IPC Definitions - February 7, 2013

A01 - Definition fr

Glossary of terms

In this class, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Plant

Any of a kingdom (Plantae) of multicellular eukaryotic mostly photosynthetic organisms typically lacking locomotive movement or obvious nervous or sensory organs and possessing cellulose cell walls.

A01B - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Seat constructions

A47C

Wheels

B60B

Shelters for drivers

B60J

Seats specially adapted for vehicles, arrangement or mounting of seats in vehicles

B60N 2/00

Wheel scrapers

B60S 1/68

A01D - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Methods, apparatus or hand tools for

Hand rakes.

Forks.

Non-abrasive sharpening devices for scythes, sickles or the like.

Containers for whetstones for use during harvesting.

Machines specially adapted for binding of harvested hay, straw or similar crops in the field.

Arrangements for making or setting of stacks, used in connection with harvesting.

Vehicles specially adapted for carrying harvested crops with means for self-loading or unloading.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Combined or convertible apparatus

This subclass covers mowers combined with apparatus performing additional operations (e.g. threshing) while mowing, mowers convertible to apparatus for purposes other than mowing (e.g. for sweeping snow), and mowers capable of performing operations other than mowing (e.g. soil-working). The non-mowing parts of such mowers are only covered by this subclass if they are immediately associated with the mowing parts or the mowing process. Otherwise they are covered by the places for the non-mowing operations.

This subclass covers digging harvesters (e.g. for root crops) combined with apparatus performing additional operations (e.g. topping, separating or planting) while harvesting. The non-harvesting parts of such combinations are only covered by this subclass if they are immediately associated with the harvesting parts or the harvesting process. Otherwise they are covered by the places for the non-harvesting operations.

Hand tools for soil working

This subclass covers hand tools for soil working when specially adapted for harvesting, for example of root crops. This subclass also covers rakes and forks. A01B covers hand tools for soil working in general, e.g. spades, shovels or hoes, with the exception of rakes and forks.

Binding

This subclass covers apparatus specially adapted for binding of harvested hay, straw or similar crops, with the exception of stationary apparatus or hand tools, which are covered by A01F 1/00, and binding apparatus specially adapted for baling presses, which is covered by A01F 15/14. Binding in general is covered by B65B, for example B65B 13/00 and B65B 27/12.

Shredding or pulverising

This subclass covers the shredding or pulverising of stubble or other vegetation in situ, e.g. for the purpose of producing mulch, but does not cover other mechanical destruction of unwanted vegetation, which is covered by group A01M 21/02.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Soil working tools or machines for weeding or thinning

A01B

e.g.

A01B 1/16, A01B 39/18, A01B 41/00

Transplanting

A01C 11/00, A01G 23/04

Machines for cutting sods or turf from lawns or meadows

A01B 45/04

Cutting implements specially adapted for horticultural purposes, e.g. flower shears, fruit shears, secateurs or hedge shears

A01G 3/00

Delimbing of standing trees

A01G 3/00

Uprooting or felling of trees

A01G 23/02

Tapping of tree juices

A01G 23/10

Apparatus for destruction of unwanted vegetation

A01M 21/00
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Machines that pick up mown material from the ground and bale it

A01F 15/00

Machines that pick up mown material from the ground and cut it, e.g. field choppers

A01F 29/01

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Agricultural soil working in general

A01B

Gatherers for removing stones, undesirable roots or the like from the soil

A01B 43/00

Parts, details or accessories of agricultural machines in general

A01B 51/00-A01B 76/00

Threshing

A01F 5/00-A01F 12/00, A01F 17/00-A01F 21/00

Baling of hay, straw or the like

A01F 13/00-A01F 21/00

Stacks for storing of harvested products

A01F 25/04

Cutting machines specially adapted for hay, straw or the like

A01F 29/00

Floral handling

A01G 5/00

"Harvesting" of oysters, mussels, sponges or the like

A01K 80/00

Treatment of harvested fruit or vegetables, not otherwise provided for, e.g. extracting juice, cleaning of vegetables or topping of onions

A23N

Preparation of tobacco

A24B

Making harvesting tools

B21

e.g.

B21D 53/68, B21D 53/72, B21H 7/08, B21H 7/10, B21K 11/08, B21K 11/14, B21K 19/00

Sharpening of cutting edges in general

B24B, B24D

e.g.

B24B 3/00, B24D 15/06

Handles for hand implements in general

B25G

Hand-held cutting tools in general

B26B

Cutting in general

B26D

Wheels

B60B

Vehicles specially adapted for load transportation, or for transporting, carrying or comprising special loads or objects, in general

B60P

Wheel scrapers

B60S 1/68

Conveyers in general

B65G

Hoisting or lifting in general, e.g. hay hoists

B66

e.g.

B66C 11/24

Removing undesired matter from land, not otherwise provided for

E01H 15/00

Dredging or soil-shifting in general

E02F

e.g.

E02F 3/28, E02F 5/28

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Combine (noun)

Harvester or mower combined with a threshing device.

Fork

Hand tool having two or more tines that are used for lifting, digging or pitching.

Harvest (verb)

Perform one of the methods defined in the definition statement in order to make use of the separated, mown or gathered plantmaterial.

Hay

Mown forage crop in a dry or partially dry state.

Haymaking

Working on mown forage crop lying on the ground with the intention to make hay.

Mow (verb)

Cut down grass, cereals or other standing plants.

Thresh (verb)

Separate grains or seeds from harvested plants or plant parts (e.g. cereals, maize/corn, peas, beans or pine cones) by mechanical action (e.g. shaking, stamping, rubbing, beating or applying intermittent pressure).

A01D 3/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Abrasive or similar sharpening devices

B24D 15/06

A01D 5/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Whetting implements

B24D 15/00

A01D 7/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Haymakers, crop conditioners

A01D 76/00-A01D 84/00

A01D 23/04 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Processing of harvested produce in bulk

A01F 29/00, A23N

A01D 37/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Features relating to mowing only

A01D 34/00

Features relating to binding only

A01D 39/00

A01D 41/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Threshing devices for combines

A01F 7/00-A01F 12/00

A01D 59/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bundling articles for packaging in general

B65B 13/00

A01D 59/12 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Twine balls or their manufacture

B65H

A01D 61/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Conveying in general

B65G

Hoisting, lifting, in general

B66

A01D 75/08 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Sharpening machines or devices per se

B24B, B24D

A01D 75/18 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Safety devices in general

F16P

A01D 75/20 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Safety devices in general

F16P

A01D 87/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Loading in general

B65G, B66

A01D 90/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Load transporting vehicles modified to facilitate loading, in general

B60P

Bucket cars, i.e. having scraper bowls

E02F 3/64

A01F - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

The scope of this subclass is composed of five separate parts, relating to the five parts of the subclass title. For ease of reference each section of these definitions is separated under five corresponding simplified headings: "Threshing", "Baling", "Bundling", "Cutting" and "Storing".

Threshing (relating to main groups A01F 5/00-A01F 12/00 and A01F 17/00-A01F 21/00):

Methods and apparatus for separating grains or seeds from harvested plants or plant parts by mechanical action.

Baling (relating to main groups A01F 13/00-A01F 21/00):

Methods and apparatus for forming bales of straw, hay or like harvested products of plant origin.

Bundling (relating to main group A01F 1/00):

Stationary apparatus or hand tools for forming or binding bundles of straw, hay or like harvested products of plant origin.

Cutting (relating to main groups A01F 3/00 and A01F 29/00):

Apparatus specially adapted for cutting or disintegrating straw, hay or like already harvested products of plant origin.

Storing (relating to main group A01F 25/00):

Mechanical aspects (e.g. materialhandlingaspects) of apparatus (e.g. silos) or methods that are specially adapted for storing harvested agricultural or horticultural crops.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Threshing

Main groups A01F 5/00-A01F 12/00 and A01F 17/00-A01F 21/00 provide for threshing devices and for accessories that are directly connected with threshing. Combines, and details of combines that are not directly connected with the threshing action (e.g. mowing, feeding or vehicular features) are covered by A01D.

Baling

Main groups A01F 13/00-A01F 21/00 are application-oriented places for methods or apparatus for baling that are specially adapted for straw, hay or like harvested products of plant origin. Baling of compressible fibrous material in general is provided for in B65B 27/12. Baling presses in general is provided for in B30B 9/30. Bales of material are provided for in B65D 71/00.

Bundling

Main group A01F 1/00 is an application-oriented place for stationary apparatus or hand tools for bundling, which are specially adapted for straw, hay or like harvested products of plant origin. Binding of harvested products by mobile apparatus in the field is provided for in A01D, for example in A01D 37/00, A01D 39/00 and A01D 59/00. Bundling of compressible fibrous material in general is provided for in B65B 27/12. Bundling of articles in general is provided for in B65B 13/00.

Cutting

Main groups A01F 3/00 and A01F 29/00 are application-oriented places for apparatus or methods that are specially adapted for cutting up or disintegrating straw, hay or like already harvested products of plant origin. Mowing and other cutting down of standing plants is covered by A01D and A01G. Cutting in general is covered by B26. Disintegrating in general, e.g. by rotating knives, is covered by B02C.

Storing

Main group A01F 25/00 is an application-oriented place for mechanical aspects (e.g. materialhandlingaspects) of apparatus or methods that are specially adapted for storing harvested agricultural or horticultural crops. Containers for storage of articles or materials in general is covered by B65D. Storing and associated handling of bulk material or articles in general is covered by B65G. Civil-engineering aspects of silos or similar bulk storage containers are covered by section E, for example E04H 7/00.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Threshing

Separation of grains or seeds from plants in the place where they grow

A01D

e.g.

A01D 41/08, A01D 45/00, A01D 46/00

Combines

A01D 41/00, A01D 45/00, A01D 57/00, A01D 61/00-A01D 75/00

Field threshers with windrow pick-up apparatus

A01D 41/10

Pick-ups for harvested crop

A01D 89/00

Coring or stoning of fruit

A23N 3/00, A23N 4/00, A47J 23/00, A47J 25/00

Removing seed-containing sections from fruit

A23N 4/00, A23N 7/08

Hulling, husking or cracking of nuts

A23N 5/00, A47J 43/26
Baling

Arrangements for making or setting stacks

A01D 85/00

Pick-ups for harvested crop

A01D 89/00
Bundling

Arrangements for making or setting stacks in connection with harvesting

A01D 85/00
Cutting

Cutting or disintegrating in combination with mowing

A01D 43/08

Pick-ups for harvested crop

A01D 89/00

Shredding tea leaves

A23F 3/12

Fodder mashers for preparing animal feeding-stuff

A23N 17/02

Cutting tobacco

A24B 7/00

Spice mills

A47J 42/00
Storing

Arrangements for making or setting stacks, used in connection with harvesting

A01D 85/00

Devices for preserving flowers

A01G 5/06

Arrangements in barns for treatment of tobacco

A24B 1/02

Suspending devices for tobacco leaves

A24B 1/08

Cabinets for perishable goods

A47B 71/00

Fruit or potato storage cabinets, racks or tray for domestic use

A47B 75/00

Closed containers for foodstuffs

A47J 47/02

Drying or storing hops

C12C 3/02, C12C 3/04

Civil engineering aspects of bulk storage containers, e.g. silos

E04H 7/00
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:
Baling

Vehicles for carrying harvested crops with bale-forming means additionally used for loading

A01D 90/08

Packing or pressing tobacco

A24B 1/10
Bundling

Apparatus for binding bouquets or wreaths of flowers

A01G 5/02

Packing or pressing tobacco

A24B 1/10

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Threshing

Separating solids using pneumatic tables or jigs

B03B

Separating solids from solids by dry methods, in general

B07B

Hulling, husking, decorticating or removing awns otherwise than in connection with threshing

B02B 3/00

Conveying in general

B65G
Baling

Forming of bundles of straw, hay or like material of plant origin

A01D 37/00, A01D 39/00, A01D 57/00-A01D 75/00, A01F 1/00

Loaders for bales

A01D 87/12, A01D 90/08

Baling of compressible fibrous material in general

B65B 27/12

Baling presses in general

B30B 9/30

Bales of material

B65D 71/00

Conveying in general

B65G
Bundling

Mobile binders for use while harvesting

A01D 37/00, A01D 39/00, A01D 57/00-A01D 75/00

Loaders for sheaves

A01D 87/12

Forming of bales

A01F 13/00, A01F 15/00

Bundling of compressible fibrous material in general

B65B 27/12

Bundling of articles in general

B65B 13/00
Cutting

Mowing

A01D

Cutting implements specially adapted for horticultural purposes, e.g. flower shears, fruit shears, secateurs or hedge shears

A01G 3/00

Apparatus for destruction of unwanted vegetation

A01M 21/00

Household implements for mashing potatoes or other foodstuff

A47J 19/04

Disintegrating in general

B02C

Hand-held cutting tools

B26B

Cutting in general

B26D

Conveying in general

B65G
Storing

Protecting growing plants

A01G 13/00

Preservation of plants or parts thereof

A01N 3/00

Preserving flour by storage in an inert atmosphere

A21D 4/00

Preservation of fruits or vegetables

A23B 7/00

Preservation of edible seeds

A23B 9/00

Preservation of edible oils or fat

A23D 7/06, A23D 9/06

Preservation of materials to produce animal feeding stuff

A23K 3/00

Preservation of foods or foodstuffs in general

A23L 3/00

Containers for storage of articles or materials in general

B65D

Storage and associated handling of bulk material or articles in general

B65G

Conserving hops

C12C 3/04

Refrigerators, cold rooms, or the like

F25D

Drying in general

F26B

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Bale (noun)

A compressed, solid package of harvested material, which is either held together by thread or webs or formed by the material itself (with or without additives) to maintain its shape.

Bundle (noun)

A relatively loose package of harvested material, normally consisting of straws or stalks that are oriented in parallel to each other. It can either be held together by thread or webs or be formed by the material itself.

Combine (noun)

Harvester or mower combined with a threshing device.

Harvest (verb)

Separate useful parts from growing plants in situ, mow plants, or gather whole plants or their useful parts from the ground or from where the plants grow, with the intention to make use of the separated, mown or gathered plantmaterial.

Mow (verb)

Cut down grass, cereals or other standing plants.

Threshing

Separation of grains or seeds from harvested plants or plant parts (e.g. cereals, maize/corn, peas, beans or pine cones) by mechanical action (e.g. shaking, stamping, rubbing, beating or applying intermittent pressure).

A01H - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

New plants (including multicellular algae, multicellular fungi and lichens).

Processes for modifying genotypes or phenotypes.

Plant reproduction by tissue culture techniques.

Methods or apparatus for producing changes in chromosome number.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Unicellular algae

C12N 1/12

Fungal micro-organisms

C12N 1/14

Specific mutations prepared by genetic engineering on plant cell or plant tissues

C12N 15/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Influencing the growth of plants without producing new plants, non-chemically.

A01G 7/00

Influencing the growth of plants without producing new plants, chemically.

A01N 25/00-A01N 65/00

A01K 5/00 - Definition

Glossary of terms

In this main group, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Stock

Animals kept or raised for use or pleasure

A01K 7/00 - Definition

Glossary of terms

In this main group, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Stock

Animals kept or raised for use or pleasure

A01K 9/00 - Definition

Glossary of terms

In this main group, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Stock

Animals kept or raised for use or pleasure

A01M 29/10 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Stationary means for catching or killing insects by using illumination

A01M 1/04, A01M 1/08

A01M 29/12 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Poisoning, narcotising, or burning insects

A01M 1/20

Fumigators; Apparatus for distributing gases

A01M 13/00

A01M 29/14 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Flame-throwers

A01M 15/00

A01M 29/16 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Beater rattles for hunting

A01M 31/04

A01M 29/22 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Beater rattles for hunting

A01M 31/04

Special rules of classification

A01M 29/16 takes precedence.

A01M 29/24 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Apparatus for the destruction of noxious animals, other than insects, by hot water, steam, hot air, or electricity

A01M 19/00

Electric traps

A01M 23/38

Electrified wire fencing

A01K 3/00

A01M 29/28 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Killing insects by electric means

A01M 1/22

A01M 29/30 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fencing, e.g. fences, enclosures, corrals

E04H 17/00

A01M 29/34 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Adhesive bands or coatings for trees

A01M 1/18

A01N - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Compositions, physical forms thereof, and the application or method of use of specific materials, compositions, or single compounds for the following purposes:

Compositions used to protect the wound and scions of newly grafted plants or to cover the wounds on pruned plants (i.e. grafting wax).

Chemical agents used for the sexual sterilization of invertebrates (e.g. insects).

Relationship between large subject matter areas

While substances that chemically modify a plant's metabolism are classified in A01N, compositions that affect the growth of a plant solely by supplying nutrients ordinarily required for growth, e.g. fertiliser, plant food, are classified in C05. Materials used to prevent or cure mineral deficiencies in plants, such as iron chelates used to cure iron chlorosis, are also classified in C05.

The activities (e.g. rodenticidal, herbicidal) of biocidal, pest repellent, pest attractant or plant growth regulatory preparations must also be classified in A01P, when such activities are determined to be invention information.

When biocides, pest repellents, pest attractants or plant growth regulators are compounds or contain compounds which are determined to be invention information, the compounds must also be classified in C01, C07, C08, or C12N. When these compounds are considered to be of interest for search purposes, they may also be classified in C01, C07, C08, or C12N.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Apparatus therefor

A01G 5/06

Preservation of food or foodstuff, e.g. pasteurizing, sterilizing

A23B, A23K 3/00, A23L 3/00

Preservation or chemical ripening of harvested fruits or vegetables

A23B 7/00

Compositions for medical, dental or toilet purposes which kill or prevent the growth or proliferation of unwanted organisms

A61K

Sex sterilants for animals other than invertebrates

A61K

Mixtures of pesticides with fertilisers

C05G

Fungicidal, bactericidal, insecticidal, disinfecting or antiseptic paper

D21H

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Plant grafting

A01G 1/06

Devices for preserving flowers

A01G 5/06

Electric or magnetic treatment of plants for promoting growth

A01G 7/04

Sterilising soil by steam

A01G 11/00

Protecting plants (e.g. protective covers; devices for generating heat, smoke or fog; devices protecting against animals)

A01G 13/00

Means for catching or killing insects

A01M 1/00, A01M 5/00

Apparatus for destroying vermin in soil or food stuffs

A01M 17/00

Apparatus for the destruction of vegetation

A01M 21/00

Scaring devices e.g. bird-scaring apparatus

A01M 29/00

Hunting decoys

A01M 31/06

Methods or apparatus for disinfection or sterilisation of materials not characterized by the agent employed

A61L 2/00, A61L 12/00

Paints containing biocides, e.g. fungicides, insecticides, pesticides

C09D 5/14

Anti-fouling paints and underwater paints

C09D 5/16

Soil-conditioning materials or soil-stabilising materials

C09K 17/00

Undifferentiated human, animal or plant cells or tissues and their cultivation and maintenance

C12N 5/00

Biocidal agents (e.g. fungicidal, bactericidal, or insecticidal agents) which are in or on paper

D21H 21/36

Special rules of classification

In groups A01N 27/00-A01N 65/00, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place for an active ingredient.

A composition, i.e. a mixture of two or more active ingredients is classified in the last of groups A01N 27/00-A01N 65/00 that provides for at least one of these active ingredients.

Any part of a composition which is not identified by classification according to the last appropriate place of an active ingredient, and which itself is determined to be novel and non-obvious, must also be classified. The part can be either a single ingredient or a composition in itself.

Any part of a composition which is not identified by the classification according the last appropriate place, and which is considered to represent information of interest for search, may also be classified. This can for example be the case when it is considered of interest to enable searching of compositions using a combination of classification symbols. Such non-obligatory classification should be given as "additional information".

Where a compound is described as existing in tautomeric forms, it is classified as if existing in the form which is classified last in the system.

Compounds that are covered by different main groups because of alternatively specified functional groups or other structural features of their formulae are classified in each relevant main group.

Salts formed between two or more organic compounds are classified as the compound providing the essential ion and is also classified as the compound providing the other ion.

Salts or metal chelates of an organic compound are classified as the compound.

In this subclass, a foodstuff is not considered to be an active ingredient.

Different materials applied in sequence, at different times, are considered to be a mixture of all materials employed.

Synergistic or potentiated compositions are classified as if the synergist or potentiator is an active ingredient.

In groups A01N 25/00-A01N 65/00, the symbol X means nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur or a halogen; Y means nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur. A dotted line between atoms indicates an optional bond, e.g. .... indicates one or two single bonds or a double bond.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Acaricide

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying mites and ticks or making them less harmful.

Alkali metal

One of the following elements: Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr.

Alkaline earth metal

One of the following elements: Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra.

Arthropodicide

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying arthropods, e.g. insects, arachnids, crustaceans or making them less harmful.

Biocide

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or mitigating any living organism (e.g., plant, animal). Examples of a biocide are: acaricide, arthropodicide, fungicide, insecticide, molluscicide, rodenticide (see Synonyms and Keywords).

Disinfectant

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or mitigating microorganisms.

Fungicide

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying moulds and fungi or making them less harmful.

Halogen

One of the following elements: F, Cl, Br, I, At.

Heavy metal

A metal other than light metal.

Herbicide

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying plant life or making it less harmful.

Insecticide

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying insects or making them less harmful.

Light metal

One of the following elements: alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, Be, Al, Mg.

Metal

An element other than non-metal.

Molluscicide

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying molluscs, e.g. snails, clams or making them less harmful.

Non-metal

One of the following elements: H, B, C, Si, N, P, O, S, Se, Te, noble gas, halogen.

Pesticide

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying any pest (e.g., insects, rodents) or making it less harmful.

Plant

A young tree, shrub, vegetable, or flower newly planted, or intended for planting

Plant growth regulator

Materials which alter the plant or may affect plant growth through a chemical modification of the plant metabolism, such as auxins.

Rodenticide

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying rodents, e.g. rats, mice or making them less harmful.

A01N 25/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Apparatus for the destruction of noxious animals or noxious plants

A01M

A01N 25/18 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fumigators

A01M 13/00

A23B - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Methods for preserving meat, sausages, fish, fish products, eggs, egg products, fruit, vegetables (preservation of raw potatoes) or edible seeds by heating, drying, freezing, irradiating, smoking, using chemicals or micro-organisms, etc. and compositions therefor.

Apparatus for preserving meat, sausages, fish, fish products, eggs, egg products, fruit, vegetables or edible seeds using liquids, solids or gases.

Apparatus, methods, and compositions for coating meat, sausages, fish, fish products, eggs, egg products, fruit, vegetables or edible seeds with a protective layer.

Apparatus for compressing sauerkraut.

Chemical ripening of fruit or vegetables with liquids, solids or gases.

Preserved, ripened or canned products (i.e., meat, sausages, fish, fish products, eggs, egg products, fruit, vegetables or edible seeds), per se.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Preservation of foods or foodstuffs in general is classified in group A23L 3/00 while A23B includes the methods of preserving meat, sausages, fish, , fish products, eggs, egg products, fruit, vegetables or edible seeds as well as the chemical ripening of fruit or vegetables. A classification in A23B is proper if the preservation method is for specific types of foods which are covered in A23B. If a food in general is being preserved by a specific preservation method it is classified in A23L 3/00.

Preserving, protecting, or purifying packages or package contents in association with packaging and apparatus therefor are classified in B65B 55/00. Preserving meat, sausages, fish, fish products, eggs, egg products, fruit, vegetables or edible seeds and apparatus therefor not restricted to packaging are classified in A23B.

B65D 81/00 deals with containers, packaging elements or packages, for contents presenting particular transport or storage problems, or adapted to be used for non-packaging purposes after removal of contents. More specifically, B65D 81/28 deals with applications of food preservatives, fungicides, pesticides or animal repellants to the container or the packaging material, per se to prevent deterioration or decay. A23B deals with preserving meat, sausages, fish, fish products, eggs, egg products, fruit, vegetables or edible seeds, per se.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Marmalades; Jams; Jellies; Other similar fruit or vegetable compositions; Simulated fruit products; Their preparation or treatment

A23L 1/06

Preparation of cooked potatoes

A23L 1/216
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Applying food preservatives in packages

B65D 81/28

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Preparation of fruits or vegetables

A23L 1/212

Preparation of fruits or vegetables by pickling, e.g. sauerkraut

A23L 1/218

Preserving foodstuffs in general

A23L 3/00

Machines for washing or blanching fruits or vegetables in bulk in combination with subsequent drying

A23N 12/06

Machines for drying or roasting fruits or vegetables in bulk

A23N 12/08

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Egg product

All or portion of the contents found inside eggs separated from the shell and that may be pasteurized in a food processing plant, with or without added ingredients, intended for human consumption, such as dried frozen or liquid eggs. Egg products do not include food which contains eggs only in a relatively small proportion, such as cake mixes.

Fish

Any fish, including shellfish and crustaceans, and marine animals (marine being defined as "of, found in, produced by the sea"), and any parts, products or by-products thereof.

Fish product

A product containing a predominant amount of fish

A23B 4/20 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Acid fermentation

A23B 4/12

A23B 5/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Preserving dough or bakery products

A21D

A23B 7/154 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Acid fermentation

A23B 7/10

A23D - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Edible oil or fat compositions containing an aqueous phase, e.g. margarines, and their working-up and the preservation of finished products.

Other edible oils or fats, e.g. shortenings, cooking oils, microbial oils and their working-up and the preservation of finished products.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Foods or foodstuffs containing edible oils or fats are classified in the relevant parts A21D, A23G, A23L. Fats derived from milk are classified in A23C (e.g. A23C 13/00 and A23C 15/00).

C07C covers acyclic and carbocyclic compounds, e.g. esters of carboxylic acids (C07C 69/00), but not their use in food stuff which is covered by A23D.

C11B covers the production and purification/refining of oils and fats as well as their recovery from waste material, but not limited to those oils and fats which are suitable for use in foodstuffs. C11B does not cover mixtures of fats or oils with water or other edible oils or fats, which are covered by A23D.

C11C covers fatty acids that are not or no longer esterified with glycerol (although the process or esterification of said fatty acids with glycerol is covered) and their modifications, as well as candles.

A23L 1/29 covers food with modified nutritive qualities, e. g. dietetic food, functional food.

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Animal-feeding stuff

A23K 1/00

Use of substance as emulsifying, wetting, dispersing or foam-producing agents

B01F 17/00

Mineral oil (kerosene, paraffin waxes, petroleum, gasoline, diesel), biodiesel

C10

Preparation of fats or fatty oils by using microorganism or enzymes

C12P 7/64

Investigating or analyzing edible oils or fats by specific methods

G01N 33/03

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Oil

An oil is a substance that is in a viscous liquid state ("oily") at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water) and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally). This general definition includes compound classes with otherwise unrelated chemical structures, properties, and uses, including vegetable oils, petrochemical oils, and volatile essential oils. Oil is a nonpolar substance.

The word "oil" is used for any substance that does not mix with water and has a greasy feel, such as petroleum (or crude oil) and heating oil, regardless of its chemical structure.

Edible oil

Edible or cooking oil is fat of plant, animal or microbial origin, which is liquid at room temperature and is suitable for food use.

Some of the many different kinds of edible vegetable oils include: olive oil, palm oil, soybean oil, canola oil, pumpkin seed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil, peanut oil, grape seed oil, sesame oil, argan oil and rice bran oil. Many other kinds of vegetable oils are also used for cooking.

The generic term "vegetable oil" when used to label a cooking oil product refers to a blend of a variety of oils often based on palm, corn, soybean or sunflower oils.

Edible oil of animal origin is e.g. fish oil. Microbial oil are also encompassed.

Fat

Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. Chemically, fats are generally triesters of glycerol and fatty acids. Fats may be either solid or liquid at normal room temperature, depending on their structure and composition. Although the words "oils", "fats", and "lipids" are all used to refer to fats, "oils" is usually used to refer to fats that are liquids at normal room temperature, while "fats" is usually used to refer to fats that are solids at normal room temperature. "Lipids" is used to refer to both liquid and solid fats, along with other related substances.

Fats form a category of lipid, distinguished from other lipids by their chemical structure and physical properties. This category of molecules is important for many forms of life, serving both structural and metabolic functions. They are an important part of the diet of most heterotrophs (including humans). Fats or lipids are broken down in the body by enzymes called lipases produced in the pancreas.

Shortening

is a fat used in food preparation, especially baked goods, and is so called because it promotes a "short" or crumbly texture (as in shortbread). The term "shortening" can be used more broadly to apply to any fat that is used for baking and which is solid at room temperature, such as lard, but as used in recipes it refers to a hydrogenated vegetable oil that is solid at room temperature. Shortening generally has a higher smoke point than butter and margarine, and it may have 100% fat content, compared to about 80% for butter and margarine.

A23D 7/05 - Definition

Glossary of terms

In this group, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Essential cooling

The cooling is an essential, i.e. indispensable characteristic of the working-up.

A23F - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Tea.

Tea substitutes, e.g. mate, lemon balm, rose hips.

Extracts or infusions of tea and tea substitutes.

Tea flavour, tea oil.

Methods of manufacturing, preparing and modifying tea and tea substitutes, e.g. oxidation, fermentation, removing caffeine, extraction, drying, concentrating, flavouring.

Coffee.

Coffee substitutes, e.g. grain coffee.

Extracts or infusions of coffee and coffee substitutes.

Coffee flavour, coffee oil.

Methods of manufacturing, preparing and modifying coffee and coffee substitutes, e.g. treating green coffee, roasting, grinding, removing caffeine, extraction, drying, concentrating, flavouring.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

This subclass does not cover chemical compounds, e.g. alkaloids such as caffeine, theophylline, theobromine, or their preparation as such, which subject matter is covered by classes C07 (organic chemistry) and C08 (organic macromolecular compounds).

Physical or chemical processes or apparatus in general, e.g. boiling, extraction or filtration, are covered by class B01.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Picking of tea

A01D 46/04

Picking of coffee

A01D 46/06

Synthetic tea flavours

A23L 1/226

Synthetic coffee flavours

A23L 1/234

Machines for cleaning, blanching, drying or roasting fruits or vegetables, e.g. coffee

A23N 12/00

Coffee mills

A47J 42/00

Medicinal preparations containing plantmaterial from tea or tea substitutes or from coffee or coffee substitutes

A61K 36/00

e.g.

A61K 36/74, A61K 36/82, A61K 36/28

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Chocolate, confectionery or ice-cream containing coffee or tea

A23G

Preservation of foods or foodstuffs, in general, e.g. freeze-drying or spray-drying

A23L

Shaping or working of foodstuffs, not fully covered by a single other subclass, e.g. agglomerating, granulating or tabletting

A23P

Coffee or tea pots

A47G 19/14

Tea infusers, e.g. egg-shaped infusers

A47G 19/16

Tea or coffee pot cosies

A47G 19/20

Apparatus for making beverages, e.g. coffee or tea

A47J 31/00

Packaging of substances, e.g. tea, which are intended to be infused in the package, i.e. filling tea bags

B65B 29/02

Attaching, or forming and attaching, string handles or tags to tea bags

B65B 29/04

Disposable containers or packages with contents which are infused or dissolved in situ

B65D 85/804

Disposable tea bags

B65D 85/808

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Alkaloid

The stimulant xanthine drugs caffeine, theobromine and theophylline contained in coffee beans and/or tea leaves.

Coffee

Stimulant product or beverage made from roasted seeds, commonly called coffee beans, which come from a plant of the genus Coffea, e.g. Coffea arabica or Coffea canephora.

Coffee substitutes

Coffee substitutes (solid or liquid) are non-coffeeproducts normally without caffeine, used to substitute coffee while preserving its taste. Grain coffee and other substitutes can be made by roasting or decocting various organic substances. Common ingredients include acorn, barley and malt, beech nut, chicory root, corn, fig and rye.

Decaffeination

Process of removing the alkaloid caffeine from coffee beans or tea leaves.

Herbal tea, tisane, ptisan

Any Camellia sinensis-free product or beverage prepared by hot water infusion of plantmaterial, usually leaves but also including fruits, flowers and possibly even bark or other parts. Herbal teas are belonging to the group of tea substitutes.

Tea

Stimulant product or beverage made from the leaves of the traditional teaplant (Camellia sinensis).

Tea substitutes

Tea substitutes (solid or liquid) are non-teaproducts, i.e. not coming from the traditional teaplant (Camellia sinensis), e.g. mate (Ilex paraguariensis), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), rose hips (Rosa canina), etc.; cf. herbal tea.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the words "Lyophilisation" and "freeze-drying" are often used as synonyms.

A23J - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Obtaining of protein compositions for foodstuffs, e.g. from meat, fish or sea animals, blood, eggs, hair, cereals, leguminous or other vegetable seeds, waste water, yeasts or milk.

Bulk opening of eggs and separation of yolks from whites.

Working-up of proteins for foodstuffs, e.g. by texturising using freezing, extrusion, expansion, coagulation from or in a bath; by hydrolysis using chemical agents or enzymes.

Phosphatide compositions for foodstuffs, e. g. lecithin.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Phosphatides in oils or fats are classified in C11B

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Treatment of flour or dough by adding proteins before or during baking

A21D 2/26

Dairy products, e.g. milk, butter, cheese; milk or cheese substitutes; making thereof 

A23C 9/00, A23C 11/00, A23C 17/00-A23C 23/00

Cocoa products

A23G 1/44

Sweetmeats, confectionery or marzipan

A23G 3/44

Chewing gum

A23G 4/14

Frozen sweets containing peptides or proteins

A23G 9/38

Food or foodstuffs containing proteins as gelling or thickening agents

A23L 1/0562

Dietetic products containing proteins as additive

A23L 1/305

Proteins as adding ingredients for non-alcoholic beverages

A23L 2/66

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Animal feeding-stuff

A23K 1/00

Protein compositions or phosphatide compositions for pharmaceuticals or cosmetics

A61K 8/64, A61K 9/38, A61K 9/64

Phosphatides per se

C07F

General processes for the preparation of peptides

C07K 1/00

Peptides e.g. oligopeptides, proteins

C07K 4/00-C07K 14/00

Immunoglobulins

C07K 16/00

Carrier-bound or immobilised peptides and preparation thereof

C07K 17/00

Hybridpeptides

C07K 19/00

Macromolecular materials from blood

C08H

Preparation of glue

C09H

Gelatin not for foodstuffs

C09H 1/00-C09H 9/04

Analysis of food

G01N 33/02

Enzymes and preparation thereof

C12N 9/00

Preparation of peptides or proteins using fermentation or enzymes

C12P 21/00

Use of substances as emulsifying, wetting, dispersing or foam-producing agents

B01F 17/30

Special rules of classification

In groups A23J 3/04-A23J 3/20, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

Subject matter classified in groups A23J 3/22-A23J 3/30 is also classified in groups A23J 3/04-A23J 3/20, if the nature of the protein is of interest.

A23K - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Feeding-stuffs that are specially adapted, processed or formulated for non-human animals;

Processes that are specially adapted for production of such animal feeding-stuffs;

Processes that are specially adapted for preservation of materials (e.g. grass or roots) in order to produce such animal feeding-stuffs.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Animal feeding-stuffs

This subclass only covers feeding-stuffs that are disclosed as being specially adapted, processed or formulated for non-human animals. Foods or foodstuffs that are of unspecified use or specially adapted for human beings are covered by other subclasses for foodstuffs (see the references below), for example the other subclasses of A23.

Production of animal feeding-stuffs

Processes for production of foods or foodstuffs that are of unspecified use, or specially adapted for human beings, are covered by the relevant subclasses therefor, see the references below.

Apparatus that is specially adapted for production of animal feeding-stuffs is covered by A23N 17/00.

Mechanical aspects that are of general utility are covered by other subclasses, see the references below.

Preservation of materials in order to produce animal feeding-stuffs

This subclass only covers processes for preservation that are specially adapted for production of animal feeding-stuffs. Preservation of foods or food-stuffs that are of unspecified use or specially adapted for human beings, are covered by the relevant subclasses therefor, for example A23Band A23L 3/00 (see the references below).

Mechanical aspects of processes for preservation of materials in order to produce animal feeding-stuffs are classified in other subclasses, for example A01F 25/00 and F26B(see the references below).

Haymaking

Haymakers, i.e. apparatus for working on mown forage crop lying on the ground with the intention to make hay, are classified in A01D 76/00-A01D 84/00. Haymakers may include means for mechanical treatment of mown crops in the field, for example for crop-conditioning.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Mechanical aspects of methods that are specially adapted for storing agricultural or horticultural crops (e.g. in silos)

A01F 25/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Apparatus specially adapted for cutting or disintegrating straw, hay or like harvested products of plant origin

A01F 29/00

Manufacture of dairy products

A01J

Animal husbandry; Care of birds, fishes or insects

A01K

Preparation of bait for angling

A01K 97/04

Preservation of plants in general

A01N 3/00

Biocides, pest repellants or pest attractants

A01N 25/00-A01N 65/00

Machines or equipment for making or processing doughs

A21C

Treating of flour or dough

A21D

Processing meat, poultry or fish

A22C

Preserving meat, fish, eggs, fruit, vegetables or edible seeds; The preserved products

A23B

Dairy products; Making dairy products

A23C

Edible oils or fats

A23D

Protein compositions for foodstuffs; Working-up proteins for foodstuffs; Phosphatide compositions for foodstuffs

A23J

Foods or foodstuffs not covered by subclasses A23Bto A23J Their preparation or treatment

A23L 1/00

Preservation of foods or foodstuffs in general

A23L 3/00

Machines or apparatus for treating harvested fruit or vegetables in bulk, not otherwise provided for

A23N 1/00-A23N 15/00

Apparatus specially adapted for preparing animal feeding-stuffs

A23N 17/00

Shaping or working of foodstuffs

A23P

Veterinary methods

A61D

Medicinal preparations

A61K

Mixing in general

B01F

Disintegrating in general

B02C

Granulating materials

B01J 2/00

Cutting in general

B26D

Presses in general, e.g. for making briquettes

B30B

Polysaccharides; Derivatives thereof

C08B

Derivatives of natural macromolecular compounds

C08H

Producing animal or vegetable oils, fats, fatty substances or waxes

C11B

Preparation of fats, oils, or fatty acids

C11C

Micro-organisms or enzymes; Compositions thereof

C12N

Fermentation or enzyme-using processes to synthesise a desired chemical compound or composition

C12P

Sugar industry

C13

Drying solid materials

F26B

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the expressions "feed" and "feedstuff" are often used instead of "feeding-stuffs", which is used in the classification scheme of this subclass.

A23K 1/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Detoxicating or removing bitter tastes from seeds, e.g. lupin seeds for fodder or food

A23L 1/211

A23K 1/04 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Proteins from blood

A23J 1/06

A23K 1/14 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Preserving food

A23B, A23L

A23K 1/18 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Milk Substitutes

A23C 11/00

A23K 3/02 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Silos

E04H

A23L - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Any foods, foodstuffs or non-alcoholic beverages that are not covered by the following subclasses:

Examples of foods, foodstuffs or non-alcoholic beverages covered by this subclass are:

Preparation or treatment of the above foods, foodstuffs or non-alcoholic beverages provided for in this subclass, including:

Modification of such foods or beverages to change their nutritional content for dietary reasons, and these modified foods or beverages per se.

Preservation of foods or foodstuffs in general, e.g. by pasteurising, sterilising, heating, freezing, drying, pressurising, irradiation or treatment with chemicals, specially adapted for foods or foodstuffs.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

In relation to foods, foodstuffs or non-alcoholic beverages per se, and in relation to their preparation and treatment including physical treatment, this subclass is residual to subclasses A21D, A23B, A23C, A23D, A23F, A23G or A23J. These subclasses relate to flour or dough (A21D), dairy products (A23C), edible oils or fats (A23D), coffee, tea or their substitutes (A23F), cocoa, chocolate, confectionery or ice-cream (A23G) and protein compositions (A23J).

In relation to preservation of foods or foodstuffs in general, this subclass is the primary home for this subject-matter. However, preservation subject matter specifically adapted for certain foods can also be found in any of the above subclasses. For example, preservation of flour or dough or bakery products is subject-matter for subclass A21D, and preservation of meat, fish, eggs, fruit, vegetables and edible seeds e.g. cereals is subject matter for subclass A23B. Preservation of milk or milk preparations is subject matter for subclass A23C.

In relation to preservation, deciding between this subclass and the other subclasses listed above is generally a matter of function or application (see Guide Paragraphs 85-87). Where the particular preservation technology is the main point of interest classification is made in this subclass, and where the application to particular foodstuffs is the main interest classification is made in the subclasses listed above. Some double-classification is evident.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Treating harvested fruit or vegetables in bulk

A23N

Machines or apparatus for extracting juice

A23N 1/00, A47J 19/00

Shaping or working of foodstuffs not fully covered by this or a single other subclass

A23P

Preserving foods or foodstuffs in association with packaging

B65B 55/00

Packages for foodstuffs with provision for absorbing fluids

B65D 81/26

Preparation of malt for brewing

C12C

Preparation of non-alcoholic beverages by removal of alcohol

C12H 3/00
Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Edible extracts or preparations for medicinal purposes

A61K
Places in relation to which this subclass is residual:

See above.

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Apiculture

A01K 47/00-A01K 59/00

Machines for making

A21C

Enriched flour

A21D 2/00

Processes specially adapted for particular foods or foodstuffs

A23

Milk products

A23C

Milk preparations

A23C 9/00

Milk substitutes, coffee whitener compositions

A23C 11/00

Coffee, tea or their substitutes

A23F

Natural coffee or tea flavour

A23F 3/40, A23F 5/46

Working-up proteins for foodstuffs

A23J 3/00

Animal foods

A23K

Apparatus for baking, roasting, grilling or frying

A47J 37/00

Emulsifiers in general

B01F 17/00

Purifying water, e.g. by ion-exchange

C02F, C02F 1/42

Essential oils in general

C11B 9/00

Preservation of alcoholic beverages

C12H

Devices for drying foodstuffs

F26B

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Food, foodstuffs

In addition to the commonly accepted foods or foodstuffs, the term in this subclass also extends to cover less traditional items such as thickening agents (e.g. starch), flavouring agents, artificial sweeteners, food colouring agents, etc.

A23L 1/222 - Definition

Glossary of terms

In this group, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Essential oil

A concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants

A23L 1/307 - Definition

Glossary of terms

In this group, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Nutritive value

The nutritive value represents the energetic or calorific content of nutrition

A44B - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

The following fasteners or their essential parts:

Making slide fasteners, touch-and-close fasteners (e.g. VELCRO®, hook-and-loop, barb-and-pile fabrics), and other fasteners of this subclass.

Accessories or ancillary devices for the fasteners of this subclass when they are used exclusively with one of the varieties of fasteners (e.g. button cards) or have their operations either influencing or being influenced by the operation of the fastener (e.g. slide fastener pulling cords).

The following additional devices associated with either the fasteners of this class or accoutrements, garments, and haberdashery:

Note

The only "other types" of fasteners appropriate for this subclass are those that are capable of use with or actually used with accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery. Therefore, it must be either a commonly known practice to use a particular type of fastener with accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery (e.g., snap fasteners) or the patent documents for a particular type of fastener must frequently disclose their use with accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery. However, it is not required that all, or even the majority, of the fasteners covered by a particular category of fastener be specially adapted for use, or disclose their intended use, with accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

General relationship of A44B with F16B

Fasteners per se that either (a) require a tool for completing their normal fastening (e.g. screws, nails, stitches) or (b) are destroyed or destructively deformed to fasten or unfasten (e.g. staples, rivets) are excluded from A44B. These fasteners per se

However, when F16B types of fasteners or other tool driven or deformed fasteners are used to mount fasteners or fastener components appropriate for A44B, and are attached to or cooperate with at least one of their components, they are properly classified within A44B as an additional feature of the fasteners with which they are utilized.

General relationship of A44B with subclasses for accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery

Fasteners appropriately classified within A44B are often broadly claimed or disclosed in combination with the structure they secure or fasten. If the detail of the structure they secure or fasten specifies only the portion of the structure (e.g. dress belt tip or holes) necessary for either completing the fastening operation or mounting the fastening means, the combinations are proper for A44B.

If the details of the accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery being secured are more than that needed to complete the fastening operation or mount the fastener, then the combination is appropriate for the accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery subclasses (e.g. A41D, A41F).

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Fastening devices specially adapted for specific types of garments

A41F

Buttonholes or eyelets for buttonholes

A41F 1/02

Corset fasteners

A41F 1/04

Glove fasteners

A41F 1/06

Garter fasteners

A41F 1/08

Belts, girdles, or waistbands for trousers or skirts

A41F 9/00

Thumbtacks

B43M 15/00

Devices for fastening or securing constructional elements or machine parts together

F16B

Hand-manipulated hooks or eyes (e.g. swivel hook for dog leash)

F16B 45/00
Places covering apparatus or methods for making, or for positioning on the structure being fastened, fasteners or components of fasteners appropriate for this subclass

Appliances or methods for marking-out, perforating, or making buttonholes

A41H 25/00

Appliances or methods for setting fasteners on garments

A41H 37/00

Processing sheet metal, tubes or profiles to make haberdashery

B21D 53/46

Processing sheet metal, tubes or profiles to make buttons

B21D 53/48

Processing sheet metal, tubes or profiles to make metal slide fasteners parts

B21D 53/50

Wire-working to produce devices for fastening (e.g. slide fastener elements, buttons)

B21F 45/16

Pressure or injection die casting of slide fasteners and slide fastener parts

B22D 17/16

Producing slide fastener elements from plastic or other substances in a plastic state

B29D 5/00

Producing buttons or semi-finished button parts from plastic or other substances in a plastic state

B29D 19/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For garments in general

A41D

For protective aprons having fastening devices

A41D 13/04

For neckties having fastening or holding devices associated with the knot or collar

A41D 25/00

For hats having fastening devices

A42B 1/00

For head covering fastening means other than hatpins

A42B 7/00

For laces in general and for footwear having fastening devices

A43C

For machines, tools, equipment, or methods for setting fasteners on footwear

A43D 100/00

For brooches or clips having decorative or ornamental aspects

A44C 1/00

For medals or badges having pin fastening devices

A44C 3/00

For hair-holding devices

A45D 8/00

For work bench type holding clamps

B25B 5/00

For paper clips or like paper fasteners for temporarily attaching sheets together

B42F 1/02

For elements specially adapted for fastening, fixing, or finishing upholstery

B68G 7/12

For sewing apparatus or machines with mechanism for lateral movement of the needle or the work or both for making ornamental pattern seams, for sewing buttonholes, for reinforcing openings, or for fastening articles (e.g. buttons) by sewing

D05B 3/00

For sewing needles

D05B 85/00

For hand operated latches or bolts for doors or windows (e.g., door hooks)

E05C

Special rules of classification

Decorative mock-fastening devices that do not function as fasteners (e.g. ornamental buttons on coats, fake zippers on clothing), but that look like the fasteners or one of their essential parts covered by A44B, are classified within the main groups of this subclass that provide for the fasteners they are intended to resemble.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Button

A hand manipulated fastener that includes a rigid or semirigid portion (i.e. button) which is attached (e.g. sewn) to the structure it is intended to fasten or secure (e.g. clothing) in a manner that allows its reorientation by either movement about its attachment or movement of the structure it secures. A button is intended to be used with a complementary opening having a flaccid portion (e.g. buttonholes, looped cords) that forms the second essential part of the fastener.

Buckle

A hand manipulated fastener including engaging or holding means and structure for guiding during fastening, which can selectively hold a cooperating strap or belt that is either the structure secured (e.g. end of a dress belt) or a second portion of the fastener (e.g. securing strap of a backpack flap).

Pin

A hand manipulated fastener that includes both (1) a portion specifically shaped (e.g. pointed) to facilitate impaling of and penetration into the structure fastened or secured and (2) a remaining portion (e.g. head) intended to be manually pushed on that does not penetrate the structure fastened or secured.

Slide fastener

A hand manipulated fastener that includes (1) two, opposed, elongated, configured surfaces that are each attached by mounting means to a secured structure and are intended to directly contact and interlock with each other when fastened and (2) a sliding device that is much shorter in length than the surfaces and which travels along their length to forcibly shift them into or out of interlocking engagement.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the words slide fastener and zipper are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the words cufflink and sleeve-link are often used as synonyms.

A44B 1/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Setting on garments

A41H 37/10

Setting on footwear

A43D 100/08

Processing sheet metal, tubes or profiles to make buttons

B21D 53/48

Producing buttons or semi-finished parts of buttons from plastic or other substances in a plastic state

B29D 19/00

Special machines for making cotton buttons

D05C 7/12

A44B 9/06 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Other fastening means for head coverings

A42B 7/00

A45B - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tables with means for holding umbrellas

A47B 37/04

A45D - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Processes of waving, straightening or curling hair;

Hair-curling or hair-waving appliances, e.g. curling-tongs;

Devices for heating or accessories for hair curling appliances;

Hair holding devices;

Devices for washing or colouring the hair or scalp;

Hair drying devices or accessories therefor;

Devices for removing superfluous hair, e.g. tweezers;

Hair combs or accessories therefor;

Shaving accessories;

Manicuring or pedicuring implements;

Artificial nails;

Containers, casings or accessories for handling toilet or cosmetic substances;

Sachet pads for liquid substances;

Hand, pocket, or shaving mirrors;

Hairdressers’ equipment, e.g. protecting mantles, stands for performing hairdressing work, specially adapted furniture;

Other toilet or cosmetic equipment.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Removing hair using electrosurgical instruments

A61B 18/04

Removing hair using electrosurgical instruments

A61B 18/18

Preparations for care of the hair

A61Q 5/00

Preparations for removing hair or for aiding hair removal

A61Q 9/00

Devices for sharpening razor blades

B24D 15/06

Scissors combined with auxiliary implements, e.g. manicure instruments

B26B 13/22

Hair-trimming devices using a razor blade

B26B 21/00

Devices for dispensing new razor blades

B65D 83/10

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Receptacles in general, e.g. etuis for traveling

A45C 11/00

Hairdressers’ chairs

A47C 1/04

Handbags or purses with mirrors

A45C 15/04

Cabinets for shaving tackle

A47B 67/02

Mirrors as household equipment

A47G 1/02

Devices for collecting used scalpel blades

A61B 17/3217

Chiropodists’ instruments

A61B 17/54

Wigs, toupees or the like

A61G 3/00

Guards or sheaths for hand cutting tools

B26B 29/00

Sample tables or the like

G09F 5/00

A45D 2/06 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Base clamps per se

A45D 6/08

A45D 2/34 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Base clamps per se

A45D 6/10

A45D 7/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Preparations for waving or straightening the hair

A61K 8/00, A61Q 5/04

A45D 27/22 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cabinets for shaving tackle

A47B 67/02

Containers in general

B65D

A45D 27/42 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Masks for marking lips or eyelashes

A45D 40/30

Ear, face or lip protectors for other toilet or cosmetic purposes

A45D 44/12

A45D 29/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Chiropodists' instruments

A61B 17/54

A45D 29/02 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Hand cutting tools with two jaws which come into abutting contact

B26B 17/00

A45D 29/04 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Files in general

B23D 71/00

A45D 29/20 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Receptacles for travelling or like purposes

A45C 11/00

A45D 33/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For applying therapeutic or disinfecting substances

A61M 35/00

A45D 40/26 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For applying liquid paint

A45D 34/04

A45D 42/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mirrors as household equipment

A47G 1/02

A45D 44/08 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Hairdressers' coats

A41D 13/00

A45D 44/10 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Combined with chairs

A47C 1/10, A47C 7/36

A47B - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Storing articles in warehouses or magazines

B65G 1/00

Built-in cupboards as part of a building

E04F 19/08

Step-stools

A47C 12/00

Furniture joints

F16B

A47J - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Devices for domestic (or restaurant) use for preparing, cooking, or warming food or for making beverages. Storing and handling arrangements for these devices. Devices for storing food.

Preparing, cooking, or warming food refers to the various possible stages when preparing a meal:

Devices for preparing, cooking, or warming food therefore include:

Domestic implements or machines for preparing food, e.g.

Domestic cooking implements, e.g.

Devices for warming drinks or food

Warming vessels containing drinks or food

Heat insulated chambers to warm or to keep food warm

Devices for gripping, lifting or supporting above devices (pincers, pads)

Culinary hand implements for handling or supporting food during preparing/cooking/warming

Making beverages refers to:

Devices for making beverages therefore include:

Storing and handling of devices for preparing, cooking, or warming food or for making beverages refer to:

Storing and handling arrangements therefore include:

Storing food refers to:

Devices for storing food therefore include:

Relationship between large subject matter areas

This subclass is primarily intended for domestic kitchen equipment for preparing/cooking/warming food. Preparing/cooking/warming foodstuff on an industrial scale is not covered by this subclasses and will be classified in the following places:

Implements for table use will be classified in A47G.

Subclass A47J further covers the domestic making of (hot) beverages, in particular the preparing of tea or coffee by extraction with hot water. Other apparatuses and methods for preparing beverages mostly on industrial scale are classified in the following subclasses:

In relation to the subclasses that cover domestic stoves or ranges for solid or liquid fuel in general, this subclass is an application place. Features of stoves or ranges which are of general interest should be classified in the relevant general place, such as F24B, F24C.

Storing arrangements in A47J does not cover cabinets or racks in general even with provision for attachment of kitchen implements. This subject matter is classified with the subclass for cabinets or general details of furniture A47B. Devices for fastening household utensils are classified in A47G. Storage containers (both thermally insulated as without thermal insulation) in general are classified in B65D.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Apparatus for treating milk in dairies, e.g. appliances for preventing or destroying milk foam, aerating or de-aerating milk

A01J 11/00

Hand devices for forming slabs of butter in dairies

A01J 19/00

Machines for forming slaps of butter in diaries

A01J 21/00

Apparatus for smoking food

A23B 4/044

Machines or apparatus for treating harvested fruit or vegetables in bulk

A23N

Machines or apparatus for extracting juice

A23N 1/00

Machines for coring or stoning fruits in bulk

A23N 3/00

Machines for stoning fruits or removing seed containing sections

A23N 4/00

Peeling vegetables or fruit in bulk

A23N 7/00

Machines for removing stalks from fruit

A23N 15/00

Making ice cream

A23G 9/00

Washing or rinsing machines for crockery or table-ware

A47L 15/00

Apparatus or implements used in manual washing or cleaning of crockery, table-ware, cooking-ware or the like

A47L 17/00

Drying devices for crockery or table-ware, e.g. tea-cloths

A47L 19/00

Polishing of table-ware, e.g. knives, forks, spoons

A47L 21/00

Table devices or equipment, e.g. table ware

A47G

Brewing of beer

C12C

Preparation of wine or other alcoholic beverages

C12G

Traveling cookers heated by gaseous fuels

F24C 3/14

Domestic stoves or ranges

F24B, F24C

Microwave ovens

F24C 7/02, H05B 6/64

Induction heating hobs

H05B 6/12
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Lunch boxes, picnic boxes or the like

A45C 11/20

Table service

A47G 19/00

Vessels or pots for table use

A47G 19/12

Coffee or tea pots

A47G 19/14

Tea infusers, e.g. tea eggs

A47G 19/16

Table ware

A47G 21/00

Devices for fastening household utensils, or the like, to tables, walls, or the like

A47G 29/087

Weighing spoons

G01G 19/56

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bakers’ ovens, non-domestic baking apparatus or equipment

A21B

Machines or equipment for making or processing dough; handling baked articles made from dough

A21C

Provers, i.e. apparatus permitting dough to rise

A21C 13/00

Preparation of non-alcoholic beverages, e.g. by adding ingredients to fruit or vegetable juices

A23L 2/00

Machines for roasting coffee in bulk

A23N 12/08

Racks or shelf units

A47B

Kitchen cabinets

A47B 77/00

Disintegrating, e.g. mincing

B02C

Spouts in general

B05B 1/22

Hand-held cutting tools not otherwise provided for

B26B

Cutting characterised by the cutting member or nature of the cut performed; Details of apparatus for severing

B26D

Containers with thermal insulation in general

B65D 81/38

Dispensing beverages on draught

B67D 1/00

Removing cooking fumes from domestic stoves or ranges

F24C 15/20

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

cooking

boiling, braising, steaming, pressure cooking, frying, baking, roasting, grilling or barbecuing food

note: in A47J/27 cooking includes only boiling, braising, steaming and pressure cooking

boiling

cooking food by submerging it in boiling water, or other water-based liquid (stock, milk); keeping liquid foodstuff (or water) at a boiling temperature

braising

cooking food with moist heat , e.g. stewing, pot roasting

steaming

cooking food in an atmosphere with hot steam

pressure cooking

cooking food at a pressure different than that of the atmosphere

super-atmospheric cooking

pressure cooking at a pressure higher than that of the atmosphere

note: often called "pressure cooking"

sub-atmospheric cooking

pressure cooking at a pressure lower than that of the atmosphere, e.g. by using a pump to remove the air from the cooking environment

note: sometimes called "vacuum cooking", although "vacuum cooking" refers more often to vacuum flask cooking

vacuum flask cooking

cooking food inside a removable pot sealed inside a vacuum flask for prolonged heating with minimum heat loss

frying

Cooking food in hot oil or fat, e.g. pan frying, deep frying

Frying inside a frying pan or wok, or on a griddle or grill pan

cooking food on a hot surface such as a frying pan, wok, griddle or grill pan, usually in a thin layer of hot oil or fat

note:

frying pan: called skillet in American English

griddle: a sheet of metal of appropriate thickness with a flat frying surface

grill pan: frying pan which has raised metal ridges for the food to sit on (often used for "frying" without the use of oil or fat, to get a pattern similar than that achieved by direct barbecuing, called "grilling" in American English)

deep (fat) frying

cooking food by submerging it in hot oil or fat

baking

cooking food by dry heat acting by conduction

note: normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones; baked food products are dough-based products like pastries, cakes or bread, or baked potatoes, baked apples, baked beans,...

roasting

cooking food with dry high heat, in an oven or near hot coals

note: usually resulting in a caramelised surface; the food surface is often basted during roasting

grilling

applying direct dry high heat to food, most commonly from above, with heat transfer primarily via thermal radiation, e.g. by using the upper heating element of an electric oven, or inside a drawer below the flame of a gas oven

note: grilled food products are for instance the grilled cheese on top of lasagna or the caramelised surface of crème brûlée; grilling is called "broiling" in American English

barbecuing

cooking food with a "barbecue" by the heat and hot gases of a fire, smoking wood or hot coals of charcoal, or of an electrical heating element

note: depending on the heat source, the barbecues are called gas barbecues, electrical barbecues or charcoal barbecues

barbecuing, direct method

barbecuing food directly over high heat, e.g. food is cooked on a grate directly over hot charcoal, or food is cooked in a frying vessel on a grate directly over hot charcoal

note: this method is sometimes called "grilling" in American English; meat is often marinated before direct barbecuing

barbecuing, indirect method

barbecuing food using indirect heat and/or hot smoke, i.e. a slow barbecue-cooking process, e.g. food is cooked on a grate with the coals dispersed to the sides of the food, or at a significant distance of the food

note: this method is sometimes called "barbecuing" in American English

smoking

flavoring, cooking or preserving food by exposing it to the smoke from burning or smoldering plant materials, most often wood

note: smokers are not classified in A47J, only smoking inserts as accessories for a barbecue

cooking by smoking on a barbecue

very slow cooking of food on a barbecue with hot smoke which is drawn past the food by convection

toasting

browning sliced bread by exposure to dry radiant heat, i.e. grilling of sliced bread on both sides

warming

raising temperature of food, not cooking it

grating

disintegrating e.g. cheese with tool with several sharp protrusions; different from slicing, no specific shape of cut particles of food

A47J 27/05 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tier cooking-vessels in general

A47J 27/13

A47J 27/082 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Inserts for cooking-vessels in general

A47J 36/16

A47J 27/212 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Signalling milk-boiling vessels

A47J 27/57

A47J 27/56 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Preventing foaming in boiling in general

B01B 1/02

A47J 31/18 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Infusing bags

A47G 19/16

A47J 33/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Other travelling cookers heated by petroleum, gasoline, spirit, or the like

F24C

A47J 36/14 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Spouts in general

B05B 1/22

A47J 36/38 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Removing cooking fumes from domestic stoves or ranges

F24C 15/20

A47J 41/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Containers with thermal insulation in general

B65D 81/38

A47J 42/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

As part of universal or multi-purpose machines

A47J 43/04, A47J 44/00

Grinding or pulverising in general

B02C

A47J 42/48 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Attachment of household machines in general to tables, walls, or the like

A47J 45/02

A47J 42/52 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coffee-roasting devices per se

A23N 12/00

A47J 45/02 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For household utensils

A47G 29/087

A47J 45/08 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Of detachable type

A47J 45/07

A47L - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Pneumatically taking-up undesirable matter from roads or like surfaces

E01H 1/08

A61B - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Apparatus, instruments, implements, or processes that are either specially adapted or intended to be solely utilized for evaluating, examining, measuring, monitoring, studying, or testing particular characteristics and aspects of either living or dead human and animal bodies for medical purposes (i.e., diagnosis). Diagnosis consists of scrutinizing the following characteristics or aspects of bodies:

Apparatus, instruments, implements, or processes that are either specially adapted or intended to be solely utilized for medical procedures employing physical actions (e.g., laser cutting, pressure of fluid) on portions of human or animal bodies to correct, enhance, or inspect (e.g., autopsies) them for medical purposes (i.e., surgery). Surgery consists of the following medical procedures:

Apparatus, instruments, implements, or processes that are either specially adapted or intended to be solely utilized in procedures for identifying individual human beings (e.g., finger printing, by recognition of shape or dimension of body part) using unique characteristics of their bodies (i.e. identification).

Adjunct or supplementary means specially adapted for use in, or intended for exclusive use in, diagnosis, surgery, or identification. These adjunct or supplementary means contribute to the effectiveness (e.g., surgical drapes) or safety (e.g., operating gloves) of a medical procedure, but may or may not (e.g., protective covers for scalpels) themselves involve any direct contact with a body.

Components of diagnosis, surgery, or identification means with structural features limiting their usefulness to medical procedures.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Several subclasses provide for subject matter that is used for 'diagnosis'. The relationship between these subclasses with regard to the type of 'diagnosis' covered by each is as follows:

Subclass A61B provides for diagnosis in general.

A61B also provides for any surgical or identification apparatus or methods when

A61B additionally provides for any diagnostic apparatus or methods combined with therapy apparatus or method normally covered by subclass A61H or A61N when

Subclass A61H provides for diagnostic means or steps that are combined with massage and physical therapy apparatus or methods used for the treatment of disease or disability (i.e., an abnormal condition of the body) by utilization of direct mechanical energy; when the diagnostic means or step is used solely for operational feedback purposes to enhance therapy.

Subclass A61N provides for diagnostic means or steps that are combined with medical treatment therapy apparatus or methods used for the treatment of disease or disability by utilization of forms of energy other than direct mechanical energy; when the means or step is used solely for operational feedback purposes to enhance therapy.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Tools or instruments for operating on the mouth portion of a human being (e.g., tooth saws)

A61C 3/00

Saliva removers combined with instruments for opening or keeping open the mouth (e.g., mouth props, tongue guards, tongue depressors, cheek spreaders)

A61C 17/10

Medical instruments, implements, tools, or methods specially adapted so as to limit their usefulness to only animals

A61D

Methods or devices for treatment of eyes, putting in contact lenses, eye surgery, or correcting squinting

A61F 9/00

Ear surgery

A61F 11/00

Physical therapy apparatus that includes diagnostic feedback means for influencing operation

A61H

Syringes and suction, pumping or atomizing devices for medical use (e.g. cups, breast relievers, irrigators, sprays, powder insufflators, atomizers, inhalers), apparatus for general or local anesthetics, devices or methods for causing a change in the state of consciousness, catheters, dilators, and apparatus for introducing medicines into the body other than orally

A61M

Non-surgical treatment of medical conditions or physical injuries by utilization of forms of energy not directly generated by mechanical apparatus, devices, or means that includes diagnostic feedback means for influencing its operation

A61N

Clinical thermometers for measuring the temperature of body parts

G01K 5/00

Methods or arrangements for reading or recognizing patterns, e.g. fingerprints

G06K 9/00

Recognizing, identifying, or verifying the identity of human beings by analyzing their voice or speech

G10L 17/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Operating tables and auxiliary devices for these tables

A61G 13/00

Operating chairs

A61G 15/00

Apparatus for artificial respiration or heart stimulation

A61H 31/00

Containers specially adapted for medical or pharmaceutical purposes

A61J 1/00

Devices for administering medicines orally

A61J 7/00

Materials for surgical sutures or for ligaturing blood vessels

A61L 17/00

Surgical adhesives or cements and adhesives for colostomy devices

A61L 24/00

Materials for colostomy devices

A61L 28/00

Measuring or testing processes involving enzymes or micro organisms

C12Q 1/00

Analyzing samples of biological material

G01N

Obtaining records using waves other than optical waves and viewing such records by using optical means

G03B 42/00

A61B 1/24 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mouth openers for animals

A61D 15/00

A61B 3/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices for treatment of the eyes

A61F 9/00

Exercisers for the eyes

A61H 5/00

Optical systems in general

G02B

A61B 3/04 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lenses per se

G02C 7/02

A61B 3/125 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Contact lenses per se

G02C 7/04

A61B 5/0215 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Solid probes

A61M 23/00

Catheters

A61M 25/00

A61B 5/025 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electric stethoscopes

A61B 7/04

A61B 5/04 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electrically conductive preparations for use in therapy or testing in vivo

A61K 50/00

A61B 5/055 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements or instruments for measuring magnetic variables involving electronic or nuclear magnetic resonance, in general

G01R 33/20

A61B 5/103 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring aids for tailors

A41H 1/00

A61B 5/22 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring of work or force, in general

G01L

A61B 6/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

X-ray contrast preparations

A61K 49/04

Preparations containing radioactive substances

A61K 51/00

X-ray photographic processes

G03C 5/16

X-ray apparatus or circuits therefor

H05G 1/00

Irradiation devices

G21K

Radiation therapy per se

A61N 5/00

A61B 6/02 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Stereoscopic photography

G03B 35/00

A61B 6/03 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Data processing equipment for medical or biological purposes

G06F 17/00, G06F 19/00

A61B 6/10 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Protection against dangerous radiation in general

G21F

A61B 8/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ultrasound therapy

A61N 7/00

Systems using the reflection or reradiation of acoustic waves, e.g. acoustic imaging

G01S 15/00

A61B 8/06 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring volume flow in general

G01F, G01F 1/66, G01F 1/72

Measuring speed of fluids in general

G01P 5/00

A61B 10/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Vaccination prophylaxis, vaccination therapy

A61B 17/20

Menstruation tables

G06C 3/00

A61B 17/02 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Drainage appliances for wounds

A61M 27/00

A61B 17/04 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Suture materials

A61L 17/00

A61B 17/06 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Nerve needles for teeth

A61C 5/02

A61B 17/10 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Containers, packaging elements or packages specially adapted for particular articles or with special means for dispensing contents

B65D 83/00, B65D 85/00

A61B 17/12 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this group

This group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Specially adapted for vas deferens or fallopian tubes

A61F 6/20

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Materials for ligaturing blood vessels

A61L 17/00

A61B 17/135 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this group

This group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

For measuring blood pressure

A61B 5/022

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Inflatable pressure pads

A61F 5/34

A61B 17/20 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Diagnosis by vaccination

A61B 10/00

A61B 17/22 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this group

This group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

For biopsy

A61B 10/02

Gynaecological or obstetrical instruments or methods

A61B 17/42
Places in relation to which this subclass is residual:

Dilators

A61M 29/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ultrasound therapy

A61N 7/00

A61B 17/225 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ultrasound therapy

A61N 7/00

A61B 17/42 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Dilators

A61M 29/00

A61B 17/425 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Specially adapted for use with animals

A61D 19/00

A61B 17/46 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For animals

A61D 1/10

A61B 17/50 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Locating otherwise

A61B 5/06

Locating by radiation

A61B 6/00

A61B 17/56 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Orthopaedic methods or devices for non-surgical treatment of bones or joints

A61F 5/00

A61B 17/60 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bandages, dressings or absorbent pads

A61F 13/00

A61B 18/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electrically conductive preparations for use in therapy or testing in vivo, e.g conductive adhesives or gels to be used with electrodes

A61K 50/00

A61B 18/04 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Hyperthermia using electric or magnetic fields, radiation or ultrasound

A61N

A61C - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Apparatus (i.e. instruments, implements, machines, structures, tools) or processes that are specially adapted for, or limited to use in, creating artificial teeth, mounting artificial teeth, supporting artificial teeth, or repairing artificial teeth or their supports (e.g. denture articulators), and wherein the dental prostheses made or fixed by the apparatus or process are used exclusively for humans or both humans and animals.

Apparatus or methods utilized to prevent, discourage, or cure oral diseases (i.e. diseases occurring exclusively within the oral cavity such as enamel caries or periodontitis) in humans or both humans and animals.

Apparatus, devices, or methods used for one or more of the following:

Apparatus (i.e. instruments, implements, machines, structures, tools) or processes that are specially adapted for, or limited to use in, the treatment, reconstruction, removal, insertion, replacement, repair, transfixing or testing of either natural teeth, artificial teeth that are permanently affixed within the oral cavity, gums, or other portions of the oral cavity having an effect on their operation (e.g. portions of jawbone supporting teeth), and wherein the apparatus or processes are used exclusively for humans or both humans and animals.

Apparatus, devices, or methods used for

Dental prostheses devices or artificial dental implant devices per se or their components (e.g. artificial teeth, mounting or attaching means for artificial teeth, devices for supplementing jawbones, crowns) used within the oral cavity.

Dental implants formed from biological material or consisting of oral cavity parts originating either from a donor source or from the patient that are intended to be introduced, or reintroduced, into the patient’s oral cavity to correct a dental or oral hygiene problem (e.g. modified natural teeth or jawbone material from a donor).

Adjunct, auxiliary, or supplementary means or structures that contribute to the effectiveness or safety of dental procedures or their products and are specially adapted to be used either:

Specially adapted components of apparatus having structural features limiting them to use with at least one of the dental apparatus types specified above (e.g. dust collectors, illumination devices).

Accessories specially adapted for use with at least one of the above types of apparatus, means, or structures (e.g. devices for measuring the length of the root canal of a tooth).

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Subclass A61C(this subclass) provides for devices used by others to clean an individual’s teeth. It also provides for devices used by individuals upon their own teeth to remove foreign matter from the surface of their teeth or enhance the appearance of their teeth when the device is not specifically provided for elsewhere.

Subclass A46Bcovers manually moved or powered brushes, and in particular toothbrushes, used for cleaning that are not specifically provided for elsewhere. It also covers arrangements of brush bristles per se and the handle structure for brushes.

Subclass A61Dcovers devices used by individuals to remove foreign matter from the surface of the teeth of animals or enhance the appearance of the teeth of animals when the device is not specifically provided for elsewhere and is limited to use solely on animals.

Subclass A61Kcovers preparations that are used for medical, dental, or cosmetic purposes in the oral cavity.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Manual toothbrushes

A46B

Positioning or arrangements of toothbrush bristles per se for manual or powered toothbrushes

A46B 9/04

Instruments for depressing the tongue

A61B 13/00

Tongue scrapers

A61B 17/24

Dental apparatus and methods peculiar to animals

A61D 5/00

Preparations used in dentistry for purposes other than cleaning

A61K 6/00

Preparations used for cosmetic cleaning of teeth or mouth

A61K 8/00

Dental or operating chairs

A61G 15/00

Dental work stands

A61G 15/14

Dental hypodermic syringes

A61M 5/178

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Non-dental implants or prostheses

A61F

Apparatus for passive exercising

A61H 1/00

Gum massage

A61H 13/00

Exercising apparatus specially adapted for particular parts of the body

A63B 23/00

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Oral cavity

The part of human or animal mouth that includes the inside lining of the lips and cheeks (buccal mucosa), the teeth or their artificial permanently affixed replacements, the gums, the front two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth below the tongue, the bony roof of the mouth (hard palate), and the area immediately behind the wisdom teeth (retromolar trigone).

A61C 1/18 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Flexible shafts in general

F16C

Clutches in general

F16D

A61C 13/08 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Kilns for artificial teeth

F27B

A61C 13/225 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bases for prostheses

A61C 13/01

A61C 13/38 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Implanting tools

A61C 8/00

A61C 17/10 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mouth opening devices per se

A61B 1/24

Tongue depressors per se

A61B 13/00

A61D - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Apparatus (i.e. instruments, implements, machines, structures, tools) or processes for enhancing or controlling the breeding of companion, domesticated, exotic, or wild animals (e.g. artificial vaginas, uterus disinfecting means), wherein the apparatus or processes are specially adapted to be only usable with animals.

Apparatus (i.e. instruments, implements, machines, structures, tools) or processes limited to use in the treatment, reconstruction, removal or replacement of the teeth, gums, or other parts within the mouth of companion, domesticated, exotic, or wild animals for medical purposes (i.e. dentistry), wherein the apparatus or processes are specially adapted to be only usable with animals and for dental procedures.

Apparatus (i.e. instruments, implements, machines, structures, tools) or processes for introducing medication (e.g. vaccines) or other material having an effect on bodily functions (e.g. seminal fluids, euthanasia poisons, stimulants) into or onto the bodies of companion, domesticated, exotic, or wild animals, wherein the apparatus or processes are specially adapted to be only usable with animals and for medical purposes.

Apparatus (i.e. instruments, implements, machines, structures, tools) or processes for medical procedures that employ physical actions on portions of companion, domesticated, exotic, or wild animal bodies to correct, enhance, inspect, or treat them (i.e. surgery), wherein the apparatus or processes are specially adapted to be only usable with animals and for medical procedures. Animal surgery consists of the following medical procedures:

Apparatus (i.e. instruments, implements, machines, structures, tools) or processes for evaluating, examining, measuring, monitoring, studying, or testing particular characteristics and aspects of the bodies of companion, domesticated, exotic, or wild animals (i.e. diagnosis), wherein the apparatus or processes are specially adapted to be only usable with animals and for medical purposes. Animal diagnosis consists of scrutinizing the following characteristics or aspects of animal bodies:

Implements, devices, or materials that are:

Adjunct, auxiliary, or supplementary structures or means (e.g. operating tables, clean rooms) that are specially adapted to be only usable with companion, domesticated, exotic, or wild animals during their diagnosis, dentistry, surgery, or for other medical purposes. These adjunct, auxiliary, or supplementary structures or means contribute to the effectiveness (e.g. washing devices) or safety (e.g. handling gloves, mouth openers) of medical procedures, but may or may not themselves involve direct contact with the animal's body (e.g. thermometer holder).

Specially adapted components of apparatus having structural features limiting them to use with diagnostic, dental, or surgical apparatus for animals.

Accessories specially adapted for use with the above types of apparatus, means, or structures.

All other types of apparatus (i.e. instruments, implements, machines, structures, tools) or processes that are not specifically provided for in another subclass which are

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Embodiments of apparatus, instruments, implements, structures, tools, or processes that are used on both humans and animals (i.e. have a more general utility) for maintaining their health or for other medical purposes are classified in another subclass based on their human usage and not in subclass A61D.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Apparatus or methods normally used by non-medical personnel in the care of animals to maintain their health e.g. animal husbandry

A01K

Animal feed bags

A01K 5/00

Sucking apparatus for young stock

A01K 9/00

Animal dehorners

A01K 17/00

Apparatus to help wean animals

A01K 19/00

Devices for assisting or preventing mating

A01K 21/00

Animal feeding-stuffs with antibiotics

A23K 1/17

Mouth openers for use on humans and animals

A61B 1/24

A61D 1/02 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Milking catheters

A01J 3/00

A61D 3/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Apparatus for fettering animals to be slaughtered

A22B 1/00

A61D 7/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Syringes

A61M

A61D 9/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fetlock-joint protecting rings

A01K 13/00

A61D 11/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Accessories for milking machines for treating of udders or teats

A01J 7/04

A61D 15/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fetlock-joint protecting rings or devices to prevent crib-biting

A01K 13/00

A61F - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Apparatus, devices or methods for physically correcting or altering the body of patients or disabled persons that are directly and for prolonged periods of time (i.e. not just during acute exceptional circumstances) used on or in the body of the patient or the disabled person:

Methods or devices (e.g. head or eye-gaze-direction actuated control devices, oral communication actuated control devices) for enabling patients or disabled persons to operate independent apparatus or machines (i.e. apparatus such as room lights or doors that is not a part of, or used in conjunction with the functioning of, artificial or natural parts of their body) without the application of direct force from the part of the human body that would normally be used by individuals for controlling operation of the independent apparatus or machine such as a hand, foot or their artificial equivalents.

Contraceptive devices for males (e.g. condoms, vas deferens occluders) or females (e.g. pessaries, intra-uterine type, fallopian occluders).

Devices for medical or hygienic care of living individuals that are worn by the individual or directly contact the body of the individual during their care:

Heating or cooling devices for medical or therapeutic treatment of the human body and for body cavities, e.g. compresses, warming pads, pans or mats, hot water bottles, ice bags.

Protective devices for the eyes, e.g. goggles, eye-masks worn to prevent particulates or chemicals from striking the eyes.

Devices for inserting contact lenses.

Protective devices for the ears, e.g. ear plugs or earmuffs.

Auxiliary appliances for wound dressings; dispensing containers for dressings or bandages; packages or wrapping arrangements for used pads, e.g. for disposal.

Containers having various emergency medical supplies such as bandages, simple medical tools, and medicines (i.e. first-aid kits) that are intended to be used for administering initial treatment to injured or sick individuals.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

If an apparatus, method, device, or material is usable for both humans and animals for the same purpose and in the same manner, and it is otherwise proper for this subclass, classification is made only in subclass A61F. Similar devices or processes to those covered by subclass A61F that are usable exclusively for animals or are used in animals in a different manner or for different purposes than for humans, are classified in subclass A61D.

Surgical apparatus or processes in general are covered by subclass A61B.

Subclass A61H provides for massage, chiropractic, or physical therapy apparatus or processes used for the treatment of disease, injuries or disability (i.e. an abnormal condition of the body) by utilization of direct mechanical energy.

Chemical and materialaspects of prostheses, structures inserted into tubular structures of human bodies, bandages, dressings, absorbent pads or surgical articles are covered by subclass A61L.

With regard to human organs and their parts, the exact distinction between the artificial devices implantable into human bodies that are proper for subclass A61F and those proper for subclass A61M is somewhat imprecise. Therefore, for analogous situations that are not specifically covered by existing groups of these subclasses, the following listings are intended to provide guidance.

Subclass A61F provides for the following replacements or substitutes for internal body organs or their parts: hollow or tubular parts of organs (e.g. bladders, tracheae, bronchi, heart valves and blood vessels, bile ducts), structural supporting or maintaining devices for such parts (e.g. stents), artificial eyes and artificial ears.

Subclass A61M provides for the following replacements or substitutes for internal body organs or their parts: artificial hearts (based on catchword index), artificial livers, artificial lungs, artificial pancreas, artificial kidneys and catheters in general.

Devices for introducing media into or onto the body, devices for taking media from the body are also covered by subclass A61M.

Spectacles, sunglasses, contact lenses or goggles insofar as they have the features of vision correction or protection against high levels of visible and ultraviolet light are covered by subclass G02C.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Brassieres

A41C 3/00

Cosmetic articles, e.g. wigs, hair pieces

A41G

Caps with means for protecting the eyes or the ears

A42B 1/06

Ordinary arch supports for shoes

A43B 7/14

Artificial nails

A45D 31/00

Heating or cooling means in connection with bedsteads or mattresses

A47C 21/00

Surgical instruments

A61B 17/00

Devices for closing wounds, or holding wounds closed

A61B 17/03

Dental prostheses

A61C 13/00

Chiropractic methods or devices

A61H 1/00

Appliances for aiding patients or disabled persons to walk

A61H 3/00

Massage of the genitals

A61H 19/00

Chemical aspects of contraception

A61K

Chemical aspects of, or use of materials for, bandages, dressings or absorbent pads

A61L 15/00, A61L 26/00

Adhesives for costolomy devices

A61L 24/00

Surgical adhesives or cements

A61L 24/00

Materials for prostheses

A61L 27/00

Materials for costolomy devices

A61L 28/00

Artificial hearts, kidneys

A61M 1/00

Irrigators

A61M 3/02

Drainage appliances for wounds

A61M 27/00

Dilators

A61M 29/00

Valves specially adapted for medical use

A61M 39/00

Making artificial eyes from organic plastic material

B29C, B29D 11/02

Arm rests for use as writing aids

B43L 15/00

Arrangements of tyre-inflating valves to tyres or rims

B60C 29/00

Safety devices for welding in general

F16P 1/06

Removable contact lenses

G02C 7/04

Sunglasses or goggles having the same features as spectacles

G02C

Electric heating elements

H05B

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Undergarments

A41B 9/00

Baby linen

A41B 13/00

Corsets or girdles

A41C 1/00

Surgical drapes

A61B 19/08

Transdermal drug delivery patches

A61K 9/70

Exercising apparatus specially adapted for particular parts of the body

A63B 23/00

Goggles for swimming

A63B 33/00

Diving masks

B63C 11/12

Materials for prostheses

A61L 27/00

Balloon catheters

A61M 25/10

Dilators

A61M 29/00

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Absorbent articles

Articles adapted to absorb liquid excreted by the body.

Dilator

A (surgical) device or instrument used to dilate, distend, enlarge, expand, stretch an opening, organ, passage, tube, canal or cavity of a human or animal body (e.g. urethrotomy, tracheotomy, nasal, anal or cervix (Hegar's dilator) or vaginal dilation, bougienage, percutaneous dilation of tissues (Byrd dilator), whereas stents are not dilators but prostheses for providing patency, or preventing collapsing of tubular structures of the body.

Disabled person

A human being that is unable to do certain basic physical tasks (e.g. walking) due to a physical or mental impairment/condition.

Patient

A human being awaiting or undergoing any form of (a) medical care (e.g. testing) or treatment by medical staff (e.g. doctors, dentists, midwives, chiropractors), or (b) physical tending (e.g. feeding) by care giver (e.g. hospice or nursing home staff) due to impairment.

Stent

Balloon- or self-expandable tubular device for use in the treatment of duct-like organs typified for example by a blood vessel, biliary tract, urinary tract, digestive tract, and the like providing patency.

Stent graft

Stent with a tubular member made of a synthetic resin affixed to the inside or outside of the stent.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the expression "device for fluid management" is often used with the meaning of incontinence article.

A61F 2/07 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Stent-grafts for blood vessels. Stent-grafts are tubular grafts with stents embedded therein or attached to the graft material. The stent-graft for blood vessels is usually deployed within an aneurysm. The stent anchors the graft to the blood vessel wall. The graft is usually made from fabric material.

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Stent-grafts for tubular structures of the body other than blood vessels

A61F 2/04

A61F 2/82 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Stents with tubular structures deployed within a stenosis in order to widen and support the vessel. The stent is usually made from a rigid material, e.g. metal or polymer.

References relevant to classification in this group

This group does not cover:

Instruments for closing wounds, or holding wounds closed

A61B 17/03

Dilators

A61M 29/00

Stent-grafts for tubular structures of the body other than blood vessels

A61F 2/04

Stent-grafts for blood vessels

A61F 2/07

Instruments for placement or removal of stents or stent-grafts

A61F 2/95

A61F 2/856 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Single tubular stent with a passage in side of the stent for allowing access to secondary lumen (see passage 60 in the example drawing).

A61F0002856000

A61F 2/89 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Stent rings which are connected in order to allow flexibility of the whole structure (see connectors 4 between stent rings 2 in the example drawing).

A61F0002890000

A61F 2/90 - Definition fr

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the words "net", "net-like", "mesh" and "mesh-like" are often used as synonyms.

A61F 2/91 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Net- or mesh-like stents made from perforated sheet material or tubes. Perforated sheet material or tubes are created by methods including, for example, laser cutting, etching or some other techniques.

A61F0002910000

A61F 2/915 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Stents having a meander or wave-like pattern. The stent comprises several meander bands. Each meander band forms peaks and throughs. The bands are connected to each other by struts (see connector 50 between bands 40 and 60 in the example drawing) or directly connected without struts.

A61F0002915000

A61F 2/92 - Definition fr

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the words "rolled-up" and "coiled" are often used as synonyms.

A61F 2/95 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Instruments for closing wounds, or holding wounds closed

A61B 17/03

Catheters; hollow probes

A61M 25/00

A61F 5/02 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arm-rests for use as writing aids

B43L 15/00

A61F 5/34 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Connection of valves to inflatable elastic bodies

B60C 29/00

A61F 5/458 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Connection of valves to inflatable elastic bodies

B60C 29/00

A61F 7/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electric heating elements

H05B

A61F 9/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Appliances for aiding patients or disabled persons to walk

A61H 3/00

A61G - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Specially adapted vehicles (e.g., ambulances), handling apparatus (e.g., wheelchair lifts), or methods or devices (e.g., stretchers) for moving patients or disabled persons who are passive participants in their relocation (e.g., the persons are handled in a manner similar to loads).

Personal conveyances

Specially adapted structures (e.g., hospital or treatment rooms for medical purposes, baby incubators) or devices (e.g., bedpans, hospital beds, trapeze or pull-up bars) used

Specially adapted supporting surfaces for sustaining patients in a recumbent or seated position during recovery, surgery, dental work, or similar types of medical treatment.

Funeral devices

Auxiliary appliances (e.g., trolleys for medicine) or accessories (e.g., prescription list) specially adapted for use with the other invention information covered by this subclass.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

General relationship of A61G with subclasses for care or alteration of the human body

A61G does not cover apparatus or methods that are directly used on an individual's body to perform medical care and therapy or to alter it after death. The types of medical care, therapy, and body alterations not covered by A61G consist of:

Subclasses A01N, A61B, A61C, A61F, A61H, A61K, A61M, A61N, and F23G provide appropriately for apparatus or methods for medical care, therapy, or body alterations of these types. The specific classifications that are of interest for search purposes are specified in the references of A61G or its groups.

However, A61G does provide for specific structural modifications that merely facilitate the use of apparatus or methods of these types for medical care or therapy when in combination with subject matter that is otherwise appropriate for this subclass (e.g., special supports for patients with burns).

A61G also provides for life supporting or sustaining devices that control the local environment during treatment or recovery of patients (e.g., baby incubators).

General relationship of A61G with vehicles adapted for use by disabled

A61G covers personal conveyances and "vehicle-like" conveyances (e.g., wheelchairs, stretchers) that are explicitly designed for use by only a single patient or disabled person and intended to normally travel relatively short distances along the ground or similar support surface (e.g., hallway).

The subclass for a specific type of standard roadway vehicle (i.e., vehicles designed and intended for general thoroughfare usage over long distances, such as B62K for cycles) covers their vehicles that have been specially adapted for use by a disabled operator.

The subclass for a specific type of "special-utility" vehicle (i.e., vehicles that have another primary purpose other than transport, such as riding lawn mowers or forklifts) covers their vehicles that have been specially adapted for use by a disabled operator.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Devices per se for enabling disabled persons to operate an apparatus or device not forming part of the body

A61F 4/00

Restraining devices for the body or for body parts and restraining shirts that are used for non-surgical treatment of patients' bones or joints

A61F 5/37

Equipment for beds, treatment tables, floor frames or the like for extending or stretching

A61F 5/045

Appliances for aiding invalids to walk about

A61H 3/00

Bathing devices for special therapeutic or hygienic purposes

A61H 33/00

For bicycles specially adapted for disabled riders

B62K 3/16

Inclined lifts associated with stairways for transporting disabled persons or wheelchairs

B66B 9/08

Illumination of operating tables

F21L, F21S, F21V

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For preserving of the dead bodies of humans, animals, or the parts thereof

A01N 1/00

For sanitary equipment not otherwise provided for

A47K

For body washing or cleaning implements

A47K 7/00

For sanitary closets or urinals without flushing and chamber pots

A47K 11/00

For appliances for supporting or fettering animals during operations

A61D 3/00

For vehicles adapted to transport meat

B60P 3/05

For vehicles adapted to transport refrigerated goods

B60P 3/20

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Disabled person

a human being that is unable to do a basic physical task (e.g., walking) due to a physical or mental impairment/condition.

Funeral device

apparatus associated with (e.g., coffin) or for performing (e.g., casket lowering device) activities connected with the burial, cremation, entombment, or other methods of honoring or disposing of (e.g., freeze drying) the remains of the body of a deceased individual.

Patient

a human being awaiting or undergoing any form of (a) medical care (e.g., testing) or treatment by medical staff (e.g., doctors, dentists, midwifes, chiropractors) or (b) physical tending (e.g., feeding) by caretakers (e.g., hospice or nursing home staff) due to impairment.

Personal conveyance

a vehicle-like device (e.g., wheelchairs) that is:

not specifically adapted for traveling significant distances (e.g., between cities) along thoroughfares (e.g., railways, roads, sidewalks) with normal traffic (e.g., trucks),

explicitly designed (i.e., not merely adaptations of a standard production vehicle) for carrying, and intended to be limited to use by, a single patient or disabled person at any given time, and

potentially capable of having either its movement controlled or powered by the patient or disabled person carried by it.

A61G 1/003 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices in general for lifting patients or disabled persons

A61G 7/10

A61G 1/007 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ski vehicles

A63C 5/00

A61G 1/01 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Restraining devices used in nursing

A61F 5/37

A61G 5/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Chairs with toilet conveniences

A47K 11/04

Running gear or propulsion features

B60K

A61G 7/16 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Chair beds

A47C 17/04

A61G 10/02 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Dust-free laboratory rooms

B01L 1/04

Decompression arrangements

B63C 11/32

Arrangements or adaptations in aircraft

B64D 13/00

Air-conditioning in general

F24F

A61G 12/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Service or tea tables, trolleys or wagons

A47B 31/00

A61G 13/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Adjustability of tables in general

A47B 9/00

A61G 15/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Barbers' chairs

A47C 1/04

A61G 17/08 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Columbaria

E04H 13/00

A61H - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Apparatus or processes which are not used for surgical purposes utilizing mechanical energy transmitted by direct physical contact with the external surface of the thorax portion of human bodies to induce or supplement normal breathing (e.g. iron lungs).

Apparatus or processes, which are not used for surgical purposes that are specially adapted to improve or promote the optical functioning of individuals (e.g. rectify defective vision, improve the natural operation of their eyes) by:

Apparatus or devices that are explicitly designed for use by a single patient or disabled person for the purpose of helping them overcome a physical condition that impairs their ability to walk unassisted across the ground or similar support surface (e.g. crutches).

Apparatus or processes utilizing mechanical energy directly applied upon human bodies for therapy (e.g. massage). These therapy apparatus and processes are intended to facilitate the healing of diseases, promote or assist normal operation of a malfunctioning body part, reduce the impact of injuries, or beneficially influence the condition of disabled body parts either by the physical movement of body parts (e.g. devices for exercising a passive body member) or other types of physical stimulation (e.g. touching) transmitted though contact with:

Apparatus or processes which are not used for surgical purposes utilizing mechanical energy directly applied to human bodies by physical contact therewith (e.g. chiropractic) to treat, alleviate the effects of, or prevent disease or bodily malfunctions (e.g. misalignments of bone, aberrant joint) solely by manipulation, adjustment, or realignment of at least a portion of the skeletal system of the body (e.g. bone joints, tendons, spinal columns) by either:

Apparatus or processes which are not used for surgical purposes utilizing mechanical energy directly applied upon human bodies by physical contact (e.g. massage) to rub, stroke, knead, tap, vibrate, or otherwise move a portion of the external surface of human bodies, or the surfaces of their naturally occurring body cavities, to either:

Apparatus or processes which are not used for surgical purposes (e.g. baths) that are specially adapted for covering, soaking, or immersing human bodies, or portions of bodies, within fluids (e.g. steam, water) or fluent materials (e.g. sand, mud) in a manner that is distinct from the common bathing process for cleaning human bodies and is intended to either:

Apparatus or processes (e.g. breast baths) specially adapted for covering, soaking, or immersing only one particular part of the human body within fluids (e.g. steam, water) or fluent materials (e.g. sand, seaweed) .

Articles of clothing (e.g. sweating suits for therapy) that at least partially enclose human bodies for the primary purpose of increasing the local temperature (e.g. insulated, include heating elements) or humidity (e.g. constructed of partially air tight material) of the portion of the human bodies covered to a point where the localized temperature or humidity is beyond the range that human beings normally consider physically comfortable (i.e. creates localized sauna-like environment) for therapy.

Specially adapted components for the above types of apparatus.

Auxiliary appliances or accessories specially adapted for use with any of the above types of apparatus or process (e.g. reflex point locators).

Other types of apparatus or processes which are not used for surgical (e.g. acupuncture devices) purposes that utilize mechanical energy directly applied to human bodies by physical contact for improving their functioning that are not specifically provided for elsewhere in another subclass.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

When used with animals

If an apparatus or process is usable for both humans and animals for the same purpose and in the same manner, and it is otherwise proper for this subclass, classification is made only in subclass A61H. Similar devices or processes to those covered by subclass A61H that are usable exclusively for animals, or are used in animals in a different manner or for different purposes than for humans, are classified in subclass A61D.

When used for physical relaxation

Subclass A61H covers apparatus or processes that are specially adapted to physically relax or stimulate individuals due either to

Subclass A61M covers devices or processes which are specially adapted to cause or precipitate a change in the state of consciousness of humans (e.g. induce sleep, awaken), or to increase or decrease the mental activity of humans while awake, which may also involve relaxing or stimulating individuals.

Medical Treatment

Several subclasses provide for apparatus or processes that are used for treating humans for medical conditions. The relationship between these subclasses is as follows:

Subclass A61B provides for surgical apparatus or processes in general.

Subclass A61B also provides for surgical apparatus or processes when

Subclass A61H provides for massage, chiropractic, or physical therapy apparatus or processes used for the treatment of disease, injuries, or disability (i.e. an abnormal condition of the body) by utilization of direct mechanical energy.

Subclass A61N provides for apparatus or processes used for the treatment of disease, injuries, or disability by utilization of forms of energy other than direct mechanical energy.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Training or exercising equipment for animals

A01K 15/02

Garments with controlled internal environment

A41D 13/002

Ventilating, cooling or heating means in connection with bedsteads or mattresses

A47C 21/04

Apparatus for helping babies to walk

A47D 13/04

Baths; Showers; Appurtenances therefor for merely cleaning human bodies

A47K 3/00

Body washing or cleaning implements for merely cleaning human bodies

A47K 7/00

Dental implements for therapeutic treatment

A61C 19/06

Orthopedic devices or methods

A61F 5/00

Devices for treatment of the eyes

A61F 9/00

Means for washing bed-ridden persons

A61G 7/00

Beds for promoting or observing sleep

A61G 7/043

Blood pumps or devices for mechanical circulatory assistance

A61M 1/10

Subaquatic intestinal cleaning

A61M 9/00

Devices for influencing the respiratory system of patients by gas treatment, e.g. mouth-to-mouth respiration

A61M 16/00

Devices for producing or ending sleep by mechanical, optical, or acoustical means (other than alarm clocks or the like)

A61M 21/00

Electrotherapy, magnetotherapy, radiation therapy, ultrasound therapy

A61N

Electromedical massage devices applying continuous direct current by contact electrodes

A61N 1/26

Electrotherapy devices applying alternating or intermittent currents by contact electrodes

A61N 1/32

Applying ionized fluids to the human body for therapy

A61N 1/44

Exercising apparatus specially adapted for conditioning the cardio-vascular system, for training agility or co-ordination of movements

A63B 22/00

Exercising apparatus specially adapted for particular parts of the body

A63B 23/00

Exercising devices for feet or toes

A63B 23/10
Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Accessory implements for clippers or shavers carrying out massage or other functions than cutting hair

B26B 19/48

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Methods or devices enabling patients or disabled persons to operate an apparatus or a device not forming part of the body

A61F 4/00

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Therapy

Any medical treatment of an abnormal condition of a human or animal body (e.g. disease, impaired organ, injured limb) by means, instruments, devices, or methods that utilize forms of energy (e.g. mechanical energy) and which is not used for surgical purposes. In general, the treatment time for therapy is long-term relative to that for surgery which usually has a much more immediate effect on the body.

Disabled person

A human being that is unable to do a basic physical task (e.g. walking) without assistance due to a physical or mental impairment/condition.

Patient

A human being awaiting or undergoing any form of (a) medical care (e.g. testing) or treatment by medical staff (e.g. doctors, dentists, midwives, chiropractors) or (b) physical tending (e.g. feeding) by care providers (e.g. hospice or nursing home staff) due to impairment.

A61H 1/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Percussion or vibration massage

A61H 23/00

A61H 3/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Exercising apparatus for the feet or toes

A63B 23/10

A61H 3/06 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Walking sticks

A45B

A61H 7/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Brushes in general

A46

Bathing sponges, brushes, gloves or similar cleaning or rubbing implements not specially for massage

A47K 7/02

Suction devices for nursing

A61M 1/06, A61M 1/08

A61H 33/08 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Hair-driers

A45D 20/00

Body-drying devices

A47K 10/48

Electric heating elements

H05B

A61H 33/14 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Production of ozone or hydrogen

C01B, C25B 1/02

A61H 39/00 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this main group

This main group does not cover:

Locating by bioelectric signal detection

A61B 5/04

Locating by using electric currents or magnetic fields

A61B 5/05

A61H 39/04 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Massage or pressure on general areas

A61H 9/00-A61H 23/00

A61H 39/06 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Heating or cooling appliances for medical treatment of general areas of the human body

A61F 7/00

A61J - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Apparatus, devices, or methods specially adapted for changing or fashioning bulk medicines, or their essential constituents, into pharmaceutical products having specific physical forms designed to either:

Apparatus, devices, or methods specially adapted for administering medications or pharmaceutical products to humans though their oral cavity.

Receptacles that are not designed to be ingestible and are specially adapted for holding or containing medicines or pharmaceutical products prior to their usage or consumption by humans.

Receptacles specially adapted to hold, contain, or transport pharmaceutical, surgical, or therapy related materials other than medicines or pharmaceutical products (e.g., containers for storing blood).

Hollow flexible conduits specially adapted, or solely intended, for the purpose of providing nutriments in fluid or fluent forms to humans by insertion of the conduits into an orifice of their bodies (e.g., enteral feeding using functioning gastrointestinal tract).

Containers specially adapted for holding water or nutriments in fluid or fluent forms (e.g., feeding bottles) that is withdrawn by the sucking of infants, young children, or other humans (e.g., patients, disabled persons) on orally engaged portions or subcomponents of the containers.

The orally engaged subcomponents per se of the containers of the preceding paragraph (e.g., compressible rubber teats for feeding bottles) which are specially adapted for infants, young children, or other humans to suck upon to withdraw water or nutriments in fluid or fluent forms from the containers.

Other types of apparatus or devices specially adapted for orally administering only nutriments in fluid or fluent forms to infants, patients or disabled persons.

Devices that are not designed to be ingestible and are specially adapted, or solely intended, for either:

Devices or receptacle specially adapted, or solely intended, for receiving spittle, phlegm, or other forms of naturally occurring oral discharge from humans.

Devices specially adapted to prevent irritation of the teat portion of the mammary gland of humans from abrasive or rubbing contact.

Specially adapted subcomponents or steps for the above types of apparatus, containers, devices or methods of the preceding paragraphs that are not provided for in another subclass.

Auxiliary appliances or accessories specially adapted for use with the apparatus, containers, or devices of the preceding paragraphs to facilitate either:

Relationship between large subject matter areas

When used with animals

If an apparatus, device, or method is usable for both humans and animals for the same purpose and in the same manner, and it is otherwise proper for this subclass, classification is made only in subclass A61J

Similar apparatus, devices, or methods to those covered by subclass A61Jthat are usable exclusively for animals, or are used in animals in a different manner or for different purposes than for humans, are classified in subclass A61D

Baby comforters, food, and toys

Devices that may be interesting to a baby (e.g., they have a specific shape such as an animal that the baby may manipulate) and are intended to serve to relieve a physical craving, irritation, or inflammation of the baby are covered by subclass A61J

Devices that are primarily intended to be played with by a baby to entertain it, but might also incidentally emotionally calm it (e.g., stuffed bear at bedtime), are covered by subclass A63H

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Infusion devices

A61M 5/14

Syringe ampoules or cartridges

A61M 5/28

Time release microcapsules for introduction of media into body and other devices for introducing or retaining media in cavities of the body

A61M 31/00

Time release medication patches for application to human bodies

A61M 35/00

Tubes, tube connectors, valves or tube couplings specially adapted for medical use

A61M 39/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Foods, foodstuffs, or their preparation or treatment

A23L 1/00

Spoon type tableware

A47G 21/04

Drinking vessels used for table service

A47G 19/22

Protective casings or covers for appliances or instruments

A61B 19/02

Medical preparations characterized by special physical form

A61K 9/00

Suppositories

A61K 9/02

Capsules

A61K 9/48

Devices for introducing media into or on the body

A61M

Droppers or containers for laboratory use

B01L 3/00

Containers for storage or transport of articles or materials in general or their accessories, closures, or fittings

B65D

Containers specially constructed to be opened by cutting or piercing, or by tearing of frangible member or portion

B65D 17/00

Details of bottles or jars not otherwise provided for

B65D 23/00

Dropper type dispensers for closing containers

B65D 47/18

Closures for containers with means for discouraging their opening or removal without authorization or required level of physical aptitude

B65D 50/00

Blister packages

B65D 75/36

Applying closure members to bottles, jars, or similar containers

B67B

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Medicine, Medication

Chemical or biological substance intended to be used for the diagnosis, treatment, mitigation, alleviation, or prevention of diseases, disorders, injuries, or any other abnormal physical or mental state in humans.

Pharmaceutical product

Man made or natural medicines specially adapted by manufactures or pharmacies into forms that facilitate their internal or external usage by humans.

Patient

Human being awaiting or undergoing any form of (a) medical care (e.g., testing) or treatment by medical staff (e.g., doctors, dentists, midwives, chiropractors) or (b) physical tending (e.g., feeding) by care providers (e.g., hospice or nursing home staff) due to impairment.

Disabled person

A human being that is unable to do a certain basic physical task (e.g., walking) without assistance due to a physical or mental impairment/condition.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "teat" and "nipple" are often used as synonyms for the orally engaged portion of feeding bottles.

In patent documents the following expressions/words "feeding bottle", "nursing bottle", and "baby bottle" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the following expressions/words "spittoon", and "cuspidor" are often used as synonyms.

A61J 1/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Antithrombogenic treatment of articles for conditioning blood

A61L 33/00

Devices for introducing media into or onto the body

A61M

A61J 3/02 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Pulverising in general

B02C

A61J 7/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Calibrated capacity measures for fluids or fluent solid material

G01F 19/00

A61J 9/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electric heating elements

H05B

A61J 13/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Breast-pumps

A61M 1/06

A61J 15/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Drinking tubes as table-ware

A47G 21/18

A61K - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Compositions which are:

Used as preparations for dentistry, e.g. for artificial teeth, for filling or for capping teeth, or for taking dental impressions.

Used for cosmetic purposes for treating the skin, hair, nails, teeth or oral cavity with a view to cleaning them, changing their appearance, correcting body odours, protecting them or keeping them in good condition.

Used for medicinal purposes, e.g. drugs, biological compositions, when they are capable of:

Processes

Relationship between large subject matter areas

A01N covers the preservation of bodies of humans or animals or plants or parts thereof; biocides, e.g. as disinfectants, as pesticides, as herbicides .

Compounds per se are classified in C01, C07 or C08.

C08K covers the use of substances as compounding ingredients.

Compositions per se containing polymers are classified in C08L.

Micro-organisms per se are classified in C12N.

Multiple classification

The therapeutic activity of medicinal preparations is further classified in A61P.

The use of cosmetics or similar toilet preparations is further classified in A61Q.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Sex sterilants for invertebrates per se

A01N

Artificial nails per se

A45D 31/00

Devices or methods specially adapted for bringing pharmaceutical products into particular physical or administering forms

A61J

Disinfections, sterilisation or deodorization of air; Chemical aspects of, or use of materials for, bandages, dressings, absorbent pads or surgical articles

A61L

Essential oils, perfumes

C11B 9/00

Detergent compositions

C11D

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Biocides, pest repellants or attractants per se

A01N 25/00-A01N 65/00

Wigs

A41G 3/00

Hair pieces, inserts, rolls, pads or the like

A41G 5/00

Processes of waving, straightening or curling hair

A45D 7/00

Containers or accessories specially adapted for handling toilet or cosmetic substances

A45D 34/00

Diagnosis; Surgery; Identification

A61B

Dentistry

A61C

Electrotherapy; Magnetotherapy; Radiation therapy; Ultrasound therapy

A61N

Mixing, dissolving, emulsifying, dispersing

B01F

Measuring or testing processes involving enzymes or micro-organisms; Compositions or test papers therefor; Processes of preparing such compositions; Condition-responsive control in microbiological or enzymological processes

C12Q

Investigating or analysing materials by determining their chemical or physical properties

G01N

Special rules of classification

Attention is drawn to the definitions of groups of chemical elements following the title of section C.

In this subclass, with the exception of group 8/00, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

Attention is drawn to the Notes in class C07, for example the Notes following the title of the subclass C07D, setting forth the rules for classifying organic compounds in that class, which rules are also applicable, if not otherwise indicated, to the classification of organic compounds of A61K.

A composition, i.e. a mixture of two or more ingredients is classified in the last of groups A61K 31/00-A61K 47/00 that provides for at least one of these ingredients.

Any part of a composition which is not identified by classification according to the last appropriate place of an active ingredient, and which itself is determined to be novel and non-obvious, must also be classified. The part can be either a single ingredient or a composition in itself.

Any part of a composition which is not identified by the classification according the last appropriate place, and which is considered to represent information of interest for search, may also be classified. This can for example be the case when it is considered of interest to enable searching of compositions using a combination of classification symbols. Such non-obligatory classification should be given as "additional information".

A61K 6/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Dentistry

A61C

A61K 6/04 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alloys per se

C22C

A61K 6/06 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cements per se

C04B

A61K 6/08 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Resins per se

C08

A61K 6/10 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Impression methods

A61C 9/00

A61K 8/00 - Definition fr

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Casings or accessories for storing or handling of solid or pasty toilet or cosmetic substances are classified in A45D 40/00

A61K 9/00 - Definition fr

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast preparations or magnetic resonance imaging contrast preparations are classified in group A61K 49/18

Praparations containing radioactive substances are classified in group A61K 51/12

A61K 9/68 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Non-medicinal aspects, preparing chewing gum

A23G 4/00

A61K 9/70 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bandages, dressings or absorbent pads

A61F 13/00

A61K 50/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electrodes specially adapted for electrocardiography

A61B 5/0408

Electrodes specially adapted for foetal cardiography

A61B 5/0448

Electrodes specially adapted for electroencephalography

A61B 5/0478

Electrodes specially adapted for electromyography

A61B 5/0492

Electrodes for electrotherapy

A61N 1/04

A61L - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Apparatus or methods specifically adapted for use in treating air either:

Apparatus or methods of general applicability for use in destroying noxious micro-organisms on or otherwise rendering completely aseptic articles or materials (e.g., destroying bacteria or fungus).

Apparatus or methods that are not covered as a whole in another subclass and are specially adapted for use in destroying noxious micro-organisms on or otherwise rendering completely aseptic specific articles (e.g., contact lenses) or specific materials (e.g., refuse).

Materials that are specially adapted for devices that are to be affixed to, placed on, placed within, or cover either:

Chemical compounds or compositions that are used in conjunction with, or compose a portion of, the above type of specially adaptive devices or their materials and increase their effectiveness by:

Materials specially adapted to be used in devices that:

Adhesives specially adapted for surgical uses.

Materials specially adapted for forming devices used as substitutes for a part of the body that is missing or non-functional or materials specially adapted for coating these devices (e.g., skin grafts).

Materials specially adapted to be used in:

Materials specially adapted for use within the structure of hollow flexible tubes that are intended to be:

Materials specially adapted to be used for other surgical uses or devices (e.g. stents, materials for adhesion prevention).

Materials specially adapted for use as antithrombogenic treatments for at least one of the above type of devices or materials or the chemical compounds or compositions that form, or compose a portion of, these antithrombogenic treatments.

Specially adapted components or steps for at least one of the above types of apparatus, methods, or devices.

Auxiliary appliances or accessories specially adapted for use with at least one of the above types of apparatus or devices (e.g., devices for testing effectiveness of sterilization).

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Preservation of bodies or disinfecting characterised by the agent employed

A01N

Shape or structure of prostheses

A61F 2/00

Shape or structure of bandages, dressings, or absorbent pads

A61F 13/00

Preparations for medical, dental or toilet purposes

A61K

Shape or structure of catheters

A61M 25/00

Sterilisation of packages or package contents in association with packaging

B65B 55/00
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Sterilising food or foodstuffs

A23

Preservation of milk, milk preparations, or dairy products by sterilization

A23C 3/00

Devices specifically adapted for cleaning or disinfection shavers or razors

A45D 27/46

Apparatus or methods for destroying solid waste or transforming solid waste using sterilization into something useful or harmless

B09B 3/00

Devices for adding disinfecting agents to lavatories

E03D 9/02

Pasteurisation, sterilisation, preservation, purification, clarification, or ageing of alcoholic beverages

C12H 1/00

Air conditioning systems including air purification or sterilisation means

F24F 3/16

Sanitary or hygienic devices for transducer mouthpieces or earpieces

H04R 1/12

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Surgical instruments

A61B 17/00

Operating gloves

A61B 19/04

Surgical drapes

A61B 19/08

Dental prosthetics

A61C 9/00

Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents

A61F 2/82

Bandages, dressings, or absorbent pads

A61F 13/00

Tracheal tubes

A61M 16/04

Catheters

A61M 25/00

Tubes, valves

A61M 39/00

Processes for making harmful chemical substances harmless, or less harmful, by effecting a chemical change in the substance

A62D 3/00

Preparation of ozone

C01B 13/10

Special rules of classification

Sets of groups wherein Last-place rule is applied

Within each one of the following sets of groups, at each hierarchical level, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place:

A61L 15/08-A61L 15/12

A61L 15/18-A61L 15/40

A61L 17/04-A61L 17/14

A61L 24/02-A61L 24/04

A61L 27/02-A61L 27/40

A61L 29/02-A61L 29/12

A61L 31/02-A61L 31/12

A61L 33/02-A61L 33/18

Secondary classification based on use of materials characterised by particular function or physical properties when of interest

When the inventive thing is classified based upon its chemical composition within one of the sets of groups A61L 15/08-A61L 15/12, A61L 15/18-A61L 15/40, A61L 27/02-A61L 27/40, A61L 29/02-A61L 29/12, or A61L 31/02-A61L 31/12; classification of this subject matter is also made to cover its function or physical properties for each set of groups into their corresponding group, (i.e., respectively group A61L 15/14, A61L 15/42, A61L 27/50, A61L 29/14, or A61L 31/14) when this aspect is of interest.

Secondary classification based on use of materials with antithrombogenic properties

When the inventive thing is fully provided for and classified within groups A61L 17/00, A61L 24/00, A61L 26/00, A61L 27/00, A61L 28/00, A61L 29/00, and A61L 31/00 classification should also be made within group A61L 33/00 if a material used is antithrombogenic in nature.

Use of indexing codes

When classifying in group A61L 2/00-A61L 12/00, it is desirable to add the indexing codes of group A61L 101/00, relating to the chemical composition of materials used in disinfecting, sterilising or deodorising.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Antithrombogenic

A substance, composition, or material that prevents or reduces coagulation, clotting, depositing, or precipitation of blood, plasma protein, or a component of blood (e.g., anticoagulant).

A61L 2/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For contact lenses

A61L 12/00

A61L 2/28 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Methods involving enzymes or micro-organisms

C12Q 1/00

A61L 9/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Body deodorants

A61K 8/00, A61Q 15/00

Separating dispersed particles from gases or vapours

B01D 45/00-B01D 51/00, B03C 3/00

A61L 9/015 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Production of ozone

C01B 13/10

A61L 17/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Surgical adhesives

A61L 24/00

Surgical instruments, devices or methods for suturing or ligaturing

A61B 17/04, A61B 17/12

Supports or packages for suture materials

A61B 17/04

A61M - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Devices or processes specially adapted to be used to insert or place media into human bodies (e.g., pumps, syringes, atomisers, insufflators, inhalers) and that do so either

Devices or processes specially adapted to be used to place media upon human bodies (e.g., percutaneous devices, radioactive dressings) and that do so either

Devices or processes which are specially adapted to be used to direct, lead, convey, or carry media up to, away from, or within human bodies (e.g., tubes for carrying oxygen, medical pumps, artificial hearts, mechanical blood circulatory assistors, blood oxygenation devices, devices for artificial respiration by treatment with gas or air) and that do so either

Devices or processes specially adapted to be used to remove, eject, or expel media from human bodies (e.g., suction type breast relievers, discharge draining devices for wounds) and that do so

Devices or processes specially adapted to cause or provoke a change in the state of consciousness of humans (e.g., induce sleep, fully awaken) and that do so in a manner other than one which commonly occurs (e.g., falling asleep on a good mattress, physical exhaustion).

Devices or processes specially adapted to increase or decrease the mental activity of humans while awake (e.g., relax, stimulate) and that do so in a manner other than that which commonly occurs (e.g., creating boredom, reading long definitions).

Accessories specially adapted for use with at least one of the above devices and that contribute to the effectiveness or safety of the device or its use.

Specially adapted components having structural features limiting them to use with a device of one of the types specified above.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

When used with animals

If a device or process is usable for both humans and animals for the same purpose and in the same manner, and it is otherwise proper for this subclass, classification is made only in subclass A61M Similar devices or processes to those covered by subclass A61Mthat are usable exclusively for animals, or are used in animals in a different manner or for different purposes than for humans, are classified in subclass A61D

When used with living or dead human bodies

Patent documents for general-purpose medical devices or processes that are otherwise proper for subclass A61Mare classified in subclass A61Mwhen they either disclose only being used on living human bodies or broadly disclose being used on humans. Patent documents for general -purpose medical devices or processes that are otherwise proper for subclass A61Mand fully identified as being used on both living and dead human bodies are classified in subclass A61Mand subclass A01Nor A61B Patent documents for similar devices or processes to those covered by subclass A61Mthat are specially adapted for use exclusively on dead humans are classified only in subclass A01Nor A61B

Implantable prostheses or artificial organ replacements

With regard to human organs and their parts, the exact distinction between the artificial devices implantable into human bodies that are proper for subclass A61Fand those proper for subclass A61Mis somewhat imprecise. Therefore, for analogous situations that are not specifically covered by existing groups of these subclasses, the following listings are intended to provide guidance.

Subclass A61Fprovides for the following replacements or substitutes for internal body organs or their parts: artificial hollow or tubular parts of organs (e.g., bladders, tracheae, bronchi, hearts valves and blood vessels, bile ducts), structural supporting or maintaining devices for such parts or their natural equivalents (e.g., stents), artificial eyes, and artificial ears.

Subclass A61Mprovides for the following replacements or substitutes for internal body organs or their parts: artificial hearts, artificial livers, artificial ventilators, artificial pancreas, and artificial kidneys.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Applications or methods that use specific materials, compositions, or single compounds for the preservation of human bodies or for the preservation of living parts of human bodies

A01N 1/00

Devices or methods for handling cosmetic or toilet substances

A45D

Surgical introduction or removal of body parts or their substitutes

A61B

Devices specially adapted for taking blood samples

A61B 5/15

Devices specially adapted for vivisection or autopsy

A61B 16/00

Devices or methods for introducing solid, liquid, or gaseous remedies or other materials into or onto the bodies of animals

A61D 7/00

Prostheses implantable into a human body

A61F 2/02

Medicinal preparations characterised by special physical form

A61K 9/00

Chemical aspects of bandages, dressings, absorbent pads, or other surgical articles placed upon into human body

A61L

Electrotherapy, e.g. producing anaesthesia by the use of alternating or intermittent currents

A61N 1/34
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Prostheses implantable into human blood vessels

A61F 2/01

Means for inserting tampons

A61F 13/26

Means for withdrawing tampons

A61F 13/34

Absorbent pads having means integral therewith for supplying media to the absorbent material

A61F 13/40

Devices for orally administering food or medication

A61J

Containers for collecting, storing or administering blood, plasma or medical fluids

A61J 1/05

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices worn by patients for reception of urine, faeces, catamenial, or other bodily discharges

A61F 5/44

Application swabs

A61F 13/15

Devices for receiving spittle

A61J 19/00

Special rules of classification

When a device or method covered by subclass A61Mincludes a separating process for body-liquids that utilizes chromatography, and features of general interest related to chromatography are usefully disclosed but not claimed, the features should also be non-obligatorily classified within group B01D 15/08.

Main group A61M 36/00 takes precedence over all other main groups of subclass A61M

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Media

Solid, liquid, or gaseous substances or devices (e.g., medicine, food, in vivo testing material, catheters) which are either used by or within human bodies for medical or physical purposes, components of or substances naturally within human bodies (e.g., artificial heart, blood, insulin), or bodily discharge or waste created by human bodies or medical processes taking place within human bodies (e.g., urine).

A61M 1/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Implements for holding wounds open

A61B 17/02

Pumps in general

F04

A61M 1/06 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Feeding-bottles

A61J 9/00

A61M 1/10 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Artificial heart valves

A61F 2/24

A61M 1/14 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Processes of separation using semi-permeable membranes

B01D 61/00

A61M 5/14 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Suction in pumping blood transfusion

A61M 1/02

A61M 5/24 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ampoules or cartridges

A61J 1/06

A61M 5/36 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Dialysis systems, blood oxygenators

A61M 1/14

Hemofiltration equipment

A61M 1/34

A61M 11/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Sprayers or atomisers specially adapted for therapeutic purposes in general

B05B

A61M 13/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For the destruction of noxious animals or noxious plants

A01M

A61M 16/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Respiratory apparatus in general

A62B

Respirators for working under water

B63C 11/00

A61M 16/04 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Catheters in general

A61M 25/00

A61M 16/22 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cartridges with absorbing substances for respiratory apparatus

A62B 19/00

A61M 19/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Syringes therefor

A61M 5/00

Cooling blood in a bypass of the arterial system

A61M 1/36

A61M 25/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Dilators

A61M 29/00

A61M 29/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Instruments for performing visual medical inspections of cavities or tubes of the body

A61B 1/00

A61N - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Specially adapted apparatus, instruments, devices, or processes for the following types of therapy:

Components having specialized structural features that limit their use to the apparatus, instruments, or devices for the types of therapy appropriate for this subclass.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Several subclasses provide for subject matter that is used for therapy. The relationship between these subclasses in regard to the type of therapy covered by each is as follows:

Subclass A61N provides for medical treatment-type therapy by apparatus or methods utilizing forms of energy other than direct mechanical energy when they are not used for surgical purposes and they are intended to either

In particular, subclass A61N covers implanted devices, when the implanted device is not a replacement or supplementation of an actual portion of the organ or part, utilizing forms of energy other than direct mechanical energy to stimulate organs or body parts in a manner that facilitates, regulates, or improves their normal functioning.

Subclass A61H provides for massage and physical-type therapy apparatus or methods for the treatment of disease or disability (i.e., an abnormal condition of the body) by utilization of direct mechanical energy. The apparatus or methods appropriate for this subclass do not surgically alter any portion of the bodies during treatment. Usually, the massage and therapy apparatus and methods of this subclass are intended to facilitate the healing of diseases, reduce the impact of injuries, or beneficially influence the condition of disabled body parts by physically moving a part of a body (e.g., devices for exercising a passive body member) solely by direct physical contact with, or stimulation of, external surfaces of the body or naturally occurring cavities in the body. However, stimulation of internal organs or body parts, such as artificial respiration and stimulation of the heart, when it is done by direct mechanical energy is also considered proper for this subclass.

Subclass A61K and Subclass A61P provide for drug-type therapy using chemical compounds or medicinal preparations specially adapted for use in healing, benefiting, or destroying abnormal conditions of the body (e.g., diseases, birth defects) and the specific therapeutic activities that the chemical compounds and medicinal preparations are used for.

Subclass A61B provides for surgery and surgical-type therapy that alters or repairs organs and body parts. It also provides for any surgical or diagnostic apparatus or methods that would otherwise be proper for subclass A61H or A61N when the apparatus or methods are used for both purposes or combined together. In particular, subclass A61B provides for surgical instruments, devices, or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body (e.g., electromagnetic radiation surgery) to alter or repair it.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Apparatus for diagnosis or surgery combined with, or applicable also as, therapy apparatus

A61B

Apparatus for radiation diagnosis

A61B 6/00

Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body (e.g., radiation surgery, electro-surgery)

A61B 18/00

Instruments, implements, tools, or methods specially adapted so as to limit their use to only animals

A61D

Apparatus or methods utilizing direct mechanical energy in therapy intended to treat disease or disability

A61H

Percussion or vibration massage apparatus (e.g. using supersonic vibration)

A61H 23/00

Apparatus or methods for stimulating specific reflex points by heating or cooling within the cell-life limits

A61H 39/06

Devices for applying radioactive material to the body

A61M 36/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring bioelectrical signals of the body or body parts

A61B 5/04

Surgical accessories

A61B 19/00

Artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body

A61F 2/00

Heating or cooling appliances for medical or therapeutic treatment

A61F 7/00

Saunas

A61H 33/06

Radiopharmaceuticals

A61K 51/12

Anaesthetic apparatus in general

A61M

Artificial hearts and circulatory assistance means intended for implantation

A61M 1/12

Pressure infusion pumps

A61M 5/142

Devices or methods to cause a change in the state of consciousness by mechanical, optical or acoustical means, e.g. audiovisual stimuli

A61M 21/00

Therapeutic chemical compounds or medicinal preparation used to treat sicknesses or abnormal conditions of the body

A61P

Measurement of nuclear X-radiation

G01T

Techniques for handling of particles or electromagnetic radiation

G21K

Incandescent lamps having general utility

H01K

Infrared radiators for heating

H05B

A61N 1/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Irradiation apparatus

A61N 5/00

A61N 1/08 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring electric variables

G01R

Control of generator output in general

H02P, H03L

A61N 1/38 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For producing shock effects in general

H05C 1/00

A61N 1/40 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Microwave apparatus

A61N 5/00

A61N 5/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ultrasound therapy

A61N 7/00

A61P - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Therapeutic activity of chemical compounds or medicinal preparations.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

For medicinal, dental or cosmetic preparations to be appropriate for this subclass, it must also be appropriate for one of the following: subclasses A61K or C12N, or classes C01, C07, and C08.

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Preparations brought into direct contact with the skin for affording protection against external influences

A61Q 17/00

Special rules of classification

In this subclass, all of the different therapeutic activities stated in the claims or significantly disclosed as examples in the disclosure are classified in all appropriate places.

The classification symbols of this subclass are not listed first when assigned to patent documents.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Drug(s)

includes chemical compounds or compositions with therapeutic activity, i.e. having the ability to cause a physiological, pharmacological or biological effect.

A61Q - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

The use of cosmetics or similar toilet preparations.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

For a cosmetic or similar toilet preparation to be appropriate for this subclass, it must also be appropriate for one of the following: main group A61K 8/00 , subclasses C07C, C07D, C07F, C07G, C07H, C07J, C07K, C11D and C12N or classes C01 and C08.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Deodorisation of air

A61L 9/00

Drugs for dermatological disorders

A61P 17/02-A61P 17/16

Essential oils or perfumes per se

C11B 9/00

Special rules of classification

In this subclass, all uses of cosmetics or similar toilet preparations stated in the claims or significantly disclosed as examples in the disclosure are classified in all appropriate places.

The classification symbols of this subclass are not listed first when assigned to patent documents.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations

include compositions or preparations for the skin, hair, nails, teeth or oral cavity which are used to clean them, change their appearance, correct body odours, and protect or keep them in good condition.

A61Q 7/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Preparations with therapeutic activity

A61P 17/14

A61Q 13/00 - Definition

Glossary of terms

In this main group, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Essential oil

A concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants

A61Q 17/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Drugs for treating burns

A61P 17/02

A61Q 17/02 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Pest repellants

A01N

A62D - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Compositions:

Use of chemical substances in extinguishing fires.

Chemical, bio-chemical or physico-chemical processes for chemically altering harmful chemical substances into safe or less dangerous substances.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Fire prevention, fire containment or fire fighting, e.g. portable extinguishers or fire-fighting vehicles

A62C

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fireproof paints

C09D 5/18

Fireproofing materials

C09K 21/00

A62D 3/00 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This main group covers:

Processes for chemically altering harmful chemical substances into safe or less-dangerous substances.

These processes can be chemical, bio-chemical or physico-chemical processes, e.g. use of special chemical reagents for chemical fixing, which result in the decomposition or transformation of the harmful chemical substances into harmless or less harmful substances because of a change in their chemical structure.

These processes can comprise the step of dissolving or dispersing the harmful chemical substances in water for the purpose of treating them, or the step of producing, for treatment, a gaseous product from a non-gaseous harmful chemical substance.

The harmful chemical substance can be one component of a mixture, e.g. a component in contaminated sludge.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

The disposal of solid waste or the reclamation of contaminated soil is classified elsewhere, i.e. in class B09. However, the treatment of a specific harmful chemical substance in solid waste resulting in the change of its chemical constitution to make it harmless or less harmful is covered by A62D.

In the same way, treatment of sludge is not classified here with the exception of the treatment of a specific harmful chemical substance in the sludge, e.g. in residues from industrial processes (excluding contaminants from municipal sewage treatment) resulting in the change of its chemical constitution to make it harmless or less harmful.

Preventive chemical treatments, e.g. to prevent the formation of harmful chemical substances are classified elsewhere, depending on the kind of treatment and/or the context of application.

References relevant to classification in this main group

This main group does not cover:

Detoxification of foods or foodstuffs

A23L 1/015

Apparatus for chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general

B01

Treatment of gases, e.g.:

Chemical or biological purification of smoke or fumes, e.g. flue gas

B01D 53/34

Purification or modifying the chemical compositions of combustible gases containing carbon monoxide

C10K

Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust

F01N 3/00

Consuming noxious gases by combustion

F23G 7/06

Chemical processes resulting in the production of a useful product, e.g.:

using untreated contaminated fly ash as raw material in the manufacture of cement

C04B 7/26

metals obtained from residues or scrap

C22B

Treatment of radioactively-contaminated waste

G21F 9/00
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Treatment of waste water, sewage or sludge

C02F

Making explosives harmless by detonation

F42D 5/04

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Disinfection or sterilizing methods specially adapted for refuse

A61L 11/00

Waste or refuse as compounding ingredient for glass, cement, mortar, concrete, artificial stone or ceramics

C03, C04B

Materials for absorbing liquids to remove pollution, e.g. oil, gasoline, fat

C09K 3/32

Destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials

C10B

Destructive hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials

C10G 1/06

Micro-organisms, enzymes or compositions thereof

C12N

Consuming waste by combustion

F23G

Removal or treatment of combustion products or combustion residues

F23J

Special rules of classification

In this main group, at each hierarchical level, in the absence of an indication to the contrary classification is made in the first appropriate place.

When classifying in groups A62D 3/00 to A62D 3/40, a harmful chemical substance which is considered to represent information of interest for search, may be indexed in one or more of groups A62D 101/00 to A62D 101/49.

Glossary of terms

In this main group, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Catalyst

Substance which either increases or decreases the speed of a chemical reaction, without itself undergoing a permanent chemical change.

Catalyst

Catalyst

Chalcogen

Also known as chalcogenides, specifically O, S, Se, Te.

Harmful

Directly toxic to living organisms, with the exception of toxic to plants only.

Harmful chemical substances

Chemical waste substances which are too hazardous or toxic to be discarded in an ordinary municipal landfill.

Halogens

The elements F, Cl, Br ,I , At.

Physico-chemical

Having at least one chemical step and one physical step.

Sludge

Residue (normally viscous) from an industrial, residential, or agricultural process.

A62D 3/11 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Processes for making harmful chemical substances harmless, or less harmful, by effecting a chemical change in the substances, including at least one eletrochemical step, e.g. electrodialysis, electrophoresis or electro-osmosis.

A62D 3/13 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Processes for making harmful chemical substances harmless, or less harmful, by effecting a chemical change in the substances, including at least one step utilizing wave energy in the form of pressure waves moving through a gaseous medium.

A62D 3/15 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Processes for making harmful chemical substances harmless, or less harmful, by effecting a chemical change in the substances, including at least one step utilizing particle type radiation, i.e. the radiation of energy by means of small fast-moving particles that have energy and mass such as molecules, atoms, protons, and electrons.

A62D 3/19 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Processes for making harmful chemical substances harmless, or less harmful, by effecting a chemical change in the substances, including at least one step utilizing the chemical action of the substance with either:

A62D 3/20 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Processes for making harmful chemical substances harmless, or less harmful, by effecting a chemical change in the substances, including at least one step utilizing the thermal property of water and heat, e.g. vapor and hot air mixture, hot water, super critical water, super heated water, or steam, directly on the harmful chemical substance to cause chemical change.

A62D 3/30 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Processes for making harmful chemical substances harmless, or less harmful, by effecting a chemical change in the substances, including at least one step where at least one distinct chemical material is added to the environment of the harmful chemical substance to react with it.

The actual harmful chemical substances being treated by the process may be combined within a mixture of waste including in addition non-hazardous or nontoxic substances. However, to be proper for this group, the harmful chemical substances must react with the added chemical agents to render it harmless or less harmful, or be an intermediate step in rendering the substance harmless or less harmful.

A62D 3/32 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Processes for making harmful chemical substances harmless, or less harmful, by effecting a chemical change in the substances, wherein the harmful chemical substances react with a distinct chemical reagent which is normally a solid at room temperature but is added to the environment where the reaction takes place in its molten state or is caused to become molten for reaction with the harmful chemical substance.

A62D 3/33 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Processes for making harmful chemical substances harmless, or less harmful, by effecting a chemical change in the substances, including a process step wherein a distinct chemical material is added which either

A62D 3/34 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Processes for making harmful chemical substances harmless, or less harmful, by effecting a chemical change in the substances, wherein the harmful chemical substances include halogen and wherein the process includes a process step in which a distinct chemical material (e.g. alkali metal alcoholates, etc.) is added which reacts with the harmful chemical substance in a manner that removes the halogen from the harmful chemical substance.

The removal of halogen from the harmful chemical substance may render it harmless or less harmful, or be an intermediate step in rendering the substance harmless or less harmful.

References relevant to classification in this group

This group does not cover:

Electrolytic degradation of harmful substances

A62D 3/115

Dehalogenation in molten chemical reagents

A62D 3/32

A62D 3/35 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Processes for making harmful chemical substances harmless, or less harmful, by effecting a chemical change in the substances, including a process step wherein a distinct chemical material is added which contains water in its ionic form that chemically reacts with the harmful chemical substances to decompose it.

References relevant to classification in this group

This group does not cover:

Electrolytic degradation of harmful substances

A62D 3/115

A62D 3/36 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Processes for making harmful chemical substances harmless, or less harmful, by effecting a chemical change in the substances, including a process step wherein a distinct chemical material is added, which is an acidic or basic reagent that chemically reacts with the harmful chemical substance to render it harmless or less harmful by changing its composition.

The acidic or alkaline reagent may either react with the harmful chemical substance to render it harmless or less harmful, or be an intermediate step in rendering the substance harmless or less harmful.

A62D 3/37 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Processes for making harmful chemical substances harmless, or less harmful, by effecting a chemical change in the substances, including a process step wherein a distinct chemical material is used in a reductive-type reaction with the harmful chemical substance, i.e. to decrease the positive valence (oxidation state) of the harmful chemical substance.

The reduction reaction splits up the harmful chemical substance into two or more of its components) which is caused by the transfer of one or more electrons from the distinct chemical material to the substance, i.e. the distinct chemical material is oxidized (loses electrons) and the harmful chemical substance is reduced (gains electrons).

A62D 3/38 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Processes for making harmful chemical substances harmless, or less harmful, by effecting a chemical change in the substances, including a process step wherein a distinct chemical material is used in an oxidative-type reaction with the harmful chemical substance, i.e. to increase the positive valence (oxidation state) of the harmful chemical substance.

The reduction reaction splits up the harmful chemical substance into two or more of its components which is caused by the transfer of one or more electrons from the harmful chemical substance to the distinct chemical material, i.e. the harmful chemical substance is oxidized (loses electrons) and the distinct chemical material is reduced (gains electrons).

A62D 3/40 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Processes for making harmful chemical substances harmless, or less harmful, by effecting a chemical change in the substances, including at least one step that uses heat and the thermal properties of the harmful chemical substance to effect the chemical degradation of the harmful chemical substance.

A62D 7/02 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Materials for minimising adherence of ice or water to surfaces

C09K 3/18

A62D 9/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Production of oxygen-generating compounds in general

C01B 13/00

Processes for the production of oxygen from chemicals in general

C25B 1/02

A62D 101/00 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This main group covers:

Specific harmful chemical substances made harmless, or less harmful , by effecting chemical change by processes which as such are already classified in main group A62D 3/00

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Group A62D 101/00 is used to index the harmful chemical substances, if of interest, in order to allow the search of combination of process with substances. This indexing scheme can be used only in combination with group A62D 3/00

Special rules of classification

When indexing a substance in groups A62D 101/02-A62D 101/08, indexing according to its chemical structure is also made in one or more of the groups A62D 101/20-A62D 101/40 of interest.

A62D 101/02 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

These substances include nerve, blister, vesicant, blood, and pulmonary affecting substances.

A62D 101/04 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Harmful chemical substances intended to prevent, repel, destroy, or mitigate pests.

A pest is a plant or animal which is detrimental to humans or human concerns, e.g. agriculture or livestock production.

A62D 101/06 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Harmful chemical substances consisting of chemical compounds or mixtures that are explosive, e.g. bombs or TNT, a chemical reaction propellant, e.g. for rockets or bullets, or a pyrotechnic, e.g. fireworks, flares or napalm.

A62D 101/08 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Harmful chemical substances consisting of chemical compounds that are by-products of combustion or can be components of mixtures that are by-products of combustion.

A62D 101/22 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Harmful organic chemical substances containing halogens, i.e. fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, or astatine.

A62D 101/24 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Harmful organic substances containing one or more metals other than: Lithium (Li), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs), Francium (Fr), Calcium (Ca), Strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba), Radium (Ra), Beryllium (Be), Magnesium (Mg), and Aluminum (Al).

The harmful chemical substances may contain lithium (Li), sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs), Francium (Fr), Calcium (Ca), Strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba), Radium (Ra), Beryllium (Be), Magnesium (Mg), or Aluminum (Al) if they also have a metal appropriate for this group.

A62D 101/41 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Harmful inorganic substances containing one or more components that are fibrous.

The fibers may be naturally occurring or man-made from inorganic substances, e.g. made primarily from rock, clay, slag or glass.

A62D 101/43 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Harmful inorganic substances containing one or more metals other than: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs), Francium (Fr), Calcium (Ca), Strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba), Radium (Ra), Beryllium (Be), Magnesium (Mg), and Aluminum (Al).

The harmful chemical substances may contain lithium (Li), sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs), Francium (Fr), Calcium (Ca), Strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba), Radium (Ra), Beryllium (Be), Magnesium (Mg), or Aluminum (Al) if they also have a metal appropriate for this group.

A62D 101/49 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Harmful inorganic substances containing a halogen, i.e. fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, or astatine.

A63B - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Gymnastic or exercising apparatus or equipment, of which examples are:

Climbing or mountaineering apparatus, including apparatus for climbing trees or poles.

Swimming aids or equipment, e.g. flippers, goggles.

Balls for ball games including:

Rackets, bats or other striking implements for ball games, e.g. tennis rackets and similar, golf clubs, baseball bats, cricket bats, hockey sticks.

Accessories for golf; accessories for other ball games.

Targets or goals for ball games; tennis and similar nets and accessories therefor.

Implements for throwing, e.g. darts, javelins, spears, throwing-hammers, boomerangs, discus discs, quoits, juggling clubs.

Miscellaneous sporting games, e.g. miniature golf, juggling, curling, badminton, shuttlecock or like games, games using a hockey puck; projectiles for these games which do not fall into the above category of balls for ball games.

Training appliances for particular sports, e.g. for fencing, riding, skiing, rowing, punching-balls for boxing, golf swing trainers, artificial mountain slopes.

Other games or sports accessories, e.g. indicating or scoring devices, body protectors.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Some sporting subject matter is to be found in other subclasses of class A63. Skates, skis and their bindings, roller skates, skate-boards and the design or layout of playing-courts, rinks, bowling-greens or water-skiing areas or the like are classified in A63C. Bowling-alleys, bowling-games and equipment for bowls (but not the balls which are in A63B) and billiards or snooker are classified in A63D. Merry-go-rounds, swings, rocking-horses, toy animals for riding, chutes, switchbacks, water roundabouts, helter-skelters or the like are classified in A63G. Toys are in A63H. Racing, riding sports and equipment and accessories therefore, including race-courses and race-tracks, are in A63K.

In relation to apparatus or methods for manufacturing balls, it should be borne in mind that working of plastics or substances in a plastic state is classified in class B29 and the chemical or compositional aspects of balls is in Section C, e.g. compositions for making golf balls are usually in subclass C08L.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Protective equipment in the form of clothing or garments for sporting purposes

A41D 13/00

in the form of caps or hats

A42B 1/08

Helmets

A42B 3/00

Apparatus for passive exercising or massage

A61H

Unicycles

B62K 1/00

Vessels or like floating structures for pleasure or sport

B63B 35/71, B63B 35/73

Life-saving in water

B63C 9/00

Breathing aids for swimming, e.g. snorkels

B63C 11/12

Divers' sleds or like craft

B63C 11/46

Training of parachutists

B64D 23/00

Archers' finger tabs

F41B 5/16

Traps for clay-pigeon targets

F41J 9/18

Devices for exercising or strengthening of fingers or arms in teaching music

G09B 15/06
In relation to climbing or mountaineering equipment:

Non-skid devices or attachments for footwear, e.g. crampons

A43C 15/00

Breathing masks or helmets for use at high altitudes

A62B 18/00

Safety belts for climbers

A62B 35/00

Picks

B25D 7/00

Ladders attached to fixed structures

E06C 9/04

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring muscular strength

A61B 5/22

Connecting valves to inflatable elastic bodies

B60C 29/00

Throwing weapons

F41B

e.g. sling-weapons

F41B 3/00

Stop watches

G04F

Timing devices

G07C

A63B 41/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Valves, e.g. self-closing valves

F16K

A63B 41/12 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Air pumps per se for flowing up balls

F04

A63B 55/08 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Running gear or propulsion features for wheeled carriers for golf bags

B60

A63C 10/00 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this main group

This main group does not cover:

Bindings for monoskis

A63C 9/00

Water skis or wakeboards

B63B 35/81

Special rules of classification

When classifying in this group, classification is made in all appropriate subgroups.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the expression/word "step-in" is often used with the meaning "mechanism that ensures that, when pressing the shoe on the binding, the shoe will be automatically locked to the holder".

A63C 10/04 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Snowboard bindings particular suited for soft boots for encompassing the shoe from the upper side and tighten it against the boot. Most of the shoe holders are made from a strap or soft cover. This group further comprises:

A63C0010040000

A63C 10/06 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Details of straps which encompass the shoe from upper side, e.g. structure of the strap, tensioning means for the strap, cushioning of the strap, relative arrangement between front and rear strap.

A63C0010060000

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Clamp-buckle fastenings; Fastenings with toggle levers

A43C 11/14

A63C 10/08 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Snowboard bindings dedicated to hard boots, i.e. to boots whose structure is rigid enough to hold the foot tight and transmit front to rear holding forces. Consequently only a small part of the boot is held by a stirrup (ref. 5 on the example drawing) or a clamp (ref. 6,7 on the example drawing).

A63C0010080000

A63C 10/10 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Step-in snowboard bindings where a part, or several parts, of the shoe are specially adapted to interact with specific parts of the binding. In general this part is made out of rigid material (ref. 20 in the example drawing) which is fastened to the outsole of the boot. This kind of bindings usually allow easy fastening and manual release of the boot and are particular suited for a semi-rigid boots.

A63C0010100000

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Safety ski bindings using parts which are fixed on the shoe of the user and are releasable from the ski bindings

A63C 9/086

A63C 10/24 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Calf or heel supports which are mostly used for non-rigid type boots, where the back part of the shaft is soft and pliable. These types of supports are mostly found in combination with the bindings of groups A63C 10/04 and A63C 10/10. Calf and heel support allow the transmission of forces pointing to the heel when riding on the back edge of the snowboard. A calf support is usually called high back (ref. 30 in the first example drawing, ref. 2 in the second example drawing). Heel supports are usually in the form of a heel loop (ref. 56 in the first example drawing, ref. 17 in the second example drawing).

A63C0010240000
A63C0010240000

A63C 10/26 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Skis or snowboards ; Vibration dampers

A63C 5/075

A63D - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Bowling alleys and boccia courts, including features such as portability, form or material of the surface, stands for players and tracks for returning or circulating the balls;

Table alleys, miniature bowling-alleys and accessories therefor;

Pins; games of pins, e.g. ninepins, with tethered balls;

Bagatelle and similar games e.g. children’s bagatelle;

Billiards, similar games such as snooker and pool, and pocket billiards, including tables and accessories therefor, e.g. cushions, cues, means for roughening cue-tips and scoring or registering devices.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

All aspects of these games are covered by this subclass except for the balls, which are covered by A63B, and devices for propelling, projecting or rolling-off balls which are covered by A63F 7/24.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Billiard tables convertible into beds

A47C 17/62

Indoor games using small moving playing bodies, e.g. balls

A63F 7/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Balls

A63B

Devices for propelling, projecting or rolling-off balls

A63F 7/24

Counting mechanisms in general

G06M

Coin-freed mechanisms e.g. for releasing balls for use

G07F

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Bagatelle

A modification of billiards in which the players’ object is to strike the balls so that they, and perhaps other balls, shall fall into numbered holes that determine the score. Usually the bagatelle table has a rounded far end and a channel on the right hand side along which the balls are propelled.

Boule-type games

Games, for example bowls, pétanque and boccia, with the general object of throwing or rolling balls or similar rolling objects in order for them to knock, or come to rest as close as possible to, a target. The target may be a smaller ball, commonly known as a ‘jack’. These games can be played by individuals or teams, indoors or outdoors on a range of surfaces, including gravel, grass or specially built courts. The balls can be made from a variety of materials and are generally spherical or ovoid in shape.

A63H - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Toys of the following types:

Special methods or compositions for the manufacture of dolls, toy animals, toy figures or parts thereof.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Toys are often imitations or miniatures of "genuine", "full-size" working devices, machines or apparatus with a practical use. However toys normally have structural details that make them unsuitable for operation similar to that of a full-size equivalent. For the full-size working device, the relevant subclass should be consulted, for example "proper" vehicles, aircraft, etc. should be classified in classes B60-B64 and gearing in general (instead of gearing for toys) is in subclass F16H. In borderline cases where it is difficult to distinguish between a toy and a full-size working device, it may be necessary to classify in several places.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Blowing smoke-rings

A24F 13/30

Dolls' footwear

A43B 3/28

Changeable or secret pictures

B44F 1/10

Firecrackers

F42B 4/04

Hand-thrown impact-exploded noise makers

F42B 4/16

Kaleidoscopes

G02B 27/08
Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Throwing toys as part of a game

A63F 9/02

Traffic games with figures moved by players

A63F 9/14

Spring toy guns

F41B 7/08
Examples (not mentioned above) of devices, articles or apparatus which are applicable to humans instead of toys, or of "full-size" working devices or machines with a practical use:

Eyelashes, eyebrows for humans

A41G

Artificial eyes for humans

A61F 2/14

Picture books

B42D 1/00

Parachutes for aeronautics

B64D

Ultra-small engines, e.g. for driving models

F02B 75/34

Models or scenery for general purposes

G09B

Music, sound or noise production in general

G10

Transformers

H01F

Electric motors per se

H02K

Converters

H02M

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Toy

A plaything to be actively played with by children or others; something contrived for amusement rather than for practical or serious use.

Toy figure

A toy that is a caricature or a stylised or symbolic form of a human being, animal, cartoon, fictional character or mythological being.

A63H 3/06 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Connection of valves to inflatable elastic bodies

B60C 29/00

A63H 3/42 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Artificial eyes for human beings

A61F 2/14

A63H 3/44 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Wigs, eyelashes, eyebrows for humans

A41G

A63H 5/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Music, sound or noise production in general

G10

A63H 17/385 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Remote-control arrangements specially adapted for toys

A63H 30/00

A63H 19/36 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Models or scenery for general purposes

G09B

A63H 27/10 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Connection of valves to inflatable elastic bodies

B60C 29/00

A63H 27/127 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Flying discs

A63B 65/10

A63H 27/24 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ultra-small engines per se, e.g. for driving models

F02B 75/34

Electric motors per se

H02K

A63H 30/02 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Transformers

H01F

Converters

H02M

A63H 31/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Gearing in general

F16H

A63H 33/20 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Parachutes for aeronautics

B64D

A63H 33/30 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Savings boxes

A45C 1/12

Toy ticket punches

G07B 9/02

A63H 33/38 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Picture books

B42D 1/00

A63H 33/42 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Models or scenery for general purposes

G09B

A63J - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Devices for theatres, circuses or the like places for public entertainment or amusement, e.g. cinemas;

Conjuring appliances or the like appliances for performing magic or illusionary effects;

Stage arrangements;

Equipment for, or arrangement of, circuses or arenas;

Auxiliaries for producing special effects on stages, or in circuses or arenas;

Auxiliary apparatus for artistes;

Centrifugal tracks, loop-the-loops, or the like;

Labyrinths;

Panoramas, dioramas, stereoramas, or the like;

Peep-shows; Kaleidoscopic or the other opalescence exhibitions;

Apparatus for performing colour-music;

Puppet, marionette, or shadow shows or theatres;

Conjuring appliances; Auxiliary apparatus for conjurers;

Equipment specially adapted for cinemas.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

General relationship of A63J with E04B and E04H.

E04B covers general building constructions; walls, e.g. partitions; roofs; floors; ceilings; insulation or other protection of buildings. For example, E04B 7/00 covers typical arena roof construction.

E04H covers buildings or like structures for particular purposes; swimming or splash baths or pools; masts; fencing; tents or canopies, in general. For example, E04H 3/00 covers buildings or groups of buildings for public or similar purposes and their constructional features; E04H 15/00 covers tent types.

General relationship of A63J with A63G and A63H

A63G covers devices for public for public amusement, especially rotating or rocking devices for fun-fairs. A63H covers toys for similar amusements, toy scenery, or hand puppets used by artists for their performance.

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Chutes; Helters-skelters

A63G 21/00

Vehicles adapted to transport, to carry or to comprise theatres or stages

B60P 3/025

General building constructions; walls; roofs; floors; ceilings; insulation or other protection of buildings

E04B

Buildings or like structures for particular purposes; swimming or splash baths or pools; masts; fencing; tents or canopies, in general

E04H

Buildings or groups of buildings for meetings, entertainments, or sports

E04H 3/10

Theatres; Concert halls; Studios for cinematography, constructional features of stages or auditoriums in theatres or the like

E04H 3/22

Tents in general, e.g. circus tents

E04H 15/00

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Conjuring

The art or skill of performing tricks or illusions for entertainment.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following terms "conjuring", "prestidigitation" and "sleights of hand" are often used as synonyms. Also, these terms can be used as keywords.

In patent documents the following terms "track", "path", "raceway", "racetrack", are often used as synonyms. Also, these terms can be used as keywords.

A63J 1/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices for drawing domestic curtains

A47H 5/00

Fire-proof curtains

A62C 2/10

Capstans; winches; tackles

B66D

Fabrics for theatre decorations, for costumes, for curtains

D03D

Structural arrangements of stage or theatre

E04H

Models of scenic effects, e.g. trees, rocks, water surfaces other than for stage purposes

G09B 25/08

A63J 3/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Circus buildings

E04B

Buildings or like structures for particular purposes; swimming or splash baths or pools; masts; fencing; tents or canopies, in general

E04H

A63J 5/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lifts in, or associated with, buildings

B66B 9/00

Platform lifts

B66F 7/00

Shiftable or portable platforms of stages

E04H 3/28

Lighting arrangements for stages, or in circuses or arenas, e.g. for producing special lighting effects

F21S

Electrophonic musical instruments; instruments in which the tones are generated by electromechanical means or electronic generators, or in which the tones are synthesised from a data store

G10H

Electric lighting not otherwise provided for; Circuit arrangements for electric light sources in general; Controlling

H05B 37/02

A63J 5/12 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Elevators, escalators or moving walkways

B66B 9/00

A63J 7/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Masks for theatrical use

A41G 7/00

Hand-puppets

A63H 3/14

A63J 9/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Looping-the loop swings for public amusments

A63G 9/08

Chutes for public amusement

A63G 21/00

A63J 13/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Model railway units in combination with scenics for toy purposes

A63H 19/36

Toy models or toy scenery not otherwise provided for

A63H 33/42

Models for full-sized devices for demonstration purposes, for surveying or for geography, e.g. relief models

G09B 25/00

A63J 15/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Optical, colour, or shadow toys

A63H 33/22

Kaleidoscopes

G02B 27/08

A63J 17/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Controlling arrangements in circuits for electric light sources, in general

H05B 37/02

Electrophonic musical instruments; instruments in which the tones are generated by electromechanical means or electronic generators, or in which the tones are synthesised from a data store

G10H

A63J 19/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Hand-puppets

A63H 3/14

Jumping jacks

A63H 3/18

B01D - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Processes and apparatus for evaporation, distillation, sublimation, crystallisation, solvent extraction, chromatography, sedimentation, filtration, dust precipitation, gas cleaning, absorption, adsorption, separation of isotopes.

Cold traps, cold baffles.

Treating liquids by displacement, adsorption, separation or degasification.

Treating gases or vapours by separation, recovering, chemical or biological purification of waste gases.

Separation using semi-permeable membranes, dialysis, osmosis, ultrafiltration.

Separation of suspended particles from liquids by sedimentation, flocculation, settling, filtration or other processes.

Separation of dispersed particles from gases or vapours, by filtration, gravity, inertia or centrifugal forces, or using liquid as separating agent.

Similar processes which are not concerned with, or limited to, separation.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

For apparatus used in drying or evaporation, F26B takes precedence over this subclass.

Separation of isotopes of the same chemical element is covered by group B01D 59/00, whatever process or apparatus is employed; this group therefore takes precedence over other subclasses of class B01.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Separating solids from solids by wet methods

B03B, B03D

Separating solids from solids using liquids or using pneumatic jigs or tables

B03B

Magnetic or electrostatic separation of solid materials from solid materials or fluids, separation by high-voltage electric fields

B03C

Flotation, differential sedimentation

B03D

Separating solids from solids by dry methods, e.g. sieving, screening, sifting or using gas currents

B07B

Centrifuges

B04B

Vortex apparatus, e.g. cyclones

B04C

Presses per se for squeezing-out liquid from liquid-containing material

B30B 9/02

Making single crystals

C30B

Into single crystals

C30B 23/00

Manufacture of hollow fibres

D01D 5/24, D01F 1/08

Separation of difficult-to-condense gases or air by liquefaction

F25J 3/00

Condensers

F28B
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Blood or infusion liquid filters

A61M 5/165

Screens or sieves per se

B07B 1/00

Extrusion filters

B29C 47/68

Filtering spinning solution or melt

D01D 1/10

Filtration of lubricants

F16N 39/06

Suction cleaner filters

A47L 9/10

Filters for breathing-protection purposes

A62B 23/00

Filtering air for vehicles

B60H 3/06

Separating pneumatically-conveyed materials from propelling gas

B65G 53/60

Exhaust or silencing apparatus for machines or engines having means for removing solid constituents of exhaust

F01N 3/02

Air cleaners for the intakes of gas-turbine or jet-propulsion plants

F02C 7/05

Air cleaners for the intakes of combustion engines

F02M 35/024

Air cleaners for the intakes of compressors

F04B 39/16

Filtering in air-conditioning

F24F 3/16

Arrangement or mounting of filters in air-conditioning, air-humidification or ventilation

F24F 13/28

Purification or separation of nitrogen

C01B 21/04

Working-up unidentified gaseous mixtures obtained by cracking hydrocarbon oils

C10G 70/00

Cleaning coal gas

C10K

Working-up of natural gas, or synthetic natural gas

C10L 3/10

Investigating materials

G01N 30/00

Treatment of milk by dialysis, reverse osmosis or ultrafiltration

A23C 9/142

Treatment of milk by electrodialysis

A23C 9/144

Artificial kidneys

A61M 1/14

Treatment of water e.g. softening of water by ion-exchange

C02F, C02F 1/42

Treatment of water by dialysis, osmosis or reverse osmosis

C02F 1/44

Treatment of water by electrodialysis

C02F 1/469

Apparatus for enzymology or microbiology with dialysis means

C12M 1/12

Production or purification of sugar juices, e.g. by osmosis

C13B 20/16

Extraction of sugar from molasses, e.g. by osmosis

C13B 35/08

Diaphragms for electrolysis

C25B 13/00, C25C 7/04

Osmosis as energy source

F03G 7/00

Special rules of classification

Group B01D 59/00 (separation of isotopes) takes precedence over other groups of this subclass since it covers separation of isotopes of the same chemical element, whatever process or apparatus is employed.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Filtration

The separation of a fluid-solid mixture, involving passage of most of the fluid through a porous barrier which retains most of the solid particulates contained in the mixture; includes straining solids from fluids.

Filter medium

A porous barrier or porous arrangement of material, which lets a fluid pass while retaining most of the solids which were mixed with it.

Filtering element

A section of filter medium in addition to parts to which the medium is demountably or permanently fixed, including other sections of medium, end caps, peripheral frames or edge strips, but excluding housings.

Filter housing

The fluid-constraining impervious vessel, whether open or closed, which contains, or is adapted to contain one or more filtering elements or filter media.

Filter chamber

The space within a housing where filtering elements or filter media are located; partitions may divide a single housing into a plurality of chambers.

Filtering apparatus

Filtering elements combined with housings, cleaning arrangements, motor or like parts, which are characteristic of the particular type of apparatus. Ancillary devices such as pumps or valves are considered part of a filtering apparatus when inside the apparatus. Ancillary devices performing similar or different unit operations such as comminutors, mixers or non-filtering separators, whether or not inside the apparatus, are not considered part of a filtering apparatus. The term does not extend to apparatus, e.g. washing machines, of which the filter forms only a part.

B01D 1/00 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this main group

This main group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Preparation of starch

C08B 30/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Prevention of incrustation

C23F

B01D 1/20 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Sprayers in general

B05B

B01D 3/00 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this main group

This main group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Preparation of alcoholic beverages by distillation

C12G 3/12

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Gas chromatography

B01D 15/08

Destructive distillation

C10B

B01D 3/16 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Packing elements

B01J 19/30, B01J 19/32

B01D 8/00 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this main group

This main group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Pumps for evacuating by condensing or freezing

F04B 37/08

B01D 15/00 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This main group covers:

Treating liquids with moving adsorbents.

Non-selective adsorption treatment of liquids with ion-exchange materials in processes where no ion-exchange occurs (e.g. purification or regeneration treatments).

Selective adsorption treatments of liquids with ion-exchange materials as adsorbents.

Separation processes and apparatus using selective adsorption e.g. chromatography.

References relevant to classification in this main group

This main group does not cover:

Separating processes involving the treatment of liquids with liquid sorbents

B01D 11/00

Preparative gas chromatography

B01D 53/02

Separation of isotopes of the same chemical element

B01D 59/00

Sorbent materials in general

B01J 20/00

Sorbents for chromatography

B01J 20/281

Ion-exchange processes or materials

B01J 39/00-B01J 49/00

Treatment of water

C02F

e.g. softening of water by ion-exchange

C02F 1/42
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Investigative or analytical chromatography

G01N 30/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Sorption and chromatography relating to particular applications, or relating to treating particular compounds or groups of compounds, may be classified in the following non-exhaustive list:

Modifying dairy products by dialysis, osmosis, filtration or ion-exchange

A23C 9/14

Treating blood or products derived therefrom

A61K 35/14

Separation of optically active compounds

C07B 57/00

Purification of hydrocarbons by adsorption

C07C 7/12

Extraction, separation or purification of peptides by chromatography

C07K 1/16

Refining hydrocarbon oils with solid sorbents

C10G 25/00

Refining fats or fatty oils by adsorption

C11B 3/10

Purification of alcoholic beverages with ion-exchange or adsorption material

C12H 1/04

Separating or purifying micro-organisms or enzymes

C12N 9/00

Purification of sugar juices using adsorption agents

C13B 20/12

Special rules of classification

In order that group B01D 15/08 may provide a basis for a complete search with respect to chromatography, all subject matter of interest should also be classified in this group even when it is classified primarily in application-oriented place(s) (see Informative References).

Glossary of terms

In this main group, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Adsorption

A separation process which involves the transfer and resulting equilibrium distribution of one or more solutes between a fluid phase and adsorbing particles.

Sorbent

A material which separates a constituent from a fluid mixture containing such constituents. The action in most instances is that of selective retention (i.e. the sorbent removes only the part of the fluid mixture for which it has the greatest affinity). The retained constituent cannot be removed by shaking, brushing or similar mechanical action, but generally can be removed by heating, pressure reduction, or use of a stripping or denuding fluid.

Chromatography

A process in which a liquid is flowed along a linear path comprising a sorbent, with which the liquid competes in affinity for a constituent of the liquid. The constituent is sorbed from the moving liquid by the relatively immobile sorbent and re-dissolved by a later passing portion of the liquid until an equilibrium of the sorbing-dissolving step is set up causing the constituent to concentrate in a specific volume of the sorbent and to move along the path of the liquid at a rate slower than such liquid.

Adsorption chromatography

Separation is based mainly on differences between the adsorption affinities of the sample components for the surface of an active solid.

Partition chromatography

Separation is based mainly on differences between the solubilities of the sample components in the stationary phase (gas chromatography) or on differences between the solubilities of the components in the mobile and stationary phases (liquid chromatography).

Exclusion chromatography

Separation is based mainly on exclusion effects, such as differences in molecular size (size-exclusion chromatography) and/or shape or charge

Affinity chromatography

The particular variant of chromatography in which the unique biological specificity of the analyte and ligand interaction is utilised for the separation.

Bonded phase

A stationary phase which is covalently bonded to the support particles or to the inside wall of the column tubing.

Synonyms and Keywords

HPLC

High performance liquid chromatography, sometimes also referred to as high pressure liquid chromatography

B01D 17/00 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this main group

This main group does not cover:

Places in relation to which this subclass is residual:

Devices for separating or removing fatty or oily substances or similar floating material from water, waste water, or sewage

C02F 1/40

Cleaning or keeping clear the surface of open water from oil or like materials

E02B 15/04

Arrangements for separating lubricants from refrigerants

F25B 43/02

B01D 19/02 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this group

This group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Foam dispersion or prevention during boiling

B01B 1/02

Foam dispersion or prevention during fermentation

C12

B01D 21/00 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this main group

This main group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Devices for separating or removing fatty or oily substances or similar floating material from water, waste water, or sewage

C02F 1/40

B01D 21/01 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this group

This group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Using flocculating agents for purifying water

C02F 1/52

Using flocculating agents for liquid radioactive waste

G21F 9/10

B01D 21/26 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this group

This group does not cover:

Centrifuges

B04B

Cyclones

B04C

B01D 33/052 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Presses per se for squeezing out liquid using an endless pressing band

B30B 9/24

B01D 39/18 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Making filter paper

D21F 11/14

B01D 39/20 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Porous ceramic material

C04B 38/00

Making alloys by powder metallurgy

C22C 1/04

B01D 47/14 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Packing elements

B01J 19/30, B01J 19/32

B01D 51/00 - Definition fr

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Preventing dust fires is classified in subclass A62C

References relevant to classification in this main group

This main group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Pretreatment specially adapted for magnetic separation

B03C 1/005

Pretreatment specially adapted for electrostatic separation

B03C 3/01

B01D 53/00 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this main group

This main group does not cover:

Separation of difficult-to-condense gases or air by liquefaction

F25J
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

For the separation of specific gases or vapours, see the relevant places, e.g. for purification or separation of nitrogen

C01B 21/04

Working-up undefined gaseous mixtures obtained by cracking hydrocarbon oils

C10G 70/00

Cleaning coal gas

C10K

Working-up of natural gas, or synthetic natural gas

C10L 3/10

For investigating materials

G01N 30/00

B01D 53/18 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Packing elements

B01J 19/30, B01J 19/32

B01D 53/22 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Manufacturing semi-permeable membranes

B01D 67/00

Form, structure or properties of semi-permeable membranes

B01D 69/00

Material for semi-permeable membranes

B01D 71/00

B01D 57/02 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Treatment of water, waste water, sewage or sludge by electrophoresis

C02F 1/469

Electrophoretic production of compounds or non-metals

C25B 7/00

Investigating or analysing materials by using electrophoresis

G01N 27/26

B01D 59/38 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Separation by electrochemical methods in general

B01J

B01J - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Treatment of milk

A23C 9/14

Separation by ion-exchangers

B01D

E.g. separation of liquids by ion-exchange adsorbents

B01D 15/04

Chromatography involving ion-exchange

B01D 15/36

Separation of isotopes

B01D 59/00

Compounds per se, see the relevant classes, e.g.

C01, C07, C08

Treatment of water

C02F 1/42

Refining of hydrocarbon oils, in the absence of hydrogen, with solid sorbents

C10G 25/00

Purification of sugar juices

C13B 20/14

Extraction of sugar from molasses

C13B 35/06

Extraction of metal compounds from ores or concentrates by wet processes

C22B 3/00

Using ion-exchange for investigating or analysing materials

G01N 30/96

Treating radioactively contaminated material

G21F 9/12

B03D - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Apparatus or methods using liquids for the separation of solids from solids, such apparatus or methods consisting of the following:

Flotation type separation apparatus or methods that may include one or more of the following:

Differential sedimentation type separation apparatus or methods that may include coagulation or flocculation.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

In Section B, the separation of different materials, e.g. of different matter, size or state, is predominantly found in the following subclasses: B01D, B03B, B03C, B03D, B04B, B04C, B07B, B07C.

The classifying characteristics of these subclasses are:

The first of these characteristics involves six different aspects, assembled in three groups:

These subclasses are to be used according to the following general rules:

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Combinations of dry separating apparatus with wet separating apparatus

B03B

Sink-float separation

B03B 5/28
Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Separating isotopes

B01D 59/00

Treatment of water, waste water or sewage by flotation

C02F 1/24

Flotation apparatus for enzymology or microbiology

C12M 1/09

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Processes or devices capable of general use, for removing adhering liquid from separated materials

B01D

Froth dispersion

B01D 19/02

Sedimentation in general

B01D 21/00

Devices for feeding measured quantities of reagents

B01J 4/02

Conditioners

B03B 1/00

Centrifuges

B04B

Separating by dry methods

B07

Detergents, soaps

C11D

Special rules of classification

In groups B03D 1/001-B03D 1/018 (advanced level), in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

In groups B03D 1/001-B03D 1/018 (advanced level), it is desirable to add the appropriate indexing code(s) from each of groups B03D 101/00 or B03D 103/00.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Coagulation

The process by which a liquid changes to a thickened, curdlike, insoluble state by some kind of chemical or physical process, excluding by evaporation.

Differential sedimentation

A separation process using gravity or centrifugal force to initiate differential settling of suspended solids, for example at the bottom of a tank. Different solid materials settle at different rates.

Flocculation

This refers to a process where a solute comes out of solution in the form of floc or "flakes". The term is also used to refer to the process by which fine particulates are caused to clump together into floc. The floc may then float to the top of the liquid, settle to the bottom of the liquid, or can be readily filtered from the liquid. Sodium silicate is a common flocculating agent.

Flotation

(Also known as froth flotation) A separation process whereby water and chemicals are added to a mixture of solids to form a pulp while developing differences in surface tension between the various species in the solids mixture. The pulp is then copiously aerated and the preferred (aerophilic) species clings to bubbles and floats as a mineralized froth, which is then skimmed off.

B03D 1/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Conditioning for flotation, general arrangement of plant

B03B 1/00, B03B 9/00

B03D 1/001 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Conditioners

B03B 1/04

B03D 1/08 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Froth dispersion

B01D 19/02

B03D 1/10 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Processes or devices capable of general use

B01D

B03D 1/14 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this group

This group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Flotation apparatus for enzymology or microbiology

C12M 1/09

B04B - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Centrifuges that are intended for separating, mixing, drying, extracting, purifying or other ways of treating mixtures composed of matter in the following physical states:

Such centrifuges may comprise centrifuges with rotary bowls provided with solid jackets for separating predominantly liquid mixtures with or without solid particles; centrifuges with rotary bowls in which solid particles or bodies become separated by centrifugal force and simultaneously sifted or filtered; or other centrifuges including radial chamber apparatus such as butyrometers or counter-current apparatus.

Elements or accessories of centrifuges such as casings, lids, rotary bowls, drives, gearing, suspending or balancing of rotary bowls, feeding, charging or discharging of bowls, control arrangements, heating, cooling or suppressing the formation of foam.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Separation of isotopes of the same chemical element is covered by B01D 59/00, whatever process or apparatus is employed. Processes for separation of different isotopes of the same chemical element by centrifuging are covered by B01D 59/20.

Processes in general that use centrifugal force for separating, extracting or purifying components of mixtures are covered in subclasses B01D and B07B, and not in subclass B04B with the apparatus for accomplishing these processes. Examples of such processes can be found in the "References relevant to classification in this subclass" section below, in the subsection entitled "Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system".

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

High-speed drum mills

B02C 19/11

Cyclone separators

B04C
Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Centrifuges for producing filtered coffee

A47J 31/22

Dental appliances for receiving spittle, with or without rinsing means therefore, e.g. dental basins, spittoons or cuspidors

A61C 17/14

Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes, other treatment of blood in a by-pass of the natural circulatory system

A61M 1/36

Processes for separation of non-miscible liquids by centrifugal force

B01D 17/038

Processes for using centrifuges for separating sediment

B01D 21/26

Processes for separating dispersed particles from gases or vapours by gravity, inertia or centrifugal forces

B01D 45/00, B01D 45/12

Processes for separation of gases or vapours or for recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases by centrifugal force

B01D 53/24

Processes using centrifugal force for selective separation of solid materials carried by, or dispersed in, gas currents

B07B 7/08

Centrifugal casting machines

B22D

Treatment of water, waste water or sewage by centrifugal separation

C02F 1/38

Domestic spin dryers

D06F

Lubrication of machines or engines in general, details of lubricant purifying means

F01M 11/03

Exhaust or silencing apparatus for machines or engines having means for removing solid constituents of exhaust, using inertial or centrifugal separators

F01N 3/037

Drying solid material by using centrifuges

F26B 5/08

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Filters in general

B01D

Separation in general

B01D

Magnetic or electrostatic separators

B03C

Sieves in general

B07B

Shock absorbers, vibration dampers

F16F

Analysing materials by determining their physical or chemical properties e.g. during centrifuging

G01N

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Centrifuge

Machine or apparatus for separating, mixing, drying, extracting, purifying, or like treating in which centrifugal effects are generated by rotary bowls or other rotors. Where such a machine or apparatus involves pumping effects, such effects must be incidental or subsidiary to the treating.

B04B 5/10 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Magnetic or electrostatic separators

B03C

B04B 7/02 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Shock absorbers, vibration dampers

F16F

B04B 7/08 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this group

This group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Centrifugal casting machines

B22D

B04B 7/16 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Filters in general

B01D

Sieves in general

B07B

B04B 7/18 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Filters in general

B01D

Sieves in general

B07B

B04B 9/14 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Balancing in general

G01M

B04C - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Apparatus for separating, mixing or like treating (e.g. drying, extracting, purifying) in which centrifugal or centripetal effects are generated by free vortex flow, otherwise than by rotary bowls, rotors or curved passages. The free vortex flow generated may follow a flat spiral, have an unchanged or constant axial direction, or have a reversible axial direction. The mixtures treated are composed of the following physical states of matter:

Combinations of such apparatus with other devices, e.g. fans.

Accessories for such devices e.g. safety or control devices.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Separation of isotopes of the same chemical element is covered by B01D 59/00, whatever process or apparatus is employed.

Processes in general that use free vortex flow, e.g. cyclones, for separating, extracting or purifying components of mixtures are covered in subclass B01D, and not in subclass B04C with the apparatus for accomplishing these processes.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Combinations of cyclones with filters, for separating particles from gases or vapours

B01D 50/00

Combinations of cyclones with electrostatic precipitating arrangements

B03C 3/14

Cyclonic type combustion apparatus using fluent fuel

F23C 3/00

Vortex burners e.g. for cyclone-type combustion apparatus

F23D 1/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangement or disposition of cyclones or other devices with centrifugal action, in suction cleaners

A47L 9/16

Separation in general

B01D

Jet mills

B02C 19/06

Magnetic or electrostatic separators

B03C

Centrifugal separators

B04B

Selective separation of solid materials carried by or dispersed in gas currents, using centrifugal force

B07B 7/08

Mounting or connecting of lubricant purifying means relative to a machine or engine

F01M 11/03

Crankcase ventilating or breathing having means for purifying air before leaving crankcase, e.g. removing oil

F01M 13/04

Exhaust or silencing apparatus for machines or engines having means for removing solid constituents of exhaust, using inertial or centrifugal separators

F01N 3/037

Fluid dynamics in general

F15D

Compression machines, plant or systems using vortex effect

F25B 9/04

Analysing materials by determining their physical or chemical properties, e.g. while the centrifugal or centripetal effects generated by a vortex flow are acting on the sample

G01N

B04C 5/02 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fluid dynamics in general

F15D

B05B - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Apparatus for the release or projection of drops or droplets into the atmosphere or into a chamber to form a mist or the like. The materials to be projected may be suspended in a stream of gas or vapour.

Apparatus as above, for the release or projection of streams or sprays of other fluent materials into the atmosphere or into a chamber.

Examples of such apparatus, and subcomponents thereof covered by this subclass, include:

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Subclass B05C relates to apparatus for applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces in general. This subject matter generally relates to contact methods e.g. spreading, pouring, dipping, rubbing, using rollers, using fluidized bed techniques etc. but not to spraying or atomising apparatus which is covered by subclass B05B. B05C also relates to apparatus for projecting liquids or other fluent materials onto surfaces (B05C 5/00) or to the inside of hollow work (B05C 7/02), and further to apparatus specially adapted for the projection of particulate material onto surfaces (B05C 19/04). In B05C, ‘projection’ relates to the application of a continuous stream of liquid or other fluent (e.g. particulate) material to a surface. In B05B, ‘projection’ relates to the release of a discontinuous stream of drops, droplets or a cloud of particulate material into the atmosphere or into a chamber to form a mist or the like.

Subclass B05D relates to processes (including processes performed by spraying) for applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces in general.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Spray-mixers with nozzles

B01F 5/20

Aerosol containers

B65D 83/14

Drinking fountains

E03B 9/20
Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Nozzles for bathing devices for special therapeutic or hygienic purposes

A61H 33/00

Sprayers or atomisers specially adapted for therapeutic purposes

A61M 11/00

Inhalators

A61M 15/00

Nozzles specially adapted for fire-extinguishing

A62C 31/02

Machines or devices for abrasive blasting with particulate material

B24C 3/00

Nozzles for injection moulding

B29C 45/20

Nozzles for ink-jet printing mechanisms

B41J 2/135

Dropping or releasing powdered, liquid or gaseous matter in flight by spraying, e.g. insecticides

B64D 1/18

Nozzles for introducing articles or materials into containers or wrappers

B65B 39/00

Filling nozzles for transferring liquid from bulk storage containers or reservoirs into vehicles or into portable containers, e.g. in vehicle service stations

B67D 7/42

Nozzles for delivery of liquid or semi-liquid contents by internal gaseous pressure

B65D 83/28

Nozzles for drilling by liquid or gas jets

E21B 7/18

Supplying combustion engines in general with combustible mixtures or constituents thereof

F02M

Atomising devices for mist lubrication

F16N 7/34

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Watering gardens, fields, sports grounds or the like

A01G 25/00

Dish washing or rinsing machines with spray devices

A47L 15/00

Flow mixers

B01F 5/00

Cleaning in general by methods involving the use or presence of a liquid

B08B 3/00

Making metallic powder by atomising or spraying

B22F 9/08

Coating of articles during shaping of substances in a plastic state

B29C 39/10, B29C 39/18, B29C 41/20, B29C 41/30, B29C 43/18, B29C 43/28, B29C 45/14, B29C 47/02

Forming layered products

B32B

Conveying articles or workpieces through baths of liquid

B65G 49/02

Surface treatment of glass by coating

C03C 17/00, C03C 25/10

Coating or impregnation of mortars, concrete, stone or ceramics

C04B 41/45, C04B 41/61, C04B 41/81

Paints, varnishes, lacquers

C09D

Enamelling of metals, applying a vitreous layer to metals, chemical cleaning or degreasing of metallic objects

C23

Electroplating

C25D

Treating of textile materials by liquids, gases or vapours

D06B

Treating roads

E01C

Anti-splash devices for water taps

E03C 1/08

Means for pumping fluids

F04

Valves, e.g. water-taps

F16K

Burners using a direct spraying action of liquid droplets or vaporised liquid into the combustion space

F23D 11/00

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Coating

The applied material. A coating may be a solidified layer originally applied as a liquid (e.g. dried paint) or a layer of material which, once applied, remains in a liquid or semi-liquid state (e.g. lubricant).

Liquid or fluent

designates materials which can flow, e.g. liquids, including solutions, dispersions and suspensions, as well as semi-liquids, pastes, melts and particulate materials.

Particulate materials

Solid materials in the form of very small pieces, e.g. powders, granules, short fibres or chips.

B05B 1/28 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this group

This group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Means for limiting the area of spray, or for the collection or re-use of excess material

B05B 15/04

B05B 9/08 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details or components, e.g. casings, bodies, of portable power-driven tools not particularly related to the operation performed

B25F 5/00

B05B 12/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Controlling in general

G05

B05B 15/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Accessories applicable to other methods of applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces

B05C

B05B 15/12 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Enclosures, e.g. booths, for applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces

B05C 15/00

B05C - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Apparatus or hand tools, in general, for applying liquids or other fluent materials to a surface or part thereof, by any mechanical or physical method, in particular apparatus for obtaining a uniform distribution of liquids or other fluent materials on a surface.

Apparatus in which liquids or other fluent materials are applied by bringing the work into contact with a member carrying liquid or other fluent materials or into contact with a bulk quantity of liquid or other fluent materials (e.g. using immersion baths or tanks).

Apparatus in which liquid or other fluent materials is projected, poured or allowed to flow on to the surface of the work.

Apparatus specially designed for applying liquids or other fluent materials to the inside of a hollow work.

Means for manipulating or holding work, e.g. for separate articles, to facilitate the application of liquids or other fluent materials thereto.

Enclosures and booths to accommodate apparatus for applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces.

Hand tools for the application or partial removal of liquids or other fluent materials from surfaces.

Apparatus specially adapted for applying particulate materials to surfaces.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Subclass B05B relates to spraying, sprinkling and atomising apparatus, including nozzles, for the release or projection of drops or droplets into the atmosphere or into a chamber to form a mist or the like. The material to be sprayed or atomised may be suspended in a stream of gas or vapour. Accordingly, B05B covers spray heads, sprinkling apparatus, electrostatic spraying apparatus, hand-held spraying apparatus, spraying plants (e.g. spray booths), delivery control means associated with such apparatus, and the like. Also covered are means for heating, mixing or pressurising of the materials to be sprayed, sprinkled or atomised. Whilst spray booths are covered by B05B 15/12, enclosures for the general application of liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces are covered by B05C 15/00.

Subclass B05D relates to processes (including processes performed by spraying) for applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces in general. Also included in this subclass are the processes of dipping, flocking and the application of liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces using brushes, pads or rollers. The process of fluidised-bed technique to coat surfaces is covered in B05D 1/22, whilst the apparatus used for such is classified in B05C 19/02. Pre-treatment of surfaces, after-treatment of applied coatings and processes to obtain special surface effects using liquids and other fluent materials are also covered by B05D.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Brushes

A46B

Implements for writing and drawing

B43K
Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Apparatus for coating or filling sweetmeats or confectionery

A23G 3/20

Apparatus for coating or filling frozen sweets

A23G 9/24

Appliances specially adapted for applying liquid cosmetic or toilet substances, e.g. using roller or ball

A45D 34/04

Hand implements for shoe-cleaning with applicators for shoe polish

A47L 23/05

Inking arrangements or devices for printing machines or presses

B41F 31/00

Ball-point pens

B43K 7/00

Hand or desk devices of the office or personal type for applying liquid, other than ink, by contact to surfaces, e.g. for applying adhesive

B43M 11/00

Accessories or implements for use in connection with painting or artistic drawing

B44D 3/00-B44D 3/38

Pliable tubular containers adapted to be permanently deformed to expel contents for applying contents to surfaces

B65D 35/36

Container closures with pads or like contents-applying means

B65D 47/42

Hot-dipping or immersion apparatus for applying the coating metal in the molten state without affecting the shape

C23C 2/00

Liquid processing apparatus for processing exposed photographic materials

G03D 3/00, G03D 5/00

Apparatus for coating photoresists in photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces

G03F 7/16

Apparatus for coating conductors or cables with impervious material

H01B 13/32

Apparatus for applying conductive material to the surface of the insulating support in the manufacture of printed circuits

H05K 3/02, H05K 3/10

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Containers of accessories specially adapted for handling liquid toilet or cosmetic substances, e.g. perfumes

A45D 34/00

Casings or accessories specially adapted for storing or handling solid or pasty toilet or cosmetic substances, e.g. shaving soap, lipstick or make-up

A45D 40/00

Domestic cleaning

A47L

Amalgam presses or mixers for filling or capping teeth

A61C 5/06

Forming layered products

B32B

Implements or apparatus for removing dry paint from surfaces

B44D 3/16

Conveying workpieces through baths of liquid

B65G 49/02

Paints, varnishes or lacquers

C09D

Laundering

D06F

Repairing buildings, e.g. filling cracks

E04G 23/02

Drying ovens

F26B

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Coating

The applied material. A coating may be a solidified layer originally applied as a liquid (e.g. dried paint) or a layer of material which, once applied, remains in a liquid or semi-liquid state (e.g. lubricant).

Fluidised-bed technique

A technique used to cause dry particulate material to behave like a fluid. This is commonly achieved by the introduction of a pressurised fluid into the material and promotes a high degree of contact between the fluid and material.

Liquid or fluent

designates materials which can flow, e.g. liquids, including solutions, dispersions and suspensions, as well as semi-liquids, pastes, melts and particulate materials.

Particulate materials

Solid materials in the form of very small pieces, e.g. powders, granules, short fibres or chips.

B05C 3/15 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Web or filament feeding arrangements

B65H

B05C 5/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Spraying or electrostatic spraying

B05B

B05C 11/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Spray booths

B05B 15/12

B05C 11/02 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Controlling supply of liquid or other fluent material

B05C 11/10

Implements for after- treatment of plaster or the like, e.g. smoothing tools, profile trowels

E04F 21/16

B05C 17/00 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this main group

This main group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Absorbent pads, e.g. swabs, for removing media from the human body

A61F 13/15

Devices for applying media, e.g. remedies, on the human body

A61M 35/00

B05C 17/005 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this group

This group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Grease guns

F16N 3/12

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Containers or packages with special means for dispensing fluent material by means of a piston or the like

B65D 83/76

B05C 17/06 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this group

This group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Stencils used in connection with printing plates or foils

B41N 1/24

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Drawing accessories

B43L 13/00

B05C 19/02 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fluidised-bed technique, in general

B01J 8/24

B05C 19/04 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Spraying or electrostatic spraying

B05B

B05D - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Processes for applying liquids or other fluent materials to a surface or part of a surface, in general, by any mechanical or physical method and particularly processes producing a uniform distribution of liquids or other fluent materials on a surface.

Pretreatment of surfaces to which liquids or other fluent materials are to be applied.

After-treatment of applied coatings.

Processes for applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces to obtain special surface effects, finishes or structures.

Processes specially adapted for applying liquids or other fluent materials to particular surfaces (e.g. to macromolecular substances, to wood, to leather, to metal, to wires, to internal surfaces).

Processes specially adapted for applying particular liquids or other fluent materials (e.g. processes adapted for the application of lacquers or varnishes)

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Subclass B05B relates to spraying, sprinkling and atomising apparatus, including nozzles, for the release or projection of drops or droplets into the atmosphere or into a chamber to form a mist or the like. The material to be sprayed or atomised may be suspended in a stream of gas or vapour. Accordingly, B05B covers spray heads, sprinkling apparatus, electrostatic spraying apparatus, hand-held spraying apparatus, spraying plants (e.g. spray booths), delivery control means associated with such apparatus, and the like. Also covered are means for heating, mixing or pressurising of the materials to be sprayed, sprinkled or atomised. Whilst B05B covers spraying apparatus, the processes for applying liquids and other fluent materials to surfaces by spraying (including electrostatic spraying processes) are covered by groups B05D 1/02-B05D 1/14.

Subclass B05C relates to apparatus for applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces in general. This subject matter generally relates to contact methods e.g. spreading, pouring, dipping, rubbing, using rollers, using fluidised-bed techniques etc. B05C also relates to apparatus for projecting liquids or other fluent materials onto surfaces (B05C 5/00) or to the inside of hollow work (B05C 7/02), and further to apparatus specially adapted for the projection of particulate material onto surfaces (B05C 19/04). ‘Projection’ relates to the application of a continuous stream of liquid or other fluent material to a surface, where the stream is not divided into droplets or a cloud of particulate material as by the apparatuses covered by B05B. Apparatus for application of particulate materials to surfaces using fluidised-bed technique is classified in B05C 19/02, whilst surface dip-coating processes using fluidised beds are covered by B05D 1/22.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Producing layered products by applying coatings of pasty or pulverulent plastics

B29C 41/00, B32B 37/00

Dyeing or printing textiles; Dyeing leather, furs, or solid macromolecular substances in any form

D06P

Insulating electric cables by passing through, or dipping in, a liquid bath

H01B 13/16

Electrolytic coating other than with metals

C25D 9/00

Electrolytic coating by surface reaction

C25D 11/00

Electrophoretic coating

C25D 13/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Domestic cleaning

A47L

Cladding or plating by soldering or welding

B23K

Forming layered products

B32B

Handling webs or filaments in general

B65H

Surface treatment of glass; Surface treatment of fibres or filaments from glass, minerals or slags

C03C

Paints, varnishes, lacquers

C09D

Laundering

D06F

Wall, floor, or like covering materials, e.g. linoleum, oilcloth, artificial leather, roofing felt, consisting of a fibrous web coated with a layer of macromolecular material

D06N

Impregnating or coating of paper

D21H

Drying ovens

F26B

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Coating

The applied material. A coating may be a solidified layer originally applied as a liquid (e.g. dried paint) or a layer of material which, once applied, remains in a liquid or semi-liquid state (e.g. lubricant).

Flocking

The deposition of fibre particles (‘flock’) upon a surface where the particles land non-parallel to the surface. The process may be facilitated by the application of electrostatic charge to the flock to cause its attraction to an adhesive-coated surface (‘electrostatic flocking’). This results in the fibres standing perpendicular to the surface.

Fluidised-bed technique

A technique used to cause dry particulate material to behave like a fluid. This is commonly achieved by the introduction of a pressurised fluid into the material and promotes a high degree of contact between the fluid and material.

Liquid or fluent

designates materials which can flow, e.g. liquids, including solutions, dispersions and suspensions, as well as semi-liquids, pastes, melts and particulate materials.

Particulate materials

Solid materials in the form of very small pieces, e.g. powders, granules, short fibres or chips.

B05D 1/22 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fluidised-bed technique, in general

B01J 8/24

B05D 1/38 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Intermediate treatment of an applied coating prior to subsequent applications of liquids or other fluent materials

B05D 3/00

B05D 3/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Successively applying liquids or other fluent materials

B05D 1/36

B05D 5/08 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this group

This group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Rendering particulate materials free-flowing in general, e.g. making them hydrophobic

B01J 2/30

B05D 7/02 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this group

This group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Chemical treatment or coating of shaped articles made of macromolecular substances

C08J 7/00

B05D 7/12 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this group

This group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Chemical treatment of leather

C14C

B05D 7/14 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this group

This group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Chemical surface treatment of metallic material by reaction of the surface with a reactive liquid, leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, e.g. conversion coatings, passivation of metals

C23C 22/00

B05D 7/20 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this group

This group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Insulating electric cables by passing through, or dipping in, a liquid bath

H01B 13/16

B07B - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Apparatus or methods for the separation of solids from solids that include:

Relationship between large subject matter areas

In Section B, the separation of different materials, e.g. of different matter, size, or state, is predominantly found in the following subclasses: B01D, B03B, B03C, B03D, B04B, B04C, B07B, B07C.

The classifying characteristics of these subclasses are:

The first of these characteristics involves six different aspects, assembled in three groups:

These subclasses are to be used according to the following general rules:

Sorting peculiar to particular materials or adapted to a specific purpose may be covered in other classes, see for example the non-exhaustive list of places for special adaptions in the following subsection.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Separating isotopes

B01D 59/00

Combinations of dry separating apparatus with wet separating apparatus or pneumatic tables

B03B

Separating solids from solids using pneumatic tables or jigs

B03B 4/00

Hand sorting, postal sorting, sorting by switching or other devices actuated in response to detection or measurement of some feature of articles or samples of material

B07C
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Grading or sorting of eggs

A01K 43/00, A01K 43/04

Machines for sorting heel lifts in shoe-making

A43D 33/06

Sorting arrangements forhandling work specially combined with, or arranged in, or specially adapted for use in connection with, machine tools

B23Q 7/12

Straining or screening of pulp in paper-making

D21D 5/02

Rotary screen-drums used in paper-making

D21D 5/06

Sorting of coins

G07D

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Separation in general; solid/gas separation in general

B01D

Wet separating processes, sorting by processes using fluent material in the same way as liquid

B03

Wet separating using liquids

B03B, B03D

Using wet methods

B03B 7/00

Sorting by magnetic or electrostatic separation of solid materials from solid materials or fluids, separation by high-voltage electric fields

B03C

Centrifuges or vortex apparatus for carrying out physical processes, e.g.

B04

Centrifuges

B04B

Cyclones

B04C

B07B 7/08 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Centrifuges

B04B

Cyclones

B04C

B07B 13/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Grading eggs

A01K 43/04

B07C - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tube mail systems

B65G 51/04

Sorting information records, e.g. punched cards

G06F 7/10

B21B - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Processes for changing of physical properties of metals

C21D, C22F

B21B 17/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Control of tube rolling

B21B 37/78

B21B 19/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Control of tube rolling

B21B 37/78

B21B 21/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Control of tube rolling

B21B 37/78

B21B 23/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Control of tube rolling

B21B 37/78

B21B 25/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Control of tube rolling

B21B 37/78

B21C - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Processes for changing of physical properties of metals

C21D, C22F

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Continuous casting

B22D 11/00

Soldering, welding, flame-cutting

B23K

Pressure welding by means of a rolling mill

B23K 20/04

B21D - Definition fr

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Processes and apparatus for the mechanical working of sheet metal or metal tubes, rods or profiles without essentially removing material. Typical metal profiles are structural steel shapes like I-beams.

Processes and apparatus for punching, i.e. press-cutting, sheet metal or other metal stock material, as a particular mechanical working which removes material.

It further covers the following parts and devices related to those apparatus:

The mechanical working covers treatments characterised by their function, comprising methods for

The processing of sheet metal or metal tubes, rods or profiles covers the application of those mechanical metal-working treatments or methods for the following particular purposes

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Input products

B21B covers rolling of metal. B21C covers the manufacture of metal sheets, rods, tubes, profiles or like semi-manufactured products otherwise than by rolling. Operations of the kind involved in the manufacture of metal sheets or metal tubes, rods or profiles are therefore covered by subclasses B21B and B21C. However, the semi-finished products manufactured by the operations of B21B (e.g. sheet metal coils, tubes, profiles) or B21C (e.g. tubes, concrete rods, profiles) may be input products for the metal-working and processing covered by B21D.

The mechanical working of wire, which is a further semi-finished product manufactured by the operations of B21C, is covered by the specific subclass B21F.

The mechanical working of metal foils in a manner analogous to the working of paper is covered by B31F, except for the perforating, cutting, or otherwise severing, of metal foils, which is covered by B26D and B26F. Other special measures in connection with working metal foils, e.g. for adapting apparatus of B21D therefore, are covered by main group B21D 33/00.

Presses

Presses in general, e.g. characterised by their pressing member or the drive there for, and details thereof, or accessories there for (e.g. the construction of the frame or control arrangements) are covered by B30B. The special adaptation of presses for the purposes of stamping, deep-drawing or punching sheet metal or metal tubes, rods or profiles is covered by B21D, especially by main group B21D 24/00 for special deep-drawing arrangements in, or in connection with, presses.

Manufacturing particular articles

The manufacture of some articles made from input material for the mechanical working of B21D is covered by places in other subclasses.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Working or processing of wire, e.g. for making wire fabrics

B21F
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Pressing or stamping ornamental design on surfaces

B44C 1/24

Stamping or bending processes for producing ornamental structures

B44C 3/08

Making nails, pins or the like by cutting from strips or sheet material

B21G 3/26

Making chains or chain parts

B21L

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Rolling of metal in general

B21B

Manufacture of metal sheets, rods, tubes, profiles or like semi-manufactured products otherwise than by rolling; Auxiliary operations used in connection with metal-working operations without essentially removing material

B21C

Forging; Hammering; Pressing; Riveting

B21J

Working metal by removing material there from

B23

Shearing or similar cutting of metal, e.g. tubes or profiles

B23D

Features of cutting or severing devices or machines in general

B26

Presses in general, e.g. safety devices there for

B30B

Safety devices in general

F16P

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

profiles

constructional elements in form of metal bars with a particular cross section different from those of tubes or rods, e.g. a load supporting I-beam

B21D 1/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Working sheet metal of limited length by stretching

B21D 25/00

Working sheet metal localised hammering

B21D 31/06

B21D 3/00 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this main group

This main group does not cover:

Bending, e.g. for straightening rails or rail joints

E01B 31/08

Reconditioning of well casings, e.g. straightening

E21B 29/10

B21D 3/12 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Straightening or restoring form by twisting only

B21D 11/14

B21D 5/00 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this main group

This main group does not cover:

Corrugating sheet metal

B21D 13/00

Bending sheet metal along straight lines as edge treatment

B21D 19/00

B21D 9/15 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Filling of tubes with such material

B21D 9/16

B21D 11/00 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this main group

This main group does not cover:

Corrugating or bending into wave form

B21D 13/00, B21D 15/00

Flanging

B21D 19/00

B21D 11/02 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Working sheet metal of limited length by stretching

B21D 25/00

B21D 11/06 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Making helically seamed tubing

B21C 37/12

B21D 13/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Corrugating tubes

B21D 15/00

B21D 15/00 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this main group

This main group does not cover:

Wrinkle-bending using mandrels or the like

B21D 9/14

B21D 17/02 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Grooving or notching of bolts, studs, or the like

B21K 1/54

B21D 19/00 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this main group

This main group does not cover:

Connecting by making use of folds

B21D 39/02

Flaring out tube ends

B21D 41/02

B21D 19/02 - Definition fr

References relevant to classification in this group

This group does not cover:

Edge-curling

B21D 19/12

B21D 22/22 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Shaping over a die without external former

B21D 11/02

B21D 26/00 - Definition fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Stamping using resilient pads

B21D 22/10

B21D 26/02 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Devices and methods for deforming sheet metal blanks in the form of sheets or thin plates, tubes with or without bottom, or profiles, by applying fluid pressure.

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Making other parts for vehicles, e.g. cowlings, mudguards

B21D 53/88

Special rules of classification

Multi-aspect classification is applied to technical subjects under this subgroup with respect to the features of the deformation process or device according to subgroups B21D 26/021-B21D 26/051 and with respect to the particular material features of the bodies to be deformed according to subgroups B21D 26/053-B21D 26/059.

Glossary of terms

In this group, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Fluid

Comprises gas, liquids, fluent particulate materials (e.g. sand) and materials which easily show plastic flow (e.g. soft metals such as lead).

B21D 26/021 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Devices and methods for deforming sheet metal in the form of flat sheets or thin plates, whether layered or not, by applying fluid pressure.

Special rules of classification

When the invention is characterized by the shape of the bodies to be deformed in combination with a particular material feature of the bodies to be deformed, the invention shall also be classified in B21D 26/053 and subgroups thereof.

B21D 26/023 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Devices and methods for deforming sheet bodies by fluid pressure and performing a piercing, perforating, caulking, marking or other additional treatment by applying fluid pressure to the bodies being deformed.

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Shaping by press-cutting

B21D 28/00

Perforating by punching

B21D 28/24

Stabbing or piercing

B21D 31/02

Combined processes according to methods covered by groups B21D 1/00-B21D 31/00

B21D 35/00

Application of shaping procedures without cutting in order to connect objects or parts, e.g. coating with sheet metal otherwise than by plating

B21D 39/00

Uniting components by forging or pressing to form integral members

B21K 25/00

Press-fitting, force-fitting, or shrinking in general

B23P 11/00

B21D 26/025 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Those control means that are characterized by the control of clamping the mould and opening the mould, e.g. control of the pressure to be applied on the moulds when clamping or opening moulds.

B21D 26/027 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Those control means for controlling supply pressure, temperature or other variables of the fluid at the time of supply. Means for merely controlling pumps are not included.

B21D 26/029 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Those means and details that are relevant for the sealed or airtight closing of the mould.

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Sealings

F16J 15/00

B21D 26/031 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Constructional features or details of the mould, e.g. a mould of which some portion is movable, which are not covered by other subgroups of B21D 26/021.

References relevant to classification in this group

This group does not cover:

Means for controlling the clamping or opening of the moulds

B21D 26/025

Means for controlling fluid parameters, e.g. pressure or temperature

B21D 26/027

Closing or sealing means

B21D 26/029

B21D 26/033 - Definition fr

Definition statement

This group covers:

Devices and methods for deforming sheet metal in the form of metal tubes, e.g. cylinders, with or without bottom, by applying fluid pressure.

References relevant to classification in this group

This group does not cover:

Corrugating tubes by applying fluid pressure

B21D 15/03, B21D 15/10

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tube expanders

B21D 3