) make provision for the publication or service of notice of applications and decisions made under this Part;

(g) prescribe the manner of dealing with objections to applications under this Part.

False Representation and Information

25.—(1) Any person who, knowingly or recklessly, makes any false representation that he is entitled to exercise any plant breeder’s rights, or any rights derived therefrom, shall be guilty of an offence, and for the purposes of this subsection it shall be immaterial whether or not the plant variety in respect of which such representation is made is actually the subject of any plant breeder’s rights.

(2) If any information—

(a) submitted in any application under this Part for a decision against which an appeal lies to the Tribunal; or

(b) submitted by or on behalf of the applicant in connexion with any such application; or

(c) given in pursuance of a request made under subsection (3) of section 22,

is false in any material particular and the person giving such information knows that it is false or gives the information recklessly he shall be guilty of an offence.

Application of Part to Government

26.—(1) If any servant or agent of the Government infringes any plant breeder’s rights or makes himself liable to civil proceedings under section 21 and the infringement or wrong is committed with the authority of the Government, then civil proceedings in respect of the infringement or wrong shall lie against the Government.

(2) Subject to subsection (1), no proceedings shall lie against the Government by virtue of the Government Proceedings Act in respect of the infringement of plant breeder’s rights or of any wrong mentioned in the subsection.

Cap. 40.

(3) This section shall have effect as if contained in Part II of the Government Proceedings Act.

Interpretation of Part

27.—(1) References in this Part to reproductive material are references to reproductive material of plant varieties and include references—

(a) to seed for sowing;

(b) to seed potatoes and other vegetative propagating material;

(c) to whole plants, as well as parts of plants, where these may be used as reproductive material; and

(d) to ornamental plants and parts thereof when used commercially as propagating material in the production of ornamental plants and cut flowers.

(2) References in this Part to an applicant for plant breeder’s rights include, where the context allows, references to the applicant’s predecessors or successors in title.

Part VI The Seeds and Plants Tribunal

Establishment of Tribunal

28.—(1) There shall be a Seeds and Plants Tribunal in relation to much the provisions of the Sixth Schedule shall apply.

(2) The Minister may make regulations under this section in respect of any appeals to the Tribunal under this Act, or under any regulations made under this Act, for all or any of the following purposes—

(a) to authorize any person, in addition to the appellant and the person whose decision is appealed against, to appear and be heard as parties to any appeal;

(b) to provide for suspending, or authorizing or requiring the suspension of, the operation of any decision pending the final determination of any appeal in respect thereof;

(c) to provide for the publication of notices or the taking of other steps for securing that persons affected by any such suspension are informed thereof.

Jurisdiction of Tribunal

29.—(1) Any person aggrieved by any decision—

(a) to refuse any application under subsection (4) of section 8 or subsection (3) of section 9; or

(b) to allow or refuse the grant of plant breeder’s rights; or

(c) to cancel the grant of plant breeder’s rights; or

(d) to allow or refuse an application under subsection (5) of section 19; or

(e) to terminate an extension granted under the subsection (5) of section 19; or

(f) to allow or refuse any application made under subsection (1), (7) or (8) of section 23, may appeal to the Tribunal against that decision.

(2) Any regulations made under this Act may confer rights of appeal to the Tribunal from decisions taken under such regulations.

(3) There shall be a final appeal to the High Court, from a decision of the Tribunal, on any question of law, but subject thereto a decision of the Tribunal shall be final and conclusive.

(4) The Tribunal shall, in addition to any other jurisdiction conferred upon it, hear and determine any matters agreed to be referred to the Tribunal by any arbitration agreement relating to the infringement of plant breeder’s rights, or to matters which include such infringement, but subsection (3) shall not apply in relation to any jurisdiction conferred by this subsection.

(5) The fees payable to the Tribunal for acting under any arbitration agreement shall be such as the Tribunal may determine, and nothing in section 11 of the Arbitration Act shall be taken as applying to the Tribunal.

Cap. 49.

(6) In this section, “arbitration agreement” has the meaning assigned to it in section 2 of the Arbitration Act.

Part VII

General

Powers of Entry

30.—(1) The powers of entry conferred by subsection (3) may be exercised for the purpose of exercising—

(a) the further powers conferred by subsections (4) and (5); or

(b) any powers of calling for, inspecting or taking copies of records or other documents conferred by seeds regulations, or for the purpose of ascertaining whether there is, or has been, on or in connexion with the premises, including any vehicle or vessel, any contravention of any of the provisions of this Act or any regulations made thereunder.

(2) This section shall not authorize entry into any premises which are used exclusively as a private dwelling.

(3) An authorized officer may, on production if so required of proof of his authority, at all reasonable hours enter any premises—

(a) which he has reasonable cause to believe to be used for any purpose of a business in the course of which seeds are sold, whether the sale is by wholesale or retail, and whether the person conducting it acts as principal or agent; or

(b) on which he has reasonable cause to believe that there is any seed which has been sold and which are to be delivered, or are in the course of delivery, to the purchaser, and the power of entry under this paragraph may be exercised when the seed is in transit in the course of delivery to the purchaser, and in particular when it is in any vehicle or vessel in the course of delivery.

(4) An authorized officer may, on any premises, including a vehicle or vessel, which he has power under this section to enter, examine any seed which he finds there and may without payment take samples of any seed so found.

(5) The owner of any seeds which are offered or exposed for sale, or are stored for the purposes of sale, or any person authorized to sell such seeds, may be required by an authorized officer to deliver to him such statement, if any, as the person selling them would, by seeds regulations, be obliged to deliver to a purchaser of such seeds, and to deliver it within the time prescribed for such a statement.

(6) This section shall apply with regard to—

(a) all kinds of seeds in respect of which an offence may, under any circumstances, be committed under seeds regulations; and

(b) seeds of all plant varieties which are within any class to which a section of the Index which has come into force relates.

(7) Any person who—

(a) fails to comply with any requirement made under subsection (5) of this section; or

(b) obstructs or impedes, or attempts to obstruct or impede, any authorized officer acting in exercise of the powers conferred by this section,

shall be guilty of an offence.

Institution of Criminal Proceedings

31.—(1) Notwithstanding any provision of any other written law as to time limits in criminal proceedings, where a part of a sample has been tested by a seed analyst proceedings for including in a statutory statement false particulars concerning the matters which, under seeds regulations are to be ascertained for the purposes of the statement by a test of the seeds, being proceedings relating to the seeds from which the sample was taken, may be brought at any time not more than six months from the time when the sample was taken.

(2) If, at any time before a test is begun to ascertain whether a part of a sample of seeds is of a specified variety or type, and not more than six months after the sample was taken, the person to whom any other part of the sample was given, or any other person, is notified in writing by an authorized officer that it is intended to test the seeds and that, after the test, proceedings may be brought against that person for including in a statutory statement a false statement that seeds were of a specified variety or type, then, notwithstanding any provision of any other written law as to time limits in criminal proceedings, any such proceedings relating to the seeds from which the sample was taken may be brought against the person so notified at any time not more than two years from the time when the sample was taken, and a certificate purporting to be issued by an authorized officer and stating that a person was so notified shall be sufficient evidence of that fact.

(3) Proceedings for an offence relating to a statutory statement which has been delivered to a purchaser of seeds, or relating to seeds which have been sold and delivered, may be brought before a court having jurisdiction at the place of delivery of the statement or seeds.

General Provisions as to Offences

32.—(1) Where an offence under this Act committed by a body corporate is proved to have been committed with the consent or connivance of, or to be attributable to any neglect on the part of, any director, manager, secretary or other similar officer of the body corporate, or any person who was purporting to act in any such capacity, he as well as the body corporate, shall be guilty of that offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.

(2) Proceedings for any offence under this Act may, without prejudice to any jurisdiction exercisable apart from this subsection, be taken against a person before the appropriate court in Kenya having jurisdiction in the place where that person is for the time being.

General Penalty

33. A person guilty of an offence under this Act for which no other penalty is provided shall be liable to a fine not exceeding three thousand shillings or to imprisonment for a period not exceed in three months or to both.

Supplemental Provisions as to Regulations

34. Any regulations under this Act—

(a) may make different provision for different types or classes of plant varieties, for different seasons of the year, and for other different circumstances;

(b) may contain such supplemental, incidental and transitional provisions as may appear to the Minister to be expedient;

(c) may provide penalties not exceeding those mentioned in section 33 of this Act for any breach of the regulations.

35. [Spent.]

FIRST SCHEDULE

(s. 7)

PROCEDURE FOR COMPILING AND AMENDING THE INDEX

1.—(1) As a first step in compiling a section of the Index, the Minister shall, after consultation with representatives of such organizations as he deems to have a substantial interest in the matter to be regulated and of such other interests as appear to him to be concerned, cause to be prepared a provisional list of plant varieties which are within the class of plant varieties to which the section of the Index will relate, and the seeds of which are in commercial use as reproductive material.

(2) The Minister shall publish the provisional list in the Gazette and in such other manner as appears to him appropriate for ensuring that the persons particularly concerned have their attention drawn to the list, and shall publish with the list a notice giving the necessary information as to the manner in which and time within which applications seeking additions, corrections and erasures may be made.

(3) The Minister may bring a section of the Index into force notwithstanding that the section is incomplete because the Minister has not come to a determination in regard to any particular plant varieties.

2. The Minister may, at any time after a section of the Index comes into force, entertain applications from persons seeking additions, corrections or erasures in that section, and may make such additions, corrections and erasures as may appear to him to be called for notwithstanding that no application has been made in that behalf.

3.—(1) If at the time when a name, or more than one name, is being selected for a plant variety for the purposes of the Index, there are one or more names which are for the time being in use for that plant variety, that name, or names from among those names, shall be preferred unless the Minister is satisfied that there are special circumstances calling for the use of a name or names not so in use.

(2) The Minister may require a person making an application for the inclusion of a plant variety in a provisional list, or in a section of the Index, to submit a name for that plant variety.

(3) If it appears to the Minister that no name in use or submitted to him is suitable, he may refuse to include the plant variety in the Index until a name has been submitted which is, in his opinion, suitable.

4. The Minister may require persons making applications which involve the question whether two or more plant varieties are distinct, to supply information and material for carrying out examinations, trials and tests.

5.—(1) The Minister, after consultation with representatives of such interests as appear to him to be concerned, may make regulations—

(a) governing the form and manner in which applications may be made under this Schedule;

(b) prescribing the period within which a person making application under this Schedule is to supply material or information in support of his representations;

(c) prescribing the quantity and kind of material to be so supplied,

(d) prescribing the manner in which applications are to be made in respect of any matter connected with the alteration of the Index, and for the information to be afforded and the material to be submitted, in connexion with any such application.

(2) Regulations under this paragraph may prescribe the fees to be charged for carrying out examinations, tests and trials and for making searches in the Index.

SECOND SCHEDULE

(s. 16)

CROSS-POLLINATION INJURING PROTECTED CROPS

1.

An application under section 16 seeking the issue of a notice under that section shall be in writing.

2.

Before deciding whether to issue a notice in accordance with the application, the Minister shall serve a notice on the occupier of the land concerned giving him particulars of the application and informing him of his right to make representations.

3.

The Minister shall, if so requested within such time as may be specified in the notice under paragraph 2, afford to the applicant and to the occupier of the land an opportunity of appearing before and making representations to a person appointed by the Minister for the purpose.

4.

In deciding whether to issue a notice in accordance with the application, and in deciding the terms thereof, the Minister shall have regard—

(a) to the need to maintain, in the interests of the public, the purity of the seed of the protected crop;

(b) to the degree to which the injurious cross-pollination will or may diminish to the value of the protected crop or disturb arrangements made for the purpose of maintaining the purity of the seeds thereof;

(c) to the value, if any, of the controlled crops or plants and the inconvenience or disturbance involved in complying with a notice.

THIRD SCHEDULE

(s. 17)

PROTECTION OF APPLICANT FOR RIGHTS WHILE APPLICATION IS PENDING

1.—(1) An applicant for the grant of plant breeder’s rights shall, in his application, state whether he is also applying for a direction by the authorized officer under this Schedule in respect of the plant variety to which the application relates.

(2) An applicant applying for a protective direction shall include in the application an undertaking to the effect that, subject to the exceptions in subparagraph (3) in the period between the making of the application and the time when the question whether the application is to be allowed or refused is finally determined (or, if the undertaking is discharged under this Schedule at an earlier time, until that time) no plants of the plant variety, and no material forming part of, or derived from plants of that variety, will be offered or exposed for sale or sold in Kenya by the applicant or with his consent.

(3) An undertaking under this paragraph shall not prevent the applicant from making an offer for sale or sale which in the period before the application would be permitted by subparagraphs (3), (4) or (5) of paragraph 2 of Part II of the Fourth Schedule, or the exposure for sale of material where an offer for sale of that material would be so permitted.

(4) If the authorized officer is satisfied that the applicant has duly given the undertaking, and that he has furnished that officer with all such information, facilities and material as that officer may require for the purposes of the application for the grant of plant breeder’s rights, the officer may, if he thinks fit, give a protective direction.

(5) The authorized officer shall not give a protective direction if there is any evidence before him which tends to show that the applicant, or the person whose successor in title the applicant claims to be, is not the person who bred or discovered the plant variety to which the application relates.

2.—(1) While a protective direction is in force, anything which, if the plant breeder’s rights to which the application in question relates had been granted, would have constituted an infringement of those rights, or would under subsection (5) of section 21 have been actionable in proceedings by the holder of those rights, may be the subject of proceedings under this paragraph.

(2) Proceedings may be brought under this paragraph, by the applicant in whose favour the protective direction is made, against any person for an injunction requiring that person, while the protective direction is in force, not to do any of the things which may be the subject of proceedings under this paragraph, and the court may, if it thinks fit, grant an injunction accordingly on such terms as appear to the court to be just.

(3) An undertaking not to institute or prosecute proceedings under this paragraph, whether or not any consideration is given for the undertaking, shall be void, and if the authorized officer is satisfied that an applicant in whose favour a protective direction has been given has given any such undertaking, whether or not the undertaking be enforceable at law, he shall withdraw the protective direction.

(4) A protective direction shall cease to be in force when the question whether the application for the grant of plant breeder’s rights is to be allowed or refused is finally determined, or at such earlier time as is provided under the provisions of this Schedule.

3.—(1) The authorized officer may at any time, if in all the circumstances it appears to him to be just, withdraw a protective direction, and shall do so if he is satisfied that there has been a breach of the undertaking given by the applicant under paragraph 1 of this Schedule.

(2) The undertaking given by an applicant under paragraph 1 shall cease to be binding when the protective direction is withdrawn.

4.—(1) If at any time the authorized officer is satisfied that there has been a breach of the undertaking given under paragraph 1, he may refuse the application for the grant of plant breeder’s rights.

(2) If there is a breach of an undertaking given under paragraph 1 the applicant shall be guilty of an offence.

FOURTH SCHEDULE

(s. 18)

PART I PRIORITIES BETWEEN APPLICANTS FOR RIGHTS

1.—(1) If the plant variety was independently bred or discovered by two or more persons, the first of those persons who makes an application relating to that variety in the form prescribed for the purposes of this Schedule by regulations under section 24 shall be the person entitled to the grant of plant breeder’s right.

(2) As between two persons making applications on the same date, the one who was first in a position to make a valid application for the grant of plant breeder’s rights, or would have been first in that position if Part V of this Act and the relevant scheme had always been in force, shall be the person entitled to a grant of plant breeder’s rights.

2.—(1) For the purposes of paragraph 1 of this Part, an application duly made in a country to which this paragraph applies when the application is made shall be treated as if duly made under this Act if the conditions in this paragraph are satisfied.

(2) No account shall be taken under this paragraph of an application made in a country outside Kenya at a time when the plant variety to which the application relates was not one falling within a species or group prescribed by a scheme as a species or group in respect of which plant breeder’s rights may be granted.

(3) Not more than twelve months after the application duly made in that country, the applicant must make his application under this Act in the form prescribed for the purpose by regulations under section 24, being a form which includes a claim in respect of the priority of the application in the said country.

(4) Within three months of the application under this Act, a copy of the documents constituting the application in the country, certified as correct by the authority in that country to whom the application is made, must be submitted to the authorized officer.

(5) If applications have been made in more than one country to which this paragraph applies, and have been so made at different dates, the period of twelve months mentioned in subparagraph (3) shall be taken from the earlier or earliest of those applications, and subparagraph (4) shall be construed accordingly.

(6) If priority is established for an application by virtue of this paragraph after a grant of plant breeder’s rights have been made in pursuance of an application against which the priority is established, the authorized officer shall cancel that grant.

(7) The Minister may, by notice in the Gazette, designate any country or territory as a country to which this paragraph applies, and may from time to time vary or revoke any such order but not so as to prejudice applications already made in Kenya or elsewhere.

3. Regulations under section 24 may provide for the forfeiture of any priority obtained under this Schedule if the person making the application does not, within a period prescribed by the regulations, satisfy all the requirements which are to be satisfied by an applicant before a grant of plant breeder’s rights can be made.

PART II RULES FOR GRANT OF RIGHTS

1.—(1) The plant variety shall—

(a) be sufficiently distinguishable by one or more important morphological, physiological or other characteristics from any other variety whose existence is a matter of common knowledge at the time of the application, whatever may have been the origin, artificial or natural, of the initial variation from which it resulted;

(b) be sufficiently varietal pure;

(c) be sufficiently uniform or homogenous having regard to the particular features of its sexual reproduction or vegetative propagation;

(d) be stable in its essential characteristics, that is to say, it must remain true to its description after repeated reproduction or propagation or, where the application prescribes a particular cycle of reproduction or multiplication, at the end of each cycle, and the agro-ecological value must surpass, in one or more characteristics, that of existing varieties according to results obtained in official tests.

(2) For the purposes of subparagraph (1), common knowledge may be established by reference to plant varieties already in cultivation or exploited for commercial purposes, or those included in a recognized commercial or botanical reference collection, or those of which there are precise descriptions in any publication.

2.—(1) Subject to this Schedule, in the period before the scheme by virtue of which the application is made came into force, no plants of the variety, and no material forming part of, or derived from, plants of the variety may have been offered for sale or sold by any person in Kenya or elsewhere.

(2) Subject to this Schedule, in the period beginning with the date when the said scheme came into force and ending with the date of the application, no plants of the variety and no material forming part of, or derived from, plants of the variety, may have been offered for sale or sold by or with the consent of the applicant in Kenya or elsewhere

Provided that the restriction imposed by this subparagraph shall not apply to sales or offers for sale made outside Kenya during the period of four years ending with the date of the application.

(3) Subparagraphs (1) and (2) shall not apply—

(a) to an offer for sale of a stock of material of any plant variety in connexion with an offer for sale of the title to apply for the grant of plant breeder’s rights in respect of that plant variety; or

(b) to any sale of material of any plant variety if at the time of the sale or subsequently the purchaser becomes the person entitled to make an application for the grant of plant breeder’s rights in respect of that plant variety.

(4) Where an applicant makes, or proposes to make, arrangements under which some other person uses reproductive material of the plant variety under the control of the applicant for the purpose of increasing the stock of the applicant, or of carrying out tests or trials, and under which the whole of the material produced, directly or indirectly, from that reproductive material, and any unused reproductive material, becomes or remains the property of the applicant, then subparagraphs (1) and (2) shall not apply—

(a) to a sale or offer for sale of the reproductive material by the applicant to any such person as part of such arrangements; or

(b) to a sale by such person to the applicant of the material produced, directly or indirectly, from that reproductive material.

3.—(1) Where an application for the grant of plant breeder’s rights is made at a time not later than twelve months after this Part comes into operation, and the applicant does not ask for a protective direction, subparagraphs (1) and (2) of paragraph 2 of this Part shall not apply to an offer for sale or sale in the period beginning six months before this Part comes into operation and ending with that time if the authorized officer is satisfied that the applicant took all steps reasonably open to him to ensure that any person to whom material of the plant variety has been offered or sold during the said period has been informed in writing that an application for a grant of plant breeder’s rights may be made in respect of the variety.

(2) Where an application is allowed by virtue of this paragraph, subsection (2) of section 23 shall not apply to any compulsory licence granted in respect of the plant variety to which the application relates.

FIFTH SCHEDULE

(s. 20)

PLANT BREEDERS RIGHTS IN SPECIAL CASES

Sale of Cut Blooms, Fruits, etc

1.—(1) If it appears to the Minister that, in the case of any species or group of plant varieties, plant breeders will not receive adequate remuneration unless they have control over the production or propagation of the plant variety in Kenya for the purpose of sales of cut blooms, fruit or some other part or product of plants of the variety, and the control will be of substantial benefit to the plant breeders, he may, by a scheme, provide that, in respect of any plant variety of the species or group prescribed by the scheme, plant breeder’s rights shall include the exclusive right to, and to authorize others to, produce or propagate that variety for the purpose of selling such parts or products of the variety as may be prescribed by the scheme.

(2) A scheme conferring any such rights may also provide that plant breeder’s rights shall include the exclusive right to, and to authorize others to, sell the parts or products of the variety in relation to which the rights are extended in so far as they are obtained by the seller from plants of the variety which the seller has himself produced or propagated.

Use of Reproductive Material for Production of Certain other Plant Varieties

2. Plant breeder’s rights shall include the exclusive right to, and to authorize others to, use the reproductive material of the plant variety concerned for the purpose of producing, in order to sell it, the reproductive material of another plant variety if, but only if, the nature of that other variety is such that repeated production of the reproductive material of that other variety is not possible without the repeated use of reproductive material of the plant variety to which the rights relate.

SIXTH SCHEDULE

(s. 28)

THE SEEDS AND PLANTS TRIBUNAL

The Chairman

1.—(1) The Minister shall appoint a chairman for the Tribunal who shall be an advocate.

(2) The appointment of the chairman shall be for such term as the Minister may specify in the instrument of appointment, and a person who ceases to hold office as chairman shall be eligible for reappointment.

(3) The chairman may at any time resign his office by notice in writing to the Minister.

(4) If the Minister is satisfied that the chairman is unfit to continue in office or incapable of discharging his duties, he may revoke the appointment of the chairman.

2. In the case of the temporary absence or inability to act of the Chairman, the Minister may appoint any other person who is an advocate to act as deputy for the chairman, and a person so appointed shall, when so acting, have all the functions of the chairman.

The Panels

3.—(1) The Minister shall draw up and from time to time revise—

(a) a panel of persons who have wide general knowledge in the field of agriculture, horticulture or forestry; and

(b) a panel of w persons who have specialized knowledge of particular species or groups of plants, and the members of the Tribunal, other than the chairman and deputy chairman, shall be selected from those panels in accordance with this Schedule.

(2) The power to revise the panels shall include power to terminate a person’s membership of either of them.

Remuneration

4. The Minister may pay to members of the Tribunal such remuneration and such allowances as the Minister may, with the approval of the Treasury, determine.

Procedure

5.—(1) The jurisdiction of the Tribunal shall be exercised by three members consisting of the chairman and a member selected from each of the two panels, and references in this Act to the Tribunal shall be construed accordingly.

(2) The member from the panel of those with specialized knowledge shall be selected for his knowledge of the subject matter of a particular case or class or group of cases.

(3) The members of the panels who are to deal with any case shall be selected as follows—

(a) the Minister may select a member or members to deal with that particular case or class or group of cases; or

(b) the Minister may select for a class or group of cases members from amongst whom members to deal with any particular case shall be selected by the chairman.

(4) Any decision of the Tribunal shall be taken, in the event of a difference between the members, by the votes of the majority.

(5) If, after the commencement of the hearing of any proceedings before the Tribunal, one of the three members of the Tribunal becomes incapable of continuing to hear the proceedings on account of sickness or for any other reason, the proceedings may, with the consent of all parties thereto, be continued before the remaining two members of the Tribunal and heard and determined accordingly, but if the two members differ in opinion the case shall, on the application of any party to the proceedings, be re-argued before and determined by the Tribunal as ordinarily constituted.

(6) A decision of the Tribunal shall not be questioned on the ground that a member was not validly appointed or selected.

6.—(1) The Tribunal, in exercising its statutory jurisdiction, may order any party to the proceedings to pay to any other such party either a specified sum in respect of the costs incurred by the second mentioned party, or the taxed amount of those costs, and any costs required to be taxed for that purpose shall be taxed in the same manner and on the same scale as costs in a subordinate court of the first class.

(2) The Chief Justice may make rules as to the procedure in connexion with proceedings before the Tribunal in exercise of its statutory jurisdiction and as to the fees chargeable in respect of those proceedings, and in particular the rules may make provision—

(a) as to the circumstances in which the Tribunal need not, or shall not, sit in public;

(b) as to the form of any decision of the Tribunal;

(c) as to the time within which such proceedings are to be instituted;

(d) as to the evidence, and the form thereof, which may be required or admitted;

(e) as to the examination of the parties and of witnesses;

(f) as to the procedure for securing the attendance of witnesses and the production of documents.

(3) The chairman of the Tribunal shall have power to administer oaths to witnesses in any proceedings before the Tribunal.

(4) In this paragraph, “statutory jurisdiction” means any jurisdiction of the Tribunal exercisable by or under this Act or any other written law, except for its jurisdiction in any reference under an arbitration agreement.

 

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