World Intellectual Property Organization

Global Economic Slowdown Impacts 2008 International Patent Filings

Geneva, January 27, 2009
PR/2009/583

International patent filings under WIPO’s Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) grew by 2.4% in 2008, to nearly 164,000 1 applications. While the rate of growth was modest, as compared to an average 9.3% rate of growth in the previous three years, the total number of applications for 2008 represents the highest number of applications received under the PCT in a single year. Continued use of the PCT, a cornerstone of the international patent system, indicates that companies recognize the importance of sustained investment in research, development and innovation to remain competitive even within challenging economic conditions.

Inventors from the Republic of Korea (+12.0%), China (+11.9%) and Sweden (+12.5%) enjoyed robust growth rates in their filing of PCT applications in 2008. The largest number of international PCT applications, just under a third of the total for 2008 (32.7% or 53,521 applications) were filed by inventors in the United States of America, maintaining a ranking that has spanned some thirty years.

“Historically, patent filings tend to dip during periods of economic difficulty simply because fewer resources are available for investment in the innovation cycle. Once the economic cycle improves, patenting activity tends also to recover. That said, economic crises have, in the past, been a catalyst for innovation as greater emphasis is placed on improving standards of efficiency, doing more with less and identifying and developing smarter business solutions,” said Mr. Francis Gurry, Director General of WIPO. “In the current economic climate, technology, innovation and creativity are critical in creating opportunities for economic renewal and addressing pressing global issues such as climate change,” he added.

Inventors and corporations from Japan, with 17.5% (28,774) of all filings, clinched the number two spot in 2008, followed by Germany (18,428), Republic of Korea (7,908) France (6,867), China (6,089), United Kingdom (5,517), Netherlands (4,349), Sweden (4,114), Switzerland (3,832), Canada (2,966), Italy (2,939), Finland (2,119), Australia (2,028) and Israel (1,882). In 2008, China improved its ranking by one place, to become the sixth largest user of the PCT.

Top Applicants

For the first time, a Chinese company topped the list of PCT applicants in 2008. Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd, a major international telecommunications company based in Shenzhen, filed 1,737 PCT applications in 2008. Panasonic Corporation2 (Japan) was the second largest user of the PCT in 2008 with 1,729 international applications, followed by Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Netherlands, 1,551 PCT applications), Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha (Japan, 1,364 PCT applications) and Robert Bosch GMBH (Germany, 1,273 PCT applications).

Of the top 100 companies using the PCT system in 2008, 38 were from the United States, 28 from Japan and 13 from Germany. One other Chinese company, ZTE Corporation, also a Shenzen-based telecommunications company, figured in the top 100 user list.

Developing Countries

WIPO continued to receive international patent applications from developing countries in 2008. The largest number of applications received came from the Republic of Korea (7,908) and China (6,089) followed by India (766), Singapore (578), Brazil (451), South Africa (382), Turkey (367), Mexico (210), and Malaysia (177).

Developing countries make up 78% of the membership of the PCT, representing 109 of the 139 countries that have signed up to the treaty to date.

“In the coming years, it will be a priority for WIPO to work closely with its member states to ensure that all countries are in a position to actively participate in the benefits of innovation and the knowledge economy and maximize their participation in the PCT,” said Mr. Gurry. The Director General recalled that WIPO’s Development Agenda calls for continual analysis and reflection on the best means of making intellectual property work to the advantage of all countries, regardless of their level of development.

Fields of Technology

The largest proportion of PCT applications published in 2008 related to medical technology (12.0%), computer technology (8.5%) and pharmaceuticals (7.9%) sectors. The fastest growing technology areas are information technology methods for management (22.7% increase) and micro-structures and nanotechnology (20.7%).

The main fields of technology in which PCT applications were published in 2008 are broken down according to the International Patent Classification (IPC) - a classification system designed to facilitate the retrieval of technical information found in patent documents. These categories are outlined in Annex I. (For further information on IPC codes, please consult: http://www.wipo.int/classifications/ipc/).

Evolution of the PCT System

A review of PCT operations is on-going to ensure that the PCT system continues to deliver value added services to users and is a more effective platform for sharing information among patent offices to avoid duplication of work, and for facilitating access to valuable patent information. WIPO’s revised program and budget (http://www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/govbody/en/wo_pbc_13/wo_pbc_13_4.pdf) states that the PCT’s strategic direction in 2009 is “to ensure that the PCT system is being used to its full potential and to maximize its value to applicants and member states.”

The Director General said, “The PCT has been a major success in providing a multilateral response to the growth in demand for patents and the internationalization of the system. Demand for patent rights in today’s technology-dependent societies, however, is such that patent offices around the world are struggling to deliver their IP services in an efficient and timely manner. In the face of this demand management crisis, there is an urgent need to find solutions.” Mr. Gurry said “the PCT provides a better basis for constructing future solutions than any other currently under consideration.”

Other Developments

In recent years, WIPO and other patent offices have sought to continually enhance and modernize PCT operations to generate efficiency gains and to better serve the user community. As a result of this, some 70% of all PCT applications are now filed fully or partially in electronic form. WIPO has also streamlined PCT operations such that staff numbers have remained stable in spite of a continuing increase in workload.

Also, through the PATENTSCOPE® Search Service, users are able to do full-text searches in over 1.5 million published international patent applications from the first publication in 1978. Partly in recognition of these efficiency gains, member states agreed in 2007 to reduce the PCT international fee by 5% as from July 1, 2008. In order to encourage use of the PCT in developing countries, the international filing fee is now reduced by 90% for individual applicants (not companies) from an approved list of developing countries and by 90% for all applicants from less developed countries.

Background

The PCT offers inventors and industry an advantageous route for obtaining patent protection internationally. By filing one “international” patent application under the PCT, protection of an invention can be sought simultaneously in each of a large number of countries. Both applicants and patent offices of PCT member states benefit from the uniform formality requirements, the international search and preliminary examination reports, and the centralized international publication provided by the PCT system. The national patent granting procedure and the related expenses are postponed, in the majority of cases, by up to 18 months (or even longer in the case of some offices) as compared with the traditional patent system. By this time, the applicant will have received important value-added information concerning the likelihood of obtaining patent protection as well as potential commercial interest in that invention.

Growth rates in the filing of PCT applications have been particularly dynamic over the last nine years. It took 18 years from the beginning of PCT operations in 1978 to reach 250,000 total applications, but only four years to double that figure (500,000), and another four to double it again (1,000,000).

________________________________

1  Provisional estimate - WIPO continues to receive PCT applications filed with national offices in 2008 throughout the first half of the year.
2  Matsushita changed its name to Panasonic in 2008

 

ANNEX

PCT International Applications
Top 15 Countries of Origin
  2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 estimate 2008 percent 2008 growth
United States of America 43,350 46,803 50,941 54,086 53,521 32.7% -1.0%
Japan 20,264 24,869 27,033 27,744 28,744 17.5% 3.6%
Germany 15,214 15,984 16,732 17,818 18,428 11.3% 3.4%
Republic of Korea 3,558 4,688 5,944 7,061 7,908 4.8% 12.0%
France 5,184 5,748 6,242 6,568 6,867 4.2% 4.6%
China 1,706 2,503 3,951 5,441 6,089 3.7% 11.9%
United Kingdom 5,027 5,084 5,090 5,539 5,517 3.4% -0.4%
Netherlands 4,284 4,500 4,529 4,355 4,349 2.7% -0.1%
Sweden 2,851 2,883 3,316 3,657 4,114 2.5% 12.5%
Switzerland 2,898 3,290 3,577 3,778 3,832 2.3% 1.4%
Canada 2,104 2,318 2,566 2,847 2,966 1.8% 4.2%
Italy 2,189 2,349 2,716 2,946 2,939 1.8% -0.2%
Finland 1,672 1,893 1,845 1,995 2,119 1.3% 6.2%
Australia 1,837 1,996 2,001 2,053 2,028 1.2% -1.2%
Israel 1,227 1,454 1,589 1,746 1,882 1.1% 7.8%
All Others 9,245 10,326 11,084 12,252 12,497 7.6% 2.0%
Total 122,610 136,688 149,156 159,886 163,800   2.4%

 

Main fields of technology in which PCT applications were published

  Technical Field 2004 2005 2006 007 2008 Increase Compared with 2007
I Electrical engineering            
1 Electrical machinery, apparatus, energy 6,543 7,931 9,035 10,088 11,257 11.6%
2 Audio-visual technology 5,742 6,097 6,598 6,821 6,730 -1.3%
3 Telecommunications 7,256 8,641 10,121 11,620 12,492 7.5%
4 Digital communication 4,862 5,304 5,980 7,173 7,996 11.5%
5 Basic communication processes 1,553 1,576 1,728 1,773 1,883 6.2%
6 Computer technology 7,993 10,453 12,177 13,519 13,965 3.3%
7 IT methods for management 1,899 1,525 2,051 2,385 2,927 22.7%
8 Semiconductors 3,956 4,653 5,938 6,430 6,906 7.4%
II Instruments            
9 Optics 4,273 5,136 5,911 6,054 6,392 5.6%
10 Measurement 6,291 7,087 8,083 8,761 9,137 4.3%
11 Analysis of biological materials 2,565 3,077 2,983 2,930 3,024 3.2%
12 Control 2,746 2,983 3,348 3,498 3,571 2.1%
13 Medical technology 9,404 12,026 17,710 18,909 19,661 4.0%
III Chemistry            
14 Organic fine chemistry 8,205 8,887 9,583 9,583 9,621 0.4%
15 Biotechnology 7,698 7,563 7,471 7,536 7,698 2.1%
16 Pharmaceuticals 8,681 10,638 12,757 12,969 12,967 0.0%
17 Macromolecular chemistry, polymers 3,653 4,105 4,821 4,825 4,955 2.7%
18 Food chemistry 1,851 2,004 2,338 2,346 2,423 3.3%
19 Basic materials chemistry 4,745 5,398 6,250 6,897 7,343 6.5%
20 Materials, metallurgy 3,005 3,238 3,745 4,015 4,265 6.2%
21 Surface technology, coating 3,330 3,720 4,370 4,312 4,410 2.3%
22 Micro-structural and nano-technology 237 248 355 429 518 20.7%
23 Chemical engineering 4,638 4,800 5,406 5,598 6,000 7.2%
24 Environmental technology 2,085 2,153 2,562 2,934 3,321 13.2%
IV Mechanical engineering            
25 Handling 3,563 4,303 4,847 5,088 5,044 -0.9%
26 Machine tools 2,755 3,352 3,576 3,746 4,244 13.3%
27 Engines, pumps, turbines 3,222 3,470 3,950 4,529 5,086 12.3%
28 Textile and paper machines 2,746 3,087 3,466 3,136 3,198 2.0%
29 Other special machines 4,164 4,889 5,391 5,468 5,997 9.7%
30 Thermal processes and apparatus 1,624 1,930 2,172 2,499 2,805 12.2%
31 Mechanical elements 3,724 4,157 4,757 5,150 5,853 13.7%
32 Transport 4,926 5,642 6,129 6,826 7,649 12.1%
V Other fields            
33 Furniture, games 2,975 3,649 4,183 4,455 4,398 -1.3%
34 Other consumer goods 2,757 3,254 3,701 3,852 4,097 6.4%
35 Civil engineering 3,856 3,939 4,409 4,732 5,278 11.5%

 

Top 50 PCT Applicants in 2008

2008 Ranking Position Changed Applicant's Name Country of Origin PCT applications published in 2008 Increased over 2007
1 3 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. CN 1737 372
2 -1 PANASONIC CORPORATION JP 1729 -371
3 -1 KONINKLIJKE PHILIPS ELECTRONICS N.V. NL 1551 -490
4 2 TOYOTA JIDOSHA KABUSHIKI KAISHA JP 1364 366
5 0 ROBERT BOSCH GMBH DE 1273 127
6 -3 SIEMENS AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT DE 1089 -555
7 2 NOKIA CORPORATION FI 1005 180
8 5 LG ELECTRONICS INC. KR 992 273
9 12 TELEFONAKTIEBOLAGET LM ERICSSON (PUBL) SE 984 387
10 4 FUJITSU LIMITED JP 983 275
11 -4 QUALCOMM INCORPORATED US 907 -67
12 4 NEC CORPORATION JP 825 199
13 2 SHARP KABUSHIKI KAISHA JP 814 112
14 -6 MICROSOFT CORPORATION US 805 -40
15 -5 MOTOROLA, INC. US 778 -46
16 -5 BASF SE DE 721 -101
17 2 INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION US 664 58
18 -6 3M INNOVATIVE PROPERTIES COMPANY US 663 -106
19 1 SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD. KR 639 41
20 5 E.I. DUPONT DE NEMOURS AND COMPANY US 517 13
21 3 MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC CORPORATION JP 503 -12
22 -4 PIONEER CORPORATION JP 497 -114
23 5 HEWLETT-PACKARD DEVELOPMENT COMPANY, L.P. US 493 88
24 284 CONTINENTAL AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT DE 485 435
25 2 THOMSON LICENSING FR 461 45
26 16 ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS RESEARCH INSTITUTE KR 443 155
27 -5 THE PROCTER & GAMBLE COMPANY US 412 -163
28 22 NXP B.V. NL 407 166
29 3 SONY ERICSSON MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS AB SE 402 42
30 -1 BSH BOSCH UND SIEMENS HAUSGERÄTE GMBH DE 393 -5
31 -14 INTEL CORPORATION US 377 -246
32 23 INA-SCHAEFFLER KG DE 374 143
33 11 DAIKIN INDUSTRIES, LTD. JP 367 88
34 -3 THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA US 343 -21
35 -12 HONEYWELL INTERNATIONAL INC. US 339 -181
36 17 RENAULT S.A.S. FR 335 101
37 18 KYOCERA CORPORATION JP 332 101
38 13 ZTE CORPORATION CN 329 94
39 -13 GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY US 326 -112
40 24 TEXAS INSTRUMENTS INCORPORATED US 308 96
41 10 SONY CORPORATION JP 307 72
42 -4 EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY US 299 -31
43 40 BAKER HUGHES INCORPORATED US 295 128
43 -8 NOVARTIS AG CH 295 -47
45 129 APPLE COMPUTER, INC. US 289 205
46 13 FRAUNHOFER-GESELLSCHAFT ZUR FÖRDERUNG DER ANGEWANDTEN FORSCHUNG E.V. DE 287 58
47 43 DOW GLOBAL TECHNOLOGIES INC. US 285 130
48 1 NIKON CORPORATION JP 284 40
49 22 THE BOEING COMPANY US 281 100
50 -4 CANON KABUSHIKI KAISHA JP 280 15

 

PCT International Applications by Residence of First Applicant

All Countries of Origin

COUNTRY NAME 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 (Estimate)
AD Andorra 2 3 3 3 5
AE United Arab Emirates 17 24 14 20 22
AG Antigua and Barbuda 1 2      
AI Anguilla 1     1  
AL Albania 1   1    
AM Armenia 2 3 7 4 6
AN Netherlands Antilles 2 3 10 1  
AR Argentina 11 20 20 32 23
AT Austria 709 851 916 1,004 938
AU Australia 1,837 1,996 2,001 2,053 2,028
AZ Azerbaijan 5 5 14 7 1
BA Bosnia and Herzegovina 3 7 8 13 10
BB Barbados 246 258 192 301 136
BE Belgium 832 1,076 1,034 1,124 1,105
BF Burkina Faso         1
BG Bulgaria 24 21 24 30 28
BH Bahrain         3
BI Burundi 1 1 2 1  
BJ Benin     1   1
BM Bermuda 10 4 6 13 26
BN Brunei Darussalam   7 1    
BO Bolivia 3     1  
BR Brazil 278 271 333 396 451
BS Bahamas 21 31 19 39 21
BY Belarus 26 22 18 9 9
BZ Belize 9 5 1 1 3
CA Canada 2,104 2,318 2,566 2,847 2,966
CD Democratic Republic of the Congo         2
CH Switzerland 2,898 3,290 3,577 3,778 3,832
CI Côte d'Ivoire   1      
CK Cook Islands 1 1   1  
CL Chile 6 9 12 17 23
CM Cameroon 2 2 1 1 1
CN China 1,706 2,503 3,951 5,441 6,089
CO Colombia 22 23 29 45 40
CR Costa Rica 6 4 5 3 7
CU Cuba 18 11 21 22 12
CY Cyprus 43 30 53 65 36
CZ Czech Republic 95 117 107 131 155
DE Germany 15,214 15,984 16,732 17,818 18,428
DK Denmark 1,049 1,121 1,157 1,153 1,328
DO Dominican Republic       2 5
DZ Algeria 6 4 3 12 11
EC Ecuador 9 1 7 2 4
EE Estonia 12 13 17 30 35
EG Egypt 53 51 41 40 47
ES Spain 823 1,125 1,198 1,293 1,284
FI Finland 1,672 1,893 1,845 1,995 2,119
FJ Fiji       1  
FR France 5,184 5,748 6,242 6,568 6,867
GA Gabon         1
GB United Kingdom 5,027 5,084 5,090 5,539 5,517
GD Grenada         1
GE Georgia 3 4 8 8 10
GH Ghana     2   3
GI Gibraltar       1 3
GQ Equatorial Guinea   1 1    
GR Greece 79 55 84 88 108
GT Guatemala   1   1 15
HK Hong Kong, China 4 2 1 3 1
HN Honduras   1     3
HR Croatia 76 71 74 79 56
HU Hungary 136 160 145 166 173
ID Indonesia 6 8 8 9 10
IE Ireland 322 338 423 411 444
IL Israel 1,227 1,454 1,589 1,746 1,882
IN India 724 679 831 901 766
IQ Iraq       1  
IR Iran (Islamic Republic of)   2 3 3 1
IS Iceland 46 44 51 52 65
IT Italy 2,189 2,349 2,716 2,946 2,939
JM Jamaica     1 1  
JO Jordan   4 6 22 6
JP Japan 20,264 24,869 27,033 27,744 28,744
KE Kenya 7 7 5 3 1
KG Kyrgyzstan 1 1   2  
KN Saint Kitts and Nevis   1 1 2 1
KP Democratic People's Republic of Korea 3 2 4 2 7
KR Republic of Korea 3,558 4,688 5,944 7,061 7,908
KW Kuwait 3 4 1 3 3
KY Cayman Islands 9 5 10 22 15
KZ Kazakhstan 7 8 17 16 4
LA Lao People’s Democratic Republic         1
LB Lebanon 1   4 2 1
LC Saint Lucia         1
LI Liechtenstein 47 71 77 69 400
LK Sri Lanka 2   3 7 11
LR Liberia 1        
LT Lithuania 9 8 10 13 19
LU Luxembourg 125 119 120 164 230
LV Latvia 12 16 17 21 21
LY Libyan Arab Jamahiriya         1
MA Morocco 7 9 10 18 12
MC Monaco 16 14 14 4 13
MD Republic of Moldova 3 5 7 4 5
ME Montenegro     2    
MG Madagascar 1 1     1
MH Marshall Islands 2   1 1  
MK The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 4 2 2 5 2
ML Mali 1        
MM Myanmar         1
MN Mongolia     6   3
MT Malta 3 10 11 12 15
MU Mauritius 12 3 7 9 3
MX Mexico 118 141 180 187 210
MY Malaysia 45 38 60 108 177
NA Namibia 2 1 1 2  
NG Nigeria   2 1 2  
NL Netherlands 4,284 4,500 4,529 4,355 4,349
NO Norway 476 584 609 606 641
NZ New Zealand 339 349 351 398 314
OM Oman   2      
PA Panama 15 17 15 14 10
PE Peru     1 2 1
PG Papua New Guinea   1      
PH Philippines 11 26 23 17 14
PK Pakistan     3 4  
PL Poland 107 97 101 105 129
PT Portugal 49 55 68 92 95
PY Paraguay 1        
QA Qatar 1 1      
RO Romania 18 15 26 31 11
RS Serbia     8 23 37
RU Russian Federation 519 657 695 738 666
SA Saudi Arabia 31 39 54 45 61
SC Seychelles 11 2 10 7 16
SD Sudan 4 6 3 4 3
SE Sweden 2,851 2,883 3,316 3,657 4,114
SG Singapore 431 443 476 528 578
SI Slovenia 62 86 79 86 108
SK Slovakia 26 31 31 37 40
SL Sierra Leone     2   1
SM San Marino   3 5 20 11
SN Senegal 3 1 3 1  
SV El Salvador         3
SY Syrian Arab Republic 5 4 7 2 5
SZ Swaziland     1    
TH Thailand 12 9 11 7 17
TM Turkmenistan         1
TN Tunisia 5 10 3 8 3
TR Turkey 115 174 269 358 367
TT Trinidad and Tobago 1 1 3 3  
UA Ukraine 89 60 77 94 98
US United States of America 43,350 46,804 50,941 54,086 53,521
UY Uruguay 5 5 4 5 6
UZ Uzbekistan   2 1   2
VC Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1       1
VE Venezuela 1 2 2 5 2
VG Virgin Islands, British 11 20 15 18 17
VN Viet Nam 2   10 6 6
VU Vanuatu 1 1      
WS Samoa   1 1   3
YU Serbia and Montenegro 29 36 24 1  
ZA South Africa 411 358 423 406 382
ZW Zimbabwe 3 1      
** Not available 264 261 186 339 245
Grand Total   122,610 136,688 149,156 159,886 163,800

 

PCT Contracting States

AE United Arab Emirates EE Estonia (EP) LC Saint Lucia RO Romania (EP)
AG Antigua and Barbuda EG Egypt LI Liechtenstein (EP) RS Serbia
AL Albania1 ES Spain (EP) LK Sri Lanka RU Russian
AM Armenia (EA) FI Finland (EP) LR Liberia Federation (EA)
AO Angola FR France (EP)2 LS Lesotho (AP) SC Seychelles
AT Austria (EP) GA Gabon (OA)2 LT Lithuania (EP) SD Sudan (AP)
AU Australia GB United Kingdom (EP) LU Luxembourg (EP) SE Sweden (EP)
AZ Azerbaijan (EA) GD Grenada LV Latvia (EP) 2 SG Singapore
BA Bosnia and GE Georgia LY Libyan Arab SI Slovenia (EP)2
Herzegovina1 GH Ghana (AP) Jamahiriya SK Slovakia (EP)
BB Barbados GM Gambia (AP) MA Morocco SL Sierra Leone (AP)
BE Belgium (EP)2 GN Guinea (OA)2 MC Monaco (EP) 2 SM San Marino
BF Burkina Faso (OA)2 GQ Equatorial MD Moldova (EA) SN Senegal (OA)2
BG Bulgaria (EP) Guinea (OA)2 ME Montenegro ST Sao Tome and Principe
BH Bahrain GR Greece (EP)2 MG Madagascar SV El Salvador
BJ Benin (OA)2 GT Guatemala MK The former SY Syrian Arab
BR Brazil GW Guinea-Bissau (OA)2 Yugoslav Republic Republic
BW Botswana (AP) HN Honduras of Macedonia1 SZ Swaziland (AP)2
BY Belarus (EA) HR Croatia (EP) ML Mali (OA)2 TD Chad (OA)2
BZ Belize HU Hungary (EP) MN Mongolia TG Togo (OA)2
CA Canada ID Indonesia MR Mauritania (OA)2 TJ Tajikistan (EA)
CF Central African IE Ireland (EP)2 MT Malta (EP) 2 TM Turkmenistan (EA)
Republic (OA)2 IL Israel MW Malawi (AP) TN Tunisia
CG Congo (OA)2 IN India MX Mexico TR Turkey (EP)
CH Switzerland (EP) IS Iceland (EP) MY Malaysia TT Trinidad and Tobago
CI Côte d’Ivoire (OA)2 IT Italy (EP)2 MZ Mozambique (AP) TZ United Republic of
CM Cameroon (OA)2 JP Japan NA Namibia (AP) Tanzania (AP)
CN China KE Kenya (AP) NE Niger (OA)2 UA Ukraine
CO Colombia KG Kyrgyzstan (EA) NG Nigeria UG Uganda (AP)
CR Costa Rica KM Comoros NI Nicaragua US United States of
CU Cuba KN Saint Kitts and NL Netherlands (EP)2 America
CY Cyprus (EP) 2 Nevis NO Norway (EP) UZ Uzbekistan
CZ Czech Republic (EP) KP Democratic People’s NZ New Zealand VC Saint Vincent and
DE Germany (EP) Republic of Korea OM Oman the Grenadines
DK Denmark (EP) KR Republic of Korea PG Papua New Guinea VN Viet Nam
DM Dominica KZ Kazakhstan (EA) PH Philippines ZA South Africa
DO Dominican Republic LA Lao People’s PL Poland (EP) ZM Zambia (AP)
DZ Algeria Democratic Republic PT Portugal (EP) ZW Zimbabwe (AP)
EC Ecuador      

 

1 Extension of European patent possible.
2 May only be designated for a regional patent (the “national route” via the PCT has been closed).

Where a State can be designated for a regional patent, the two-letter code for the regional patent concerned is indicated in parentheses (AP = ARIPO patent, EA = Eurasian patent, EP = European patent, OA = OAPI patent).

 

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