World Intellectual Property Organization

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

Afghanistan

Declaration made upon accession:
"The presiding body of the Revolutionary Council of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan declares that the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 of article 48 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 of article 26 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, according to which some countries cannot join the aforesaid Covenants, contradicts the International character of the aforesaid Treaties. Therefore, according to the equal rights of all States to sovereignty, both Covenants should be left open for the purpose of the participation of all States."

Algeria

Interpretative declarations made upon ratification:
"1. The Algerian Government interprets article 1, which is common to the two Covenants, as in no case impairing the inalienable right of all peoples to self-determination and to control over their natural wealth and resources.
It further considers that the maintenance of the State of dependence of certain territories referred to in article 1, paragraph 3, of the two Covenants and in article 14 of the Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights is contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations, to the Charter of the Organization and to the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples [General Assembly resolution 1514 (XV)].
2. The Algerian Government interprets the provisions of article 8 of the Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and article 22 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights as making the law the framework for action by the State with respect to the organization and exercise of the right to organize.
3. The Algerian Government considers that the provisions of article 13, paragraphs 3 and 4, of the Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights can in no case impair its right freely to organize its educational system.
4. The Algerian Government interprets the provisions of article 23, paragraph 4, of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights regarding the rights and responsibilities of spouses as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution as in no way impairing the essential foundations of the Algerian legal system."

Bahamas

Declaration made upon ratification:
"The Government of the Bahamas interprets non-discrimination as to national origin as not necessarily implying an obligation on States automatically to guarantee to foreigners the same rights as to their nationals. The term should be understood to refer to the elimination of any arbitrary behavior but not of differences in treatment based on objective and reasonable considerations, in conformity with principles prevailing in democratic societies."

Bangladesh

Declarations made upon accession:
"Article 1: It is the understanding of the Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh that the words "the right of self-determination of Peoples" appearing in this article apply in the historical context of colonial rule, administration, foreign domination, occupation and similar situations.
Articles 2 and 3: The Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh will implement articles 2 and 3 in so far as they relate to equality between man and woman, in accordance with the relevant provisions of its Constitution and in particular, in respect to certain aspects of economic rights viz. law of inheritance.
Articles 7 and 8: The Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh will apply articles 7 and 8 under the conditions and in conformity with the procedures established in the Constitution and the relevant legislation of Bangladesh.
Articles 10 and 13: While the Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh accepts the provisions embodied in articles 10 and 13 of the Covenant in principle, it will implement the said provisions in a progressive manner, in keeping with the existing economic conditions and the development plans of the country."

Barbados

Declaration made upon ratification:
"The Government of Barbados states that it reserves the right to postpone-
(a) The application of sub-paragraph (a) (1) of article 7 of the Covenant in so far as it concerns the provision of equal pay to men and women for equal work;
(b) The application of article 10 (2) in so far as it relates to the special protection to be accorded mothers during a reasonable period during and after childbirth; and
(c) The application of article 13 (2) (a) of the Covenant, in so far as it relates to primary education; since, while the Barbados Government fully accepts the principles embodied in the same articles and undertakes to take the necessary steps to apply them in their entirety, the problems of implementation are such that full application of the principles in question cannot be guaranteed at this stage."

Belgium

Interpretative declarations made upon ratification:
"1. With respect to article 2, paragraph 2, the Belgian Government interprets non-discrimination as to national origin as not necessarily implying an obligation on States automatically to guarantee to foreigners the same rights as to their nationals. The term should be understood to refer to the elimination of any arbitrary behavior but not of differences in treatment based on objective and reasonable considerations, in conformity with the principles prevailing in democratic societies.
2. With respect to article 2, paragraph 3, the Belgian Government understands that this provision cannot infringe the principle of fair compensation in the event of expropriation or nationalization."

Bulgaria

Declaration made upon ratification:
"The People's Republic of Bulgaria deems it necessary to underline that the provisions of article 48, paragraphs l and 3, of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and article 26, paragraphs 1 and 3, of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, under which a number of States are deprived of the opportunity to become parties to the Covenants, are of a discriminatory nature. These provisions are inconsistent with the very nature of the Covenants, which are universal in character and should be open for accession by all States. In accordance with the principle of sovereign equality, no State has the right to bar other States from becoming parties to a covenant of this kind."

China

Declaration made upon ratification:
"In accordance with the Decision made by the Standing Committee of the Ninth National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China at its Twentieth Session, the President of the People's Republic of China hereby ratifies The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights , which was signed by Mr.Qin Huasun on behalf of the People's Republic of China on 27 October 1997, and declares the following:
1.The application of Article 8.1 (a) of the Covenant to the People's Republic of China shall be consistent with the relevant provisions of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Trade Union Law of the People's Republic of China and Labor Law of the People's Republic of China;..."

Declaration made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:
"The signature that the Taiwan authorities affixed, by usurping the name of "China", to the said Covenant on 5 October 1967, is illegal and null and void."

Cuba

Declaration made upon signature:
"The Republic of Cuba hereby declares that it was the Revolution that enabled its people to enjoy the rights set out in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
The economic, commercial and financial embargo imposed by the United States of America and its policy of hostility and aggression against Cuba constitute the most serious obstacle to the Cuban people's enjoyment of the rights set out in the Covenant.
The rights protected under this Covenant are enshrined in the Constitution of the Republic and in national legislation.
The State's policies and programmers guarantee the effective exercise and protection of these rights for all Cubans.
With respect to the scope and implementation of some of the provisions of this international instrument, Cuba will make such reservations or interpretative declarations as it may deem appropriate."

Cyprus

Objection made on November 26, 2003:
"....the Government of the Republic of Cyprus wishes to express its objection with respect to the declarations entered by the Republic of Turkey upon ratification on 23 September 2003, of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, New York, 16 December 1966.
The Government of the Republic of Cyprus considers that the declaration relating to the implementation of the provisions of the Covenant only to the States with which the Republic of Turkey has diplomatic relations, and the declaration that the Convention is "ratified exclusively with regard to the national territory where the Constitution and the legal and administrative order of the Republic of Turkey are applied" amount to reservations. These reservations create uncertainty as to the States Parties in respect of which Turkey is undertaking the obligations in the Covenant, and raise doubt as to the commitment of Turkey to the object and purpose of the said Covenant.
The Government of the Republic of Cyprus objects to the said reservations entered by the Republic of Turkey and states that these reservations or the objection to them shall not preclude the entry into force of the Covenant between the Republic of Cyprus and the Republic of Turkey."

Denmark

Objection made on March 17, 2005:
"The Government of Denmark has examined the declaration made by the Islamic Republic of Pakistan upon signing the 1966 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
The application of the provisions of the said Covenant has been made subject to the provisions of the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. This general formulation makes it unclear to what extent the Islamic Republic of Pakistan considers itself bound by the obligations of the Covenant and therefore raises doubt as to the commitment of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan to the object and purpose of the Covenant.
The Government of Denmark considers that the declaration made by the Islamic Republic of Pakistan to the international Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in substance constitutes a reservation and that this reservation is incompatible with the object and purpose of the Covenant.
For the above-mentioned reasons, the Government of Denmark objects to this declaration made by the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Covenant between the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and Denmark without Pakistan benefiting from her declaration."

Egypt

Declaration made upon ratification:
"... Taking into consideration the provisions of the Islamic Sharia and the fact that they do not conflict with the text annexed to the instrument, we accept, support and ratify it ..."

Finland

Objection made on November 15, 2005:
"The Government of Finland has carefully examined the declaration made by the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan regarding the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. The Government of Finland takes note that the provisions of the Covenant shall, according to the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, be subject to the provisions of the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
The Government of Finland notes that a reservation which consists of a general reference to national law without specifying the contents does not clearly define to other Parties to the Convention the extent to which the reserving State commits itself to the Convention and creates serious doubts as to the commitment of the receiving State to fulfill its obligations under the Convention. Such reservations are, furthermore, subject to the general principle of treaty interpretation according to which a party may not invoke the provisions of its domestic law as justification for a failure to perform its treaty obligations.
The Government of Finland therefore objects to the above-mentioned declaration made by the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan to the Covenant. This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Covenant between the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and Finland. The Covenant will thus become operative between the two states without the Islamic Republic of Pakistan benefiting from its declaration."

Objection made on October 13, 2004:
"The Government of Finland has examined the declarations and reservation made by the Republic of Turkey to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. The Government of Finland notes that the Republic of Turkey reserves the right to interpret and apply the provisions of the paragraphs 3 and 4 of Article 13 of the Covenant in accordance with the provisions under articles 3, 14 and 42 of the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey.
The Government of Finland emphasizes the great importance of the rights provided for in paragraphs 3 and 4 of Article 13 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. The reference to certain provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey is of a general nature and does not clearly specify the content of the reservation. The Government of Finland therefore wishes to declare that it assumes that the Government of the Republic of Turkey will ensure the implementation of the rights recognized in the Covenant and will do its utmost to bring its national legislation into compliance with the obligations under the Covenant with a view to withdrawing the reservation. This declaration does not preclude the entry into force of the Covenant between the Republic of Turkey and Finland."

Objection made on December 13, 1999:
"The Government of Finland has examined the contents of the declarations made by the Government of Bangladesh to Articles 2, 3, 7, 8, 10 and 13 and notes that the declarations constitute reservations as they seem to modify the obligations of Bangladesh under the said articles.
A reservation which consists of a general reference to national law without specifying its contents does not clearly define for the other Parties of the Convention the extent to which the reserving state commits itself to the Convention and therefore may raise doubts as to the commitment of the reserving state to fulfill its obligations under the Convention. Such a reservation is also, in the view of the Government of Finland, subject to the general principle of treaty interpretation according to which a party may not invoke the provisions of its domestic law as justification for a failure to perform its treaty obligations.
Therefore the Government of Finland objects to the aforesaid reservations made by the Government of Bangladesh. This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between Bangladesh and Finland. The Convention will thus become operative between the two States without Bangladesh benefiting from these reservations".

Objection made on July 25, 1997:
"The Government of Finland notes that according to the interpretative declaration regarding article 2, paragraph 2, and article 3 the application of these articles of the Covenant is in a general way subjected to national law. The Government of Finland considers this interpretative declaration as a reservation of a general kind. The Government of Finland is of the view that such a general reservation raises doubts as to the commitment of Kuwait to the object and purpose of the Covenant and would recall that a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the Covenant shall not be permitted.
The Government of Finland also considers the interpretative declaration to article 9 as a reservation and regards this reservation as well as the reservation to article 8, paragraph 1(d), as problematic in view of the object and purpose of the Covenant.
It is in the common interests of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become parties are respected, as to their object and purpose, by all parties and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
The Government of Finland is further of the view that general reservations of the kind made by the Government of Kuwait, which do not clearly specify the extent of the derogation from the provisions of the Covenant, contribute to undermining the basis of international treaty law.
The Government of Finland therefore objects to the aforesaid reservations made by the Government of Kuwait to the said Covenant.
This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Covenant between Kuwait and Finland."

France

Objection made on November 11, 2005:
"The Government of the French Republic has examined the declaration made by the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan upon signing the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, adopted on 16 December 1966, according to which 'The provisions of the Covenant shall be subject to the provisions of the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan'. Such a declaration is general in scope and unclear and could render the provisions of the Covenant null and void. The Government of the French Republic considers that the said declaration constitutes a reservation which is incompatible with the object and purpose of the Covenant and it therefore objects to that declaration. This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Covenant between France and Pakistan."

Objection made on September 30, 1999:
"The Government of France notes that the ‘declarations' made by Bangladesh in fact constitute reservations since they are aimed at precluding or modifying the legal effect of certain provisions of the treaty. With regard to the declaration concerning article 1, the reservation places on the exercise of the right of peoples to self-determination conditions not provided for in the Charter of the United Nations. The declarations concerning articles 2 and 3 and articles 7 and 8, which render the rights recognized by the Covenant in respect of individuals subordinate to domestic law, are of a general nature and undermine the objective and purpose of the treaty. In particular, the country's economic conditions and development prospects should not affect the freedom of consent of intended spouses to enter into marriage, non-discrimination for reasons of parentage or other conditions in the implementation of special measures of protection and assistance on behalf of children and young persons, or the freedom of parents or legal guardians to choose schools for their children. Economic difficulties or problems of development cannot free a State party entirely from its obligations under the Covenant. In this regard, in compliance with article 10, paragraph 3, of the Covenant, Bangladesh must adopt special measures to protect children and young persons from economic and social exploitation, and the law must punish their employment in work harmful to their morals or health and should also set age limits below which the paid employment of child labor should be prohibited. Consequently, the Government of France lodges an objection to the reservations of a general scope mentioned above. This objection does not prevent the entry into force of the Covenant between Bangladesh and France."

Objection made on November 4, 1980:
"The Government of the Republic takes objection to the reservation entered by the Government of India to article 1 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, as this reservation attaches conditions not provided for by the Charter of the United Nations to the exercise of the right of self-determination. The present declaration will not be deemed to be an obstacle to the entry into force of the Covenant between the French Republic and the Republic of India."

Declarations made upon accession:
"(1) The Government of the Republic considers that, in accordance with Article 103 of the Charter of the United Nations, in case of conflict between its obligations under the Covenant and its obligations under the Charter (especially Articles 1 and 2 thereof), its obligations under the Charter will prevail.
(2) The Government of the Republic declares that articles 6, 9, 11 and 13 are not to be interpreted as derogating from provisions governing the access of aliens to employment or as establishing residence requirements for the allocation of certain social benefits.
(3) The Government of the Republic declares that it will implement the provisions of article 8 in respect of the right to strike in conformity with article 6, paragraph 4, of the European Social Charter according to the interpretation thereof given in the annex to that Charter."

Germany

Objection made on November 8, 2004:
"The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany has carefully examined the declaration made by the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan upon signature of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
The Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan declared that it "will implement the (...) Provisions in a progressive manner, in keeping with the existing economic conditions and the development plans of the country". Since some fundamental obligations resulting from the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, including in particular the principle of non-discrimination found in Article 2 (2) thereof, are not susceptible to progressive implementation and are thus to be guaranteed immediately, the declaration represents a significant qualification of Pakistan's commitment to guarantee the human rights referred to in the Covenant.
The Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan also declared that "the provisions of the Covenant shall, however, be subject to the provisions of the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan". The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany is of the opinion that this leaves it unclear to which extent the Islamic Republic of Pakistan considers itself bound by the obligations resulting from the Covenant.
The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany therefore regards the above-mentioned declarations as reservations and as incompatible with the object and purpose of the Covenant.
The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany therefore objects to the above-mentioned reservations made by the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Covenant between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan."

Objection made on October 13, 2004:
"The Government of the Republic of Turkey has declared that it will implement the provisions of the Covenant only to the states with which it has diplomatic relations. Moreover, the Government of the Republic of Turkey has declared that it ratifies the Covenant exclusively with regard to the national territory where the Constitution and the legal and administrative order of the Republic of Turkey are applied. Furthermore, the Government of the Republic of Turkey has reserved the right to interpret and apply the provisions of Article 13 paragraphs (3) and (4) of the Covenant in accordance with the provisions of Articles 3, 14 and 42 of the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey.
The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany would like to recall that it is in the common interest of all states that treaties to which they have chosen to become parties are respected and applied as to their object and purpose by all parties, and that states are prepared to undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under these treaties. The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany is therefore concerned about declarations and reservations such as those made and expressed by the Republic of Turkey with respect to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
However, the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany believes these declarations do not aim to limit the Covenant's scope in relation to those states with which Turkey has established bonds under the Covenant, and that they do not aim to impose any other restrictions that re not provided for by the Covenant. The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany attaches great importance to the liberties recognized in Article 13 paragraphs (3) and (4) of the Covenant. The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany understands the reservation expressed by the Government of the Republic of Turkey to mean that this Article will be interpreted and applied in such a way that protects the essence of the freedoms guaranteed therein."

Objection made on 17 December 1999:
"The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany notes that the declaration concerning article 1 constitutes a reservation that places on the exercise of the right of all peoples to self-determination conditions not provided for in international law. To attach such conditions could undermine the concept of self-determination and seriously weaken its universally acceptable character.
The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany further notes that the declarations with regard to articles 2 and 3, 7 and 8, and 10 and 13 constitute reservations of a general nature in respect of provisions of the Covenant which may be contrary to the Constitution, legislation, economic conditions and development plans of Bangladesh.
The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany is of the view that these general reservations raise doubts as to the full commitment of Bangladesh to the object and purpose of the Covenant. It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become Parties are respected, as to their object and purpose, by all Parties and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under these treaties.
The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany objects to the aforementioned reservations made by the Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Covenant between the Federal Republic of Germany and the People's Republic of Bangladesh."

Objection made on July 10, 1997:
"The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany notes that article 2 (2) and article 3 have been made subject to the general reservation of national law. It is of the view that these general reservations may raise doubts as to the commitment of Kuwait to the object and purpose of the Covenant.
The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany regards the reservation concerning article 8 (1) (d), in which the Government of Kuwait reserves the right not to apply the right to strike expressly stated in the Covenant, as well as the interpretative declaration regarding article 9, according to which the right to social security would only apply to Kuwaitis, as being problematic in view of the object and purpose of the Covenant. It particularly feels that the declaration regarding article 9, as a result of which the many foreigners working on Kuwaiti territory would, on principle, be totally excluded from social security protection, cannot be based on article 2 (3) of the Covenant.
It is in the common interest of all parties that a treaty should be respected, as to its object and purpose, by all parties.
The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany therefore objects to the [said] general reservations and interpretative declarations.
This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Covenant between Kuwait and the Federal Republic of Germany."

With respect to the interpretative declarations made by Algeria the Secretary-General received, on 25 October 1990, from the Government of Germany the following declaration:
"The Federal Republic of Germany interprets the declaration under paragraph 2 to mean that the latter is not intended to eliminate the obligation of Algeria to ensure that the rights guaranteed in article 8, paragraph 1, of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and in article 22 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights may be restricted only for the reasons mentioned in the said articles and that such restrictions shall be prescribed by law.
It interprets the declaration under paragraph 4 to mean that Algeria, by referring to its domestic legal system, does not intend to restrict its obligation to ensure through appropriate steps equality of rights and responsibilities of spouses as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution."

Objection made on August 15, 1980:
"The Government of the Federal Republic of Germany strongly objects, ... to the declaration made by the Republic of India in respect of article 1 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and of article 1 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
The right of self-determination as enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations and as embodied in the Covenants applies to all peoples and not only to those under foreign domination. All peoples, therefore, have the inalienable right freely to determine their political status and freely to pursue their economic, social and cultural development. The Federal Government cannot consider as valid any interpretation of the right of self-determination which is contrary to the clear language of the provisions in question. It moreover considers that any limitation of their applicability to all nations is incompatible with the object and purpose of the Covenants."

Greece

Objection made on October 11, 2004:
"The Government of Greece has examined the declarations made by the Republic of Turkey upon ratifying the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
The Republic of Turkey declares that it will implement the provisions of the Covenant only to the States with which it has diplomatic relations.
In the view of the Government of Greece, this declaration in fact amounts to a reservation. This reservation is incompatible with the principle that inter-State reciprocity has no place in the context of human rights treaties, which concern the endowment of individuals with rights. It is therefore contrary to the object and purpose of the Covenant.
The Republic of Turkey furthermore declares that the Covenant is ratified exclusively with regard to the national territory where the Constitution and the legal and administrative order of the Republic of Turkey are applied.
In the view of the Government of Greece, this declaration in fact amounts to a reservation. This reservation is incompatible with the obligation of a State Party to respect and ensure the rights laid down in the Covenant to anyone within the power or effective control of that State Party, even if not situated within the territory of such State Party. Accordingly, this reservation is contrary to the object and purpose of the Covenant.
For these reasons, the Government of Greece objects to the aforesaid reservations made by the Republic of Turkey to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Covenant between the Hellenic Republic and the Republic of Turkey. The Covenant, therefore, enters into force between the two States without the Republic of Turkey benefiting from these reservations."

Guinea

Declaration made upon ratification:
"In accordance with the principle whereby all States whose policies are guided by the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations are entitled to become parties to covenants affecting the interests of the international community, the Government of the Republic of Guinea considers that the provisions of article 26, paragraph 1, of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights are contrary to the principle of the universality of international treaties and the democratization of international relations.
The Government of the Republic of Guinea likewise considers that article 1, paragraph 3, and the provisions of article 14 of that instrument are contrary to the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations, in general, and United Nations resolutions on the granting of independence to colonial countries and peoples, in particular.
The above provisions are contrary to the Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States contained in General Assembly resolution 2625 (XXV), pursuant to which every State has the duty to promote realization of the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples in order to put an end to colonialism."

Hungary

Declaration made upon ratification:
"The Presidential Council of the Hungarian People's Republic declares that the provisions of article 48, paragraphs 1 and 3, of [...] the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and article 26, paragraphs 1 and 3, of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights are inconsistent with the universal character of the Covenants. It follows from the principle of sovereign equality of States that the Covenants should be open for participation by all States without any discrimination or limitation."

Declaration made upon signature:
"The Government of the Hungarian People's Republic declares that paragraph 1 of article 26 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and paragraph 1 of article 48 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights according to which certain States may not become signatories to the said Covenants are of a discriminatory nature and are contrary to the basic principle of international law that all States are entitled to become signatories to general multilateral treaties. These discriminatory provisions are incompatible with the objectives and purposes of the Covenants."

India

Declaration made upon accession:
"I. With reference to article 1 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and article 1 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the Government of the Republic of India declares that the words `the right of self-determination' appearing in [this article] apply only to the peoples under foreign domination and that these words do not apply to sovereign independent States or to a section of a people or nation--which is the essence of national integrity.
II. With reference to article 9 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the Government of the Republic of India takes the position that the provisions of the article shall be so applied as to be in consonance with the provisions of clauses (3) to (7) of article 22 of the Constitution of India. Further under the Indian Legal System, there is no enforceable right to compensation for persons claiming to be victims of unlawful arrest or detention against the State.
III. With respect to article 13 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the Government of the Republic of India reserves its right to apply its law relating to foreigners.
IV. With reference to articles 4 and 8 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and articles 12, 19 (3), 21 and 22 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights the Government of the Republic of India declares that the provisions of the said [article] shall be so applied as to be in conformity with the provisions of article 19 of the Constitution of India.
V. With reference to article 7 (c) of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Government of the Republic of India declares that the provisions of the said article shall be so applied as to be in conformity with the provisions of article 16(4) of the Constitution of India."

Indonesia

Declaration made upon accession:
"With reference to Article 1 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Government of [the] Republic of Indonesia declares that, consistent with the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, and the Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States, and the relevant paragraph of the Vienna Declaration and Program of Action of 1993, the words "the right of self-determination" appearing in this article do not apply to a section of people within a sovereign independent state and can not be construed as authorizing or encouraging any action which would dismember or impair, totally or in part, the territorial integrity or political unity of sovereign and independent states."

Iraq

Declaration made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:
"The entry of the Republic of Iraq as a party to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights shall in no way signify recognition of Israel nor shall it entail any obligation towards Israel under the said two Covenants.
The entry of the Republic of Iraq as a party to the above two Covenants shall not constitute entry by it as a party to the Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights."

Declaration made upon ratification:
"Ratification by Iraq ... shall in no way signify recognition of Israel nor shall it be conducive to entry with her into such dealings as are regulated by the said Covenant."

Ireland

Reservations made upon ratification:
"Article 2, paragraph 2: In the context of Government policy to foster, promote and encourage the use of the Irish language by all appropriate means, Ireland reserves the right to require, or give favourable consideration to, a knowledge of the Irish language for certain occupations.
Article 13, paragraph 2 (a): Ireland recognizes the inalienable right and duty of parents to provide for the education of children, and, while recognizing the State's obligations to provide for free primary education and requiring that children receive a certain minimum education, nevertheless reserves the right to allow parents to provide for the education of their children in their homes provided that these minimum standards are observed."

Israel

In two communications received by the Secretary-General on 10 July 1969 and 23 March 1971 respectively, the Government of Israel declared that it "has noted the political character of the declaration made by the Government of Iraq on signing and ratifying the above Covenants. In the view of the Government of Israel, these two Covenants are not the proper place for making such political pronouncements. The Government of Israel will, in so far as concerns the substance of the matter, adopt towards the Government of Iraq an attitude of complete reciprocity.
Identical communications, mutatis mutandis, were received by the Secretary-General from the Government of Israel on 9 July 1969 in respect of the declaration made upon accession by the Government of Syria, and on 29 June 1970 in respect of the declaration made upon accession by the Government of Libya. In the latter communication, the Government of Israel moreover stated that the declaration concerned cannot in any way affect the obligations of the Libyan Arab Republic already existing under general international law.

Italy

Objection made on July 25,1997:
"The Government of Italy considers these reservations to be contrary to the object and the purpose of this International Covenant. The Government of Italy notes that the said reservations include a reservation of a general kind in respect of the provisions on the internal law.
The Government of Italy therefore objects to the aforesaid reservations made by the Government of Kuwait to the said Covenant.
This objection does not preclude the entry into force in its entirety of the Covenant between the State of Kuwait and the Italian Republic."

Japan

On 11 September 2012, the Government of Japan informed the Secretary-General that it had decided to withdraw the following reservation made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:
"In applying the provisions of sub-paragraphs (b) and (c) of paragraph 2 of article 13 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Japan reserves the right not to be bound by 'in particular by the progressive introduction of free education' referred to in the said provisions."

Reservations and declarations made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:
"1. In applying the provisions of paragraph (d) of article 7 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Japan reserves the right not be bound by 'remuneration for public holidays' referred to in the said provisions.
2. Japan reserves the right not to be bound by the provisions of sub-paragraph (d) of paragraph 1 of article 8 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, except in relation to the sectors in which the right referred to in the said provisions is accorded in accordance with the laws and regulations of Japan at the time of ratification of the Covenant by the Government of Japan.
3. In applying the provisions of sub-paragraphs (b) and (c) of paragraph 2 of article 13 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Japan reserves the right not to be bound by 'in particular by the progressive introduction of free education' referred to in the said provisions.
4. Recalling the position taken by the Government of Japan, when ratifying the Convention (No. 87) concerning Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise, that 'the police' referred to in article 9 of the said Convention be interpreted to include the fire service of Japan, the Government of Japan declares that 'members of the police' referred to in paragraph 2 of article 8 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights as well as in paragraph 2 of article 22 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights be interpreted to include fire service personnel of Japan."

Kenya

Declaration made upon accession:
"While the Kenya Government recognizes and endorses the principles laid down in paragraph 2 of article 10 of the Covenant, the present circumstances obtaining in Kenya do not render necessary or expedient the imposition of those principles by legislation."

Latvia

Objection made on November 10, 2005:
"The Government of the Republic of Latvia has carefully examined the declaration made by the Islamic Republic of Pakistan to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights upon accession.
The Government of the Republic of Latvia considers that the declaration contains general reference to national law, making the provisions of International Covenant subject to the national law of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
Thus, the Government of the Republic of Latvia is of the opinion that the declaration is in fact a unilateral act deemed to limit the scope of application of the International Covenant and therefore, it shall be regarded as a reservation.
Moreover, the Government of the Republic of Latvia noted that the reservation does not make it clear to what extent the Islamic Republic of Pakistan considers itself bound by the provisions of the International Covenant and whether the way of implementation of the provisions of the International Covenant is in line with the object and purpose of the International Covenant.
The Government of the Republic of Latvia recalls that customary international law as codified by Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, and in particular Article 19 (c), sets out the reservations that are incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty are not permissible.
The Government of the Republic of Latvia therefore objects to the aforesaid reservations made by the Islamic Republic of Pakistan to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
However, this objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the International Covenant between the Republic of Latvia and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Thus, the International Covenant will become operative without the Islamic Republic of Pakistan benefiting from its reservation."

Libya

Declaration made upon accession:
"The acceptance and the accession to this Covenant by the Libyan Arab Republic shall in no way signify a recognition of Israel or be conducive to entry by the Libyan Arab Republic into such dealings with Israel as are regulated by the Covenant."

Madagascar

Declaration made upon ratification:
"The Government of Madagascar states that it reserves the right to postpone the application of article 13, paragraph 2, of the Covenant, more particularly in so far as relates to primary education, since, while the Malagasy Government fully accepts the principles embodied in the said paragraph and undertakes to take the necessary steps to apply them in their entirety at the earliest possible date, the problems of implementation, and particularly the financial implications, are such that full application of the principles in question cannot be guaranteed at this stage."

Malta

Declaration made upon ratification:
"Article 13 - The Government of Malta declares that it is in favor of upholding the principle affirmed in the words "and to ensure the religious and moral education of their children in conformity with their own convictions". However, having regard to the fact that the population of Malta is overwhelmingly Roman Catholic, it is difficult also in view of limited financial and human resources, to provide such education in accordance with a particular religious or moral belief in cases of small groups, which cases are very exceptional in Malta."

Mexico

Declaration made upon accession:
"The Government of Mexico accedes to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights with the understanding that article 8 of the Covenant shall be applied in the Mexican Republic under the conditions and in conformity with the procedure established in the applicable provisions of the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States and the relevant implementing legislation."

Monaco

Declarations and reservations made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:
"The Princely Government declares that it interprets the principle of non-discrimination on the grounds of national origin, embodied in article 2, paragraph 2, as not necessarily implying an automatic obligation on the part of States to guarantee foreigners the same rights as their nationals.
The Princely Government declares that articles 6, 9, 11 and 13 should not be constituting an impediment to provisions governing access to work by foreigners or fixing conditions of residence for the granting of certain social benefits.
The Princely Government declares that it considers article 8, paragraph 1, sub paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) on the exercise of trade union rights to be compatible with the appropriate legislative provisions regarding the formalities, conditions and procedures designed to ensure effective trade union representation and to promote harmonious labor relations.
The Princely Government declares that in implementing the provisions of article 8 relating to the exercise of the right to strike, it will take into account the requirements, conditions, limitations and restrictions which are prescribed by law and which are necessary in a democratic society in order to guarantee the rights and freedoms of others or to protect public order (ordre public), national security, public health or morals.
Article 8, paragraph 2, should be interpreted as applying to the members of the police force and agents of the State, the Commune and public enterprises."

Mongolia

Declaration made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:
"The Mongolian People's Republic declares that the provisions of paragraph 1 of article 26 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and of paragraph 1 of article 48 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, under which a number of States cannot become parties to these Covenants, are of a discriminatory nature and considers that the Covenants, in accordance with the principle of sovereign equality of States, should be open for participation by all States concerned without any discrimination or limitation."

Netherlands

Communication made on April 15, 2009:
"The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands has carefully examined the reservation made by the Government of Pakistan upon ratifying the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. It is the understanding of the Kingdom of the Netherlands that the reservation of Pakistan does not exclude or modify the legal effect of the provisions of the Covenant in their application to Pakistan."

Objection made on October 7, 2005:
"The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands has examined the declaration made by the Islamic Republic of Pakistan on 3 November 2004 upon signature of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, done at New York on 16 December 1966.
The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands would like to recall that the status of a statement is not determined by the designation assigned to it. The application of the provisions f the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights has been made subject to the provisions of the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
This makes it unclear to what extent the Islamic Republic of Pakistan considers itself bound by the obligations of the treaty. It is of the common interest of States that all parties respect treaties to which they have chosen to become parties and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties. A reservation as formulated by the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is thus likely to contribute to undermining the basis of international treaty law.
The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands considers that the declaration made by the Islamic Republic of Pakistan to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in substance constitutes a reservation.
The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands therefore objects to the declaration made by the Islamic Republic of Pakistan to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Covenant between the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, without Pakistan benefiting from its declaration."

Objection made on April 23, 2002:
"...the statement made by the Government of the People's Republic of China to article 8.1 (a) of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands has examined the statement and would like to recall that, under well established international treaty law, the name assigned to a statement whereby the legal effect of certain provisions of a treaty is excluded or modified, does not determine its status as a reservation to the treaty. The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands considers that the statement made by the Government of the People's Republic of China to article 8.1 (a) of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in substance constitutes a reservation.
The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands notes that the application of Article 8.1 (a) of the Covenant is being made subject to a statement referring to the contents of national legislation. According to the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, a party to a treaty may not invoke the provisions of its internal law as justification for its failure to abide by the treaty. Furthermore, the right to form and join a trade union of one's choice is one of the fundamental principles of the Covenant.
The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands therefore objects to the reservation made by the People's Republic of China to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Covenant between the Kingdom of the Netherlands and China."

Objection made on 20 December 1999:
"The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands has examined the declarations made by the Government of Bangladesh at the time of its accession to the International Covenant on economic, social and cultural rights and considers the declarations concerning Articles 1, 2 and 3, and 7 and 8 as reservations.
The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands objects to the reservation made by the Government of Bangladesh in relation to Article 1 of the said Covenant, since the right of self-determination as embodied in the Covenant is conferred upon all peoples. This follows not only from the very language of Article 1 of the Covenant but as well from the most authoritative statement of the law concerned, i.e. the Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations. Any attempt to limit the scope of this right or to attach conditions not provided for in the relevant instruments would undermine the concept of self-determination itself and would thereby seriously weaken its universally acceptable character.
Furthermore, the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands objects to the reservations made by the Government of Bangladesh in relation to Articles 2 and 3, and, 7 and 8 of the said Covenant.
The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands considers that such reservations which seek to limit the responsibilities of the reserving State under the Covenant by invoking national law, may raise doubts as to the commitment of this State to the object and purpose of the Covenant and, moreover, contribute to undermining the basis of international treaty law.
It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become parties should be respected, as to object and purpose by all parties.
The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands therefore objects to the aforesaid reservations made by the Government of Bangladesh.
These objections shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Bangladesh."

Objection made on March 18, 1991:
"In the opinion of the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the interpretative declaration concerning article 13, paragraphs 3 and 4 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights must be regarded as a reservation to the Covenant. From the text and history of the Covenant it follows that the reservation with respect to article 13, paragraphs 3 and 4 made by the Government of Algeria is incompatible with the object and purpose of the Covenant. The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands therefore considers the reservation unacceptable and formally raises an objection to it.
This objection is not an obstacle to the entry into force of [the Covenant] between the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Algeria."

Objection made on January 12, 1981:
"The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands objects to the declaration made by the Government of the Republic of India in relation to article 1 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and article 1 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, since the right of self determination as embodied in the Covenants is conferred upon all peoples. This follows not only from the very language of article 1 common to the two Covenants but as well from the most authoritative statement of the law concerned, i.e., the Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations. Any attempt to limit the scope of this right or to attach conditions not provided for in the relevant instruments would undermine the concept of self-determination itself and would thereby seriously weaken its universally acceptable character."

New Zealand

Declaration made upon ratification:
"The Government of New Zealand reserves the right not to apply article 8 to the extent that existing legislative measures, enacted to ensure effective trade union representation and encourage orderly industrial relations, may not be fully compatible with that article."

Norway

Objection made on November 17, 2005:
"The Government of the Kingdom of Norway have examined the Declaration made by the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan on 3 November 2004 on signature of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (New York, 16 December 1966). According to the first part of the Declaration, the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan "will implement the (...) provisions (embodied in the Covenant) in a progressive manner, in keeping with the existing economic conditions and the development plans of the country". Since some fundamental obligations embodied in the Covenant, including in particular the principle of non-discrimination found in Article 2 (2) thereof, are not susceptible to progressive implementation and are thus to be guaranteed immediately, the Government of the Kingdom of Norway consider that this part of the Declaration represents a significant qualification of Pakistan's commitment to guarantee the provisions embodied in the Covenant.
According to the second part of the Declaration, "the provisions of the Covenant shall, however, be subject to the provisions of the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. "The Government of the Kingdom of Norway note that a general reference to national law without specifying its contents does not clearly define for the other States Parties to the Convention the extent to which the reserving State has accepted the obligations of the Convention.
The Government of the Kingdom of Norway consider that both parts of the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan's Declaration seek to limit the scope of the Covenant on a unilateral basis and therefore constitute reservations. The Government of the Kingdom of Norway consider both reservations to be incompatible with the object and purpose of the Covenant, and therefore object to the reservations made by the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
This objection does not preclude the entry into force in its entirety of the Covenant between the Kingdom of Norway and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, without the Islamic Republic of Pakistan benefiting from its reservations."

Objection made on April 23, 2002:
"The Government of Norway has examined the statement made by the People's Republic of China upon ratification of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
It is the Government of Norway's position that the statement made by China in substance constitutes a reservation, and consequently can be made subject to objections.
According to the first paragraph of the statement, the application of Article 8.1(a) of the Covenant shall be consistent with relevant provisions of national legislation. This reference to national legislation, without further description of its contents, exempts the other States Parties from the possibility of assessing the intended effects of the statement. Further, the contents of the relevant provision is not only in itself of fundamental importance, as failure to implement it can also contribute to a less effective implementation of other provisions of the Covenant, such as Articles 6 and 7.
For these reasons, the Government of Norway objects to the said part of the statement made by the People's Republic of China, as it is incompatible with the object and purpose of the Covenant.
This objection does not preclude the entry into force in its entirety of the Covenant between the Kingdom of Norway and the People's Republic of China. The Covenant thus becomes operative between Norway and China without China benefiting from the reservation."

Objection made on July 22, 1997:
"In the view of the Government of Norway, a statement by which a State Party purports to limit its responsibilities by invoking general principles of internal law may create doubts about the commitment of the reserving State to the objective and purpose of the Convention and, moreover, contribute to undermining the basis of international treaty law. Under well-established treaty law, a State is not permitted to invoke internal law as justification for its failure to perform its treaty obligations. Furthermore, the Government of Norway finds the reservations made to article 8, paragraph 1 (d) and article 9 as being problematic in view of the object and purpose of the Covenant. For these reasons, the Government of Norway objects to the said reservations made by the Government of Kuwait.
The Government of Norway does not consider this objection to preclude the entry into force of the Covenant between the Kingdom of Norway and the State of Kuwait."

Declaration made upon ratification:
"Subject to reservations to article 8, paragraph 1 (d) "to the effect that the current Norwegian practice of referring labor conflicts to the State Wages Board (a permanent tripartite arbitrary commission in matters of wages) by Act of Parliament for the particular conflict, shall not be considered incompatible with the right to strike, this right being fully recognized in Norway."

Pakistan

On 17 April 2008, the Government of Pakistan informed the Secretary-General that it had decided to withdraw the declaration made upon signature.

"The Government of Islamic Republic of Pakistan objects to the declaration made by the Republic of India in respect of article 1 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and article 1 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
The right of Self-determination as enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations and as embodied in the Covenants applies to all peoples under foreign occupation and alien domination.
The Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan cannot consider as valid any interpretation of the right of self-determination which is contrary to the clear language of the provisions in question. Moreover, the said reservation is incompatible with the object and purpose of the Covenants. This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Covenant between the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and India without India benefiting from its reservations."

Reservation made upon ratification:
"Pakistan, with a view to achieving progressively the full realization of the rights recognized in the present Covenant, shall use all appropriate means to the maximum of its available resources."

Declaration made upon signature:
"While the Government of Islamic Republic of Pakistan accepts the provisions embodied in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, it will implement the said provisions in a progressive manner, in keeping with the existing economic conditions and the development plans of the country. The provisions of the Covenant shall, however, be subject to the provisions of the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan."

Portugal

Objection made on October 13, 2004:
"The Government of Portugal considers that reservations by which a State limits its responsibility under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) by invoking certain provisions of national law in general terms may create doubts as to the commitment of the reserving State to the object and purpose of the convention and, moreover, contribute to undermining the basis of international law. It is in the common interest of all States that treaties to which they have chosen to become parties are respected as to their object and purpose by all parties and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
The Government of Portugal therefore objects to the reservation by Turkey to the ICESCR. This objection shall not constitute an obstacle to the entry into force of the Covenant between Portugal and Turkey."

Objection made on October 26, 1990:
"The Government of Portugal hereby presents its formal objection to the interpretative declarations made by the Government of Algeria upon ratification of the International Covenants on Civil and Political Rights and on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. The Government of Portugal having examined the contents of the said declarations reached the conclusion that they can be regarded as reservations and therefore should be considered invalid as well as incompatible with the purposes and object of the Covenants.
This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Covenants between Portugal and Algeria."

Romania

Declaration made upon ratification:
"(a) The State Council of the Socialist Republic of Romania considers that the provisions of article 26 (1) of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights are inconsistent with the principle that multilateral international treaties whose purposes concern the international community as a whole must be open to universal participation.
(b) The State Council of the Socialist Republic of Romania considers that the maintenance in a state of dependence of certain territories referred to in articles 1 (3) and 14 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights is inconsistent with the Charter of the United Nations and the instruments adopted by the Organization on the granting of independence to colonial countries and peoples, including the Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, adopted unanimously by the United Nations General Assembly in its resolution 2625 (XXV) of 1970, which solemnly proclaims the duty of States to promote the realization of the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples in order to bring a speedy end to colonialism."

Declaration made upon signature:
"The Government of the Socialist Republic of Romania declares that the provisions of article 26, paragraph 1, of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights are at variance with the principle that all States have the right to become parties to multilateral treaties governing matters of general interest."

Russian Federation

Declaration made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:
"The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics declares that the provisions of paragraph 1 of article 26 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and of paragraph 1 of article 48 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, under which a number of States cannot become parties to these Covenants, are of a discriminatory nature and considers that the Covenants, in accordance with the principle of sovereign equality of States, should be open for participation by all States concerned without any discrimination or limitation."

Slovakia

Objection made on April 9, 2009:
"The Government of the Slovak Republic has carefully examined the reservation made by the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan upon ratification of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, adopted on 16 December 1966, according to which, ‘Pakistan, with a view to achieving progressively the full realization of the rights recognized in the present
Covenant, shall use all appropriate means to the maximum of its available resources.’
The Government of the Slovak Republic is of the view that the reservation is too general and unclear and raises doubts as to the commitment of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan to its obligations under the Covenant, essential for the fulfillment of its object and purpose.
The Government of the Slovak Republic objects for these reasons to the above mentioned reservation made by the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan upon ratification of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights between the Slovak Republic and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights enters into force in its entirety between the Slovak Republic and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, without the Pakistan benefiting from its reservation."

Spain

Objection made on November 15, 2005:
"The Government of the Kingdom of Spain has examined the Declaration made by the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan on 3 November 2004 on signature of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, of 16 December 1966.
The Government of the Kingdom of Spain points out that regardless of what it may be called, a unilateral declaration made by a State for the purpose of excluding or changing the legal effects of certain provisions of a treaty as it applies to that State constitutes a reservation.
The Government of the Kingdom of Spain considers that the Declaration made by the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, which seeks to subject the application of the provisions of the Covenant to the provisions of the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a reservation which seeks to limit the legal effects of the Covenant as it applies to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. A reservation that includes a general reference to national law without specifying its contents does not make it possible to determine clearly the extent to which the Islamic Republic of Pakistan has accepted the obligations of the Covenant and, consequently, creates doubts as to the commitment of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan to the object and purpose of the Covenant.
The Government of the Kingdom of Spain considers that the Declaration made by the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan to the effect that it subjects its obligations under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to the provisions of its constitution is a reservation and that that reservation is incompatible with the object and purpose of the Covenant.
According to customary international law, as codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, reservations that are incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty are not permissible.
Consequently, the Government of the Kingdom of Spain objects to the reservation made by the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Covenant between the Kingdom of Spain and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan."

Sweden

Objection made on March 1, 2005:
"The Government of Sweden would like to recall that the designation assigned to a statement whereby the legal effect of certain provisions of a treaty is excluded or modified does not determine its status as a reservation to the treaty.
The Government of Sweden is of the view that although Article 2 (1) of the Covenant allows for a progressive realization of the provisions, this may not be invoked as a basis for discrimination.
The application of the provisions of the Covenant has been made subject to provisions of the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. This makes it unclear to what extent the Islamic Republic of Pakistan considers itself bound by the obligations of the treaty and therefore raises doubts as to the commitment of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan to the object and purpose of the Covenant. The Government of Sweden considers that the declaration made by the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in substance constitutes a reservation.
It is of common interest of States that all Parties respect treaties to which they have chosen to become parties and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties. According to customary international law, as codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty shall not be permitted.
The Government of Sweden therefore objects to the reservation made by the Islamic Republic of Pakistan to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Covenant between Pakistan and Sweden, without Pakistan benefiting from its reservation."

Objection made on June 30, 2004:
"The Government of Sweden has examined the declarations and reservation made by the Republic of Turkey upon ratifying the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
The Republic of Turkey declares that it will implement the provisions of the Covenant only to the State Parties with which it has diplomatic relations. This statement in fact amounts, in the view of the Government of Sweden, to a reservation. The reservation of the Republic of Turkey makes it unclear to what extent the Republic of Turkey considers itself bound by the obligations of the Covenant. In absence of further clarification, therefore, the reservation raises doubt as to the commitment of the Republic of Turkey to the object and purpose of the Covenant.
The Government of Sweden notes that the interpretation and application of paragraphs 3 and 4 of article 13 of the Covenant is being made subject to a reservation referring to certain provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey without specifying their contents. The Government of Sweden is of the view that in the absence of further clarification, this reservation, which does not clearly specify the extent of the Republic of Turkey's derogation from the provisions in question, raises serious doubts as to the commitment of the Republic of Turkey to the object and purpose of the Covenant.
According to established customary law as codified by the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, reservations incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty shall not be permitted. It is in the common interest of all States that treaties to which they have chosen to become parties are respected as to their object and purpose, by all parties, and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under the treaties.
The Government of Sweden therefore objects to the aforesaid reservations made by the Republic of Turkey to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Covenant between the Republic of Turkey and Sweden. The Covenant enters into force in its entirety between the two States, without the Republic of Turkey benefiting from its reservations."

Objection made on April 2, 2002:
"The Government of Sweden has examined the statement and would like to recall that, under well-established international treaty law, the name assigned to a statement whereby the legal effect of certain provisions of a treaty is excluded or modified, does not determine its status as a reservation to the treaty. The Government of Sweden considers that the statement made by the Government of the People's Republic of China to article 8.1 (a) of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in substance constitutes a reservation.
The Government of Sweden notes that the application of Article 8.1 (a) of the Covenant is being made subject to a statement referring to the contents of national legislation. According to the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, a party to a treaty may not invoke the provisions of its internal law as justification for its failure to abide by the treaty. Furthermore, the right to form and join a trade union of one's choice is one of the fundamental principles of the Covenant. The Government of Sweden wishes to recall that, according to customary international law as codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty shall not be permitted.
The Government of Sweden therefore objects to the reservation made by the People's Republic of China to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Covenant between China and Sweden. The Covenant enters into force without China benefiting from the reservation."

Objection made on December 14, 1999:
"In this context the Government of Sweden would like to recall, that under well-established international treaty law, the name assigned to a statement whereby the legal effect of certain provisions of a treaty is excluded or modified, does not determine its status as a reservation to the treaty. Thus, the Government of Sweden considers that the declarations made by the Government of Bangladesh, in the absence of further clarification, in substance constitute reservations to the Covenant.
The declaration concerning article 1 places on the exercise of the rig of peoples to self-determination conditions not provided for in international law. To attach such conditions could undermine the concept of self-determination itself and would thereby seriously weaken its universally acceptable character.
Furthermore, the Government of Sweden notes that the declaration relating to articles 2 and 3 as well as 7 and 8 respectively, imply that these articles of the Covenant are being made subject to a general reservation referring to relevant provisions of the domestic laws of Bangladesh.
Consequently, the Government of Sweden is of the view that, in the absence of further clarification, these declarations raise doubts as to the commitment of Bangladesh to the object and purpose of the Covenant and would recall that, according to well-established international law, a reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of a treaty shall not be permitted.
It is in the common interest of States that treaties to which they have chosen to become parties are respected, as to their object and purpose, by all parties and that States are prepared to undertake any legislative changes necessary to comply with their obligations under these treaties.
The Government of Sweden therefore objects to the aforesaid general reservations made by the Government of Bangladesh to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Covenant between Bangladesh and Sweden. The Covenant will thus become operative between the two States without Bangladesh benefiting from the declarations."

Objection made on July 23, 1997:
"The Government of Sweden is of the view that these general reservations may raise doubts as to the commitment of Kuwait to the object and purpose of the Covenant.
The Government of Sweden regards the reservation concerning article 8 (1) (d), in which the Government of Kuwait reserves the right not to apply the right to strike expressly stated in the Covenant, as well as the interpretative declaration regarding article 9, according to which the right to social security would only apply to Kuwaitis, as being problematic in view of the object and purpose of the Covenant. It particularly considers the declaration regarding article 9, as a result of which the many foreigners working on Kuwaiti territory would, in principle, be totally excluded from social security protection, cannot be based on article 2 (3) of the Covenant.
It is in the common interest of all parties that a treaty should be respected, as to its object and purpose, by all parties.
The Government of Sweden therefore objects to the above-mentioned general reservations and interpretative declarations.
This objection does not preclude the entry into force of the Covenant between Kuwait and Sweden in its entirety."

Declaration made upon ratification:
"Sweden enters a reservation in connection with article 7 (d) of the Covenant in the matter of the right to remuneration for public holidays."

Syrian Arab Republic

Declaration made upon accession:
"1. The accession of the Syrian Arab Republic to these two Covenants shall in no way signify recognition of Israel or entry into a relationship with it regarding any matter regulated by the said two Covenants.
2. The Syrian Arab Republic considers that paragraph 1 of article 26 of the Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and paragraph 1 of article 48 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights are incompatible with the purposes and objectives of the said Covenants, inasmuch as they do not allow all States, without distinction or discrimination, the opportunity to become parties to the said Covenants."

Thailand

Declaration made upon accession:
"The Government of the Kingdom of Thailand declares that the term "self-determination"as appears in Article 1 Paragraph 1 of the Covenant shall be interpreted as being compatible with that expressed in the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, adopted by the World Conference on Human Rights on 25 June 1993."

Trinidad and Tobago

Declaration made upon accession:
"In respect of article 8 (1) (d) and 8 (2) the Government of Trinidad and Tobago reserves the right to impose lawful and or reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the aforementioned rights by personnel engaged in essential services under the Industrial Relations Act or under any Statute replacing same which has been passed in accordance with the provisions of the Trinidad and Tobago Constitution."

Turkey

Declarations made upon ratification:
"The Republic of Turkey declares that; it will implement its obligations under the Covenant in accordance to the obligations under the Charter of the United Nations (especially Article 1 and 2 thereof).
The Republic of Turkey declares that it will implement the provisions of this Covenant only to the States with which it has diplomatic relations.
The Republic of Turkey declares that this Convention is ratified exclusively with regard to the national territory where the Constitution and the legal and administrative order of the republic of Turkey are applied.
The Republic of Turkey reserves the right to interpret and apply the provisions of the paragraph (3) and (4) of the Article 13 of the Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in accordance to the provisions under the Article 3, 14 and 42 of the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey."

Ukraine

Declaration made upon signature and confirmed upon ratification:
"The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic declares that the provisions of paragraph 1 of article 26 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and of paragraph 1 of article 48 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, under which a number of States cannot become parties to these Covenants, are of a discriminatory nature and considers that the Covenants, in accordance with the principle of sovereign equality of States, should be open for participation by all States concerned without any discrimination or limitation."

United Kingdom

Objection made on August 17, 2005:
"The Government of the United Kingdom have examined the Declaration made by the Government of Pakistan on 3 November 2004 on signature of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (done at New York on 16 December 1966).
The Government of the United Kingdom consider that the Government of Pakistan's Declaration which seeks to subject its obligations under the Covenant to the provisions of its own Constitution is a reservation which seeks to limit the scope of the Covenant on a unilateral basis. The Government of the United Kingdom note that a reservation to a Convention which consists of a general reference to national law without specifying its contents does not clearly define for the other States Parties to the Convention the extent to which the reserving State has accepted the obligations of the Convention. The Government of the United Kingdom therefore object to this reservation made by the Government of Pakistan.
This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Covenant between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Pakistan."

Declaration made upon ratification:
"Firstly, the Government of the United Kingdom maintain their declaration in respect of article 1 made at the time of signature of the Covenant.
The Government of the United Kingdom declare that for the purposes of article 2 (3) the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, the Gilbert Islands, the Pitcairn Islands Group, St.Helena and Dependencies, the Turks and Caicos Islands and Tuvalu are developing countries.
The Government of the United Kingdom reserve the right to interpret article 6 as not precluding the imposition of restrictions, based on place of birth or residence qualifications, on the taking of employment in any particular region or territory for the purpose of safeguarding the employment opportunities of workers in that region or territory.
The Government of the United Kingdom reserve the right to postpone the application of sub-paragraph (i) of paragraph (a) of article 7, in so far as it concerns the provision of equal pay to men and women for equal work in the private sector in Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, Bermuda, Hong Kong and the Solomon Islands.
The Government of the United Kingdom reserve the right not to apply sub-paragraph 1(b) of article 8 in Hong Kong.
The Government of the United Kingdom while recognizing the right of everyone to social security in accordance with article 9 reserve the right to postpone implementation of the right in the Cayman Islands and the Falkland Islands because of shortage of resources in these territories.
The Government of the United Kingdom reserve the right to postpone the application of paragraph 1 of article 10 in regard to a small number of customary marriages in the Solomon Islands and the application of paragraph 2 of article 10 in so far as it concerns paid maternity leave in Bermuda and the Falkland Islands.
The Government of the United Kingdom maintain the right to postpone the application of sub-paragraph (a) of paragraph 2 of article 13, and article 14, in so far as they require compulsory primary education, in the Gilbert Islands, the Solomon Islands and Tuvalu.
Lastly the Government of the United Kingdom declare that the provisions of the Covenant shall not apply to Southern Rhodesia unless and until they inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations that they are in a position to ensure that the obligations imposed by the Covenant in respect of that territory can be fully implemented."

Declaration made upon signature:
"First, the Government of the United Kingdom declare their understanding that, by virtue of article 103 of the Charter of the United Nations, in the event of any conflict between their obligations under article 1 of the Covenant and their obligations under the Charter (in particular, under articles 1, 2 and 73 thereof) their obligations under the Charter shall prevail.
Secondly, the Government of the United Kingdom declare that they must reserve the right to postpone the application of sub-paragraph (a) (i) of article 7 of the Covenant in so far as it concerns the provision of equal pay to men and women for equal work, since, while they fully accept this principle and are pledged to work towards its complete application at the earliest possible time, the problems of implementation are such that complete application cannot be guaranteed at present.
Thirdly, the Government of the United Kingdom declare that, in relation to article 8 of the Covenant, they must reserve the right not to apply sub-paragraph (b) of paragraph 1 in Hong Kong, in so far as it may involve the right of trade unions not engaged in the same trade or industry to establish federations or confederations.
Lastly, the Government of the United Kingdom declare that the provisions of the Covenant shall not apply to Southern Rhodesia unless and until they inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations that they are in a position to ensure that the obligations imposed by the Covenant in respect of that territory can be fully implemented."

Viet Nam

Declaration made upon accession:
"That the provisions of article 48, paragraph 1, of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and article 26, paragraph 1, of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, under which a number of States are deprived of the opportunity to become parties to the Covenants, are of a discriminatory nature. The Government of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam considers that the Covenants, in accordance with the principle of sovereign equality of States, should be open for participation by all States without any discrimination or limitation."

Yemen

Declaration made upon accession:
"The accession of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen to this Covenant shall in no way signify recognition of Israel or serve as grounds for the establishment of relations of any sort with Israel."

Zambia

Reservation made upon accession:
"The Government of the Republic of Zambia states that it reserves the right to postpone the application of article 13 (2) (a) of the Covenant, in so far as it relates to primary education; since, while the Government of the Republic of Zambia fully accepts the principles embodied in the same article and undertakes to take the necessary steps to apply them in their entirety, the problems of implementation, and particularly the financial implications, are such that full application of the principles in question cannot be guaranteed at this stage."

 

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