World Intellectual Property Organization

India

The Trade Marks Act, 1999

 

 

The following Act of Parliament received the assent of the President on the 30th December, 1999, and is hereby published for general information:-

An Act to amend and consolidate the law relating to trade marks, to provide for registration and better protection of trade marks for goods and services and for the prevention of the use of fraudulent marks.

The Trade Marks Act, 1999

No. 47 of 1999
30th December, 1999

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Article

Chapter I: Preliminary

Short Title, Extent and Commencement 1

Definitions and Interpretation 2

Chapter II: The Register and Conditions for Registration

Appointment of Registrar and Other Officers 3

Power of Registrar to Withdraw or Transfer Cases, etc 4

Trade Marks Registry and Offices Thereof 5

The Register of Trade Marks 6

Classification of Goods and Services 7

Publication of Alphabetical Index 8

Absolute Grounds for Refusal of Registration 9

Limitation as to Colour 10

Relative Grounds for Refusal of Registration 11

(ii) Registration in the Case of Honest Concurrent Use etc 12

Prohibition of Registration of Names of Chemical Elements or International Non-Proprietary Names 13

Use of Names and Representations of Living Persons or Persons Recently Dead 14

Registration of Parts of Trade Marks and of Trade Marks as a Series 15

Registration of Trade Marks as Associated Trade Marks 16

Effect of Registration of Parts of a Mark 17

Chapter III: Procedure for and Duration of Registration

Application for Registration 18

Withdrawal of Acceptance 19

Advertisement of Application 20

Opposition to Registration 21

Correction and Amendment 22

Registration 23

Jointly Owned Trade Marks 24

Duration, Renewal, Removal and Restoration of Registration 25

Effect of Removal from Register for Failure to Pay Fee for Renewal 26

Chapter IV: Effect of Registration

No Action for Infringement of Unregistered Trade Mark 27

Rights Conferred by Registration 28

Infringement of Registered Trade Marks 29

Limits on Effect of Registered Trade Mark 30

Registration to Be Prima Facie Evidence of Validity 31

Protection of Registration on Ground of Distinctiveness in Certain Cases 32

Effect of Acquiescence 33

Saving for Vested Rights 34

Saving for Use of Name, Address or Description of Goods or Services 35

Saving for Words Used as Name or Description of an Article or Substance or Service 36

Chapter V: Assignment and Transmission

Power of Registered Proprietor to Assign and Give Receipts 37

Assignability and Transmissibility of Registered Trade Marks 38

Assignability and Transmissibility of Unregistered Trade Marks 39

Restriction on Assignment or Transmission Where Multiple Exclusive Rights Would Be Created 40

Restriction on Assignment or Transmission When Exclusive Rights Would Be Created in Different Parts of India 41

Conditions for Assignment Otherwise than In connection with the Goodwill of a Business 42

Assignability and Transmissibility of Certification Trade Marks 43

Assignability and Transmissibility or Associated Trade Marks 44

Registration of Assignments and Transmissions 45

Chapter VI: Use of Trade Marks and Registered Users

Proposed use of Trade Mark by Company to Be Formed etc. 46

Removal from Register and Imposition of Limitations on Ground of Non Use 47

Registered User 48

Registration as Registered User 49

Power of Registrar for Variation or Cancellation of Registration as Registered User 50

Power of Registrar to Call for Information Relating to Agreement in Respect of Registered Users 51

Right of Registered User to Take Proceedings Against Infringement 52

No Right of Permitted User to Take Proceeding Against Infringement 53

Registered User not to Have Right of Assignment of Transmission 54

User of One of Associated or Substantially Identical Trade Marks Equivalent to Use of Another 55

Use of Trade Mark for Export Trade and Use When Form of Trade Connection Changes 56

Chapter VII: Rectification and Correction of the Register

Power to Cancel or Vary Registration and to Rectify the Register 57

Correction of Register 58

Alteration of Registered Trade Marks 59

Adaptation of Entries in Register to Amended or Substituted Classification of Goods or Services 60

Chapter VIII: Collective Marks

Special Provisions for Collective Marks 61

Collective Mark not to Be Misleading as to Character or Significance 62

Application to be Accompanied by Regulations Governing Use of Collective Marks 63

Acceptance of Application and Regulations by Registrar 64

Regulations to Be Open to Inspection 65

Amendment of Regulations 66

Infringement Proceedings by Registered Proprietor of Collective Mark 67

Additional Grounds for Removal of Registration of Collective Mark 68

Chapter IX: Certification Trade Marks

Certain Provisions of this Act not Applicable to Certification Trade Marks 69

Registration of Certification Trade Marks 70

Application for Registration of Certification Trade Marks 71

Consideration of Application for Registration by Registrar 72

Opposition to Registration of Certification Trade Marks 73

Filing of Regulations Governing Use of a Certification Trade Mark 74

Infringement of Certification Trade Marks 75

Acts not Constituting Infringement of Certification Trade Marks 76

Cancellation or Varying of Registration of Certification Trademarks 77

Rights Conferred by Registration of Certification Trade Marks 78

Chapter X: Special Provisions for Textile Goods

Textile Goods 79

Restriction on Registration of Textile Goods 80

Stamping of Piece Goods, Cotton Yarn and Thread 81

Determination of Character of Textile Goods by Sampling 82

Chapter XI: Appellate Board

Establishment of Appellate Board 83

Composition of Appellate Board 84

Qualifications for Appointment as Chairman, Vice Chairman, or Other Members 85

Term of Office of Chairman, Vice chairman and Other Members 86

Vice-Chairman or Senior-Most Member to Act as Chairman or Discharge his Functions in Certain Circumstances 87

Salaries, Allowances and Other Terms and Conditions of Service of Chairman, Vice Chairman and Other Members 88

Resignation and Removal 89

Staff of Appellate Board 90

Appeals to Appellate Board 91

Procedure and Powers of Appellate Board 92

Bar of Jurisdiction of Courts, etc. 93

Bar to Appear Before Appellate Board 94

Conditions as to Making of Interim Orders 95

Power of Chairman to Transfer Cases from one Bench to Another 96

Procedure for Application for Rectification, etc. Before Appellate Board 97

Appearance of Registrar in Legal Proceedings 98

Costs of Registrar in Proceedings Before Appellate Board 99

Transfer of Pending Proceedings to Appellate Board 100

Chapter XII: Offences, Penalties and Procedure

Meaning of Applying Trademarks and Trade Descriptions 101

Falsifying and Falsely Applying Trade Marks 102

Penalty for Applying False Trade Marks, Trade Descriptions etc. 103

Penalty for Selling Goods or Providing Services to Which False Trade Mark or False Trade Description is Applied 104

Enhanced Penalty on Second or Subsequent Conviction 105

Penalty for Removing Piece Goods, etc., Contrary to Section 81 106

Penalty for Falsely Representing a Trade Mark as Registered 107

Penalty for Improperly Describing a Place of Business as Connected with the Trade Marks Office 108

Penalty for Falsification of Entries in the Register 109

No Offence in Certain Cases 110

Forfeiture of Goods 111

Exemption of Certain Persons Employed in Ordinary Course of Business 112

Procedure Where Invalidity of Registration is Pleaded by the Accused 113

Offences by Companies 114

Cognizance of Certain Offences and the Powers of Police Officer for Search and Seizure 115

Evidence of Origin of Goods Imported by Sea 116

Costs of Defence or Prosecution 117

Limitation of Prosecution 118

Information as to Commission of Offence 119

Punishment of Abetment in India of Acts Done Out of India 120

Instructions of Central Government as to Permissible Variation to be Observed by Criminal Courts 121

Chapter XIII: Miscellaneous

Protection of Action Taken in Good Faith 122

Certain Persons to Be Public Servants 123

Stay of Proceedings Where the Validity of Registration of the Trade Mark is Questioned, etc. 124

Application for Rectification of Register to Be Made to Appellate Board in Certain cases 125

Implied Warranty on Sale of Marked Goods 126

Powers of Registrar 127

Exercise of Discretionary Power by Registrar 128

Evidence Before Registrar 129

Death of Party to a Proceeding 130

Extension of Time 131

Abandonment 132

Preliminary Advice by the Registrar as to Distinctiveness 133

Suit for Infringement, etc. to Be Instituted Before District Court 134

Relief in Suits for Infringement or for Passing Off 135

Registered User to Be Impleaded in Certain Proceedings 136

Evidence of Entries in Register, etc. and Things Done by the Registrar 137

Registrar and Other Officers not Compellable to Produce Register, etc. 138

Power to Require Goods to Show Indication of Origin 139

Power to Require Information of Imported Goods Bearing False Trade Marks 140

Certificate of Validity 141

Groundless Threats of Legal Proceedings 142

Address for Service 143

Trade Usages, etc. to Be Taken Into Consideration 144

Agents 145

Marks Registered by an Agent or Representative Without Authority 146

Indexes 147

Documents Open to Public Inspection 148

Reports of Registrar to Be Placed Before Parliament 149

Fees and Surcharge 150

Savings in Respect of Certain Matters in Chapter XII 151

Declaration as to Ownership of Trade Mark not Registrable Under the Registration Act, 1908 152

Government to Be Bound 153

Special Provisions Relating to Applications for Registration from Citizens of Convention Countries 154

Provision as to Reciprocity 155

Power of Central Government to Remove Difficulties 156

Power to Make Rules 157

Amendments 158

Repeal and Savings 159

BE it enacted by Parliament in the Fiftieth Year of the Republic of India as follows:-

Chapter I
Preliminary

Short Title, Extent and Commencement

1.-(1) This Act may be called the Trade Marks Act, 1999

(2) It extends to the whole of India.

(3) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette,

appoint:

Provided that different dates may be appointed for different provisions of this Act, and any reference in any such provision to the commencement of this Act shall be construed as a reference to the coming into force of that provision.

Definitions and Interpretation

2.-(1) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,-

(a) "Appellate Board" means the Appellate Board, established under Section 83;

(b) "assignment" means an assignment in writing by act of the parties concerned;

(c) "associated trade marks" means trade marks deemed to be, or required to be, registered as associated trade marks under this Act;

(d) "Bench" means a Bench of the Appellate Board;

(e) "Certification trade mark" means a mark capable of distinguishing the goods or services in connection with which it is used in the course of trade which are certified by the proprietor of the mark in respect of origin, material, mode of manufacture of goods or performance of services, quality, accuracy or other characteristics from goods or services not so certified and registrable as such under Chapter IX in respect of those goods or services in the name, as proprietor of the certification trade mark, of that person;

(f) "Chairman" means the Chairman of the Appellate Board;

(g) "Collective mark" means a trade mark distinguishing the goods or services of members of an association of persons (not being a partnership within the meaning of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932) which is the proprietor of the mark from those of others;

(9 of 1932)

(h) "deceptively similar"-A mark shall be deemed to be deceptively similar to another mark if it so nearly resembles that other mark as to be likely to deceive or cause confusion;

(i) "false trade description" means-

(I) a trade description which is untrue or misleading in a material respect as regards the goods or services to which it is applied; or

(II) any alteration of a trade description as regards the goods or services to which it is applied, whether by way of addition, effacement or otherwise, where that alteration makes the description untrue or misleading in a material respect; or

(III) any trade description which denotes or implies that there are contained, as regards the goods to which it is applied, more yards or metres than there are contained therein standard yards or standard metres; or

(IV) any marks or arrangement or combination thereof when applied-

(a) to goods in such a manner as to be likely to lead persons to believe that the goods are the manufacture or merchandise of some person other than the person whose merchandise or manufacture they really are;

(b) in relation to services in such a manner as to be likely to lead persons to believe that the services are provided or rendered by some person other than the person, whose services they really are; or

(V) any false name or initials of a person applied to goods or services in such manner as if such name or initials were a trade description in any case where the name or initials-

(a) is or are not a trade mark or part of a trade mark; and

(b) is or are identical with or deceptively similar to the name or initials of a person carrying on business in connection with goods or services of the same description or both and who has not authorised the use of such name or initials; and

(c) is or are either the name or initials of a fictitious person or some person not bona fide carrying on business in connection with such goods or services,

and the fact that a trade description is a trade mark or part of a trade mark shall not prevent such trade description being a false trade description within the meaning of this Act;

(j) "goods": means anything which is the subject of trade or manufacture;

(k) "Judicial Member" means a Member of the Appellate Board appointed as such under this Act, and includes the Chairman and Vice Chairman;

(l) "limitation" (with its grammatical variations) means any limitation of the exclusive right to the use of a trade mark given by the registration of a person as proprietor thereof, including limitations of that right as to mode or area of use within India or outside India;

(m) "mark" includes a device, brand, heading, label, ticket, name, signature, word, letter, numeral, shape of goods, packaging or combination of colours or any combination thereof;

(n) "Member" means a Judicial Member or a Technical Member of the Appellate Board and includes the Chairman and the Vice Chairman;

(o) "name" includes any abbreviation of a name;

(p) "notify" means to notify in the Trade Mark Journal published by the Registrar;

(q) "package"; includes any case, box, container, covering, folder, receptacle, vessel, casket, bottle, wrapper, label, band, ticket, reel, frame, capsule, cap, lid, stopper and cork;

(r) "permitted use", in relation to a registered trade mark, means the use of trade mark-

(i) by a registered user of the trade mark in relation to goods or services-

(a) with which he is connected in the course of trade; and

(b) in respect of which the trade mark remains registered for the time being; and

(c) for which he is registered as registered user; and

(d) which complies with any conditions or limitations to which the registration of registered user is subject; or

(ii) by a person other than the registered proprietor and registered user in relation to goods or services-

(a) with which he is connected in the course of trade; and

(b) in respect of which the trade mark remains registered for the time being; and

(c) by consent of such registered proprietor in a written agreement; and

(d) which complies with any conditions or limitations to which such user is subject and to which the registration of the trade mark is subject;

(s) "prescribed" means prescribed by rules made under this Act;

(t) "register" means the Register of Trade Marks referred to in sub-section (1) of section 6;

(u) "registered" (with its grammatical variations) means registered under this Act;

(v) "registered proprietor", in relation to a trade mark, means the person for the time being entered in the register as proprietor of the trade mark;

(w) "registered trade mark" means a trade mark which is actually on the register and remaining in force;

(x) "registered user" means a person who is for the time being registered as such under section 49;

(y) "Registrar" means the Registrar of Trade Marks referred to in section 3;

(z) "service" means service of any description which is made available to potential users and includes the provision of services in connection with business of any industrial or commercial matters such as banking, communication, education, financing, insurance, chit funds, real estate, transport, storage, material treatment, processing, supply of electrical or other energy, boarding, lodging, entertainment, amusement, construction, repair, conveying of news or information and advertising;

(za) "trade description" means any description, statement or other indication, direct or indirect,-

(i) as to the number, quantity, measure, guage or weight of any goods; or

(ii) as to the standard of quality of any goods or services according to a classification commonly used or recognised in the trade; or

(iii) as to fitness for the purpose, strength, performance or behaviour of any goods, being "drug" as defined in the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940, or "food" as defined in the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954; or

(23 of 1940 & 37 of 1954)

(iv) as to the place or country in which or the time at which any goods or services were made, produced or provided, as the case may be; or

(v) as to the name and address or other indication of the identity of the manufacturer or of the person providing the services or of the person for whom the goods are manufactured or services are provided; or

(vi) as to the mode of manufacture or producing any goods or providing services; or

(vii) as to the material of which any goods are composed; or

(viii) as to any goods being the subject of an existing patent, privilege or copyright, and includes-

(a) any description as to the use of any mark which according to the custom of the trade is commonly taken to be an indication of any of the above matters;

(b) the description as to any imported goods contained in any bill of entry or shipping bill;

(c) any other description which is likely to be misunderstood or mistaken for all or any of the said matters;

(zb) "trade mark" means a mark capable of being represented graphically and which is capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one person from those of others and may include shape of goods, their packaging and combination of colours; and-

(i) in relation to Chapter XII (other than section 107), a registered trade mark or a mark used in relation to goods or services for the purpose of indicating or so as to indicate a connection in the course of trade between the goods or services, as the case may be, and some person having the right as proprietor to use the mark; and

(ii) in relation to other provisions of this Act, a mark used or proposed to be used in relation to goods or services for the purpose of indicating or so to indicate a connection in the course of trade between the goods or services, as the case may be, and some person having the right, either as proprietor or by way of permitted user, to use the mark whether with or without any indication of the identity of that person, and includes a certification trade mark or collective mark;

(zc) "transmission" means transmission by operation of law, devolution on the personal representative of a deceased person and any other mode of transfer, not being assignment;

(zd) "Technical Member" means a Member who is not a Judicial Member;

(ze) "tribunal" means the Registrar or, as the case may be, the Appellate Board, before which the proceeding concerned is pending;

(zf) "Vice-Chairman" means a Vice-Chairman of the Appellate Board;

(zg) "well-known trade mark", in relation to any goods or services, means a mark which has become so to the substantial segment of the public which uses such goods or receives such services that the use of such mark in relation to other goods or services would be likely to be taken as indicating a connection in the course of trade or rendering of services between those goods or services and a person using the mark in relation to the first-mentioned goods or services.

(2) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires, any reference-

(a) To "trade mark" shall include reference to "collective mark" or "certification trade mark";

(b) To the use of a mark shall be construed as a reference to the user of printed or other visual representation of the mark;

(c) To the use of a mark,-

(i) in relation to goods, shall be construed as a reference to the use of the mark upon, or in any physical or in any other relation whatsoever, to such goods;

(ii) in relation to services, shall be construed as a reference to the use of the mark as or as part of any statement about the availability, provision or performance of such services;

(d) to the Registrar shall be construed as including a reference to any officer when discharging the functions of the Registrar in pursuance of sub-section (2) of Section 3;

(e) to the Trade Marks Registry shall be construed as including a reference to any office of the Trade Marks Registry.

(3) For the purposes of this Act, goods or services are associated with each other if it is likely that those goods might be sold or otherwise traded in and those services might be provided by the same business and so with descriptions of goods and descriptions of services.

(4) For the purposes of this Act, "existing registered trade mark" means a trade mark registered under the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 immediately before the commencement of this Act.

(4 of 1958)

Chapter II
The Register and Conditions for Registration

Appointment of Registrar and Other Officers

3.-(1) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint a person to be known as the Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks, who shall be the Registrar of Trade Marks for the purposes of this Act.

(2) The Central Government may appoint such other officers with such designations as it thinks fit for the purpose of discharging, under the superintendence and direction of the Registrar, such functions of the Registrar under this Act as he may from time to time authorise them to discharge.

Power of Registrar to Withdraw or Transfer Cases, etc.

4. Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of sub-section (2) of section 3, the Registrar may, by order in writing and for reasons to be recorded therein, withdraw any matter pending before an officer appointed under the said sub-section (2) and deal with such matter himself either de novo or from the stage it was so withdrawn or transfer the same to another officer so appointed who may, subject to special directions in the order of transfer, proceed with the matter either de novo or from the stage it was so transferred.

Trade Marks Registry and Offices Thereof

5.-(1) For the purposes of this Act, there shall be a trade marks registry and the Trade Marks Registry established under the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 shall be the Trade Marks Registry under this Act.

(43 of 1958)

(2) The head office of the Trade Marks Registry shall be at such place as the Central Government may specify, and for the purpose of facilitating the registration of trade marks, there may be established at such places as the Central Government may think fit branch offices of the Trade Marks Registry.

(3) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, define the territorial limits within which an office of the Trade Marks Registry may exercise its functions.

(4) There shall be a seal of the Trade Marks Registry.

The Register of Trade Marks

6.-(1) For the purposes of this Act, a record called the Register of Trade Marks shall be kept at the Head Office of the Trade Marks Registry, wherein shall be entered all registered trade marks with the names, addresses and description of the proprietors, notifications of assignment and transmissions, the names, addresses and descriptions of registered users, conditions, limitations and such other matter relating to registered trade marks as may be prescribed.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), it shall be lawful for the Registrar to keep the records wholly or partly in computer floppies diskettes or in any other electronic form subject to such safeguards as may be prescribed.

(3) Where such register is maintained wholly or partly on computer under sub-section (2) any reference in this Act to entry in the Register shall be construed as the reference to any entry as maintained on computer or in any other electronic form.

(4) No notice of any trust, express or implied or constructive, shall be entered in the register and no such notice shall be receivable by the Registrar.

(5) The register shall be kept under the control and management of the Registrar.

(6) There shall be kept at each branch office of the Trade Marks Registry a copy of the register and such of the other documents mentioned in section 148 as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, direct.

(7) The Register of Trade Marks, both Part A and Part B, existing at the commencement of this Act, shall be incorporated in and form part of the register under this Act.

Classification of Goods and Services

7.-(1) The Registrar shall classify goods and services, as far as may be, in accordance with the International classification of goods and services for the purposes of registration of trade marks.

(2) Any question arising as to the class within which any goods or services falls shall be determined by the Registrar whose decision shall be final.

Publication of Alphabetical Index

8.-(1) The Registrar may publish in the prescribed manner an alphabetical index of classification of goods and services referred to in section 7.

(2) Where any goods or services are not specified in the alphabetical index of goods and services published under sub-section (1), the classification of goods or services shall be determined by the Registrar in accordance with sub-section (2) of section 7.

Absolute Grounds for Refusal of Registration

9.-(1) The trade marks-

(a) which are devoid of any distinctive character, that is to say, not capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one person from those of another person;

(b) which consist exclusively of marks or indications which may serve in trade to designate the kind, quality, quantity, intended purpose, values, geographical origin or the time of production of the goods or rendering of the service or other characteristics of the goods or service;

(c) which consist exclusively of marks or indications which have become customary in the current language or in the bona fide and established practices of the trade,

shall not be registered:

Provided that a trade mark shall not be refused registration if before the date of application for registration it has acquired a distinctive character as a result of the use made of it or is a well known trade mark.

(2) A mark shall not be registered as a trade mark if-

(a) it is of such nature as to deceive the public or cause confusion;

(b) it contains or comprises of any matter likely to hurt the religious susceptibilities of any class or section of the citizens of India;

(c) it comprises or contains scandalous or obscene matter;

(d) its use is prohibited under the Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950.

(12 of 1950)

(3) A mark shall not be registered as a trade mark if it consists exclusively of-

(a) the shape of goods which results from the nature of the goods themselves; or

(b) the shape of goods which is necessary to obtain a technical result; or

(c) the shape which gives substantial value to the goods.

Explanation-For the purposes of this section, the nature of goods or services in relation to which the trade mark is used or proposed to be used shall not be a ground for refusal of registration.

Limitation as to Colour

10.-(1) A trade mark may be limited wholly or in part to any combination of colours and any such limitation shall be taken into consideration by the tribunal having to decide on the distinctive character of the trade mark.

(2) So far as a trade mark is registered without limitation of colour, it shall be deemed to be registered for all colours.

Relative Grounds for Refusal of Registration

11.-(1) Save as provided in section 12, a trade mark shall not be registered if, because of-

(a) its identity with an earlier trade mark and similarity of goods or services covered by the trade mark; or

(b) its similarity to an earlier trade mark and the identity or similarity of the goods or services covered by the trade mark,

there exists a likelihood of confusion on the part of the public, which includes the likelihood of association with the earlier trade mark.

(2) A trade mark which-

(a) is identical with or similar to an earlier trade mark; and

(b) is to be registered for goods or services which are not similar to those for which the earlier trade mark is registered in the name of a different proprietor,

shall not be registered if or to the extent the earlier trade mark is a well-known trade mark in India and the use of the later mark without due cause would take unfair advantage of or be detrimental to the distinctive character or repute of the earlier trade mark.

(3) A trade mark shall not be registered if, or to the extent that, its use in India is liable to be prevented-

(a) by virtue of any law in particular the law of passing off protecting an unregistered trade mark used in the course of trade; or

(b) by virtue of law of copyright.

(4) Nothing in this section shall prevent the registration of a trade mark where the proprietor of the earlier trade mark or other earlier right consents to the registration, and in such case the Registrar may register the mark under special circumstances under section 12.

Explanation-For the purposes of this section, earlier trade mark means-

(a) a registered trade mark or convention application referred to in section 154 which has a date of application earlier than that of the trade mark in question, taking account, where appropriate, of the priorities claimed in respect of the trade marks;

(b) a trade mark which, on the date of the application for registration of the trade mark in question, or where appropriate, of the priority claimed in respect of the application, was entitled to protection as a well-known trade mark.

(5) A trade mark shall not be refused registration on the grounds specified in sub-sections (2) and (3), unless objection on any one or more of those grounds is raised in opposition proceedings by the proprietor of the earlier trade mark.

(6) The Registrar shall, while determining whether a trade mark is a well-known trade mark, take into account any fact which he considers relevant for determining a trade mark as a well-known trade mark including-

(i) the knowledge or recognition of that trade mark in the relevant section of the public including knowledge in India obtained as a result of promotion of the trade mark;

(ii) the duration, extent and geographical area of any use of that trade mark;

(iii) the duration, extent and geographical area of any promotion of the trade mark, including advertising or publicity and presentation, at fairs or exhibition of the goods or services to which the trade mark applies;

(vi) the duration and geographical area of any registration of or any application for registration of that trade mark under this Act to the extent they reflect the use or recognition of the trade mark;

(v) the record of successful enforcement of the rights in that trade mark, in particular the extent to which the trade mark has been recognised as a well-known trade mark by any court or Registrar under that record.

(7) The Registrar shall, while determining as to whether a trade mark is known or recognised in a relevant section of the public for the purposes of sub-section (6), take into account-

(i) the number of actual or potential consumers of the goods or services;

(ii) the number of persons involved in the channels of distribution of the goods or services;

(iii) the business circles dealing with the goods or services,

to which that trade mark applies.

(8) Where a trade mark has been determined to be well-known in at least one relevant section of the public in India by any court or Registrar, the Registrar shall consider that trade mark as a well-known trade mark for registration under this Act.

(9) The Registrar shall not require as a condition, for determining whether a trade mark is a well known trade mark, any of the following, namely:-

(i) that the trade mark has been used in India;

(ii) that the trade mark has been registered;

(iii) that the application for registration of the trade mark has been filed in India;

(iv) that the trade mark-

(a) is well-known in; or

(b) has been registered in; or

(c) in respect of which an application for registration has been filed in, any jurisdiction other than India, or

(v) that the trade mark is well-known to the public at large in India.

(10) While considering an application for registration of a trade mark and opposition filed in respect thereof, the Registrar shall-

(i) protect a well known trade mark against the identical or similar trade marks;

(ii) take into consideration the bad faith involved either of the applicant or the opponent affecting the right relating to the trade mark.

(11) Where a trade mark has been registered in good faith disclosing the material informations to the Registrar or where right to a trade mark has been acquired through use in good faith before the commencement of this Act, then, nothing in this Act shall prejudice the validity of the registration of that trade mark or right to use that trade mark on the ground that such trade mark is identical with or similar to a well known trade mark.

(ii) Registration in the Case of Honest Concurrent Use etc.

12. In the case of honest concurrent use or of other special circumstances which in the opinion of the Registrar, make it proper so to do, he may permit the registration by more than one proprietor of the trade marks which are identical or similar (whether any such trade mark is already registered or not) in respect of the same or similar goods or services, subject to such conditions and limitations, if any, as the Registrar may think fit to impose.

Prohibition of Registration of Names of Chemical Elements or
International Non-Proprietary Names

13. No word-

(a) which is the commonly used and accepted name of any single chemical element or any single chemical compound (as distinguished from a mixture) in respect of a chemical substance or preparation, or

(b) which is declared by the World Health Organisation and notified in the prescribed manner by the Registrar from time to time, as an international non-proprietary name or which is deceptively similar to such name,

shall be registered as a trade mark and any such registration shall be deemed for the purpose of section 57 to be an entry made in the register without sufficient cause or an entry wrongly remaining on the register, as the circumstances may require.

Use of Names and Representations of Living Persons or
Persons Recently Dead

14. Where an application is made for the registration of a trade mark which falsely suggests a connection with any living person, or a person whose death took place within twenty years prior to the date of application for registration of the trade mark, the Registrar may, before he proceeds with the application, require the applicant to furnish him with the consent in writing of such living person or, as the case may be, of the legal representative of the deceased person to the connection appearing on the trade mark, and may refuse to proceed with the application unless the applicant furnishes the Registrar with such consent.

Registration of Parts of Trade Marks and
of Trade Marks as a Series

15.-(1) Where the proprietor of a trade mark claims to be entitled to the exclusive use of any part thereof separately, he may apply to register the whole and the part as separate trade marks.

(2) Each such separate trade mark shall satisfy all the conditions applying to and have all the incidents of, an independent trade mark.

(3) Where a person claiming to be the proprietor of several trade marks in respect of the same or similar goods or services or description of goods or description of services, which, while resembling each other in the material particulars thereof, yet differ in respect of-

(a) statement of the goods or services in relation to which they are respectively used or proposed to be used; or

(b) statement of number, price, quality or names of places; or

(c) other matter of a non-distinctive character which does not substantially affect the identity of the trade mark; or

(d) colour;

seeks to register those trade marks, they may be registered as a series in one registration.

Registration of Trade Marks as Associated Trade Marks

16.-(1) Where a trade mark which is registered, or is the subject of an application for registration, in respect of any goods or services is identical with another trade mark which is registered, or is the subject of an application for registration, in the name of the same proprietor in respect of the same goods or description of goods or same services or description of services or so nearly resembles it as to be likely to deceive or cause confusion if used by a person other than the proprietor, the Registrar may, at any time, require that the trade marks shall be entered on the register as associated trade marks.

(2) Where there is an identity or near resemblance of marks that are registered, or are the subject of applications for registration in the name of the same proprietor, in respect of goods and in respect of services which are associated with those goods or goods of that description and with those services or services of that description, sub-section (1) shall apply as it applies as where there is an identity or near resemblance of marks that are registered, or are the subject of applications for registration, in the name of the same proprietor in respect of the same goods or description of goods or same services or description of services.

(3) Where a trade mark and any part thereof are, in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (1) of section15, registered as separate trade marks in the name of the same proprietor, they shall be deemed to be, and shall be registered as, associated trade marks.

(4) All trade marks registered in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (3) of section 15 as a series in one registration shall be deemed to be, and shall be registered as, associated trade marks.

(5) On application made in the prescribed manner by the registered proprietor of two or more trade marks registered as associated trade marks, the Registrar may dissolve the association as respects any of them if he is satisfied that there would be no likelihood of deception or confusion being caused if that trade mark were used by any other person in relation to any of the goods or services or both in respect of which it is registered, and may amend the register accordingly.

Effect of Registration of Parts of a Mark

17.-(1) When a trade mark consists of several matters, its registration shall confer on the proprietor exclusive right to the use of the trade mark taken as a whole.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), when a trade mark-

(a) contains any part-

(i) which is not the subject of a separate application by the proprietor for registration as a trade mark; or

(ii) which is not separately registered by the proprietor as a trade mark; or

(b) contains any matter which is common to the trade or is otherwise of a non-distinctive character,

the registration thereof shall not confer any exclusive right in the matter forming only a part of the whole of the trade mark so registered.

Chapter III
Procedure for and Duration of Registration

Application for Registration

18.-(1) Any person claiming to be the proprietor of a trade mark used or proposed to be used by him, who is desirous of registering it, shall apply in writing to the Registrar in the prescribed manner for the registration of his trade mark.

(2) A single application may be made for registration of a trade mark for different classes of goods and services and fee payable therefor shall be in respect of each such class of goods or services.

(3) Every application under sub-section (1) shall be filed in the office of the Trade Marks Registry within whose territorial limits the principal place of business in India of the applicant or in the case of joint applicants the principal place of business in India of the applicant whose name is first mentioned in the application as having a place of business in India, is situated:

Provided that where the applicant or any of the joint applicants does not carry on business in India, the application shall be filed in the Office of the Trade Marks Registry within whose territorial limits the place mentioned in the address for service in India as disclosed in the application, is situated.

(4) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the Registrar may refuse the application or may accept it absolutely or subject to such amendments, modifications, conditions or limitations, if any, as he may think fit.

(5) In the case of a refusal or conditional acceptance of an application, the Registrar shall record in writing the grounds for such refusal or conditional acceptance and the materials used by him in arriving at his decision.

Withdrawal of Acceptance

19. Where, after the acceptance of an application for registration of a trade mark but before its registration, the Registrar is satisfied-

(a) that the application has been accepted in error; or

(b) that in the circumstances of the case the trade mark should not be registered or should be registered subject to conditions or limitations or to conditions additional to or different from the conditions or limitations subject to which the application has been accepted,

the Registrar may, after hearing the applicant, if he so desires, withdraw the acceptance and proceed as if the application had not been accepted.

Advertisement of Application

20.-(1) When an application for registration of a trade mark has been accepted, whether absolutely or subject to conditions or limitations, the Registrar shall, as soon as may be after acceptance, cause the application as accepted together with the conditions or limitations, if any, subject to which it has been accepted, to be advertised in the prescribed manner.

Provided that the Registrar may cause the application to be advertised before acceptance if it relates to a trade mark to which sub-section (1) of section 9 and sub-sections (1) and (2) of section 11 apply, or in any other case where it appears to him that it is expedient by reason of any exceptional circumstances so to do.

(2) Where-

(a) an application has been advertised before acceptance under sub-section (1); or

(b) after advertisement of an application,-

(i) an error in the application has been corrected; or

(ii) the application has been permitted to be amended under section 22,

the Registrar may in his discretion cause the application to be advertised again or in any case falling under clause (b) may, instead of causing the application to be advertised again, notify in the prescribed manner the correction or amendment made in the application.

Opposition to Registration

21.-(1) Any person may, within three months from the date of the advertisement or re-advertisement of an application for registration or within such further period, not exceeding one month in the aggregate, as the Registrar, on application made to him in the prescribed manner and on payment of the prescribed fee, allows, give notice in writing in the prescribed manner to the Registrar, of opposition to the registration.

(2) The Registrar shall serve a copy of the notice on the applicant for registration and, within two months from the receipt by the applicant of such copy of the notice of opposition, the applicant shall send to the Registrar in the prescribed manner a counter statement of the grounds on which he relies for his application, and if he does not do so he shall be deemed to have abandoned his application.

(3) If the applicant sends such counter statement, the Registrar shall serve a copy thereof on the person giving notice of opposition.

(4) Any evidence upon which the opponent and the applicant may rely shall be submitted in the prescribed manner and within the prescribed time to the Registrar, and the Registrar shall give an opportunity to them to be heard, if they so desire.

(5) The Registrar shall, after hearing the parties, if so required, and considering the evidence, decide whether and subject to what conditions or limitations, if any, the registration is to be permitted, and may take into account a ground of objection whether relied upon by the opponent or not.

(6) Where a person giving notice of opposition or an applicant sending a counter-statement after receipt of a copy of such notice neither resides nor carries on business in India, the Registrar may require him to give security for the costs of proceedings before him, and in default of such security being duly given, may treat the opposition or application, as the case may be, as abandoned.

(7) The Registrar may, on request, permit correction of any error in, or any amendment of, a notice of opposition or a counter-statement on such terms as he thinks just.

Correction and Amendment

22. The Registrar may, on such terms as he thinks just, at any time, whether before or after acceptance of an application for registration under section 18, permit the correction of any error in or in connection with the application or permit an amendment of the application:

Provided that if an amendment is made to a single application referred to in sub-section (2) of section 18 involving division of such application into two or more applications, the date of making of the initial application shall be deemed to be the date of making of the divided application so divided.

Registration

23.-(1) Subject to the provisions of section 19, when an application for registration of a trade mark has been accepted and either-

(a) the application has not been opposed and the time for notice of opposition has expired; or

(b) the application has been opposed and the opposition has been decided in favour of the applicant,

the Registrar shall, unless the Central Government otherwise directs, register the said trade mark and the trade mark when registered shall be registered as of the date of the making of the said application and that date shall, subject to the provisions of section 154, be deemed to be the date of registration.

(2) On the registration of a trade mark, the Registrar shall issue to the applicant a certificate in the prescribed form of the registration thereof, sealed with the seal of the Trade Marks Registry.

(3) Where registration of a trade mark is not completed within twelve months from the date of the application by reason of default on the part of the applicant, the Registrar may, after giving notice to the applicant in the prescribed manner, treat the application as abandoned unless it is completed within the time specified in that behalf in the notice.

(4) The Registrar may amend the register or a certificate of registration for the purpose of correcting a clerical error or an obvious mistake.

Jointly Owned Trade Marks

24.-(1) Save as provided in sub-section (2), nothing in this Act shall authorise the registration of two or more persons who use a trade mark independently, or propose so to use it, as joint proprietors thereof.

(2) Where the relations between two or more persons interested in a trade mark are such that no one of them is entitled as between himself and the other or others of them to use it except-

(a) on behalf of both or all of them; or

(b) in relation to an article or service with which both or all of them are connected in the course of trade,

those persons may be registered as joint proprietors of the trade mark, and this Act shall have effect in relation to any rights to the use of the trade mark vested in those persons as if those rights had been vested in a single person.

Duration, Renewal, Removal and Restoration of Registration

25.-(1) The registration of a trade mark, after the commencement of this Act, shall be for a period of ten years, but may be renewed from time to time in accordance with the provisions of this section.

(2) The Registrar shall, on application made by the registered proprietor of a trade mark in the prescribed manner and within the prescribed period and subject to payment of the prescribed fee, renew the registration of the trade mark for a period of ten years from the date of expiration of the original registration or of the last renewal of registration, as the case may be (which date is in this section referred to as the expiration of the last registration).

(3) At the prescribed time before the expiration of the last registration of a trade mark the Registrar shall send notice in the prescribed manner to the registered proprietor of the date of expiration and the conditions as to payment of fees and otherwise upon which a renewal of registration may be obtained, and, if at the expiration of the time prescribed in that behalf those conditions have not been duly complied with the Registrar may remove the trade mark from the register:

Provided that the Registrar shall not remove the trade mark from the register if an application is made in the prescribed form and the prescribed fee and surcharge is paid within six months from the expiration of the last registration of the trade mark and shall renew the registration of the trade mark for a period of ten years under sub-section (2).

(4) Where a trade mark has been removed from the register for non-payment of the prescribed fee, the Registrar shall, after six months and within one year from the expiration of the last registration of the trade mark, on receipt of an application in the prescribed form and on payment of the prescribed fee, if satisfied that it is just so to do, restore the trade mark to the register and renew the registration of the trade mark either generally or subject to such conditions or limitations as he thinks fit to impose, for a period of ten years from the expiration of the last registration.

Effect of Removal from Register for Failure to Pay Fee for Renewal

26. Where a trade mark has been removed from the register for failure to pay the fee for renewal, it shall nevertheless, for the purpose of any application for the registration of another trade mark during one year, next after the date of the removal, be deemed to be a trade mark already on the register, unless the tribunal is satisfied either-

(a) that there has been no bona fide trade use of the trade mark which has been removed during the two years immediately preceding its removal; or

(b) that no deception or confusion would be likely to arise from the use of the trade mark which is the subject of the application for registration by reason of any previous use of the trade mark which has been removed.

Chapter IV
Effect of Registration

No Action for Infringement of Unregistered Trade Mark

27.-(1) No person shall be entitled to institute any proceeding to prevent, or to recover damages for, the infringement of an unregistered trade mark.

(2) Nothing in this Act shall be deemed to affect rights of action against any person for passing off goods or services as the goods of another person or as services provided by another person or the remedies in respect thereof.

Rights Conferred by Registration

28.-(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Act, the registration of a trade mark shall, if valid, give to the registered proprietor of the trade mark the exclusive right to the use of the trade mark in relation to the goods or services in respect of which the trade mark is registered and to obtain relief in respect of infringement of the trade mark in the manner provided by this Act.

(2) The exclusive right to the use of a trade mark given under sub-section (1) shall be subject to any conditions and limitations to which the registration is subject.

(3) Where two or more persons are registered proprietors of trade marks, which are identical with or nearly resemble each other, the exclusive right to the use of any of those trade marks shall not (except so far as their respective rights are subject to any conditions or limitations entered on the register) be deemed to have been acquired by any one of those persons as against any other of those persons merely by registration of the trade marks but each of those persons has otherwise the same rights as against other persons (not being registered users using by way of permitted use) as he would have if he were the sole registered proprietor.

Infringement of Registered Trade Marks

29.-(1) A registered trade mark is infringed by a person who, not being a registered proprietor or a person using by way of permitted use, uses in the course of trade, a mark which is identical with, or deceptively similar to, the trade mark in relation to goods or services in respect of which the trade mark is registered and in such manner as to render the use of the mark likely to be taken as being used as a trade mark.

(2) A registered trade mark is infringed by a person who, not being a registered proprietor or a person using by way of permitted use, uses in the course of trade, a mark which because of-

(a) its identity with the registered trade mark and the similarity of the goods or services covered by such registered trade mark; or

(b) its similarity to the registered trade mark and the identity or similarity of the goods or services covered by such registered trade mark; or

(c) its identity with the registered trade mark and the identity of the goods of services covered by such registered trade mark,

is likely to cause confusion on the part of the public, or which is likely to have an association with the registered trade mark.

(3) In any case falling under clause (c) of sub-section (2), the court shall presume that it is likely to cause confusion on the part of the public.

(4) A registered trade mark is infringed by a person who, not being a registered proprietor or a person using by way of permitted use, uses in the course of trade, a mark which-

(a) is identical with or similar to the registered trade mark; and

(b) is used in relation to goods or services which are not similar to those for which the trade mark is registered; and

(c) the registered trade mark has a reputation in India and the use of the mark without due cause takes unfair advantage of or is detrimental to, the distinctive character or repute of the registered trade mark.

(5) A registered trade mark is infringed by a person if he uses such registered trade mark, as his trade name or part of his trade name, or name of his business concern or part of the name, of his business concern dealing in goods or services in respect of which the trade mark registered.

(6) For the purposes of this section, a person uses a registered mark, if, in particular, he-

(a) affixes it to goods or the packaging thereof;

(b) offers or exposes goods for sale, puts them on the market, or stocks them for those purposes under the registered trade mark, or offers or supplies services under the registered trade mark;

(c) imports or exports goods under the mark; or

(d) uses the registered trade mark on business papers or in advertising.

(7) A registered trade mark is infringed by a person who applies such registered trade mark to a material intended to be used for labelling or packaging goods, as a business paper, or for advertising goods or services, provided such person, when he applied the mark, knew or had reason to believe that the application of the mark was not duly authorised by the proprietor or a licensee.

(8) A registered trade mark is infringed by any advertising of that trade mark if such advertising-

(a) Takes unfair advantage of and is contrary to honest practices in industrial or commercial matters; or

(b) is detrimental to its distinctive character; or

(c) is against the reputation of the trade mark.

(9) Where the distinctive elements of a registered trade mark consist of or include words, the trade mark may be infringed by the spoken use of those words as well as by their visual representation and reference in this section to the use of a mark shall be construed accordingly.

Limits on Effect of Registered Trade Mark

30.-(1) Nothing in section 29 shall be construed as preventing the use of a registered trade mark by any person for the purposes of identifying goods or services as those of the proprietor provided the use-

(a) is in accordance with honest practices in industrial or commercial matters, and

(b) is not such as to take unfair advantage of or be detrimental to the distinctive character or repute of the trade mark.

(2) A registered trade mark is not infringed where-

(a) the use in relation to goods or services indicates the kind, quality, quantity, intended purpose, value, geographical origin, the time of production of goods or of rendering of services or other characteristics of goods or services;

(b) a trade mark is registered subject to any conditions or limitations, the use of the trade mark in any manner in relation to goods to be sold or otherwise traded in, in any place, or in relation to goods to be exported to any market or in relation to services for use or available or acceptance in any place or country outside India or in any other circumstances, to which, having regard to those conditions or limitations, the registration does not extend;

(c) the use by a person of a trade mark-

(i) in relation to goods connected in the course of trade with the proprietor or a registered user of the trade mark if, as to those goods or a bulk or which they form part, the registered proprietor or the registered user conforming to the permitted use has applied the trade mark and has not subsequently removed or obliterated it, or has at any time expressly or impliedly consented to the use of the trade mark; or

(ii) in relation to services to which the proprietor of such mark or of a registered user conforming to the permitted use has applied the mark, where the purpose and effect of the use of the mark is to indicate, in accordance with the fact, that those services have been performed by the proprietor or a registered user of the mark;

(d) the use of a trade mark by a person in relation to goods adapted to form part of, or to be accessory to, other goods or services in relation to which the trade mark has been used without infringement of the right given by registration under this Act or might for the time being be so used, if the use of the trade mark is reasonably necessary in order to indicate that the goods or services are so adapted, and neither the purpose nor the effect of the use of the trade mark is to indicate, otherwise than in accordance with the fact, a connection in the course of trade between any person and the goods or services, as the case may be;

(e) the use of a registered trade mark, being one of two or more trade marks registered under this Act which are identical or nearly resemble each other, in exercise of the right to the use of that trade mark given by registration under this Act.

(3) Where the goods bearing a registered trade mark are lawfully acquired by a person, the sale of the goods in the market or otherwise dealing in those goods by that person or by a person claiming under or through him is not infringement of a trade by reason only of-

(a) the registered trade mark having been assigned by the registered proprietor to some other person, after the acquisition of those goods; or

(b) the goods having been put on the market under the registered trade mark by the proprietor or with his consent.

(4) Sub-section (3) shall not apply where there exists legitimate reasons for the proprietor to oppose further dealings in the goods in particular, where the condition of the goods, has been changed or impaired after they have been put on the market.

Registration to Be Prima Facie Evidence of Validity

31.-(1) In all legal proceedings relating to a trade mark registered under this Act (including applications under section 57), the original registration of the trade mark and of all subsequent assignments and transmissions of the trade mark shall be prima facie evidence of the validity thereof;

(2) In all legal proceedings as aforesaid a registered trade mark shall not be held to be invalid on the ground that it was not a registrable trade mark under section 9 except upon evidence of distinctiveness and that such evidence was not submitted to the Registrar before registration, if it is proved that the trade mark had been so used by the registered proprietor or his predecessor in title as to have become distinctive at the date of registration.

Protection of Registration on Ground of
Distinctiveness in Certain Cases

32. Where a trade mark is registered in breach of sub-section (1) of section 9, it shall not be declared invalid if, in consequence of the use which has been made of it, it has after registration and before commencement of any legal proceedings challenging the validity of such registration, acquired a distinctive character in relation to the goods or services for which it is registered.

Effect of Acquiescence

33.-(1) Where the proprietor of an earlier trade mark has acquiesced for a continuous period of five years in the use of a registered trade mark , being aware of that use, he shall no longer be entitled on the basis of that earlier trade mark-

(a) to apply for a declaration that the registration of the later trade mark is invalid, or

(b) to oppose the use of the later trade mark in relation to the goods or services in relation to which it has been so used,

unless the registration of the later trade mark was not applied in good faith.

(2) Where sub-section (1) applies, the proprietor of the later trade mark is not entitled to oppose the use of the earlier trade mark, or as the case may be, the exploitation of the earlier right, notwithstanding that the earlier trade mark may no longer be invoked against his later trade mark.

Saving for Vested Rights

34. Nothing in this Act shall entitle the proprietor or a registered user of registered trade mark to interfere with or restrain the use by any person of a trade mark identical with or nearly resembling it in relation to goods or services in relation to which that person or a predecessor in title of his has continuously used that trade mark from a date prior-

(a) to the use of the first mentioned trade mark in relation to those goods or services be the proprietor or a predecessor in title of his; or

(b) to the date of registration of the first mentioned trade mark in respect of those goods or services in the name of the proprietor or a predecessor in title of his;

whichever is the earlier, and the Registrar shall not refuse (on such use being proved) to register the second mentioned trade mark by reason only of the registration of the first mentioned trade mark.

Saving for Use of Name, Address or Description of Goods or Services

35. Nothing in this Act shall entitle the proprietor or a registered user of a registered trade mark to interfere with any bona fide use by a person of his own name or that of his place of business, or of the name, or of the name of the place of business, of any of his predecessors in business, or the use by any person of any bona fide description of the character or quality of his goods or services.

Saving for Words Used as Name or Description of
an Article or Substance or Service

36.-(1) The registration of a trade mark shall not be deemed to have become invalid by reason only of any use after the date of the registration of any word or words which the trade mark contains or of which it consists as the name or description of an article or substance or service:

Provided that, if it is proved either-

(a) that there is a well known and established use of the said word as the name or description of the article or substance or service by a person or persons carrying on trade therein, not being use in relation to goods or services connected in the course of trade with the proprietor or a registered user of the trade mark or (in the case of a certification trade mark) in relation to goods or services certified by the proprietor; or

(b) that the article or substance was formerly manufactured under a patent that a period of two years or more after the cesser of the patent has elapsed and that the said word is the only practicable name or description of the article or substance.

the provisions of sub-section (2) shall apply.

(2) Where the facts mentioned in clause (a) or clause (b) of the proviso to sub-section (1) are proved with respect to any words, then,-

(a) for the purposes of any proceedings under section 57 if the trade mark consists solely of such words, the registration of the trade mark, so far as regards registration in respect of the article or substance in question or of any goods of the same description, or of the services or of any services of the same description, as the case requires, shall be deemed to be an entry wrongly remaining on the register;

(b) for the purposes of any other legal proceedings relating to the trade mark,-

(i) if the trade mark consists solely of such words, all rights of the proprietor under this Act or any other law to the use of the trade mark; or

(ii) if the trade mark contains such words and other matter, all such right of the proprietor to the use of such words,

in relation to the article or substance or to any goods of the same description, or to the service or to any services of the same description, as the case requires, shall be deemed to have ceased on the date on which the use mentioned in clause (a) of the proviso to sub-section (1) first became well known and established or at the expiration of the period of two years mentioned in clause (b) of the said proviso.

Chapter V
Assignment and Transmission

Power of Registered Proprietor to Assign and Give Receipts

37. The person for the time being entered in the register as proprietor of a trade mark shall, subject to the provisions of this Act and to any rights appearing from the register to be vested in any other person, have power to assign the trade mark, and to give effectual receipts for any consideration for such assignment.

Assignability and Transmissibility of Registered Trade Marks

38. Notwithstanding anything in any other law to the contrary, a registered trade mark shall, subject to the provisions of this Chapter, be assignable and transmissible, whether with or without the goodwill of the business concerned and in respect either of all the goods or services in respect of which the trade mark is registered or of some only of those goods or services.

Assignability and Transmissibility of Unregistered Trade Marks

39. An unregistered trade mark may be assigned or transmitted with or without the goodwill of the business concerned.

Restriction on Assignment or Transmission Where Multiple
Exclusive Rights Would Be Created

40.-(1) Notwithstanding anything in section 38 and 39, a trade mark shall not be assignable or transmissible in a case in which as a result of the assignment or transmission there would in the circumstances subsist, whether under this Act or any other law, exclusive rights in more than one of the persons concerned to the use, in relation to-

(a) same goods or services;

(b) same description of goods or services;

(c) goods or services or description of goods or services which are associated with each other,

of trade marks nearly resembling each other or of identical trade mark, if having regard to the similarity of the goods and services and to the similarity of the trade marks, the use of the trade marks in exercise of those rights would be likely to deceive or cause confusion:

Provided that an assignment or transmission shall not be deemed to be invalid under this sub-section if the exclusive rights subsisting as a result thereof in the persons concerned respectively are, having regard to limitations imposed thereon, such as not to be exercisable by two or more of those persons in relation to goods to be sold, or otherwise traded in, within India otherwise than for export therefrom, or in relation to goods to be exported to the same market outside India or in relation to services for use at any place in India or any place outside India in relation to services available for acceptance in India.

(2) The proprietor of a registered trade mark who proposes to assign it may submit to the Registrar in the prescribed manner a statement of case setting out the circumstances and the Registrar may issue to him a certificate stating whether, having regard to the similarity of the goods or services and of the trade marks referred to in the case, the proposed assignment would or would not be invalid under sub-section (1), and a certificate so issued shall, subject to appeal and unless it is shown that the certificate was obtained by fraud or misrepresentation, be conclusive as to the validity or invalidity under sub-section (1) of the assignment in so far as such validity or invalidity depends upon the facts set out in the case, but, as regards a certificate in favour of validity, only if application for the registration under section 45 of the title of the person becoming entitled is made within six months from the date on which the certificate is issued.

Restriction on Assignment or Transmission When Exclusive Rights
Would Be Created in Different Parts of India

41. Notwithstanding anything in sections 38 and 39, a trade mark shall not be assignable or transmissible in a case in which as a result of the assignment or transmission there would in the circumstances subsist, whether under this Act or any other law-

(a) an exclusive right in one of the persons concerned, to the use of the trade mark limited to use in relation to goods to be sold or otherwise traded in, in any place in India, or in relation to services for use, or services available for acceptance in any place in India; and

(b) an exclusive right in another of these persons concerned, to the use of a trade mark nearly resembling the first mentioned trade mark or of an identical trade mark in relation to-

(i) the same goods or services; or

(ii) the same description of goods or services; or

(iii) services which are associated with those goods or goods of that description or goods which are associated with those services or services of that description, limited to use in relation to goods to be sold or otherwise traded in, or services for use, or available for acceptance, in any other place in India:

Provided that in any such case, on application in the prescribed manner by the proprietor of a trade mark who proposes to assign it, or by a person who claims that a registered trade mark has been transmitted to him or to a predecessor in title of his since the commencement of this Act, the Registrar, if he is satisfied that in all the circumstances the use of the trade mark in exercise of the said rights would not be contrary to the public interest may approve the assignment or transmission, and an assignment or transmission so approved shall not, unless it is shown that the approval was obtained by fraud or misrepresentation, be deemed to be invalid under this section or section 40 if application for the registration under section 45 of the title of the person becoming entitled is made within six months from the date on which the approval is given or, in the case of a transmission, was made before that date.

Conditions for Assignment Otherwise than in Connection
with the Goodwill of a Business

42. Where an assignment of a trade mark, whether registered or unregistered is made otherwise than in connection with the goodwill of the business in which the mark has been or is used, the assignment shall not take effect unless the assignee, not later than the expiration of six months from the date on which the assignment is made or within such extended period, if any, not exceeding three months in the aggregate, as the Registrar may allow, applies to the Registrar for directions with respect to the advertisement of the assignment, and advertises it in such form and manner and within such period as the Registrar may direct.

Explanation-For the purposes of this Section, an assignment of a trade mark of the following description shall not be deemed to be an assignment made otherwise than in connection with the goodwill of the business in which the mark is used, namely:-

(a) an assignment of a trade mark in respect only of some of the goods or services for which the trade mark is registered accompanied by the transfer of the goodwill of the business concerned in those goods or services only; or

(b) an assignment of a trade mark which is used in relation to goods exported from India or in relation to services for use outside India if the assignment is accompanied by the transfer of the goodwill of the export business only.

Assignability and Transmissibility of Certification Trade Marks

43. A certification trade mark shall not be assignable or transmissible otherwise than with the consent of the Registrar, for which the application shall be made in writing in the prescribed manner.

Assignability and Transmissibility or Associated Trade Marks

44. Associated trade marks shall be assignable and transmissible only as a whole and not separately, but, subject to the provisions of this Act, they shall, for all other purposes, be deemed to have been registered as separate trade marks.

Registration of Assignments and Transmissions

45.-(1) Where a person becomes entitled by assignment or transmission to a registered trade mark, he shall apply in the prescribed manner to the Registrar to register his title, and the Registrar shall, on receipt of the application and on proof of title to his satisfaction, register him as the proprietor of the trade mark in respect of the goods or services in respect of which the assignment or transmission has effect, and shall cause particulars of the assignment or transmission to be entered on the register.

Provided that where the validity of an assignment or transmission is in dispute between the parties, the Registrar may refuse to register the assignment or transmission until the rights of the parties have been determined by a competent court.

(2) Except for the purpose of an application before the Registrar under sub-section (1) or an appeal from an order thereon, or an application under section 57 or an appeal from an order thereon, a document or instrument in respect of which no entry has been made in the register in accordance with sub-section (1), shall not be admitted in evidence by the Registrar or the Appellate Board or any court in proof of title to the trade mark by assignment or transmission unless the Registrar or the Appellate Board or the court, as the case may be, otherwise directs.

Chapter VI
Use of Trade Marks and Registered Users

Proposed use of Trade Mark by Company to Be Formed etc.

46.-(1) No application for the registration of a trade mark in respect of any goods or services shall be refused nor shall permission for such registration be withheld, on the ground only that it appears that the applicant does not use or propose to use the trade mark if the Registrar is satisfied that-

(a) a company is about to be formed and registered under the Companies Act, 1956 and that the applicant intends to assign the trade mark to that company with a view to the use thereof in relation to those goods or services by the company, or

(1 of 1956)

(b) the proprietor intends it to be used by a person, as a registered user after the registration of the trade mark.

(2) The provisions of section 47 shall have effect, in relation to a trade mark registered under the powers conferred by this sub-section, as if for the reference, in clause (a) of sub-section (1) of that section, to the intention on the part of an applicant for registration that a trade mark should be used by him there were substituted a reference to the intention on his part that it should be used by the company or registered user concerned.

(3) The tribunal may, in a case to which sub-section (1) applies, require the applicant to give security for the costs of any proceedings relating to any opposition or appeal, and in default of such security being duly given, may treat the application as abandoned.

(4) Where in a case to which sub-section(1) applies, a trade mark in respect of any goods or services is registered in the name of an applicant who, relies on intention to assign the trade mark to a company, then, unless within such period as may be prescribed or within such further period not exceeding six months as the Registrar may, on application being made to him in the prescribed manner, allow, the company has been registered as the proprietor of the trade mark in respect of those goods or services, the registration shall cease to have effect in respect thereof at the expiration of that period and the Registrar shall amend the register accordingly.

Removal from Register and Imposition of Limitations
on Ground of Non Use

47.-(1) A registered trade mark may be taken off the register in respect of the goods or services in respect of which it is registered on application made in the prescribed manner to the Registrar or the Appellate Board by any person aggrieved on the ground either-

(a) that the trade mark was registered without any bona fide intention on the part of the applicant for registration that it should be used in relation to those goods or services by him or, in a case to which the provisions of section 46 apply, by the company concerned or the registered user, as the case may be, and that there has, in fact, been no bona fide use of the trade mark in relation to those goods or services by any proprietor thereof for the time being up to a date three months before the date of the application; or

(b) that up to a date three months before the date of the application, a continuous period of five years from the date on which the trade mark is actually entered in the register or longer had elapsed during which the trade mark was registered and during which there was no bona fide use thereof in relation to those goods or services by any proprietor thereof for the time being:

Provided that except where the applicant has been permitted under section 12 to register an identical or nearly resembling trade mark in respect of the goods or services in question, or where the tribunal is of opinion that he might properly be permitted so to register such a trade mark, the tribunal may refuse an application under clause (a) or clause (b) in relation to any goods or services, if it is shown that there has been, before the relevant date or during the relevant period, as the case may be, bona fide use of the trade mark by any proprietor thereof for the time being in relation to-

(i) goods or services of the same description, or

(ii) goods or services associated with those goods or services of that description being goods or services, as the case may be, in respect of which that trade mark is registered.

(2) Where in relation to any goods or services in respect of which a trade mark is registered-

(a) the circumstances referred to in clause (b) of sub-section (1) are shown to exist so far as regards non-use of the trade mark in relation to goods to be sold, or otherwise traded in a particular place in India (otherwise than for export from India), or in relation to goods to be exported to a particular market outside India; or in relation to services for use or available for acceptance in a particular place in India or for use in a particular market outside India; and

(b) a person has been permitted under section 12 to register an identical or nearly resembling trade mark in respect of those goods, under a registration extending to use in relation to goods to be so sold, or otherwise traded in, or in relation to goods to be so exported, or in relation to services for use or available for acceptance in that place or for use in that country, or the tribunal is of opinion that he might properly be permitted so to register such a trade mark.

on application by that person in the prescribed manner to the Appellate Board or to the Registrar, the tribunal may impose on the registration of the first mentioned trade mark such limitations as it thinks proper for securing that that registration shall cease to extend to such use.

(3) As applicant shall not be entitled to rely for the purpose of clause (b) of sub-section (1) or for the purposes of sub-section (2) on any non-use of a trade mark which is shown to have been due to special circumstances in the trade, which includes restrictions on the use of the trade mark in India imposed by any law or regulation and not to any intention to abandon or not to use the trade mark in relation to goods or services to which the application relates.

Registered User

48.-(1) Subject to the provisions of section 49, a person other than the registered proprietor of a trade mark may be registered as a registered user thereof in respect of any or all of the goods or services in respect of which the trade mark is registered.

(2) The permitted use of a trade mark shall be deemed to be used by the proprietor thereof, and shall be deemed not to be used by a person other than the proprietor, for the purposes of section 47 or for any other purpose for which such use is material under this Act or any other law.

Registration as Registered User

49.-(1) Where it is proposed that a person should be registered as a registered user of a trade mark, the registered proprietor and the proposed registered user shall jointly apply in writing to the Registrar in the prescribed manner, and every such application shall be accompanied by-

(a) the agreement in writing or a duly authenticated copy thereof, entered into between the registered proprietor and the proposed registered user with respect to the permitted use of the trade mark; and

(b) an affidavit made by the registered proprietor or by some person authorised to the satisfaction of the Registrar to act on his behalf,-

(i) giving particulars of the relationship, existing or proposed, between the registered proprietor and the proposed registered user, including particulars showing the degree of control by the proprietor over the permitted use which their relationship will confer and whether it is a term of their relationship that the proposed registered user shall be the sole registered user or that there shall be any other restriction as to persons for whose registration as registered users application may be made;

(ii) stating the goods or services in respect of which registration is proposed;

(iii) stating the conditions or restrictions, if any, proposed with respect to the characteristics of the goods or services, to the mode or place of permitted use, or to any other matter;

(iv) stating whether the permitted use is to be for a period or without limit of period, and, if for a period, the duration thereof, and

(c) such further documents or other evidence as may be required by the Registrar or as may be prescribed.

(2) When the requirements of sub-section (1) have been complied with, the Registrar shall register the proposed registered user in respect of the goods or services as to which he is so satisfied.

(3) The Registrar shall issue notice in the prescribed manner of the registration of a person as a registered user, to other registered users of the trade mark, if any.

(4) The Registrar shall, if so requested by the applicant, take steps for securing that information given for the purposes of an application under this section (other than matters entered in the register) is not disclosed to rivals in trade.

Power of Registrar for Variation or Cancellation of
Registration as Registered User

50.-(1) Without prejudice to the provisions of section 57, the registration of a person as registered user-

(a) may be varied by the Registrar as regards the goods or services in respect of which it has effect on the application in writing in the prescribed manner of the registered proprietor of the trade mark;

(b) may be cancelled by the Registrar on the application in writing in the prescribed manner of the registered proprietor or of the registered user or of any other registered user of the trade mark;

(c) may be cancelled by the Registrar on the application in writing in the prescribed manner of any person on any of the following grounds, namely:-

(i) that the registered user has used the trade mark otherwise than in accordance with the agreement under clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 49 or in such way as to cause or to be likely to cause, deception or confusion;

(ii) that the proprietor or the registered user misrepresented, or failed to disclose, some fact material to the application for registration which if accurately represented or disclosed would not have justified the registration of the registered user;

(iii) that the circumstances have changed since the date of registration in such a way that at the date of such application for cancellation they would not have justified registration of the registered user;

(iv) that the registration ought not to have been effected having regard to rights vested in the applicant by virtue of a contract in the performance of which he is interested;

(d) may be cancelled by the Registrar on his own motion or on the application in writing in the prescribed manner by any person, on the ground that any stipulation in the agreement between the registered proprietor and the registered user regarding the quality of the goods or services in relation to which the trade mark is to be used is either not being enforced or is not being complied with;

(e) may be cancelled by the Registrar in respect of any goods or services in relation to which the trade mark is no longer registered.

(2) The Registrar shall issue notice in the prescribed manner in respect of every application under this section to the registered proprietor and each registered user (not being the applicant) of the trade mark.

(3) The procedure for cancelling a registration shall be such as may be prescribed;

Provided that before cancelling of registration, the registered proprietor shall be given a reasonable opportunity of being heard.

Power of Registrar to Call for Information Relating to
Agreement in Respect of Registered Users

51.-(1) The Registrar may at any time during the continuance of the registration of the registered user, by notice in writing, require the registered proprietor to confirm to him within one month that the agreement filed under clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 49 continues to be in force.

(2) If the registered proprietor fails to furnish the confirmation within one month as required under sub-section (1), the registered user shall cease to be the registered user on the day immediately after the expiry of the said period and the Registrar shall notify the same.

Right of Registered User to Take Proceedings Against Infringement

52.-(1) Subject to any agreement subsisting between the parties, a registered user may institute proceedings for infringement in his own name as if he were the registered proprietor, making the registered proprietor a defendant and the rights and obligations of such registered user in such case being concurrent with those of the registered proprietor.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law, a registered proprietor so added as defendant shall not be liable for any costs unless he enters an appearance and takes part in the proceedings.

No Right of Permitted User to Take Proceeding Against Infringement

53. A person referred to in sub-clause (ii) of clause (r) of sub-section (1) of section 2 shall have no right to institute any proceeding for any infringement.

Registered User not to Have Right of Assignment of Transmission

54. Nothing in this Act shall confer on a registered user of a trade mark any assignable or transmissible right to the use thereof.

Explanation I.-The right of a registered user of a trade mark shall not be deemed to have been assigned or transmitted within the meaning of this section in the following cases, namely:-

(a) where the registered user being an individual enters into a partnership with any other person for carrying on the business concerned; but in any such case the firm may use the trade mark, if otherwise in force, only for so long as the registered user is a member of the firm;

(b) where the registered user being a firm subsequently undergoes a change in its constitution; but in any case the reconstituted firm may use the trade mark, if otherwise in force, only for so long as any partner of the original firm at the time of its registration as registered user, continues to be a partner of the reconstituted firm.

Explanation II.-For the purposes of Explanation I, "firm" has the same meaning as in the Indian Partnership Act, 1932.

(9 of 1932)

User of One of Associated or Substantially Identical
Trade Marks Equivalent to Use of Another

55.-(1) Where under the provisions of this Act, use of a registered trade mark is required to be proved for any purpose, the tribunal may, if and, so far as it shall think right, accept use of a registered associated trade mark, or of the trade mark with additions or alterations not substantially affecting its identity, as an equivalent for the use required to be proved.

(2) The use of the whole of a registered trade mark shall, for the purpose of this Act, be deemed to be also use of any trade mark being a part thereof and registered in accordance with sub-section (1) of section 15 in the name of the same proprietor.

(3) Notwithstanding anything in section 32, the use of part of the registered trade mark in sub-section (2) shall not be conclusive as to its evidence of distinctiveness for any purpose under this Act.

Use of Trade Mark for Export Trade and Use
When Form of Trade Connection Changes

56.-(1) The application in India of trade mark to goods to be exported from India or in relation to services for use outside India and any other act done in India in relation to goods to be so exported or services so rendered outside India which, if done in relation to goods to be sold or services provided or otherwise traded in within India would constitute use of a trade mark therein, shall be deemed to constitute use of the trade mark in relation to those goods or services for any purpose for which such use is material under this Act or any other law.

(2) The use of a registered trade mark in relation to goods or services between which and the person using the mark any form of connection in the course of trade subsists shall not be deemed to be likely to cause deception or confusion on the ground only that the mark has been or is used in relation to goods or services between which and the said person or a predecessor in title of that person a different form of connection in the course of trade subsisted or subsists.

Chapter VII
Rectification and Correction of the Register

Power to Cancel or Vary Registration and to Rectify the Register

57.-(1) On application made in the prescribed manner to the Appellate Board or to the Registrar by any person aggrieved, the tribunal may make such order as it may think fit for cancelling or varying the registration of a trade mark on the ground of any contravention, or failure to observe a condition entered on the register in relation thereto.

(2) Any person aggrieved by the absence or omission from the register of any entry, or by any entry made in the register without sufficient cause, or by any entry wrongly remaining on the register, or by any error or defect in any entry in the register, may apply in the prescribed manner to the Appellate Board or to the Registrar, and the tribunal may make such order for making, expunging or varying the entry as it may think fit.

(3) The tribunal may in any proceeding under this section decide any question that may be necessary or expedient to decide in connection with the rectification of the register.

(4) The tribunal, of its own motion, may, after giving notice in the prescribed manner to the parties concerned and after giving them an opportunity of being heard, make any order referred to in sub-section (1) or sub-section (2).

(5) Any order of the Appellate Board rectifying the register shall direct that notice of the rectification shall be served upon the Registrar in the prescribed manner who shall upon receipt of such notice rectify the register accordingly.

Correction of Register

58.-(1) The Registrar may, on application made in the prescribed manner by the registered proprietor,-

(a) correct any error in the name, address or description of the registered proprietor of a trade mark, or any other entry relating to the trade mark;

(b) enter any change in the name, address or description of the person who is registered as proprietor of a trade mark;

(c) cancel the entry of a trade mark on the register;

(d) strike out any goods or classes of goods or services from those in respect of which a trade mark is registered,

and may make any consequential amendment or alteration in the certificate of registration, and for that purpose, may require the certificate of registration to be produced to him.

(2) The Registrar may, on application made in the prescribed manner by a registered user of a trade mark, and after notice to the registered proprietor, correct any error, or enter any change, in the name, address or description of the registered user.

Alteration of Registered Trade Marks

59.-(1) The registered proprietor of a trade mark may apply in the prescribed manner to the Registrar for leave to add to or alter the trade mark in any manner not substantially affecting the identity thereof, and the Registrar may refuse leave or may grant it on such terms and subject to such limitations as he may think fit.

(2) The Registrar may cause an application under this section to be advertised in the prescribed manner in any case where it appears to him that it is expedient so to do, and where he does so, if within the prescribed time from the date of the advertisement any person gives notice to the Registrar in the prescribed manner of opposition to the application, the Registrar shall, after hearing the parties if so required, decide the matter.

(3) Where leave is granted under this section, the trade mark as altered shall be advertised in the prescribed manner, unless the application has already been advertised under sub-section(2).

Adaptation of Entries in Register to Amended or
Substituted Classification of Goods or Services

60.-(1) The Registrar shall not make any amendment of the register which would have the effect of adding any goods or classes of goods or services to those in respect of which a trade mark is registered (whether in one or more classes) immediately before the amendment is to be made or of antedating the registration of a trade mark in respect of any goods or services.

Provided that this sub-section, shall not apply when the Registrar is satisfied that compliance therewith would involve undue complexity and that the addition or antedating, as the case may be, would not affect any substantial quantity of goods or services and would not substantially prejudice the rights of any person.

(2) A proposal so to amend the register shall be brought to the notice of the registered proprietor of the trade mark affected and advertised in the prescribed manner, and may be opposed before the Registrar by any person aggrieved on the ground that the proposed amendment contravenes the provisions of sub-section (1).

Chapter VIII
Collective Marks

Special Provisions for Collective Marks

61.-(1) The provisions of this Act shall apply to collective marks subject to the provisions contained in this Chapter.

(2) In relation to a collective mark the reference to clause (zb) of sub-section (1) of section 2 to distinguishing the goods or services of one person from those of others shall be construed as a reference to distinguishing the goods or services of members of an association of persons which is the proprietor of the mark from those of others.

Collective Mark not to Be Misleading as to Character or Significance

62. A collective mark shall not be registered if it is likely to deceive or cause confusion on the part of public in particular if it is likely to be taken to be something other than a collective mark, and in such case the Registrar may require that a mark in respect of which application is made for registration comprise some indication that it is a collective mark.

Application to be Accompanied by Regulations Governing
Use of Collective Marks

63.-(1) An application for registration of a collective mark shall be accompanied by the regulations governing the use of such collective mark.

(2) The regulations referred to in sub-section (1) shall specify the persons authorised to use the mark, the conditions of membership of the association and, the conditions of use of the mark, including any sanctions against misuse and such other matters as may be prescribed.

Acceptance of Application and Regulations by Registrar

64. If it appears to the Registrar that the requirements for registration are satisfied, he shall accept the application together with the regulations, either unconditionally or subject to such conditions including amendments of the said regulations, if any, as he may deem fit or refuse to accept it and if accepted shall notify the regulations.

Regulations to Be Open to Inspection

65. The regulations referred to in sub-section (1) of section 63 shall be open to public inspection in the same way as the register as provided in section 148.

Amendment of Regulations

66. Any amendment of regulations referred to in sub-section (1) of section 63 shall not be effective unless the amended regulations are filed with the Registrar, and accepted and published by him in accordance with section 64.

Infringement Proceedings by Registered Proprietor of Collective Mark

67. In a suit for infringement instituted by the registered proprietor of a collective mark as plaintiff the court shall take into account any loss suffered or likely to be suffered by authorised users and may give such directions as it thinks fit as to the extent to which the plaintiff shall hold the proceeds of any pecuniary remedy on behalf of such authorised users.

Additional Grounds for Removal of Registration of Collective Mark

68. The registration of a collective mark may also be removed from the register on the ground-

(a) That the manner in which the collective mark has been used by the proprietor or authorised user has caused it to become liable to mislead the public as a collective mark; or

(b) That the proprietor has failed to observe, or to secure the observance of the regulations governing the use of the mark.

Explanation I.-For the purposes of this Chapter, unless the context otherwise requires, "authorised user" means a member of an association authorised to use the registered collective mark of the association.

Explanation II.-For the purposes of this Act, use of a collective mark by an authorised user referred to in Explanation I shall be deemed to be the use by the registered proprietor thereof.

Chapter IX
Certification Trade Marks

Certain Provisions of this Act not Applicable to Certification Trade Marks

69. The following provisions of this Act shall not apply to certification trade marks, that is to say,-

(a) clauses (a) and (c) of sub-section (1) of section 9;

(b) sections 18, 20 and 21, except as expressly applied by this Chapter;

(c) sections 28, 29, 30, 41, 42, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 54 and sub-section (2) of section 56;

(d) chapter XII, except section 107.

Registration of Certification Trade Marks

70. A mark shall not be registrable as a certification trade mark in the name of a person who carries on a trade in goods of the kind certified or a trade of the provision of services of the kind certified.

Application for Registration of Certification Trade Marks

71.-(1) An application for the registration of a mark as a certification trade mark shall be made to the Registrar in the prescribed manner by the person proposed to be registered as the proprietor thereof, and accompanied by a draft of the regulations to be deposited under section 74.

(2) Subject to the provisions of section 70, the provisions 18, 19 and 22 shall apply in relation to an application under this section as they apply in relation to an application under section 18, subject to the modification that references therein to acceptance of an application shall be construed as references to authorisation to proceed with an application.

(3) In dealing under the said provisions with an application under this section, the tribunal shall have regard to the like considerations, so far as relevant, as if the application were applications under section 18 and to any other considerations relevant to applications under this section, including the desirability of securing that a certification trade mark shall comprise some indication that it is a certification trade mark.

Consideration of Application for Registration by Registrar

72.-(1) The Registrar shall consider the application made under section 71 with regard to the following matters, namely:-

(a) whether the applicant is competent to certify the goods in respect of which the mark is to be registered;

(b) whether the draft of the regulations to be filed under section 74 is satisfactory;

(c) whether in all the circumstances the registration applied for would be to the public advantage,

and may either-

(i) refuse the application; or

(ii) accept the application and approve the said draft of the regulations either without modification and unconditionally or subject to any conditions or limitations, or to any amendments or modifications of the application or of the regulations, which he thinks requisite having regard to any of the said matters.

(2) Except in the case of acceptance and approval without modification and unconditionally, the Registrar shall not decide any matter under sub-section (1) without giving the applicant an opportunity of being heard.

Opposition to Registration of Certification Trade Marks

73. When an application has been accepted, the Registrar shall, as soon as may be thereafter, cause the application as accepted to be advertised in the prescribed manner, and the provisions of section 21 shall apply in relation to the registration of the mark as they apply in relation to an application under section 18.

Filing of Regulations Governing Use of a Certification Trade Mark

74.-(1) There shall be filed at the Trade Marks Registry in respect of every mark registered as a certification trade mark regulations for governing the use thereof, which shall include provisions as to the cases in which the proprietor is to certify goods or services and to authorise the use of the certification trade mark, and may contain any other provisions which the Registrar may by general or special order, require or permit to be inserted therein (including provisions conferring a right of appeal to the Registrar against any refusal of the proprietor to certify goods or to authorise the use of the certification trade mark in accordance with the regulations); and regulations so filed shall be open to inspection in like manner as the register as provided in section 148.

(2) The regulations so filed may, on the application of the registered proprietor, be altered by the Registrar.

(3) The Registrar may cause such application to be advertised in any case where it appears to him expedient so to do, and where he does so, if within the time specified in the advertisement any person gives notice of opposition to the application, the Registrar shall not decide the matter without giving the parties an opportunity of being heard.

Infringement of Certification Trade Marks

75. The right conferred by section 78 is infringed by any person who, not being the registered proprietor of the certification trade mark or a person authorised by him in that behalf under the regulations filed under section 74, using it in accordance therewith, uses in the course of trade, a mark, which is identical with, or deceptively similar to the certification trade mark in relation to any goods or services in respect of which it is registered, and in such manner as to render the use of the mark likely to be taken as being a use as a trade mark.

Acts not Constituting Infringement of Certification Trade Marks

76.-(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, the following acts do not constitute an infringement of the right to the use of a registered certification trade mark-

(a) where a certification trade mark is registered subject to any conditions or limitations entered on the register, the use of any such mark in any mode, in relation to goods to be sold or otherwise traded in any place, or in relation to goods to be exported to any market or in relation to services for use or available for acceptance in any place, country or territory or in any other circumstances, to which having regard to any such limitations, the registration does not extend;

(b) the use of a certification trade mark in relation to goods or services certified by the proprietor of the mark if, as to those goods or services or a bulk of which they form part, the proprietor or another in accordance with his authorisation under the relevant regulations has applied the mark and has not subsequently removed or obliterated it, or the proprietor has at any time expressly or impliedly consented to the use of the mark;

(c) the use of a certification trade mark in relation to goods or services adapted to form part of, or to be accessory to, other goods in relation to which the mark has been used without infringement of the right given as aforesaid or might for the time being be so used, if the use of the mark is reasonably necessary in order to indicate that the goods or services are so adapted and neither the purpose nor the effect of the use of the mark is to indicate otherwise than in accordance with the fact that the goods or services are certified by the proprietor.

(2) Clause (b) of sub-section (1) shall not apply to the case of use consisting of the application of a certification trade mark to goods or services, notwithstanding that they are such goods or services as are mentioned in that clause if such application is contrary to the regulations referred to in that clause.

(3) Where a certification trade mark is one of two or more trade marks registered under this Act, which are identical or nearly resemble each other, the use of any of those trade marks in exercise of the right to the use of that trade mark given by registration, shall not be deemed to be an infringement of the right so given to the use of any other of those trade marks.

Cancellation or Varying of Registration of Certification Trademarks

77. The Registrar may, on the application in the prescribed manner of any person aggrieved and after giving the proprietor an opportunity of opposing the application, make such order as he thinks fit for expunging or varying any entry in the register to a certification trade mark, or for varying the regulations, on any of the following grounds, namely:-

(a) That the proprietor is no longer competent, in the case of any of the goods or services in respect of which the mark is registered, to certify those goods or services;

(b) That the proprietor has failed to observe any provisions of the regulations to be observed on his part;

(c) That it is no longer to the public advantage that the mark should remain registered;

(d) That it is requisite for the public advantage that if the mark remains registered, the regulations should be varied.

Rights Conferred by Registration of Certification Trade Marks

78.-(1) Subject to the provisions of sections 34, 35 and 76, the registration of a person as a proprietor of certification trade mark in respect of any goods or services, shall, if valid, give to that person the exclusive right to the use of the mark in relation to those goods or services.

(2) The exclusive right to the use of a certification trademark given under sub-section (1) shall be subject to any conditions and limitations to which the registration is subject.

Chapter X
Special Provisions for Textile Goods

Textile Goods

79. The central Government may prescribe classes of goods (in this Chapter referred to as textile goods) to the trade marks used in relation to which the provisions of this Chapter shall apply; and subject to the said provisions, the other provisions of this Act shall apply to such trade marks as they apply to trade marks used in relation to other classes of goods.

Restriction on Registration of Textile Goods

80.-(1) In respect of textile goods being piece goods-

(a) no mark consisting of a line heading alone shall be registrable as a trade mark;

(b) a line heading shall not be deemed to be capable of distinguishing;

(c) the registration of trade mark shall not give any exclusive right to the use of a line heading.

(2) In respect of any textile goods, the registration of letters or numerals, or any combination thereof, shall be subject to such conditions and restrictions as may be prescribed.

Stamping of Piece Goods, Cotton Yarn and Thread

81.-(1) Piece goods, such as are ordinarily sold by length or by the piece, which have been manufactured, bleached, dyed, printed or finished in premises which are a factory, as defined in the Factories Act, 1948, shall not be removed for sale from the last of such premises in which they underwent any of the said processes without having conspicuously stamped in international form of Indian numerals on each piece the length thereof in standard yards, or in standard yards and a fraction of such a yard, or in standard metres or in standard metres and a fraction of such a metre, according to the real length of the piece, and, except when the goods are sold from the factory for export from India, without being conspicuously marked on each piece with the name of the manufacturer or of the occupier of the premises in which the piece was finally processed or of the wholesale purchaser in India of the piece.

(2) Cotton yarn such as is ordinarily sold in bundles, and cotton thread, namely, sewing, darning, crochet or handicraft thread; which have been manufactured, bleached, dyed or finished in any premises not exempted by the rules made under section 82 shall not be removed for sale from those premises unless, in accordance with the said rules in the case of yarn

(a) the bundles are conspicuously marked with an indication of the weight of yarn in English or the metric system in each bundles, and

(b) the count of the yarn contained in the bundles and in the case of thread each unit is conspicuously marked with the length or weight of thread in the unit and in such other manner as may be required by the said rules; and

(c) except where the goods are sold from the premises for export from India, unless each bundle or unit is conspicuously marked with the name of the manufacturer or of the wholesale purchaser in India of the goods:

Provided that the rules made under section 82 shall exempt all premises where the work is done by members of one family with or without the assistance of not more than ten other employees, and all premises controlled by a co-operative society where not more than twenty workers are employed in the premises.

Determination of Character of Textile Goods by Sampling

82.-(1) For the purposes of this Act, the Central Government may make rules-

(a) to provide, with respect to any goods which purport or are alleged to be of uniform number, quantity, measure, guage or weight, for the number of samples to be selected and tested and for the selection of the samples;

(b) to provide, for the manner in which for the purposes of section 81 cotton yarn and cotton thread shall be marked with the particulars required by that section, and for the exemption of certain premises used for the manufacture, bleaching, dying or finishing of cotton yarn or cotton thread from the provisions of that section; and

(c) declaring what classes of goods are included in the expression "piece goods such as are ordinarily sold by length or by the piece" for the purpose of section 81, of this Act or clause (n) of sub-section (2) of section 11 of the Customs Act, 1962.

(52 of 1962)

(2) With respect to any goods for the selection and testing of samples of which provision is not made in any rules for the time being in force under sub-section (1), the court or officer of customs, as the case may be, having occasion to ascertain the number, quantity, measure, guage or weight of the goods, shall, by order in writing, determine the number of samples to be selected and tested and the manner in which the samples are to be selected.

(3) The average of the results of the testing in pursuance of rules under sub-section (1) or of an order under sub-section (2) shall be prima facie evidence of the number, quantity, measure, guage, or weight, as the case may be, of the goods.

(4) If a person having any claim to, or in relation to, any goods of which samples have been selected and tested in pursuance of rules under sub-section (1), or of an order under sub-section (2), desires that any further samples of the goods be selected and tested, such further samples shall, on his written application and on the payment in advance by him to the court or officer of customs, as the case may be, of such sums for defraying the cost of the further selection and testing as the court or officer may from time to time require, be selected and tested to such extent as may be permitted by rules made by the Central Government in this behalf or as, in the case of goods with respect to which provision is not made in such rules, the court or officer of customs may determine in the circumstances to be reasonable, the samples being selected in the manner prescribed under sub-section (1), or in sub-section (2), as the case may be.

(5) The average of the results of the testing referred to in sub-section (3) of the further testing under sub-section (4) shall be conclusive proof of the number, quantity, measure, guage or weight, as the case may be, of the goods.

Chapter XI
Appellate Board

Establishment of Appellate Board

83. The Central Government shall, by notification in the Official Gazette, establish an Appellate Board to be known as the Intellectual Property Appellate Board to exercise the jurisdiction, powers and authority conferred on it by or under this Act.

Composition of Appellate Board

84.-(1) The Appellate Board shall consist of a Chairman, Vice-Chairman and such number of other Members, as the Central Government may deem fit and, subject to the other provisions of this Act, the jurisdiction, powers and authority of the Appellate Board may be exercised by Benches thereof.

(2) Subject to the other provisions of this Act, a Bench shall consist of one Judicial Member and one Technical Member and shall sit at such place as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify.

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (2), the Chairman-

(a) may, in addition to discharging the functions of the Judicial Member or Technical Member of the Bench to which he is appointed, discharge the functions of the Judicial Member or, as the case may be, the Technical Member, of any other Bench;

(b) may transfer a Member from one Bench to another Bench;

(c) may authorise the Vice-Chairman, the Judicial Member or the Technical Member appointed to one Bench to discharge also the functions of the Judicial Member or the Technical Member, as the case may be, of another Bench.

(4) Where any Benches are constituted, the Central Government may, from time to time, by notification, make provisions as to the distribution of the business of the Appellate Board amongst the Benches and specify the matters which may be dealt with by each Bench.

(5) If any question arises as to whether any matter falls within the purview of the business allocated to a Bench, the decision of the Chairman shall be final.

Explanation.-For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that the expression "matter" includes an appeal under section 91.

(6) If the Members of a Bench differ in opinion on any point, they shall state the point or points on which they differ, and make a reference to the Chairman who shall either hear the point or points himself or refer the case for hearing on such point or points by one or more of the other Members and such point or points shall be decided according to the opinion of the majority of the Members who have heard the case, including those who first heard it.

Qualifications for Appointment as Chairman,
Vice Chairman, or Other Members

85.-(1) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as the Chairman unless he-

(a) is, or has been, a Jude of a High Court; or

(b) has, for at least two years, held the office of a Vice Chairman.

(2) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as the Vice Chairman, unless he-

(a) has, for at least two years, held the office of a Judicial Member or a Technical Member; or

(b) has been a member of the Indian Legal Service and has held a post in Grade I of that service or any higher post for at least five years.

(3) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Judicial Member, unless he-

(a) has been a member of the Indian Legal Service and has held the post in Grade I of that service for at least three years; or

(b) has, for at least ten years, held a civil judicial office.

(4) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Technical Member, unless he-

(a) has, for at least ten years, exercised functions of a tribunal under this Act or under the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958, or both, and has held a post not lower than the post of a Joint Registrar for at least five years; or

(43 of 1958)

(b) has, for at least ten years, been an advocate of a proven specialised experience in trade mark law.

(5) Subject to the provisions of sub-section(6), the Chairman, Vice Chairman and every other Member shall be appointed by the President of India.

(6) No appointment of a person as the Chairman shall be made except after consultation with the Chief Justice of India.

Term of Office of Chairman, Vice chairman and Other Members

86. The Chairman, Vice Chairman or other Members shall hold office as such for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office or until he attains,-

(a) in the case of Chairman and Vice-Chairman, the age of sixty five years; and

(b) in the case of a Member, the age of sixty two years.

Whichever is earlier.

Vice-Chairman or Senior-Most Member to Act as
Chairman or Discharge his Functions in Certain Circumstances

87.-(1) In the event of or any vacancy in the office of the Chairman by reasons of his death, resignation or otherwise, the Vice Chairman and in his absence the senior most Member shall act as Chairman until the date on which a new Chairman, appointed in accordance with the provisions of this Act to fill such vacancy, enters upon his office.

(2) When the Chairman is unable to discharge his functions owing to his absence, illness or any other cause, the Vice Chairman and in his absence the senior-most Member shall discharge the functions of the Chairman until the date on which the Chairman resumes his duty.

Salaries, Allowances and Other Terms and Conditions of Service
of Chairman, Vice Chairman and Other Members

88.-(1) The salaries and allowances payable to, and other terms and conditions of service (including pension, gratuity and other retirement benefits), of the Chairman, Vice Chairman and other Members shall be such as may be prescribed.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), a person who, immediately before the date of assuming office as the Chairman, Vice Chairman or other Member was in service of Government, shall be deemed to have retired from service on the date on which he enters upon office as the Chairman, Vice Chairman or other Member.

Resignation and Removal

89.-(1) The Chairman, Vice chairman or any other Member may, by notice in writing under his hand addressed to the President of India, resign his office:

Provided that the Chairman, Vice Chairman or any other Member shall, unless he is permitted by the President of India to relinquish his office sooner, continue to hold office until the expiry of three months from the date of receipt of such notice or until a person duly appointed as his successor enters upon his office or until the expiry of his term of office, whichever is earlier.

(2) The Chairman, Vice Chairman or any other Member shall not be removed from his office except by an order made by the President of India on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity after an inquiry made by a Judge of the Supreme Court in which the Chairman, Vice Chairman or other Member had been informed of the charges against him and given a reasonable opportunity of being heard in respect of those charges.

(3) The Central Government may, by rules, regulate the procedure for the investigation of misbehaviour or incapacity of the Chairman, Vice Chairman or other Member referred to in sub-section (2).

Staff of Appellate Board

90.-(1) The Central Government shall determine the nature and categories of the officers and other employees required to assist the Appellate Board in the discharge of its functions and provide the Appellate Board with such officers and other employees as it may think fit.

(2) The salaries and allowances and conditions of service of the officers and other employees of the Appellate Board shall be such as may be prescribed.

(3) The officers and other employees of the Appellate Board shall discharge their functions under the general superintendence of the Chairman in the manner as may be prescribed.

Appeals to Appellate Board

91.-(1) Any person aggrieved by an order or decision of the Registrar under this Act, or the rules made thereunder may prefer an appeal to the Appellate Board within three months from the date on which the order or decision sought to be appealed against is communicated to such person preferring the appeal.

(2) No appeal shall be admitted if it is preferred after the expiry of the period specified under sub-section (1):

Provided that an appeal may be admitted after the expiry of the period specified therefor, if the appellant satisfies the Appellate Board that he had sufficient cause for not preferring the appeal within the specified period.

(3) An appeal to the Appellate Board shall be in the prescribed form and shall be verified in the prescribed manner and shall be accompanied by a copy of the order or decision appealed against and by such fees as may be prescribed.

Procedure and Powers of Appellate Board

92.-(1) The Appellate Board shall not be bound by the procedure laid down in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 but shall be guided by principles of natural justice and subject to the provisions of this Act and the rules made thereunder, the Appellate Board shall have powers to regulate its own procedure including the fixing of places and times of its hearing.

(5 of 1908)

(2) The Appellate Board shall have, for the purpose of discharging its functions under this Act, the same powers as are vested in a civil court under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 while trying a suit in respect of the following matters, namely:-

(5 of 1908)

(a) Receiving evidence;

(b) Issuing commissions for examination of witnesses;

(c) requisitioning any public record; and

(d) any other matter which may be prescribed.

(3) Any proceeding before the Appellate Board shall be deemed to be a judicial proceeding within the meaning of sections 193 and 228, and for the purpose of section 196, of the Indian Penal Code, and the Appellate Board shall be deemed to be a civil court for all the purposes of section 195 and Chapter XXVI of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.

(45 of 1860 & 2 of 1974)

Bar of Jurisdiction of Courts, etc.

93. No court or other authority shall have or, be entitled to, exercise any jurisdiction, powers or authority in relation to the matters referred to in sub-section (1) of section 91.

Bar to Appear Before Appellate Board

94. On ceasing to hold office, the Chairman, Vice-Chairman or other Members shall not appear before the Appellate Board or the Registrar.

Conditions as to Making of Interim Orders

95. Notwithstanding anything contained in any other provisions of this Act or in any other law for the time being in force, no interim order (whether by way of injunction or stay or any other manner) shall be made on, or in any proceedings relating to, an appeal unless-

(a) Copies of such appeal and of all documents in support of the plea for such interim order are furnished to the party against whom such appeal is made or proposed to be made; and

(b) opportunity is given to such party to be heard in the matter.

Power of Chairman to Transfer Cases from one Bench to Another

96. On the application of any of the parties and after notice to the parties, and after hearing such of them as he may desire to be heard, or on his own motion without such notice, the Chairman may transfer any case pending before one Bench, for disposal, to any other Bench.

Procedure for Application for Rectification, etc. Before Appellate Board

97.-(1) An application for rectification of the register made to the Appellate Board under section 57 shall be in such form as may be prescribed.

(2) A certified copy of every order or judgement of the Appellate Board relating to a registered trade mark under this Act shall be communicated to the Registrar by the Board and the Registrar shall give effect to the order of the Board and shall, when so directed, amend the entries in, or rectify, the register in accordance with such order.

Appearance of Registrar in Legal Proceedings

98.-(1) The Registrar shall have the right to appear and be heard-

(a) in any legal proceedings before the Appellate Board in which the relief sought includes alteration or rectification of the register or in which any question relating to the practice of the Trade Marks Registry is raised;

(b) in any appeal to the Board from an order of the Registrar on an application for registration of a trade mark-

(i) which is not opposed, and the application is either refused by the Registrar or is accepted by him subject to any amendments, modifications, conditions or limitations, or

(ii) which has been opposed and the Registrar considers that his appearance is necessary in the public interest,

and the Registrar shall appear in any case if so directed by the Board.

(2) Unless the Appellate Board otherwise directs, the Registrar may, in lieu of appearing, submit a statement in writing signed by him, giving such particulars as he thinks proper of the proceedings before him relating to the matter in issue or of the grounds of any decision given by him affecting it, or of the practice of the Trade Marks Registry in like cases, or of other matters relevant to the issues and within his knowledge as Registrar, and such statement shall be evidence in the proceeding.

Costs of Registrar in Proceedings Before Appellate Board

99. In all proceedings under this Act before the Appellate Board the costs of the Registrar shall be in the discretion of the Board, but the Registrar shall not be ordered to pay the costs of any of the parties.

Transfer of Pending Proceedings to Appellate Board

100. All cases of appeals against any order of decision of the Registrar and all cases pertaining to rectification of register, pending before any High Court, shall be transferred to the Appellate Board from the date as notified by the Central Government in the Official Gazette and the Appellate Board may proceed with the matter either de novo or from the stage it was so transferred.

Chapter XII
Offences, Penalties and Procedure

Meaning of Applying Trademarks and Trade Descriptions

101.-(1) A person shall be deemed to apply a trade mark or mark or trade description to goods or services who-

(a) applies it to the goods themselves or uses it in relation to services; or

(b) applies it to any package in or with which the goods are sold, or exposed for sale, or had in possession for sale or for any purpose of trade or manufacture; or

(c) places, encloses or annexes any goods which are sold, exposed for sale or had in possession for sale or for any purpose of trade or manufacture, in or with any package or other thing to which a trade mark or mark or trade description has been applied; or

(d) uses a trade mark or mark or trade description in any manner reasonably likely to lead to the belief that the goods or services in connection with which it is used are designated or described by that trade mark or mark or trade description; or

(e) in relation to the goods or services uses a trade mark or trade description in any sign, advertisement, invoice, catalogue, business letter, business paper, price list or other commercial document and goods are delivered or services are rendered to a person in pursuance of a request or order made by reference to the trade mark or trade description as so used.

(2) A trade mark or mark or trade description shall be deemed to be applied to goods whether it is woven in, impressed on, or otherwise worked into, or annexed or affixed to, the goods or to any package or other thing.

Falsifying and Falsely Applying Trade Marks

102.-(1) A person shall be deemed to falsify a trade mark who, either,-

(a) without the assent of the proprietor of the trade mark makes that trade mark or a deceptively similar mark; or

(b) falsifies any genuine trade mark, whether by alteration, addition, effacement or otherwise.

(2) A person shall be deemed to falsely apply to goods or services a trade mark who, without the assent of the proprietor of the trade mark,-

(a) applies such trade mark or a deceptively similar mark to goods or services or any package containing goods;

(b) uses any package bearing a mark which is identical with or deceptively similar to the trade mark of such proprietor, for the purpose of packing, filling or wrapping therein any goods other than the genuine goods of the proprietor of the trade mark.

(3) Any trade mark falsified as mentioned in sub-section (1) or falsely applied as mentioned in sub-section (2), is in this Act referred to as a false trade mark.

(4) In any prosecution for falsifying a trade mark or falsely applying a trade mark to goods or services, the burden of proving the assent of the proprietor shall lie on the accused.

Penalty for Applying False Trade Marks, Trade Descriptions etc.

103. Any person who-

(a) falsifies any trade mark; or

(b) falsely applies to goods or services any trade mark; or

(c) makes, disposes of, or has in his possession, any die, block, machine, plate or other instrument for the purpose of falsifying or of being used for falsifying a trade mark; or

(d) applies any false trade description to goods or services; or

(e) applies to any goods to which an indication of the country or place in which they were made or produced or the name and address of the manufacturer or person for whom the goods are manufactured is required to be applied under section139, a false indication of such country, place, name or address; or

(f) tampers with, alters or effaces an indication of origin which has been applied to any goods to which it is required to be applied under section 139, or

(g) causes any of the things above-mentioned in this section to be done,

shall, unless he proves that he acted, without intent to defraud, be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than six months but which may extend to three years and with fine which shall not be less than fifty thousand rupees but which may extend to two lakh rupees;

Provided that the court may, for adequate and special reasons to be mentioned in the judgement, impose a sentence of imprisonment for a term of less than six months or a fine of less than fifty thousand rupees.

Penalty for Selling Goods or Providing Services to Which False
Trade Mark or False Trade Description is Applied

104. Any person who sells, lets for hire or exposes for sale, or hires or has in his possession for sale, goods or things, or provides or hires services, to which any false trade mark or false trade description is applied or which, being required under section 139 to have applied to them an indication of the country or place in which they were made or produced or the name and address of the manufacturer, or person for whom the goods are manufactured or services provided, as the case may be, are without the indications so required, shall, unless he proves,-

(a) That, having taken all reasonable precautions against committing an offence against this section, he had at the time of commission of the alleged offence no reason to suspect the genuineness of the trade mark or trade description or that any offence had been committed in respect of the goods or services; or

(b) That, on demand by or on behalf of the prosecutor, he gave all the information in his power with respect to the person from whom he obtained such goods or things or services; or

(c) That otherwise he had acted innocently,

be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than six months but which may extend to three years and with fine which shall not be less than fifty thousand rupees but which may extend to two lakh rupees:

Provided that the court may, for adequate and special reasons to be mentioned in the judgement, impose a sentence of imprisonment for a term of less than six months or a fine of less than fifty thousand rupees.

Enhanced Penalty on Second or Subsequent Conviction

105. Whoever having already been convicted of an offence under section 103 or section 104 is again convicted of any such offence shall be punishable for the second and for every subsequent offence, with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than one year but which may extend to three years and with fine which shall not be less than one lakh rupees but which may extend to two lakh rupees:

Provided that the court may, for adequate and special reason to be mentioned in the judgement, impose a sentence of imprisonment for a term of less than one year or a fine of less than one lakh rupees:

Provided further that for the purposes of this section, no cognizance shall be taken of any conviction made before the commencement of this Act.

Penalty for Removing Piece Goods, etc., Contrary to Section 81

106. If any person removes or attempts to remove or causes or attempts to cause to be removed for sale from any premises referred to in section 81 or sells or exposes for sale or has in his possession for sale or for any purpose of trade or manufacture piece goods or cotton yarn or cotton thread which is not marked as required by that section, every such piece and every such bundle of yarn and all such thread and everything used for the packing thereof shall be forfeited to Government and such person shall be punishable with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees.

Penalty for Falsely Representing a Trade Mark as Registered

107.-(1) No person shall make any representation-

(a) with respect to a mark, not being a registered trade mark, to the effect that it is a registered trade mark; or

(b) with respect to a part of a registered trade mark, not being a part separately registered as a trade mark, to the effect that it is separately registered as a trade mark; or

(c) to the effect that a registered trade mark is registered in respect of any goods or services in respect of which it is not in fact registered; or

(d) to the effect that registration of a trade mark gives an exclusive right to the use thereof in any circumstances in which, having regard to limitation entered on the register, the registration does not in fact give that right.

(2) If any person contravenes any of the provisions of sub-section (1), he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

(3) For the purposes of this section, the use in India in relation to a trade mark of the word "registered" or of any other expression, symbol or sign referring whether expressly or impliedly to registration, shall be deemed to import a reference to registration in the register, except-

(a) where that word or other expression, symbol or sign is used in direct association with other words delineated in characters at least as large as those in which that word or other expression, symbol or sign is delineated and indicating that the reference is to registration as a trade mark under the law of a country outside India being a country under the law of which the registration referred to is in fact in force; or

(b) where that other expression, symbol or sign is of itself such as to indicate that the reference is to such registration as is mentioned in clause (a); or

(c) where that word is used in relation to a mark registered as a trade mark under the law of a country outside India and in relation solely to goods to be exported to that country or in relation to services for use in that country.

Penalty for Improperly Describing a Place of
Business as Connected with the Trade Marks Office

108. If any person uses on his place of business, or on any document issued by him, or otherwise, words which would reasonably lead to the belief that his place of business is, or is officially connected with, the Trade Marks Office, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

Penalty for Falsification of Entries in the Register

109. If any person makes, or causes to be made, a false entry in the register , or a writing falsely purporting to be a copy of an entry in the register, or produces or tenders or causes to be produced or tendered, in evidence any such writing, knowing the entry or writing to be false, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

No Offence in Certain Cases

110. The provisions of sections 102, 103, 104 and 105 shall, in relation to a registered trade mark or proprietor of such mark, be subject to the rights created or recognised by this Act and no act or omission shall be deemed to be an offence under the aforesaid sections if,-

(a) the alleged offence relates to a registered trade mark and the act or omission is permitted under this Act; and

(b) the alleged offence relates to a registered or an unregistered trade mark and the act or omission is permitted under any other law for the time being in force.

Forfeiture of Goods

111.-(1) Where a person is convicted of an offence under section 103 or section 104 or section 105 or is acquitted of an offence under section 103 or section 104 on proof that he acted without intent to defraud, or under section 104 on proof of the matters specified in clause (a),clause (b) or clause (c) of that section, the court convicting or acquitting him may direct the forfeiture to Government of all goods and things by means of, or in relation to, which the offence has been committed, or but for such proof as aforesaid would have been committed.

(2) When a forfeiture is directed on a conviction and an appeal lies against the conviction, an appeal shall lie against the forfeiture also.

(3) When a forfeiture is directed on acquittal and the goods or things to which the direction relates are of value exceeding fifty rupees, an appeal against the forfeiture may be preferred, within thirty days from the date of the direction, to the court to which in appealable cases appeals lie from sentences of the court which directed the forfeiture.

(4) When a forfeiture is directed on a conviction, the court, before whom the person is convicted, may order any forfeited articles to be destroyed or otherwise disposed of as the court thinks fit.

Exemption of Certain Persons Employed in Ordinary Course of Business

112. Where a person accused of an offence under section 103 proves-

(a) that in the ordinary course of his business he is employed on behalf of other persons to apply trade marks or trade descriptions, or as the case may be, to make dies, blocks, machines, plates, or other instruments for making, or being used in making, trade marks; and

(b) that in the case which is the subject of the charge he was so employed, and was not interested in the goods or other thing by way of profit or commission dependent on the sale of such goods or providing of services, as the case may be; and

(c) that, having taken all reasonable precautions against committing the offence charged, he had, at the time of the commission of the alleged offence, no reason to suspect the genuineness of the trade mark or trade description; and

(d) that, on demand made by or on behalf of the prosecutor, he gave all the information in his power with respect to the persons on whose behalf the trade mark or trade description was applied,

he shall be acquitted.

Procedure Where Invalidity of Registration is Pleaded by the Accused

113.-(1) Where the offence charged under section 103 or section 104 or section 105 is in relation to a registered trade mark and the accused pleads that the registration of the trade mark is invalid, the following procedure shall be followed:-

(a) If the court is satisfied that such defence is prima facie tenable, it shall not proceed with the charge but shall adjourn the proceeding for three months from the date on which the plea of the accused is recorded to enable the accused to file an application before the Appellate Board under this Act, for the rectification of the register on the ground that the registration is invalid.

(b) If the accused proves to the court that he has made such application within the time so limited or within such further time as the court may for sufficient cause allow, the further proceedings in the prosecution shall stand stayed till the disposal of such application for rectification.

(c) If within a period of three months or within such extended time as may be allowed by the court the accused fails to apply to the Appellate Board for rectification of the register, the court shall proceed with the case as if the registration were valid.

(2) Where before the institution of a complaint of an offence referred to in sub-section (1), any application for the rectification of the register concerning the trade mark in question on the ground of invalidity of the registration thereof has already been properly made to and is pending before the Tribunal, the court shall stay the further proceedings in the prosecution pending the disposal of the application aforesaid and shall determine the charge against the accused in conformity with the result of the application for rectification in so far as the complainant relies upon the registration of his mark.

Offences by Companies

114.-(1) If the person committing an offence under this Act is a company, the company as well as every person in charge of, and responsible to, the company for the conduct of its business at the time of the commission of the offence shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly:

Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section all render any such person liable to any punishment if he proves that the offence was committed without his knowledge or that he exercised all due diligence to prevent the commission of such offence.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), where an offence under this Act has been committed by a company and it is proved that the offence has been committed with the consent or connivance of, or that the commission of the offence is attributable to any neglect on the part of, any director, manager, secretary or other officer of the company, such director, manager, secretary or other officer shall also be deemed to be guilty of that offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.

Explanation.-For the purposes of this section-

(a) "company" means any body corporate and includes a firm or other association of individuals; and

(b) "director", in relation to a firm, means a partner in the firm.

Cognizance of Certain Offences and the Powers of
Police Officer for Search and Seizure

115.-(1) No court shall take cognizance of an offence under section 107 or section 108 or section 109 except on complaint in writing made by the Registrar or any officer authorised by him in writing:

Provided that in relation to clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 107, a court shall take cognizance of an offence on the basis of a certificate issued by the Registrar to the effect that a registered trade mark has been represented as registered in respect of any goods or services in respect of which it is not in fact registered.

(2) No court inferior to that of a Metropolitan Magistrate or Judicial Magistrate of the first class shall try an offence under this Act.

(3) The offences under section 103 or section 104 or section 105 shall be cognizable.

(4) Any police officer not below the rank of deputy superintendent of police or equivalent, may, if he is satisfied that any of the offences referred to in sub-section (3) has been, is being, or is likely to be, committed, search and seize without warrant the goods, die, block, machine, plate, other instruments or things involved in committing the offence, wherever found, and all the articles so seized shall, as soon as practicable, be produced before a Judicial Magistrate of the first class or Metropolitan Magistrate, as the case may be:

Provided that the police officer, before making any search and seizure, shall obtain the opinion of the Registrar on facts involved in the offence relating to trade mark and shall abide by the opinion so obtained.

(5) Any person having an interest in any article seized under sub-section (4), may, within fifteen days of such seizure, make an application to the Judicial Magistrate of the first class or Metropolitan Magistrate, as the case may be, for such article being restored to him and the Magistrate, after hearing the applicant and the prosecution, shall make such order on the application as he may deem fit.

Evidence of Origin of Goods Imported by Sea

116. In the case of goods brought into India by sea, evidence of the port of shipment shall, in a prosecution for an offence under this Act or under clause (b) of section 112 of the Customs Act, 1962 relating to confiscation of goods under clause (d) of section 111 and notified by the Central Government under clause (n) of sub-section (2) of section11 of the said Act for the protection of trade marks relating to import of goods, be prima facie evidence of the place or country in which the goods are made or produced.

(52 of 1962)

Costs of Defence or Prosecution

117. In any prosecution under this Act, the court may order such costs to be paid by the accused to the complainant, or by the complainant to the accused, as the court deems reasonable having regard to all the circumstances of the case and the conduct of the parties and the costs so awarded shall be recoverable as if they were a fine.

Limitation of Prosecution

118. No prosecution for an offence under this Act or under clause (b) of section 112 of the Customs Act,1962, relating to confiscation of goods under clause (d) of section 111 and notified by the Central Government under clause (n) of sub-section(2) of section 11 of the said Act for the protection of trade marks, relating to import of goods shall be commenced after expiration of three years next after the commission of the offence charged, or two years after the discovery thereof by the prosecutor, whichever expiration first happens.

(52 of 1962)

Information as to Commission of Offence

119. An officer of the Government whose duty it is to take part in the enforcement of the provisions of this Chapter shall not be compelled in any court to say whence he got any information as to the commission of any offence against this Act.

Punishment of Abetment in India of Acts Done Out of India

120. If any person, being within India, abets the commission, without India, of any act which, if committed in India, would, under this act, be an offence, he may be tried for such abetment in any place in India in which he may be found, and be punished therefor with the punishment to which he would be liable if he had himself committed in that place the act which he abetted.

Instructions of Central Government as to Permissible
Variation to be Observed by Criminal Courts

121. The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, issue instructions for the limits of variation, as regards number, quantity, measure, gauge or weight which are to be recognised by criminal courts as permissible in the case of any goods.

Chapter XIII
Miscellaneous

Protection of Action Taken in Good Faith

122. No suit or other legal proceedings shall lie against any person in respect of anything which is in good faith done or intended to be done in pursuance of this Act.

Certain Persons to Be Public Servants

123. Every person appointed under this Act and every Member of the Appellate Board shall be deemed to be a public servant within the meaning of section 21 of the Indian Penal Code.

Stay of Proceedings Where the Validity of Registration
of the Trade Mark is Questioned, etc.

124.-(1) Where in any suit for infringement of a trade mark-

(a) the defendant pleads that registration of the plaintiff's trade mark is invalid; or

(b) the defendant raises a defence under clause (e) of sub-section (2) of section 30 and the plaintiff pleads the invalidity of registration of the defendant's trade mark,

the court trying the suit (hereinafter referred to as the court), shall,-

(i) if any proceedings for rectification of the register in relation to the plaintiff's or defendant's trade mark are pending before the Registrar or the Appellate Board, stay the suit pending the final disposal of such proceedings;

(ii) if no such proceedings are pending and the court is satisfied that the plea regarding the invalidity of the registration of the plaintiff's or defendant's trade mark is prima facie tenable, raise an issue regarding the same and adjourn the case for a period of three months from the date of the framing of the issue in order to enable the party concerned to apply to the Appellate Board for rectification of the register.

(2) If the party concerned proves to the court that he has made any such application as is referred to in clause(b)(ii) of sub-section (1) within the time specified therein or within such extended time as the court may for sufficient cause allow, the trial of the suit shall stand stayed until the final disposal of the rectification proceedings.

(3) If no such application as aforesaid has been made within the time so specified or within such extended time as the court may allow, the issue as to the validity of the registration of the trade mark concerned shall be deemed to have been abandoned and the court shall proceed with the suit in regard to the other issues in the case.

(4) The final order made in any rectification proceedings referred to in sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) shall be binding upon the parties and the court shall dispose of the suit conformably to such order in so far as it relates to the issue as to the validity of the registration of the trade mark.

(5) The stay of a suit for the infringement of a trade mark under this section shall not preclude the court from making any interlocutory order (including any order granting an injunction, directing account to be kept, appointing a receiver or attaching any property), during the period of the stay of the suit.

Application for Rectification of Register to Be
Made to Appellate Board in Certain cases

125.-(1) Where in a suit for infringement of a registered trade mark the validity of the registration of the plaintiff's trade mark is questioned by the defendant or where in any such suit the defendant raises a defence under clause (e) of sub-section (2) of section 30 and the plaintiff questions the validity of the registration of the defendant's trade mark, the issue as to the validity of the registration of the trade mark concerned shall be determined only on an application for the rectification of the register and, notwithstanding anything contained in section 47 or section 57, such application shall be made to the Appellate Board and not the Registrar.

(2) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (1), where an application for rectification of the register is made to the Registrar under section 47 or section 57, the Registrar may, if he thinks fit, refer the application at any stage of the proceedings to the Appellate Board.

Implied Warranty on Sale of Marked Goods

126. Where a mark or a trade mark or trade description has been applied to the goods on sale or in the contract for sale of any goods or in relation to any service, the seller shall be deemed to warrant that the mark is a genuine mark and not falsely applied, or that the trade description is not a false trade description within the meaning of this Act unless the contrary is expressed in writing signed by or on behalf of the seller and delivered at the time of the sale of goods or providing of services on contract to and accepted by the buyer.

Powers of Registrar

127. In all proceedings under this Act before the Registrar,-

(a) the Registrar shall have all the powers of a civil court for the purposes of receiving evidence, administering oaths, enforcing the attendance of witnesses, compelling the discovery and production of documents and issuing commissions for the examination of witnesses:

(b) the Registrar may, subject to any rules made in this behalf under section 157, made such orders as to costs as he considers reasonable, and any such order shall be executable as a decree of a civil court:

Provided that the Registrar shall have no power to award costs to or against any party on an appeal to him against a refusal of the proprietor of a certification trade mark to certify goods or provision of services or to authorise the use of the mark;

(c) the Registrar may, on an application made in the prescribed manner, review his own decision.

Exercise of Discretionary Power by Registrar

128. Subject to the provisions of section 131, the Registrar shall not exercise any discretionary or other power vested in him by this Act or the rules made thereunder adversely to a person applying for the exercise of that power without (if so required by that person within the prescribed time) giving to the person an opportunity of being heard.

Evidence Before Registrar

129. In any proceeding under this Act before the Registrar, evidence shall be given by affidavit:

Provided that the Registrar may, if he thinks fit, take oral evidence in lieu of, or in addition to, such evidence by affidavit.

Death of Party to a Proceeding

130. If a person who is a party to a proceeding under this Act (not being a proceeding before the Appellate Board or a court) dies pending the proceeding, the Registrar may, on request, and on proof to his satisfaction of the transmission of the interest of the deceased person, substitute in the proceeding his successor in interest in his place, or, if the Registrar is of opinion that the interest of the deceased person is sufficiently represented by the surviving parties, permit the proceeding to continue without the substitution of his successor in interest.

Extension of Time

131.-(1) If the Registrar is satisfied, on application made to him in the prescribed manner and accompanied by the prescribed fee, that there is sufficient cause for extending the time for doing any act (not being a time expressly provided in this Act), whether the time so specified has expired or not, he may, subject to such conditions as he may think fit to impose, extend the time and inform the parties accordingly.

(2) Nothing in sub-section (1) shall be deemed to require the Registrar to hear the parties before disposing of an application for extension of time, and no appeal shall lie from any order of the Registrar under this section.

Abandonment

132. Where, in the opinion of the Registrar, an applicant is in default in the prosecution of an application filed under this Act or any Act relating to trade marks in force prior to the commencement of this Act, the Registrar may, by notice require the applicant to remedy the default within a time specified and after giving him, if so, desired, an opportunity of being heard, treat the application as abandoned, unless the default is remedied within the time specified in the notice.

Preliminary Advice by the Registrar as to Distinctiveness

133.-(1) The Registrar may, on application made to him in the prescribed manner by any person who proposes to apply for the registration of a trade mark, give advice as to whether the trade mark appears to him prima facie to be distinctive.

(2) If, on an application for the registration of a trade mark as to which the Registrar has given advice as aforesaid in the affirmative made within three months after the advice was given, the Registrar, after further investigation or consideration, gives notice, to the applicant of objection on the ground that the trade mark is not distinctive, the applicant shall be entitled, on giving notice of withdrawal of the application within the prescribed period, to have repaid to him any fee paid on the filing of the application.

Suit for Infringement, etc. to Be Instituted Before District Court

134.-(1) No suit-

(a) for the infringement of a registered trade mark; or

(b) relating to any right in a registered trade mark; or

(c) for passing off arising out of the use by the defendant of any trade mark which is identical with or deceptively similar to the plaintiff's trade mark, whether registered or unregistered,

shall be instituted in any court inferior to a District Court having jurisdiction to try the suit.

For the purpose of clauses (a) and (b) of sub-section (1), a "District Court having jurisdiction" shall, notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Civil Procedure,1908 or any other law for the time being in force, include a District Court within the local limits of whose jurisdiction , at the time of the institution of the suit or other proceeding, the person instituting the suit or proceeding, or, where there are more than one such persons any of them, actually and voluntarily resides or carries on business or personally works for gain.

(5 of 1908)

Explanation.-For the purposes of sub-section (2), "person" includes the registered proprietor and the registered user.

Relief in Suits for Infringement or for Passing Off

135.-(1) The relief which a court may grant in any suit for infringement or for passing off referred to in section 134 includes injunction (subject to such terms, if any, as the court thinks fit) and at the option of the plaintiff, either damages or an account of profits, together with or without any order for the delivery-up of the infringing labels and marks for destruction or erasure.

(2) The order of injunction under sub-section (1) may include an ex parte injunction or any interlocutory order for any of the following mattes, namely:-

(a) for discovery of documents;

(b) preserving of infringing goods, documents or other evidence which are related to the subject-matter of the suit;

(c) restraining the defendant from disposing of or dealing with his assets in a manner which may adversely affect plaintiff's ability to recover damages, costs or other pecuniary remedies which may be finally awarded to the plaintiff.

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), the court shall not grant relief by way of damages (other than nominal damages) or on account of profits in any case-

(a) where in a suit for infringement of a trade mark, the infringement complained of is in relation to a certification trade mark or collective mark; or

(b) where in a suit for infringement the defendant satisfies the court-

(i) that at the time he commenced to use the trade mark complained of in the suit he was unaware and had no reasonable ground for believing that the trade mark of the plaintiff was on the register or that the plaintiff was a registered user using by way of permitted use; and

(ii) that when he became aware of the existence and nature of the plaintiff's right in the trade mark, he forthwith ceased to use the trade mark in relation to goods or services in respect of which it was registered,; or

(c) where in a suit for passing off, the defendant satisfies the court-

(i) that at the time he commenced to use the trade mark complained of in the suit, he was unaware and had no reasonable ground for believing that the trade mark of the plaintiff was in use; and

(ii) that when he became aware of the existence and nature of the plaintiff's trade mark he forthwith ceased to use the trade mark complained of.

Registered User to Be Impleaded in Certain Proceedings

136.-(1) In every proceeding under chapter VII or under section 91,every registered user of a trade mark using by way of permitted use, who is not himself an applicant in respect of any proceeding under that chapter or section, shall be made a party to the proceeding.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law, a registered user so made a party to the proceeding shall not be liable for any costs unless he enters an appearance and takes part in the proceeding.

Evidence of Entries in Register, etc. and Things Done by the Registrar

137.-(1) A copy of any entry in the register or of any document referred to in sub-section (1) of section 148 purporting to be certified by the Registrar and sealed with the seal of the Trade Marks Registry shall be admitted in evidence in all courts and in all proceedings without further proof or production of the original.

(2) A certificate purporting to be under the hand of the Registrar as to any entry, matter or thing that he is authorised by this Act or the rules to make or do shall be prima facie evidence of the entry having been made, and of the contents thereof, or of the matter or things having been done or not done.

Registrar and Other Officers not Compellable to Produce Register, etc.

138. The Registrar or any officer of the Trade Marks Registry shall not, in any legal proceedings to which he is not a party, be compellable to produce the register or any other document in his custody , the contents of which can be proved by the production of a certified copy issued under this Act or to appear as a witness to prove the matters therein recorded unless by order of the court made for special cause.

Power to Require Goods to Show Indication of Origin

139.-(1) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, require that goods of any class specified in the notification which are made or produced beyond the limits of India, and imported into India, or which are made or produced within the limits of India, shall, from such date as may be appointed by the notification not being less than three months from its issue, have applied to them an indication of the country or place in which they were made or produced, or of the name and address of the manufacturer or the person for whom the goods were manufactured.

(2) The notification may specify the manner in which such indication shall be applied that is to say, whether to goods themselves or in any other manner, and the times or occasions on which the presence of the indication shall be necessary, that is to say, whether on importation only, or also at the time of sale, whether by wholesale or retail or both.

(3) No notification under this section shall be issued, unless application is made for its issue by persons or associations substantially representing the interests of dealers in, or manufacturers, producers, or users of, the goods concerned, or unless the Central Government is otherwise convinced that it is necessary in the public interest to issue the notification, with or without such inquiry, as the Central Government may consider necessary.

(4) The provisions of section 23 of the General Clauses Act, 1897 shall apply to the issue of a notification under this section as they apply to the making of a rule or bye-law the making of which is subject to the condition of previous publication.

(10 of 1897)

(5) A notification under this section shall not apply to goods made or produced beyond the limits of India and imported into India, if in respect of those goods, the Commissioner of Customs is satisfied at the time of importation that they are intended for exportation whether after transhipment in or transit though India or otherwise.

Power to Require Information of Imported Goods
Bearing False Trade Marks

140.-(1) The proprietor or a licensee of a registered trade mark may give notice in writing to the Collector of Customs to prohibit the importation of any goods if the import of the said gods constitute infringement under clause (c) of sub-section (6) of section 29.

(2) Where goods, which are prohibited to be imported into India by notification of the Central Government under clause (n) of sub-section (2) of section 11 of the Customs Act, 1962, for the protection of trade marks, and are liable to confiscation on importation under that Act, are imported into India, the Commissioner of Customs if, upon representation made to him , he has reason to believe that the trade mark complained of is used as a false trade mark, may require the importer of the goods, or his agent, to produce any documents in his possession relating to the goods and to furnish information as to the name and address of the person by whom the goods were consigned to India and the name and address of the person to whom the goods were sent in India.

(52 of 1962)

(3) The importer or his agent shall, within fourteen days, comply with the requirement as aforesaid, and if he fails to do so, he shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees.

(4) Any information obtained from the importer of the goods or his agent under this section may be communicated by the Commissioner of Customs to the registered proprietor or registered user of the trade mark which is alleged to have been used as a false trade mark.

Certificate of Validity

141. If in any legal proceeding for rectification of the register before the Appellate Board a decision is on contest given in favour of the registered proprietor of the trade mark on the issue as to the validity of the registration of the trade mark, the Appellate Board may grant a certificate to that effect, and if such a certificate is granted, then, in any subsequent legal proceeding in which the said validity comes into question the said proprietor on obtaining a final order or judgement in his favour affirming validity of the registration of the trade mark shall, unless the said final order or judgement for sufficient reason directs otherwise , be entitled to his full cost charges and expenses as between legal practitioner and client.

Groundless Threats of Legal Proceedings

142.-(1) Where a person, by means of circulars, advertisements or otherwise, threatens a person with an action or proceeding for infringement of a trade mark which is registered, or alleged by the first-mentioned person to be registered, or with some other like proceeding, a person aggrieved may, whether the person making the threats is or is not the registered proprietor or the registered user of the trade mark, bring a suit against the first-mentioned person and may obtain a declaration to the effect that the threats are unjustifiable, and an injunction against the continuance of the threats and may recover such damages (if any) as he has sustained, unless the first-mentioned person satisfies the court that the trade mark is registered and that the acts in respect of which the proceedings were threatened, constitute, or, if done, would constitute, an infringement of the trade mark.

(2) The last preceding sub-section does not apply if the registered proprietor of the trade mark, or a registered user acting in pursuance of sub-section (1) of section 52 with due diligence commences and prosecutes an action against the person threatened for infringement of the trade mark.

(3) Nothing in this section shall render a legal practitioner or a registered trade marks agent liable to an action under this section in respect of an act done by him in his professional capacity on behalf of a client.

(4) A suit under sub-section (1) shall not be instituted in any court inferior to a District Court.

Address for Service

143. An address for service stated in an application or notice of opposition shall for the purposes of the application or notice of opposition be deemed to be the address of the applicant or opponent, as the case may be, and all documents in relation to the application or notice of opposition may be served by leaving them at or sending them by post to the address for service of the applicant or opponent, as the case may be.

Trade Usages, etc. to Be Taken Into Consideration

144. In any proceeding relating to a trade mark, the tribunal shall admit evidence of the usages of the trade concerned and of any relevant trade mark or trade name or get up legitimately used by other persons.

Agents

145. Where, by or under this Act, any act, other than the making of an affidavit, is required to be done before the Registrar by any person, the act may, subject to the rules made in this behalf, be done instead of by that person himself, by a person duly authorised in the prescribed manner, who is-

(a) a legal practitioner, or

(b) a person registered in the prescribed manner as a trade marks agent, or

(c) a person in the sole and regular employment of the principal.

Marks Registered by an Agent or Representative Without Authority

146. If an agent or a representative of the proprietor of a registered trade mark, without authority uses or attempts to register or registers the mark in his own name, the proprietor shall be entitled to oppose the registration applied for or secure its cancellation or rectification of the register so as to bring him as the registered proprietor of the said mark by assignment in his favour:

Provided that such action shall be taken within three years of the registered proprietor of the trade mark becoming aware of the conduct of the agent or representative.

Indexes

147.-There shall be kept under the direction and supervision of the Registrar-

(a) an index of registered trade marks:

(b) an index of trade marks in respect of which applications for registration are pending;

(c) an index of the names of the proprietors of registered trade marks; and

(d) an index of the names of registered users.

Documents Open to Public Inspection

148.-(1) Save as otherwise provided in sub-section (4) of section 49,-

(a) the register and any document upon which any entry in the register is based;

(b) every notice of opposition to the registration of a trade mark application for rectification before the Registrar, counter-statement thereto, and any affidavit or document filed by the parties in any proceedings before the Registrar;

(c) all regulations deposited under section 63 or section74, and all applications under section 66 or section 77 for varying such regulations;

(d) the indexes mentioned in section 147; and

(e) such other documents as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify,

shall, subject to such conditions as may be prescribed, be open to public inspection at the Trade Marks Registry:

Provided that when such register is maintained wholly or partly on computer, the inspection of such register under this section shall be made by inspecting the computer print out of the relevant entry in the register so maintained on computer.

(2) Any person may, on an application to the Registrar and on payment of such fees as may be prescribed, obtain a certified copy of any entry in the register or any document referred to in sub-section (1).

Reports of Registrar to Be Placed Before Parliament

149. The Central Government shall cause to be placed before both Houses of Parliament once a year a report respecting the execution by or under the Registrar of this Act.

Fees and Surcharge

150.-(1) There shall be paid in respect of applications and registration and other matters under this Act such fees and surcharge as may be prescribed by the Central Government.

(2) Where a fee is payable in respect of the doing of an act by the Registrar, the Registrar shall not do that act until the fee has been paid.

(3) Where a fee is payable in respect of the filing of a document at the Trade Marks Registry, the document shall be deemed not to have been filed at the Registry until the fee has been paid.

Savings in Respect of Certain Matters in Chapter XII

151. Nothing in Chapter XII shall-

(a) exempt any person from any suit or other proceeding which might, but for anything in that Chapter, be brought against him; or

(b) entitle any person to refuse to make a complete discovery, or to answer any question or interrogatory in any suit or other proceeding, but such discovery or answer shall not be admissible in evidence against such person in any such prosecution for an offence under that Chapter or against clause (h) of section 112 of the Customs Act, 1962 relating to confiscation of goods under clause (d) of section 111 of that Act and notified by the Central Government under clause (n) of sub-section (2) of section 11 thereof for the protection of trade marks relating to import of goods; or

(52 of 1962)

(c) be construed so as to render liable to any prosecution or punishment any servant of a master resident in India who in good faith acts in obedience to the instructions of such master, and, on demand made by or on behalf of the prosecutor, has given full information as to his master and as to the instructions which he has received from his master.

Declaration as to Ownership of Trade Mark not Registrable
Under the Registration Act, 1908

152. Notwithstanding anything contained in the Registration Act, 1908, no document declaring or purporting to declare the ownership or title of a person to a trade mark other than a registered trade mark shall be registered under that Act.

(16 of 1908)

Government to Be Bound

153. The provisions of this Act shall be binding on the Government.

Special Provisions Relating to Applications for Registration
from Citizens of Convention Countries

154.-(1) With a view to the fulfillment of a treaty, convention or arrangement with any country or country which is a member of a group of countries or union of countries or Inter Governmental Organisation outside India which affords to citizens of India similar privileges as granted to its own citizens, the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare such country or group of countries or union of countries or Inter Governmental Organisation to be a convention country or group of countries or union of countries or Inter Governmental Organisations, as the case my be, for the purposes of this act.

(2) Where a person has made an application for the registration of a trade mark in a convention country or country which is a member of a group of countries or union of countries or Inter Governmental Organisation and that person, or his legal representative or assignee, makes an application for the registration of the trade mark in India within six months after the date on which the application was made in the convention country or country which is a member of a group of countries or union of countries or Inter Governmental Organisations, the trade mark shall, if registered under this Act, be registered as of the date on which the application was made in the convention country or country which is a member of a group of countries or union of countries or Inter-Governmental Organisation and that date shall be deemed for the purposes of this Act to be the date of registration.

(3) Where applications have been made for the registration of a trade mark in two or more convention countries or country which are members of group of countries or union of countries or Inter Governmental Organisation, the period of six months referred to in the last preceding sub-section shall be reckoned from the date on which the earlier or earliest of those applications was made.

(4) Nothing in this Act shall entitle the proprietor of a trade mark to recover damages for infringement which took place prior to the date of application for registration under this Act.

Provision as to Reciprocity

155. Where any country or country which is a member of a group of countries or union of countries or Inter-Governmental Organisation specified by the Central Government in this behalf by notification in the Official Gazette does not accord to citizens of India the same rights in respect of the registration and protection of trade marks as it accords to its own nationals, no national of such country or country which is a member of a group of countries or Union of countries of Inter-Governmental Organisation, as the case may be, shall be entitled, either solely or jointly with any other person,-

(a) to apply for the registration of or be registered as the proprietor of, a trade mark;

(b) to be registered as the assignee of the proprietor of a registered trade mark; or

(c) to apply for registration or be registered as a registered user of a trade mark under section 49.

Power of Central Government to Remove Difficulties

156.-(1) If any difficulty arises in giving effect to the provisions of this Act, the Central Government may, by order published in the Official Gazette, make such provisions not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act as may appear to be necessary for removing the difficulty:

Provided that no order shall be made under this section after the expiry of five years from the commencement of this act.

(2) Every order made under this section shall, as soon as may be after it is made, be laid before each House of Parliament.

Power to Make Rules

157.-(1) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette and subject to the conditions of previous publication, make rules to carry out the provisions of this Act.

(2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:-

(i) the matters to be included in the Register of Trade Marks under sub-section (1) of section 6, and the safeguards to be observed in the maintenance of records on computer floppies or diskettes or in any other electronic form under sub-section (2) of that section;

(ii) the manner of publication of alphabetical index of classification of goods and services under sub-section (1) of section 8;

(iii) The manner in which the Registrar may notify a word as an international non-proprietary name under section 13;

(iv) The manner of making an application for dissolution of an association under sub-section (5) of section 16;

(v) The manner of making an application for registration of a trade mark under sub-section (1) of section 18;

(vi) The manner of advertising of an application for registration under sub-section (1), and the manner of notifying corrections or amendments under sub-section (2), of section 20;

(vii) The manner of making an application and the fee payable for such application giving notice under sub-section (1) and sending counter statements under sub-section (2) and submission of evidence and the time therefor under sub-section (4) of section 21;

(viii) The form of certificate of registration under sub-section (2), and the manner of giving notice to the applicant under sub-section (3) of section 23;

(ix) The forms of application for renewal and restoration the time within which such application is to be made and the fee and surcharge if any payable with each application, under section 25 and the time within which the Registrar shall send a notice and the manner of such notice under sub-section (3) of that section;

(x) The manner of submitting statement of cases under sub-section (2) of section 40;

(xi) The manner of making an application by the proprietor of a trade mark under section 41;

(xii) The manner of making an application for assignment or transmission of a certification trade mark under section 43;

(xiii) The manner of making an application to the Registrar to register title under sub-section (1) of section 45;

(xiv) The manner in which and the period within which an application is to be made under sub-section (4) of section 46;

(xv) The manner of marking an application under sub-section (2) of section 47;

(xvi) The manner of making an application, documents and other evidence to accompany such application under sub-section (1) and the manner in which notice is to be issued under sub-section (3) of section 49;

(xvii) The manner of making an application under sub-section (1), the manner of issuing a notice under sub-section (2) and the procedure for cancelling a registration under sub-section (3) of section 50;

(xviii) The manner of making applications under sub-sections (1) and (2), the manner of giving notice under sub-section (4) and the manner of service of notice of rectification under sub-section (5) of section 57;

(xix) The manner of making an application under section 58;

(xx) The manner of making an application under sub-section (1), the manner of advertising an application, time and manner of notice by which application may be opposed under sub-sections (2) and (3) of section 59;

(xxi) The manner of advertisement under sub-section (2) of section 60;

(xxii) The other matters to be specified in the regulations under sub-section (2) of section 63;

(xxiii) The manner of making an application under sub-section (1) of section 71;

(xxiv) The manner of advertising an application under section 73;

(xxv) The manner of making an application under section 77;

(xxvi) The classes of goods under section 79;

(xxvii) The conditions and restrictions under sub-section (2) of section 80;

(xxviii) Determination of character of textile goods by sampling under section 82;

(xxix) The salaries and allowances payable to, and the other terms and conditions of service of, the Chairman, Vice Chairman and other Member under sub-section (1) of section 88;

(xxx) The procedure for investigation of misbehaviour or incapacity of the Chairman, Vice-Chairman and other Members under sub-section (3) of section 89;

(xxxi) The salaries and allowances and other conditions of service of the officers and other employees of the Appellate Board under sub-section (2), and the manner in which the officers and other employees of the Appellate Board shall discharge their functions under sub-section (3), of section 90;

(xxxii) The form of making an appeal, the manner of verification and the fee payable under sub-section (3) of section 91;

(xxxiii) The form in which and the particulars to be included in the application to the Appellate Board under sub-section (1) of section 97;

(xxxiv) The manner of making an application for review under clause (c) of section 127;

(xxxv) the time within which an application is to be made to the Registrar for exercising his discretionary power under section 128;

(xxxvi) the manner of making an application and the fee payable therefor under sub-section (1) of section 131;

(xxxvii) the manner of making an application under sub-section (1) and the period for withdrawal of such application under sub-section (2) of section 133;

(xxxviii) the manner of authorising any person to act and the manner of registration as a trade mark agent under section 145;

(xxxix) the conditions for inspection of documents under sub-section (1) and the fee payable for obtaining a certified copy of any entry in the register under sub-section (2) of section 148;

(xl) the fees and surcharge payable for making applications and registration and other matters under section 150;

(xli) any other matter which is required to be or may be prescribed.

(3) The power to make rules conferred by this section shall include the power to give retrospective effect in respect of the matters referred to in clauses (xxix) and (xxxi) of sub-section (2) from a date not earlier than the date of commencement of this Act, but no retrospective effect shall be given to any such rule so as to prejudicially affect the interests of any person to whom sub-rule may be applicable.

(4) Every rule made by the Central Government under this Act shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before each House of Parliament, while it is in session for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive session, and if, before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid , both Houses agree in making any modification in the rule or both Houses agree that the rule should not be made, the rule shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may be; so, however, that any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done under that rule.

Amendments

158. The enactment specified in the Schedule shall be amended in the manner specified therein.

Repeal and Savings

159.-(1) The Trade and Merchandise Marks act, 1958 is hereby repealed.

(43 of 1958)

(2) Without prejudice to the provisions contained in the General Clauses Act, 1897, with respect to repeals, any notification, rule, order, requirements, registration, certificate, notice, decision, determination, direction, approval, authorisation, consent, application, request or thing made, issued, given or done under the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 shall, if in force at the commencement of this Act, continue to be in force and have effect as if made, issued, given or done under the corresponding provisions of this Act.

(10 of 1897 & 43 of 1958)

(3) The provisions of this Act shall apply to any application for registration of a trade mark pending at the commencement of this Act and to any proceedings consequent thereon and to any registration granted in pursuance thereof.

(4) Subject to the provisions of section 100 and notwithstanding anything contained in any other provision of this Act, any legal proceeding pending in any court at the commencement of this Act may be continued in that court as if this Act had not been passed.

(5) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, where a particular use of a registered trade mark is not an infringement of a trade mark registered before the commencement of this Act, then, the continued use of that mark shall not be an infringement under this act.

(6) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (2), the date of expiration of registration of a trade mark registered before the commencement of this Act shall be the date immediately after the period of seven years for which it was registered or renewed:

Provided that the registration of a defensive trade mark referred to in section 47 of the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act,1958 shall cease to have effect on the date immediately after the expiry of five years of such commencement or after the expiry of the period for which it was registered or renewed, whichever is earlier.

(43 of 1958)

THE SCHEDULE
(SEE SECTION 158)
AMENDMENTS

Year

Act No.

Short title

Amendment

1956

1

The Companies Act, 1956

(1) In Section 20, for sub-section (2), the following sub-sections shall be substituted, namely:-

"(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, a name which is identical with, or too nearly resembles,-

(i) The name by which a company in existence has been previously registered, or

(ii) a registered trade mark, or a trade mark which is subject of an application for registration, of any other person under the Trade Marks act, 1999,

may be deemed to be undesirable by the Central Government within the meaning of sub-section (1).

(3) The Central Government, may, before deeming a name as undesirable under clause (ii) of sub-section (2), consult the Registrar of Trade Marks".

(II) In section 22, in sub-section (I),-

(i) for the portion beginning with "if, through" and ending with "the first mentioned company"-the following shall be substituted, namely:-

"If, through inadvertence or otherwise, a company on its first registration or on its registration by a new name, is registered by a name which,-

(i) in the opinion of the Central Government, is identical with, or too nearly resembles, the name by which a company in existence has been previously registered, whether under this Act or any previous companies law, the first mentioned company, or

(ii) on an application by a registered proprietor of a trade mark, is in the opinion of the Central Government identical with, or too nearly resembles, a registered trade mark of such proprietor under the trade Marks Act, 1999, such company,-",

(iii) the following proviso shall be added, namely:-

"Provided that no application under clause (ii) made by a registered proprietor of a trade mark after five years of coming to notice of registration of the company shall be considered by the Central Government".

Raghbir Singh,

Secy, to the Govt. of India

 

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