WIPO Re:Search Members
Aberystwyth University (IBERS)
The Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS) at Aberystwyth University is a globally-renowned, award winning research and teaching centre. IBERS is a new venture that has brought together staff from the Institutes of Rural Sciences and Biological Sciences at Aberystwyth University and the Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research (IGER). With approximately 300 research, teaching and support staff, IBERS is excellently positioned to make positive strides against many of the challenges facing humanity in the 21st Century. Specifically, within the Parasitology and Epidemiology (PE) Research Group of IBERS, scientists engage in fundamental biological investigations using multi-disciplinary expertise and world class facilities. By engaging in basic-science-, co-evolutionary driven- and systems-based- investigations, we collectively address some of the world’s major health problems caused by important biomedical and veterinary pathogens. Our expertise includes gene level investigations, application of functional genomics-based technologies, high-throughput compound screening, biomarker discovery, host-parasite interactions, immunological investigations, evolutionary studies, ecological epidemiology, mathematical modelling, GIS, satellite and aerial remote sensing and climate modelling. Our studies consider a range of infectious diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, protozoa, microsporidia and helminths (with particular regard to Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma mansoni).
African Institute of Biomedical Science and Technology (AiBST)
AiBST is a biomedical research and education institute that focuses on the sciences and technologies of drug discovery, development, and rationale use of medicines in Africa. In 2011, AiBST was selected as an African Network for Drugs and Diagnostics Innovation (ANDi) Centre of Excellence (CoE) for Drug Metabolism & Pharmacokinetics (DMPK) and Toxicology. Our vision is to be a pan-African institute of excellence in biomedical sciences, technologies, and tertiary education towards the provision of healthcare solutions for Africa. We are doing this through research in the DMPK & Toxicology of drugs used for the treatment neglected diseases in Africa and pharmacogenomics/genetics research on the efficacious and safe use of medicines in African populations. The technology platform and scientific expertise we have established is being accessed by many scientists across Africa through training of postgraduate students and provision of DMPK services to drug discovery projects. AiBST has established a comprehensive network of national, continental and international collaborations that are enabling it to implement South-North, and South-South technology transfer and sharing.
Alnylam Pharmaceuticals is a leader in the field of RNA interference, or RNAi, with a goal of realizing RNAi’s full potential for therapeutic applications. Alnylam's IP estate includes fundamental, chemistry, delivery, and therapeutic target patents. While all of these patents are important, we believe that the “fundamental” patents in particular define the broadest coverage for the development and commercialization of RNAi therapeutics. Alnylam has a deep commitment to social leadership that develops and delivers innovative solutions to impact patient health, science education, and the community. Alnylam demonstrated a commitment to global health when it was the first biotech company to join the Pool for Open Innovation against Neglected Tropical Diseases in 2009. The company contributed its entire patent estate to the program, making its expertise in RNAi available to researchers working on drugs for neglected tropical diseases.
Biotec (National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology)
The Center, originally known as NCGEB, was first set up under the Ministry of Science, Technology and Energy on 20 September 1983. After the establishment of the National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA) on 30 December 1991, BIOTEC became one of the NSTDA centers, operating outside the normal framework of civil service and state enterprises. This enabled the Center to operate more effectively to support and transfer technology for the development of industry, agriculture, natural resources, environment and consequently the social and economic well-being of Thai people. As a premier research institute in Thailand and Asia, BIOTEC operates research units located at Thailand Science Park and specialized laboratories hosted by various universities, employing over 544 staff, of which 155 are PhD researchers and 245 research assistants and lab technicians (as of September 2010). BIOTEC research covers a wide spectrum from agricultural science to biomedical science and environmental science. Apart from research laboratories, BIOTEC activities also include policy research, an outreach program, training and international relations.
California Institute of Technology (Caltech)
The mission of the California Institute of Technology is to expand human knowledge and benefit society through research integrated with education. We investigate the most challenging, fundamental problems in science and technology in a singularly collegial, interdisciplinary atmosphere, while educating outstanding students to become creative members of society.
Center of Excellence for Malaria Diagnosis, University of Lagos, Nigeria
The College of Medicine was conceived by the founding fathers as a medical school that acts as an autonomous entity within the University of Lagos. Since 1962, it has been working tirelessly to further its goal of producing highly trained medical manpower to provide specialized medical services and to conduct research into health related problems. Our commitment to research and publications of research findings has led to the rebirth and regular publication of The Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine, the Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences and other departmental / Society based journals. Furthermore, the College of Medicine is an ANDI Centre of Excellence for Malaria Diagnosis.
Center for World Health & Medicine (CWHM)
The Center for World Health & Medicine (CWHM) works to discover and develop safe and effective new therapies for neglected diseases of poverty in the developing world, rare (orphan) diseases, and other unmet medical needs. Beyond that, CWHM will work to make these new therapies affordable and accessible to all who are in need of them. Our unique not-for-profit Center consists of a large team of former pharmaceutical scientists collaborating with international disease experts, biomedical and synthetic chemistry researchers within Saint Louis University and the University of Missouri Saint Louis and partnering with Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health (China) and Dalhousie University (Canada), ready to translate fundamental discoveries into promising new drugs.
Centre Pasteur du Cameroun
Located in Yaoundé, Cameroon, the Centre Pasteur du Cameroun, is composed of seven sections, including the Laboratory of Virology, and the Laboratory of Mycobacteria. Research within the Centre includes the examination of the geographical distribution of filariasis in Cameroon and the molecular characterization of multi-drug resistant M. tuberculosis strains.
Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi)
The Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi) is a patient-needs driven, not for profit R&D organization that develops safe, effective, field adapted and affordable medicines for neglected diseases. Since 2003, in partnership with public and private sector entities, DNDi has delivered 5 new treatments for malaria, sleeping sickness and visceral leishmaniasis. DNDi regards drug research as a public good that should primarily lead to the advancement of health. Therefore, DNDi negotiates with its partners to ensure equitable access and to disseminate the results of its work as widely as possible to encourage additional or follow-on research in the field of neglected diseases. DNDi joined WIPO Re:Search in 2011.
Eisai is a research-oriented, global pharmaceutical company committed to improving the health of all individuals worldwide regardless of wealth or geography. We give our first thoughts to patients and their families and are committed to help improve the lives of patients and their families — a principle grounded in Eisai's human health care (hhc) philosophy, which has been embedded into our Article of Incorporation and national programs across the globe. Eisai is committed to developing and implementing long-term sustainable strategies using partnership-based models to improve the affordability, availability, adoption, and access to medicines. Most of these 2.7 billion persons lack access to essential health care and medicines. Along with governments, international organizations, and other private sector companies, Eisai is determined to play a central role in improving access to medicines worldwide.
Eskitis Institute (Griffith University)
The Eskitis Institute is a world-class drug discovery research centre. We discover and develop potential new cures for diseases in areas such as: Cancer; Neurological diseases; Infectious diseases, and Global health. Our drug discovery projects are supported by the Nature Bank biodiscovery resource - a storehouse of over 200,000 screen-ready optimised natural product fractions derived from over 45,000 plants and marine invertebrates from across Australia and South East Asia. Home to the nationally unique Queensland Compound Library, an automated store of nearly 400,000 pure compounds created by Australian chemists, Eskitis offers a full spectrum of drug discovery services. To find out more about our research visit griffith.edu.au/eskitis .
Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics(FIND)
FIND is a not-for-profit organization, recognized by the Swiss government as an “other international organization.” Its aim is to address the urgent need for better diagnostic tests for poverty-related diseases, the lack of which is often the greatest obstacle to the care and control of many diseases in the developing world. FIND is devoted to developing and implementing affordable, easy to use and cutting-edge diagnostic technologies for the developing world. Towards this end, FIND uses a public-private partnership model to build and sustain effective partnerships with all those involved in diagnostics. These partnerships and a quality-assured project management framework enable us to accelerate products through a well-defined value chain - from discovery and proof of principle, to development, evaluation, WHO endorsement and implementation of new technologies. Only through a concerted effort involving the research community, private companies, civil society and the public sector it is possible to generate the momentum necessary for rapid progress in delivering better diagnostics to the developing world.
Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz)
Fiocruz is attached to the Brazilian Ministry of Health and is the most prominent science and technology health institution in Latin America. Established in 1900, Fiocruz's mission focuses on addressing Brazil's major public health problems through research and dissemination of scientific and technicial knowledge. Today the institution is responsible for a range of activities which include research development; highly-regarded hospital and ambulatory care services; production of vaccines, drugs, reagents, and diagnostic kits; education and training of human resources; information and communication in the area of health, science and technology; quality control of products and services, and the implementation of social programs. It has over 11,000 employees and health professionals dedicated to the cause of health and social development.
GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) is a global pharmaceutical, biologics, vaccines, and consumer healthcare company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the world’s third largest pharmaceutical company measured by revenues. GSK joined WIPO Re:Search as a founding member in 2011. Prior to this, in February 2009, GSK created the Pool for Open Innovation, a key component of GSK’s commitment to open innovation for neglected tropical diseases. GSK has pledged to break down barriers to innovation and access to medicines in the developing world by establishing the Tres Cantos open laboratory for research on neglected tropical diseases, making publicly available the information on more than 13,500 compounds from the company’s compound library that may be effective against malaria, and launching new collaborations to further share intellectual property and know-how and accelerate the delivery of new medicines for neglected tropical diseases.
Infectious Disease Research Institute (IDRI)
IDRI is a new breed of global health nonprofit, taking a comprehensive approach to address infectious diseases. It combines the high-quality science of a research organization with the product development capabilities of a biotech company to create new diagnostics, drugs and vaccines. IDRI acts as a bridge between knowledge and action, combining a passion for improving human health with the understanding that it is not just what we know about disease, but what we do to change its course that will have the greatest impact. Developing products that solve intractable global health challenges is what we do, and we have a track record of doing it successfully. IDRI’s unique, holistic, product-based approach to fighting infectious diseases, and its partnerships with businesses, non-profit foundations, and government agencies has already yielded novel diagnostics, vaccines, and treatment strategies that are protecting and saving lives.
Institut Pasteur Korea
Institut Pasteur Korea (IP-Korea) is a world class translational research institute renowned as a center of excellence in biomedical research and technology development. The strategic combination of outstanding Korean technology with the research expertise of Institut Pasteur allows new drugs to be identified faster and more reliably. IP-Korea creates synergy through systematic visual high throughput screening in conjunction with in-house designed imaging approaches for innovative drug discovery. The mission of IP-Korea’s Center for Neglected Diseases is to discover promising new compounds and mechanisms of action for the treatment of neglected diseases, such as Leishmaniasis and Chagas disease.
Institute Pasteur de Tunis (IPT)
Founded in 1893, the Institut Pasteur de Tunis operates under the authority of the Tunisian Ministry of Health, and joined the Institut Pasteur International Network in 1992.It has a strong infectious disease research focus, including epidemiology, immunology and the study of diseases caused by a genetic or immunological deficit. The Institut is a WHO Collaborating Centre for poliomyelitis, and a WHO Collaborating Centre for research and training on leishmaniasis.
International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
The International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology conducts innovative research in life sciences for the benefit of developing countries. It strengthens the research capabilities of its Members through training, funding programs and advisory services and represents a comprehensive approach to promoting biotechnology internationally. The International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology was established in 1987 as a special project of UNIDO, and since 1994 it has operated as an independent organization with a network of 63 member states, 85 signatory states and 40 affiliated centers. Research groups at the New Delhi component focus on basic research in infectious diseases, agriculture-related issues relevant to developing countries, structural biology and synthetic biology. Biomedical projects are pursued in malaria; both in basic research and vaccine and drug development, as well as development of technologies for biopharmaceuticals and for diagnosis of infectious diseases, immunology (biology of the immune response and tuberculosis research), development of diagnostics and vaccine candidates for dengue viral infection, and in the field of virology (hepatitis B and E viruses, human immunodeficiency virus, influenza and SARS viruses).
International Federation of Intellectual Property Owners (FICPI)
The International Federation of Intellectual Property Owners was established in 1906 as Fédération Internationale des Conseils en Propriété Industrielle (FICPI). It is a non-political association of about 5000 intellectual property attorneys in private practice in 86 countries. FICPI’s mandate is to work for the interests of Patent and Trademark professionals world-wide, and its work includes the promotion, training and continuing education of its members and others interested in intellectual property protection.
International Vaccine Institute (IVI)
The International Vaccine Institute (IVI), created initially as an initiative of the United Nations Development Programme, began formal operations as an independent international organization in 1997 in Seoul, Republic of Korea. Currently, IVI has 40 countries and the World Health Organization (WHO) as signatories to its Establishment Agreement. IVI has a unique mandate to work exclusively on vaccine development and introduction specifically for people in developing countries, with a focus on neglected diseases affecting these regions. Working in collaboration with the international scientific community, public health organizations, governments, and industry, IVI is involved in all areas of the vaccine spectrum – from new vaccine design in the laboratory to vaccine development and evaluation in the field to facilitating sustainable introduction of vaccines in countries where they are most needed.
iThemba, which means “hope” in Zulu, is a research-based drug discovery company located in South Africa. The company strives to champion world-class, drug discovery and development of new treatments for neglected infectious diseases including HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and other prevalent diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. iThemba has developed a strong foundation in synthetic organic, natural product and medicinal chemistry, and its core staff has diverse multinational experience and is well-supported through several world renowned pharmaceutical experts. To achieve its objectives, iThemba Pharmaceuticals has developed a robust pipeline of carefully selected molecular scaffolds for relevant biological targets that offer promise for treating infectious diseases of interest, particularly tuberculosis.
Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), Kenya
Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) was established in 1979 as a semi-autonomous government institution, succeeding the East African Agricultural and Forestry Research Organization and the East African Veterinary Research Organization. KARI’s mission is “to contribute to increased productivity, commercialization and competitiveness of the agricultural sector through generation and promotion of knowledge, information and technologies that respond to clients’ demands and opportunities.” One of the centers of the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, the ‘’Muguga TRC Biochemistry Division’’ focuses on trypanosomiasis. This division is directed towards understanding of parasites, studying the mechanisms that enable a trypanosome to be a successful parasite, and development of safer and more effective management of trypanosomiasis through proper diagnosis and chemotherapy.
Located in Seattle, Kineta® is a nationally-recognized biotechnology company focused on developing cutting-edge therapeutics for autoimmune diseases, viral diseases, and chronic pain. Kineta has developed several small molecule anti-viral candidates that target the innate immune system. These molecules may be useful against a range of viruses, including influenza, dengue, and West Nile viruses. The biotechnology company is also utilizing its innate immune response platform to design adjuvants for both therapeutic and preventative vaccines.
Kumasi Center for Collaborative Research (KCCR), Ghana
KCCR is an international platform for collaborative bio-medical research. Since last year (2011) it has been recognized as African Network for Drug discovery and Innovation (ANDI) Centre of Excellence for applied biomedical research. Our objectives are: to conduct basic and applied research on tropical diseases; to address scientific topics in medical epidemiology and health implementation on subjects of regional importance; to contribute to the development of human and technical resources through teaching, postgraduate training, scientific collaboration and maintaining research facilities,to foster multinational scientific collaboration in the diagnostics, treatment and management of tropical diseases. The centre seeks to promote and sustain a vibrant biomedical research environment, capable of attracting quality research projects and turning out the next generation of researchers to meet the current and the future health needs of Ghanaians and the international community. Among the variousdieseases of research focus are Tuberculosis, Filariasis, Buruli ulcer, Malaria, etc.
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM)
LSTM was the first institution in the world dedicated to tropical disease and has led the field in the fight against infectious, debilitating and disabling diseases ever since. A registered charity, LSTM works in over 60 countries worldwide to bring research innovation and scientific breakthroughs from the lab to those most in need and fulfill its mission of improving the health of the world's poorest people. LSTM’s worldwide reputation and the calibre of its research outputs has made it the leader of a number of international consortia and product development partnerships aimed at reducing or eliminating the impact of diseases such as TB, HIV/AIDS, malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis upon the world's poorest. LSTM also functions as a centre for excellence, a premier teaching institution and leading provider of technical assistance to health communities in the lesser developed countries of the world.
Massachusetts General Hospital
Massachusetts General Hospital , founded in 1811, is the original and largest teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School. The MGH conducts the largest hospital-based research program in the United States, with an annual research budget of more than $750 million and major research centers in AIDS, cardiovascular research, cancer, computational and integrative biology, cutaneous biology, human genetics, medical imaging, neurodegenerative disorders, regenerative medicine, reproductive biology, systems biology, transplantation biology and photomedicine. In July 2012, MGH moved into the number one spot on the 2012-13 U.S. News & World Report list of "America's Best Hospitals.
Massachusets Institute of Technology (MIT)
Founded in 1861, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. The mission of MIT is to advance knowledge and educate students in science, technology and other areas of scholarship that will best serve the nation and the world in the 21st century — whether the focus is cancer, energy, economics or literature. MIT has expertise, intellectual property and know-how related to numerous technology platforms that might provide insights or technologies that would be useful to WIPO Re:Search members – particularly those developing diagnostics. Through WIPO Re:Search MIT welcome inquiries related to their technological expertise in various scientific fields to support the development of drugs, vaccines and diagnostics for neglected tropical diseases, malaria and tuberculosis.
McMaster University, Canada
McMaster University was established in 1887. McMaster's health sciences research spans the spectrum from curiosity-driven basic science in the laboratory to clinical research at the bedside and in the community, to studies analyzing the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of particular therapies and the efficiency of health care delivery. McMaster University is consistently ranked as one of the top three research and innovative universities in Canada for biomedical and health care.
The McGill University, founded in Montreal, Quebec, in 1821, is Canada's leading post-secondary institution. It has two campuses, 11 faculties, 10 professional schools, 300 programs of study and more than 35,000 students. McGill attracts students from more than 150 countries around the world. Almost half of McGill students claim a first language other than English - including 6,200 francophones - with more than 6,800 international students making up almost 20 per cent of the student body. Partnering with McGill University provides a competitive advantage to private sector entities - that's good business sense in today’s fast-paced environment. Whether you are looking to reduce your technical or financial risk, to gain access to highly specialized facilities, to license new technologies or to attract highly skilled people, McGill University has the researchers, students and services that can meet your business needs.
Medical Research Council (South Africa)
The goals of the Medical Research Council (MRC) are, through research, development and technology transfer, to promote the improvement of the health and the quality of life of the population of South Africa. Promoting and conducting research is the core business and primary strategic objective of the MRC as a knowledge-producing organization. Research, in and of itself makes no difference to health and quality of life unless it can be translated into effective real-world interventions which can have an impact on people’s lives.
Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV)
MMV, a not-for-profit public-private partnership, was established as a foundation in Switzerland in 1999. Its mission is to reduce the burden of malaria in disease-endemic countries by discovering, developing and facilitating delivery of new, effective and affordable antimalarial drugs. MMV joined WIPO Re:Search in 2011.
Merck is a leading company for innovative and top-quality high-tech products in the pharmaceutical and chemical sectors. Around 38,000 employees work in 66 countries to improve the quality of life for patients, to further the success of our customers and to help meet global challenges. We operate our businesses in four divisions: Merck Serono (biopharmaceuticals), Consumer Health (over-the-counter pharmaceuticals), Performance Materials (high-tech chemicals) and Merck Millipore (life science tools). Merck is the world's oldest pharmaceutical and chemical company. Since 1668 the Merck brand has stood for innovation, business success and responsible entrepreneurship.
MSD Merck Sharpe & Dohme
Today's MSD is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. (MSD is known as Merck & Co., Inc. in the United States and Canada.) Through our prescription medicines, vaccines, biologic therapies, and consumer care and animal health products, we work with customers and operate in more than 140 countries to deliver innovative health solutions. We also demonstrate our commitment to increasing access to healthcare through far-reaching policies, programs, and partnerships.
Murdoch Children’s Research Institute (MCRI)
MCRI is Australia's preeminent child health research institute, and has over 1500 researchers conducting research into conditions affecting babies, children and adolescents. Its current research priorities include cancer, heart disorders, genetic conditions, premature birth, obesity, diabetes, and allergies. Some of MCRI’s achievement includes the discovery of genetic links in allergies, discovery of behavioral sleep techniques, discovery of the new innovative Fragile X test, and the link between premature adult death and adolescent development. MCRI works with doctors and nurses from its campus partners the Royal Children's Hospital and the University of Melbourne's Department of Pediatrics, which enables its researchers to more rapidly translate research discoveries into practical treatments for children.
National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, China
Located in Shanghai, China, the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese CDC, has been a WHO Collaborating Center for malaria, schistosomiasis, and filariasis for 30 years. Research at NIPD also includes projects focusing on soil-transmitted helminthiases and leishmaniasis.
National Institutes of Health (NIH) (USA)
The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) seeks fundamental knowledge about the nature and behavior of living systems and the application of that knowledge to enhance health, lengthen life, and reduce the burdens of illness and disability. In its efforts to fulfill this mission, the NIH fosters fundamental creative discoveries, innovative research strategies, and their applications as a basis for ultimately protecting and improving health. The NIH also expands the knowledge base in medical and associated sciences, and develops, maintains, and renews scientific human and physical resources that will ensure the United States’ capability to prevent disease.
National University of Singapore
The National University of Singapore is an institution considered to be among the best in the world. Its faculty members study numerous topics of importance to global health, including the development of mucosal dengue vaccines and tuberculosis chemotherapies.
Nigerian Institute of Medical Research (NIMR)
The Nigerian Institute of Medical Research’s (NIMR) mission is to conduct research into diseases of public health importance in Nigeria such as Neglected Tropical Diseases; malaria; HIV/AIDS; Tuberculosis; non-communicable diseases; and maternal, child and reproductive health . NIMR is a government parastatal under the authority of the Ministry of Health and therefore operates in cooperation with the federal and state ministries of health and in collaboration with universities, allied institutions and organized private sector nationally and internationally.
Northeastern University (NEU)
The Northeastern University (NEU) mission is to educate students for a life of fulfillment and accomplishment, and to create and translate knowledge to meet global and societal needs. Our vision is to be a university that expands the meaning and impact of our engagement in the world using our knowledge and resources as positive forces for change in both our local communities and our global society. This vision will be realized through offering students a transformative experience, grounded in experiential education that ignites their passion for learning while opening up for them the endless possibilities around them. We will assist our students in becoming engaged citizens of the world, confident and resourceful people who realize that their knowledge and action can have positive consequences for their own lives and for the lives of others. This vision will be realized through interdisciplinary scholarship and translational research by which we will dynamically participate in addressing problems in our urban environment, in our region and across the globe. Northeastern strives to translate fundamental research into applications that will contribute to economic development and enhance societal well being. Our collaborative approach will encompass partners in government and industry, and artists, innovators and scholars both inside and outside our community. We strive to create a vibrant and diverse community, characterized by collaboration, creativity, an unwavering commitment to excellence and an equally unwavering commitment to exhibiting respect for one other. We aspire to be a model for what our society can be.
Novartis provides healthcare solutions that address the evolving needs of patients and societies. Focused solely on healthcare, Novartis offers a diversified portfolio to best meet these needs: innovative medicines, eye care, cost-saving generic pharmaceuticals, consumer health products, preventive vaccines and diagnostic tools. Novartis is the only company with leading positions in these areas. In 2010, the Group's continuing operations achieved net sales of USD 50.6 billion, while approximately USD 9.1 billion (USD 8.1 billion excluding impairment and amortization charges) was invested in R&D throughout the Group. Our access-to-medicine programs, valued at USD 1.5 billion, reached more than 85 million patients during 2010. We also work to develop medicines to combat tropical, infectious diseases such as dengue, tuberculosis and malaria through the Novartis Institute for Tropical Diseases, and research vaccines for diseases of the developing world through the Novartis Vaccines Institute for Global Health. Headquartered in Basel, Switzerland, Novartis Group companies employ approximately 121,000 full-time-equivalent associates and operate in more than 140 countries around the world.
PATH is an international nonprofit organization that creates sustainable, culturally relevant solutions, enabling communities worldwide to break longstanding cycles of poor health. By collaborating with diverse public- and private-sector partners, we help provide appropriate health technologies and vital strategies that change the way people think and act. At PATH, we envision a world where innovation ensures that health is within reach for everyone, and we strive to improve global health and well-being in everything we do. To help fulfill that mission, PATH joined WIPO Re:Search in 2011.
At Pfizer we apply science and our global resources to bring therapies to people that extend and significantly improve their lives. We strive to set the standard for quality, safety and value in the discovery, development and manufacture of health care products. Our global portfolio includes medicines and vaccines as well as many of the world's best-known consumer health care products. Every day, Pfizer colleagues work across developed and emerging markets to advance wellness, prevention, treatments and cures that challenge the most feared diseases of our time. Consistent with our responsibility as one of the world's premier innovative biopharmaceutical companies, we collaborate with health care providers, governments and local communities to support and expand access to reliable, affordable health care around the world. For more than 150 years, Pfizer has worked to make a difference for all who rely on us. To learn more, please visit us at www.pfizer.com
Salvensisis a nonprofit drug discovery company focused on rare and neglected diseases. The organization, which is located in Sandwich, UK is currently working to discover new and improved drugs to treat schistosomiasis.
Sanofi, a diversified global healthcare leader, discovers, develops, and distributes therapeutic solutions to improve the lives of everyone. We work to prevent and treat the diseases that we know of today, as well as those we may face tomorrow. Because we believe that the patients themselves, in their own specific environment and conditions, best know what is relevant for them, we are investing in a move forward to more individual healthcare. The epidemiological and sociological data that we handle enable us to tailor our scientific advances to each economic and cultural context, to help position good health as a fundamental human right, for everyone throughout the world.
Seattle Biomed is the largest independent, non-profit organization in the US focused solely on infectious disease research. Our research is the foundation for new drugs, vaccines and diagnostics that benefit those who need our help most: the 14 million who will otherwise die each year from infectious diseases, including malaria, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. Founded in 1976, Seattle BioMed has nearly 350 staff members. By partnering with key collaborators around the globe, we strive to make discoveries that will save lives sooner.
60° Pharmaceuticals, LLC
60° Pharmaceuticals, LLC (60P) was founded in 2010 with a mission to discover, develop and distribute new medicines for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) with the intent of alleviating the suffering and economic burden they cause. The objective of the company is to support this social health mission while also providing an economic return. 60P is a unique company whose core business is neglected tropical disease drug R&D. 60P has embraced an open innovation approach to reduce the time, cost, and
risk needed to build a portfolio of drug discovery and development projects.
Stanford University is recognized as one of the world's leading research and teaching institutions, founded by Leland and Jane Stanford in 1891 to "promote the public welfare by exercising an influence on behalf of humanity and civilization." The Stanford School of Medicine is a premier research-intensive medical school that improves health through leadership and collaborative discoveries and innovation in patient care, education, and research.
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH)
Since its founding in 1943, the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) has become a world-renowned Institution for teaching, research and services in the field of International Health Development. The multi- and cross-disciplinary activities and experience of scientific laboratory studies, conceptual clinical work and practical transfer of technical expertise to health system planning and programs in local, national and partner countries are the building blocks of our success. We are determined to improve public health, strengthen health systems and reduce poverty through partnerships, mutual learning, contribution and achievement.
The National Institute of Immunology (NII), India
The National Institute of Immunology (NII) is committed to advanced research in immunology’s around four major areas: infection and immunity, molecular design, gene regulation, and reproduction and development. NII conducts research in immunology, infectious diseases, reproductive biology and structural & chemical biology, and NII’s interests also include translational research in vaccines and drug development.
The Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research (NMIMR), University of Ghana.
NMIMR is the leading biomedical research facility in Ghana. Set up in 1979 as a semi-autonomous institute of the University of Ghana, it is committed to research on national health priorities and training of biomedical scientists. While upholding high ethical standards and ensuring integrity of research data, its broad mandates are to conduct research into health problems of Public Health importance in Ghana; provide training opportunities for postgraduate students in medical research and provide specialized laboratory diagnostic and monitoring services in support of public health programs. NMIMR is funded by several organizations and also collaborates with other institutions including the US Naval Research Laboratory and Cornell University. NMIMR has over 70 research projects on infectious diseases, HIV drug resistance genotyping, polio, cancer, lymphatic filariasis, influenza, malaria, and clinical trials.
Theodor Bilharz Research Institute (TBRI)
Established in 1977 in Giza, Egypt, the Theodor Bilharz Research Institute (TBRI) is a leading reference center for research and training in diagnosis, control and management of endemic diseases and their complications. In particular, TBRI focuses on the effects of urinary and hepatic schistosomiasis, viral hepatitis, chronic liver disease and their complications. The Institute adopts an integrated research strategy focused on diagnosis and control, tracking morbidity, and disease management. TBRI is firmly committed to global health and working collaboratively with researchers and institutions.
Founded in 1834, Tulane University is a highly regarded and selective independent research university, located in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Tulane’s Department of Tropical Medicine within the School of Public Health & Tropical Medicine has a long history of contributions to the parasitology and tropical medicine fields and is one of the oldest tropical medicine departments in the world. Faculty members in its Department of Tropical Medicine focus on various aspects of malaria, including vector-parasite interactions and genetics of malaria drug resistance.
University of Bamako, Mali
The University of Bamako is Mali’s only public university and medical school with an enrollment of approximately 60,000 undergraduate and graduate students. Established in 1988 as part of theFaculty of Medicine, Pharmistry, and Dentistry (FMPOS), the Malaria Training and Research Centre (MTRC) has extensive partnerships in global health with universities and other institutions worldwide to carry out research that includes clinical trials, clinical and molecular parasitology, immunology, pathogenesis, drug resistance, basic and molecular epidemiology, basic and molecular entomology, and geographic information systems and remote sensing. It further serves as an ANDI Centre of Excellence for Clinical Development of Malaria Products.
University of British Colombia (UBC)
The University of British Columbia (UBC), established in 1908, is one of Canada’s leading research universities. Its Neglected Global Disease Initiative (NGDI) develops interventions for neglected tropical diseases and ensures their delivery to those in need of these technologies. Through its Global Access Principles, the school ensures the mobilization and access of relevant knowledge and technology to the developing world.
University of Buea, Cameroon
The University of Buea was created in 1993 following wide-ranging university reforms in Cameroon. The mission of UB is to provide opportunities for quality education through teaching and research in a supportive environment and in ways that respond to market forces. The University is dedicated to the continuous quest for excellence, the promotion of moral and human values, and service to the community. Its teaching and research programs emphasize relevance, encourage tolerance and promote creative, critical and independent thinking. In the field of health, the Faculty of Health Sciences and the Faculty of Science are dedicated to achieving excellence and advancing health through leadership in education in the health sciences, discovery, innovation, research, and exemplary health delivery services. The University currently host, among others, the pan-African ANDI Centre of Excellence for Onchocerciasis Drug Research, and had been the host of the WHO/TDR Centre for Onchocerciasis Drug Screens in Africa.
University of California Berkeley (UCB)
The mission of the University of California Berkeley is to serve society through teaching, research and public service. In accordance with its commitment to accelerate gains in global health, the university established: 1) The Berkeley Alliance for Global Health in 2008. Comprised of two centers—the Henry Wheeler Center for Emerging and Neglected Diseases and the Center for Global Public Health—this innovative "discovery to delivery" platform joins quantitative biosciences and bioengineering with international field expertise in public health and health policy in order to address the health challenges of the world’s undeserved populations and, 2) Its Socially Responsible Licensing Program in 2004, which deploys technological and knowledge-based solutions invented at Berkeley, through creative IP management strategies and innovative business models for the benefit of the developing world.
University of Dundee
The University of Dundee (UK) was founded in 1881 as a constituent college of the University of St Andrews alongside United College and St Mary's College located in the town of St Andrews, Scotland. Following significant expansion, the University of Dundee became an independent body in 1967 whilst retaining much of its ancient heritage and governance structure. Since its independence, the university has grown to become an internationally recognized centre for research. The University has 17,500 students and over 3000 staff. University of Dundee’s mission is to advance and diffuse knowledge, wisdom and understanding by teaching and research and by the example and influence of it corporate life.
University of Edinburgh
The University of Edinburgh, located in Scotland, United Kingdom, is home to the Edinburgh Infectious Diseases (EID) network. The EID includes over 150 Principal Investigators and 760 active researchers across the field of infectious disease. Research projects within the EID include the immunology of helminth infections, malaria pathogenesis and vaccines, and disease progression in trypanosome infections.
University of Ibadan (UI), Nigeria
The University of Ibadan is the oldest university in Nigeria, and has a strong focus on tropical disease research. The Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology has strong capacity for Malaria and Soil-transmitted helminth infection diagnostic evaluation, and has strong research experience with other parasitic diseases such as Trypanosomiasis. The University also has capacity for tuberculosis diagnostic evaluation, case management and disease control. The University is involved in tuberculosis research and currently building capacity to carry out clinical trials on TB diagnostics, drugs and vaccines according to international standards. The University is willing to partner with other organizations to strengthen tuberculosis R&D in order to reduce disease burden in our community.
University of Kansas
The University of Kansas is a major public research and teaching institution, guided by its mission to serve as a "center for learning, research, scholarship and creative endeavor" in the state of Kansas, the United States, and the world. In carrying out this endeavor, the university attains high levels of research productivity and is dedicated to cooperative research to address the issues facing an increasingly complex and diverse global community. The KU Medical Center strives to advance the health sciences through internationally recognized research programs in strong basic, clinical, and translational sciences, as well as drug discovery, health services research and public health.
University of Mauritius
The University of Mauritius (UOM) is the national University of Mauritius. It is the oldest and largest university in the country in terms of student enrollment and curriculum offered. The public university's main campus is located at Réduit, Moka. The university was inaugurated on 24th March 1972.
University of South Florida
The University of South Florida is a high-impact, global research university dedicated to student success. USF is a Top 50 research university among both public and private institutions nationwide in total research expenditures, according to the National Science Foundation. Serving more than 47,000 students, the USF System has an annual budget of $1.5 billion and an annual economic impact of $4.4 billion. USF is a member of the American Athletic Conference.
University of Vermont
UVM is a research university with investigators focused on malaria and parasitic tropical diseases. UVM uses its facilities to research and develop drugs and diagnostics, and therefore has the capability and infrastructure to undertake research into neglected tropical diseases, malaria and tuberculosis. UVM is committed to working with others, including Provider members of WIPO Re:Search, to develop drugs for treatment of those diseases. UVM currently seeks to license assets in the WIPO Re:Search database to conduct research and development of drugs and or treatments for Neglected Tropical Disease.
University of Washington, Seattle
The University of Washington is a multi-campus university in Seattle, Tacoma and Bothell, as well as a world-class academic medical center. We are dedicated to educating the next generation of thinkers and doers and to leveraging faculty and researcher expertise in the search for new ideas and innovations to address the world’s most pressing challenges. UW Medicine leads in providing research services, facilities, and instrumentation to support discoveries in human health and biology. Established in 1946, the UW School of Medicine has grown quickly into a highly productive, highly collaborative research community with excellent scientific resources and facilities spread out over more than 30 departments and numerous centers and institutes. It is ranked sixth in the nation among academic biomedical research institutions by U.S. News & World Report. Within the UW Medicine organization, the School of Medicine receives more than $500 million per year in research funding — fully half of all grant funding received by the University of Washington.
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR)
The WRAIR aims to conduct biomedical research that is responsive to Department of Defense and US Army requirements and delivers life saving products including knowledge, technology and medical material that sustain the combat effectiveness of the Warfighter. WRAIR has developed two modern Centers of Excellence-Infectious Disease Research and Military Psychiatry and Neuroscience Research. World-renowned scientists with expertise in comprehensive Soldier fitness, brain injury, and sleep management make up the Center for Military Psychiatry and Neuroscience Research. The Center for Military Infectious Disease Research combines expertise in the development of vaccines and drugs for prevention and treatment of such diseases as malaria, HIV/AIDS, dengue fever, wound infections, leishmaniasis, enteric diseases and others. - Bioproduction facility for the manufacture under cGMP conditions of biologicals for Phase I clinical trials and other studies. - Clinical trial expertise and facilities both in the U.S. and in areas with high transmission rates of selected infectious diseases and with high rates of drug-resistant tropical diseases. - Insectary for raising mosquitoes and sand flies. - Biosafety Level 3 laboratories. - Modern AAALAC-accredited animal facilities and research suites. - Multidrug-resistant Repository and Surveillance Network (MRSN).
Washington University School of Medicine
Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Missouri, is a world leader in biomedical research and consistently ranks among the top medical schools in the U.S. Among its many scientific initiatives in global health are those focused on malnutrition and the gut microbiome, AIDS and HIV, infectious and neglected tropical diseases, and the biologic mechanisms of parasites and their role in malaria and other devastating diseases. The Death to Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic Filariasis (DOLF) initiative focuses on research to develop cost-effective treatments for two neglected tropical diseases: lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis) and onchocerciasis (river blindness). Partnerships among researchers at the medical school and Washington University’s Institute for Public Health, including its Center for Global Health and Infectious Disease, are leading to new discoveries to improve the lives of people worldwide.
Many of the above institutions, including DNDi, Fiocruz, MMV, and MRC, among others, have indicated their interest in licensing the technologies/services available through WIPO Re:Search as well as being Providers. To avoid repetition, they are only listed as "Providers".
Emory University (Atlanta, Georgia)
EIDD is using Wipo Re:Search to access patents and research data and ultimately select promising compounds that could lead to effective new medicines. EIDD was formed with the mission of discovery and preclinical drug research to develop therapeutics for neglected diseases. EIDD is training new generations of researchers in a multidisciplinary drug discovery environment, and maintains a focus on commercially neglected diseases, global health partnerships, mentored research, multidisciplinary interactions both within and outside Emory University.
GALVmed is working to protect livestock and save human lives by making livestock vaccines, medicines and diagnostics accessible and affordable to the millions in developing countries for whom livestock is a lifeline. GALVmed was established in 2005 in Edinburgh, UK and now has offices in Botswana and New Delhi, and representation in Kenya, South Africa and Malawi. It is a not-for-profit global alliance of public, private and government partners and a registered charity in Scotland
Sabin Vaccine Institute (Sabin)
Sabin Vaccine Institute (Sabin) is a non-profit, 501(c)(3) organization made up of scientists, researchers, and advocates dedicated to reducing needless human suffering from vaccine preventable and neglected tropical diseases. Sabin works with governments, leading public and private organizations, and academic institutions to provide solutions for some of the world’s most pervasive health care challenges. Since its founding in 1993 in honor of the oral polio vaccine developer, Dr. Albert B. Sabin, the Institute has been at the forefront of efforts to control, treat, and eliminate vaccine preventable and neglected tropical diseases by developing new vaccines, advocating use of existing vaccines, and promoting increased access to affordable medical treatments.
University of Calgary
Established in 1966, the University of Calgary is is Canada’s leading next-generation university – a living, growing and youthful institution that embraces change and opportunity with a can-do attitude in Canada’s most enterprising city. The university has a clear strategic direction—Eyes High™—to become one of Canada’s top five research universities by 2016, grounded in innovative learning and teaching and fully integrated with the community of Calgary. Supporting industry and businesses locally, nationally and internationally, the University of Calgary strives to serve the community and reflect its values, while working to find solutions to some of the most challenging problems facing society today. The university serves over 31,000 students in more than 100 undergraduate, graduate and professional degree programs, and has more than 110 active student exchange agreements with institutions around the world. The university also has a satellite campus in the Middle East, the University of Calgary—Qatar.
University of California, San Francisco (UCSF)
The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF),founded in 1873, is dedicated to promoting health worldwide through advanced biomedical research, graduate-level education in the life sciences and health professions, and excellence in patient care. UCSF's innovative, collaborative approaches to healthcare, research and education span disciplines across the health sciences and make it a world leader in scientific discovery and its translation into improved health. UCSF is also recognized internationally as one of the world's great research universities with a trademark culture of collaboration. At UCSF, basic scientists and clinical researchers from all disciplines work together to find solutions for preventing and treating disease.
Africa Fighting Malaria (AFM)
The Africa Fighting Malaria AFM is a non-profit health advocacy group founded in 2000 and based in South Africa and the United States. Our mission is to make malaria control more transparent, responsive and effective. We conduct research into the social and economic aspects of malaria and raise the profile of the disease and the issues surrounding its control in the local and international media. AFM strives to hold public institutions accountable for funding and implementing effective, integrated and country-driven malaria control policies and to promote successful private sector initiatives to control the disease.
Association of University Technology Managers (AUTM)
The Association of University Technology Managers (AUTM) supports and advances academic technology transfer globally. AUTM’s global network of members come from more than 350 universities, research institutions, teaching hospitals and government agencies as well as hundreds of companies involved with managing and licensing innovations derived from academic and nonprofit research. The association helps its members effectively commercialize their inventions, and it provides professional development and networking opportunities for technology transfer professionals at all career levels and across the globe.
The BIO represents more than 1,100 biotechnology companies, academic institutions, state biotechnology centers and related organizations across the United States and in more than 30 other nations. BIO members are involved in the research and development of innovative healthcare, agricultural, industrial and environmental biotechnology products. BIO also produces the BIO International Convention, the world’s largest gathering of the biotechnology industry, along with industry-leading investor and partnering meetings held around the world. BIO produces BIOtechNOW, an online portal and monthly newsletter chronicling “innovations transforming our world".
Council on Health Research for Development (COHRED)
The COHRED supports research and innovation for health, equity and development in low- and middle-income countries. COHRED promotes research for health and innovation that addresses the needs of the disadvantaged, and works with countries to build the skills and systems required for such essential research. COHRED fully believes that an investment in improving systems, governance and management for research in the health sector is a direct investment in a country’s economic future.
Developing World Health
Founded in 2008, Developing World Health aims to seek partnerships with pharmaceutical companies, institutions, hospitals and other organizations to conduct medical research on new cures or treatment approaches for NTDs, as well as agreements to manufacture and distribute newly approved therapies. Through a network of collaborations, the Developing World Health facilitates the development, approval, manufacture and distribution of new medicines to developing countries.In addition to developing new treatments for NTDs, Developing World Health is working with partners to treat children in Africa against the 7 most common NTDs like Bilharzia (schistosomiasis), hook worm, river blindness and trachoma.
European Commission – Directorate General for Research and Innovation
The European Commission’s Directorate-General for Research & Innovation develops and implements European research and innovation policy with a view to achieving the goals of Europe 2020 and the Innovation Union. It supports research and innovation through European Framework Programmes; supports national and regional research and innovation programmes; contributes to the creation of the European Research Area; and supports European organisations and researchers in their cooperation at international level.
Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)
The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) leads India in the formulation, coordination and promotion of biomedical research. One of the oldest medical research bodies in the world, ICMR is composed of 19 mission-oriented national institutes that conduct research on tuberculosis, leprosy, cholera and diarrheal diseases, as well as viral diseases, including HIV/AIDS and malaria, and other diseases. ICMR also houses six regional medical research centers that aim to strengthen or generate research capabilities in different geographic areas of India, as well as five units that address food and drug toxicology, viral diseases, and other regulatory issues.
IFPMA represents the research-based pharmaceutical companies and associations across the globe. The research-based pharmaceutical industry’s 1.3 million employees research, develop and provide medicines and vaccines that improve the life of patients worldwide. Based in Geneva, IFPMA has official relations with the United Nations and contributes industry expertise to help the global health community find solutions that improve global health. IFPMA manages global initiatives including: IFPMA Developing World Health Partnerships Directory catalogues the research-based pharmaceutical industry's long-term partnership programs to improve health in developing countries, IFPMA Code of Pharmaceutical Marketing Practices sets standards for ethical promotion of medicines, IFPMA Clinical Trials Portal helps patients and health professionals find out about on-going clinical trials and trial results.
International Hospital Federation (IHF)
The International Hospital Federation (IHF), with history dating back to 1929, is a non-profit, non-governmental organization which serves as the global association of all healthcare organizations including hospital associations, health care related organizations, representative bodies as well as their members. Whilst recognizing the essential role of hospitals and health care organizations in carrying out health research, providing health care, supporting health services, and offering education; IHF’s primary goal is to improve the health of society. More specifically, the role of the IHF is to help international hospitals work towards improving the level of the services they deliver to the population regardless of that population’s economic capacity. Partnering with several international organizations, with its secretariat currently located in Bernex (Canton de Genève), Switzerland, IHF remains the unique arena for all major hospitals and health care associations to cooperate: acting upon their common goals and critical concerns.
Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI)
The Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) is a state corporation charged with carrying out health research in Kenya. KEMRI has grown from its humble beginning 27 years ago to become a regional leader in human health research. The Institute currently ranks as one of the leading centers of excellence in health research both in Africa and around the world. KEMRI aims to improve on the quality of health and human life through conducting research, disseminating and translating research findings for evidence-based policy formulation and implementation, and through partnerships with other organizations and institutions.
Licensing Executive Society International (LESI)
The Licensing Executive Society International (LESI) is an association of 32 national and regional societies, each composed of men and women who have an interest in the transfer of technology, or licensing of intellectual property rights - from technical know how and patented inventions to software, copyright and trademarks.
Mahidol University, one of the most prestigious universities in Thailand, is internationally known and recognized for high-caliber research and teaching, as well as for its achievements in international academic collaboration and professional services. Mahidol University’s traditional focus is in medicine and the sciences, and its faculty and students work to benefit mankind through research in these and other disciplines. In this globalized and interconnected world, Mahidol University recognizes that achieving academic and moral excellence requires maintaining strong relationships with the world community, and offering lifelong and equitable quality education for all.
National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI), Brazil
Created in 1970, the National Institute of Industrial Property is the federal agency under the Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade (MDIC) that is responsible for the complex and sophisticated task of processing, dissemination and management of the Brazilian system of granting and guaranteeing intellectual property rights for the industry. Among the services INPI offers are the registration of trademarks, industrial designs, geographical indications, computer programs and circuit topographies, grants of patents and registrations of and franchise agreements of various forms of technology transfer. Recognizing the key role IP plays in the knowledge economy and in addressing global challenges, INPI has been working to streamline, simplify and ensure quality of its services in order to attract researchers and entrepreneurs who can benefit from the use of intellectual property.
Public Interest Intellectual Property Advisors (PIIPA)
Since 2002 Public Interest Intellectual Property Advisors (PIIPA) has been the global nonprofit, nonpartisan, nongovernmental leader and resource for developing countries and public interest organizations seeking pro bono expertise in intellectual property matters to promote health, agriculture, science, education, culture, biodiversity, and the environment. PIIPA has a network of 3,500 pro bono IP experts in 50 countries, and has coordinated pro bono support for 120 clients in 38 developing countries with a valuation of donated expertise and in-kind services over USD $2.1M. PIIPA is governed by a volunteer board of directors and gains additional guidance from an International Advisory Board comprised of IP thought leaders from every continent.
Tech Transfer Summit Ltd
Tech Transfer Summit Ltd, manages the Global TTS Initiative, a unique international network and community founded to meet an increasing need for a better understanding between all the stakeholders in the Biotechnology community, in particular research and industry, on the critical need for efficient transfer of early innovative research to commercializable products and technologies which benefit patients and contribute to the knowledge based economy. The Global TTS Initiative has become the premier international think-tank for Technology Transfer professionals, researchers, business angels, Government funding bodies, VCs, financiers and financial service providers and the legal profession in the biotechnology and life sciences sectors
United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO)
The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is the federal agency for granting U.S. patents and registering trademarks. Under this system of protection, American industry has flourished. New products have been invented, new uses for old ones discovered, and employment opportunities created for millions of Americans. The strength and vitality of the U.S. economy depends directly on effective mechanisms that protect new ideas and investments in innovation and creativity. The continued demand for patents and trademarks underscores the ingenuity of American inventors and entrepreneurs. The USPTO is at the cutting edge of the technological progress and achievement.