IPC Definitions - December 10, 2009

A01 fr

Agriculture;Forestry;Animal husbandry;Hunting;Trapping;Fishing

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Plant

Any of a kingdom (Plantae) of multicellular eukaryotic mostly photosynthetic organisms typically lacking locomotive movement or obvious nervous or sensory organs and possessing cellulose cell walls.

A01B fr

Soil working in agriculture or forestry;Parts, details or accessories of agricultural machines or implements, in general

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Seat constructions

A47C

Wheels

B60B

Shelters for drivers

B60J

Seats specially adapted for vehicles, arrangement or mounting of seats in vehicles

B60N 2/00

Wheel scrapers

B60S 1/68

A01D fr

Harvesting;Mowing

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Methods, apparatus or hand tools for

Hand rakes.

Forks.

Non-abrasive sharpening devices for scythes, sickles or the like.

Containers for whetstones for use during harvesting.

Machines specially adapted for binding of harvested hay, straw or similar crops in the field.

Arrangements for making or setting of stacks, used in connection with harvesting.

Vehicles specially adapted for carrying harvested crops with means for self-loading or unloading.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Combined or convertible apparatus

This subclass covers mowers combined with apparatus performing additional operations (e.g. threshing) while mowing, mowers convertible to apparatus for purposes other than mowing (e.g. for sweeping snow), and mowers capable of performing operations other than mowing (e.g. soil-working). The non-mowing parts of such mowers are only covered by this subclass if they are immediately associated with the mowing parts or the mowing process. Otherwise they are covered by the places for the non-mowing operations.

This subclass covers digging harvesters (e.g. for root crops) combined with apparatus performing additional operations (e.g. topping, separating or planting) while harvesting. The non-harvesting parts of such combinations are only covered by this subclass if they are immediately associated with the harvesting parts or the harvesting process. Otherwise they are covered by the places for the non-harvesting operations.

Hand tools for soil working

This subclass covers hand tools for soil working when specially adapted for harvesting, for example of root crops. This subclass also covers rakes and forks. A01B covers hand tools for soil working in general, e.g. spades, shovels or hoes, with the exception of rakes and forks.

Binding

This subclass covers apparatus specially adapted for binding of harvested hay, straw or similar crops, with the exception of stationary apparatus or hand tools, which are covered by A01F 1/00, and binding apparatus specially adapted for baling presses, which is covered by A01F 15/14. Binding in general is covered by B65B, for example B65B 13/00 and B65B 27/12.

Shredding or pulverising

This subclass covers the shredding or pulverising of stubble or other vegetation in situ, e.g. for the purpose of producing mulch, but does not cover other mechanical destruction of unwanted vegetation, which is covered by group A01M 21/02.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Soil working tools or machines for weeding or thinning

A01B

e.g.

A01B 1/16, A01B 39/18, A01B 41/00

Transplanting

A01C 11/00, A01G 23/04

Machines for cutting sods or turf from lawns or meadows

A01B 45/04

Cutting implements specially adapted for horticultural purposes, e.g. flower shears, fruit shears, secateurs or hedge shears

A01G 3/00

Delimbing of standing trees

A01G 3/00

Uprooting or felling of trees

A01G 23/02

Tapping of tree juices

A01G 23/10

Apparatus for destruction of unwanted vegetation

A01M 21/00
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Machines that pick up mown material from the ground and bale it

A01F 15/00

Machines that pick up mown material from the ground and cut it, e.g. field choppers

A01F 29/01

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Agricultural soil working in general

A01B

Gatherers for removing stones, undesirable roots or the like from the soil

A01B 43/00

Parts, details or accessories of agricultural machines in general

A01B 51/00-A01B 76/00

Threshing

A01F 5/00-A01F 12/00, A01F 17/00-A01F 21/00

Baling of hay, straw or the like

A01F 13/00-A01F 21/00

Stacks for storing of harvested products

A01F 25/04

Cutting machines specially adapted for hay, straw or the like

A01F 29/00

Floral handling

A01G 5/00

"Harvesting" of oysters, mussels, sponges or the like

A01K 80/00

Treatment of harvested fruit or vegetables, not otherwise provided for, e.g. extracting juice, cleaning of vegetables or topping of onions

A23N

Preparation of tobacco

A24B

Making harvesting tools

B21

e.g.

B21D 53/68, B21D 53/72, B21H 7/08, B21H 7/10, B21K 11/08, B21K 11/14, B21K 19/00

Sharpening of cutting edges in general

B24B, B24D

e.g.

B24B 3/00, B24D 15/06

Handles for hand implements in general

B25G

Hand-held cutting tools in general

B26B

Cutting in general

B26D

Wheels

B60B

Vehicles specially adapted for load transportation, or for transporting, carrying or comprising special loads or objects, in general

B60P

Wheel scrapers

B60S 1/68

Conveyers in general

B65G

Hoisting or lifting in general, e.g. hay hoists

B66

e.g.

B66C 11/24

Removing undesired matter from land, not otherwise provided for

E01H 15/00

Dredging or soil-shifting in general

E02F

e.g.

E02F 3/28, E02F 5/28

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Combine (noun)

Harvester or mower combined with a threshing device.

Fork

Hand tool having two or more tines that are used for lifting, digging or pitching.

Harvest (verb)

Perform one of the methods defined in the definition statement in order to make use of the separated, mown or gathered plant material.

Hay

Mown forage crop in a dry or partially dry state.

Haymaking

Working on mown forage crop lying on the ground with the intention to make hay.

Mow (verb)

Cut down grass, cereals or other standing plants.

Thresh (verb)

Separate grains or seeds from harvested plants or plant parts (e.g. cereals, maize/corn, peas, beans or pine cones) by mechanical action (e.g. shaking, stamping, rubbing, beating or applying intermittent pressure).

A01F fr

Threshing;Baling of straw, hay or the like;Stationary apparatus for forming or binding straw, hay or the like into bundles;Cutting of straw, hay or the like;Storing agricultural or horticultural produce

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

The scope of this subclass is composed of five separate parts, relating to the five parts of the subclass title. For ease of reference each section of these definitions is separated under five corresponding simplified headings: "Threshing", "Baling", "Bundling", "Cutting" and "Storing".

Threshing (relating to main groups A01F 5/00-A01F 12/00 and A01F 17/00-A01F 21/00):

Methods and apparatus for separating grains or seeds from harvested plants or plant parts by mechanical action.

Baling (relating to main groups A01F 13/00-A01F 21/00):

Methods and apparatus for forming bales of straw, hay or like harvested products of plant origin.

Bundling (relating to main group A01F 1/00):

Stationary apparatus or hand tools for forming or binding bundles of straw, hay or like harvested products of plant origin.

Cutting (relating to main groups A01F 3/00 and A01F 29/00):

Apparatus specially adapted for cutting or disintegrating straw, hay or like already harvested products of plant origin.

Storing (relating to main group A01F 25/00):

Mechanical aspects (e.g. material handling aspects) of apparatus (e.g. silos) or methods that are specially adapted for storing harvested agricultural or horticultural crops.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Threshing

Main groups A01F 5/00-A01F 12/00 and A01F 17/00-A01F 21/00 provide for threshing devices and for accessories that are directly connected with threshing. Combines, and details of combines that are not directly connected with the threshing action (e.g. mowing, feeding or vehicular features) are covered by A01D.

Baling

Main groups A01F 13/00-A01F 21/00 are application-oriented places for methods or apparatus for baling that are specially adapted for straw, hay or like harvested products of plant origin. Baling of compressible fibrous material in general is provided for in B65B 27/12. Baling presses in general is provided for in B30B 9/30. Bales of material are provided for in B65D 71/00.

Bundling

Main group 1/00 is an application-oriented place for stationary apparatus or hand tools for bundling, which are specially adapted for straw, hay or like harvested products of plant origin. Binding of harvested products by mobile apparatus in the field is provided for in A01D, for example in A01D 37/00, A01D 39/00 and A01D 59/00. Bundling of compressible fibrous material in general is provided for in B65B 27/12. Bundling of articles in general is provided for in B65B 13/00.

Cutting

Main groups A01F 3/00 and A01F 29/00 are application-oriented places for apparatus or methods that are specially adapted for cutting up or disintegrating straw, hay or like already harvested products of plant origin. Mowing and other cutting down of standing plants is covered by A01D and A01G. Cutting in general is covered by B26. Disintegrating in general, e.g. by rotating knives, is covered by B02C.

Storing

Main group A01F 25/00 is an application-oriented place for mechanical aspects (e.g. material handling aspects) of apparatus or methods that are specially adapted for storing harvested agricultural or horticultural crops. Containers for storage of articles or materials in general is covered by B65D. Storing and associated handling of bulk material or articles in general is covered by B65G. Civil-engineering aspects of silos or similar bulk storage containers are covered by section E, for example E04H 7/00.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Threshing

Separation of grains or seeds from plants in the place where they grow

A01D

e.g.

A01D 41/08, A01D 45/00, A01D 46/00

Combines

A01D 41/00, A01D 45/00, A01D 57/00, A01D 61/00-A01D 75/00

Field threshers with windrow pick-up apparatus

A01D 41/10

Pick-ups for harvested crop

A01D 89/00

Coring or stoning of fruit

A23N 3/00, A23N 4/00, A47J 23/00, A47J 25/00

Removing seed-containing sections from fruit

A23N 4/00, A23N 7/08

Hulling, husking or cracking of nuts

A23N 5/00, A47J 43/26
Baling

Arrangements for making or setting stacks

A01D 85/00

Pick-ups for harvested crop

A01D 89/00
Bundling

Arrangements for making or setting stacks in connection with harvesting

A01D 85/00
Cutting

Cutting or disintegrating in combination with mowing

A01D 43/08

Pick-ups for harvested crop

A01D 89/00

Shredding tea leaves

A23F 3/12

Fodder mashers for preparing animal feeding-stuff

A23N 17/02

Cutting tobacco

A24B 7/00

Spice mills

A47J 42/00
Storing

Arrangements for making or setting stacks, used in connection with harvesting

A01D 85/00

Devices for preserving flowers

A01G 5/06

Arrangements in barns for treatment of tobacco

A24B 1/02

Suspending devices for tobacco leaves

A24B 1/08

Cabinets for perishable goods

A47B 71/00

Fruit or potato storage cabinets, racks or tray for domestic use

A47B 75/00

Closed containers for foodstuffs

A47J 47/02

Drying or storing hops

C12C 3/02, C12C 3/04

Civil engineering aspects of bulk storage containers, e.g. silos

E04H 7/00
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:
Baling

Vehicles for carrying harvested crops with bale-forming means additionally used for loading

A01D 90/08

Packing or pressing tobacco

A24B 1/10
Bundling

Apparatus for binding bouquets or wreaths of flowers

A01G 5/02

Packing or pressing tobacco

A24B 1/10

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Threshing

Separating solids using pneumatic tables or jigs

B03B

Separating solids from solids by dry methods, in general

B07B

Hulling, husking, decorticating or removing awns otherwise than in connection with threshing

B02B 3/00

Conveying in general

B65G
Baling

Forming of bundles of straw, hay or like material of plant origin

A01D 37/00, A01D 39/00, A01D 57/00-A01D 75/00, A01F 1/00

Loaders for bales

A01D 87/12, A01D 90/08

Baling of compressible fibrous material in general

B65B 27/12

Baling presses in general

B30B 9/30

Bales of material

B65D 71/00

Conveying in general

B65G
Bundling

Mobile binders for use while harvesting

A01D 37/00, A01D 39/00, A01D 57/00-A01D 75/00

Loaders for sheaves

A01D 87/12

Forming of bales

A01F 13/00, A01F 15/00

Bundling of compressible fibrous material in general

B65B 27/12

Bundling of articles in general

B65B 13/00
Cutting

Mowing

A01D

Cutting implements specially adapted for horticultural purposes, e.g. flower shears, fruit shears, secateurs or hedge shears

A01G 3/00

Apparatus for destruction of unwanted vegetation

A01M 21/00

Household implements for mashing potatoes or other foodstuff

A47J 19/04

Disintegrating in general

B02C

Hand-held cutting tools

B26B

Cutting in general

B26D

Conveying in general

B65G
Storing

Protecting growing plants

A01G 13/00

Preservation of plants or parts thereof

A01N 3/00

Preserving flour by storage in an inert atmosphere

A21D 4/00

Preservation of fruits or vegetables

A23B 7/00

Preservation of edible seeds

A23B 9/00

Preservation of edible oils or fat

A23D 7/06, A23D 9/06

Preservation of materials to produce animal feeding stuff

A23K 3/00

Preservation of foods or foodstuffs in general

A23L 3/00

Containers for storage of articles or materials in general

B65D

Storage and associated handling of bulk material or articles in general

B65G

Conserving hops

C12C 3/04

Refrigerators, cold rooms, or the like

F25D

Drying in general

F26B

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Bale (noun)

A compressed, solid package of harvested material, which is either held together by thread or webs or formed by the material itself (with or without additives) to maintain its shape.

Bundle (noun)

A relatively loose package of harvested material, normally consisting of straws or stalks that are oriented in parallel to each other. It can either be held together by thread or webs or be formed by the material itself.

Combine (noun)

Harvester or mower combined with a threshing device.

Harvest (verb)

Separate useful parts from growing plants in situ, mow plants, or gather whole plants or their useful parts from the ground or from where the plants grow, with the intention to make use of the separated, mown or gathered plant material.

Mow (verb)

Cut down grass, cereals or other standing plants.

Threshing

Separation of grains or seeds from harvested plants or plant parts (e.g. cereals, maize/corn, peas, beans or pine cones) by mechanical action (e.g. shaking, stamping, rubbing, beating or applying intermittent pressure).

A01H fr

New plants or processes for obtaining them;Plant reproduction by tissue culture techniques

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

New plants (including multicellular algae, multicellular fungi and lichens).

Processes for modifying genotypes or phenotypes.

Plant reproduction by tissue culture techniques.

Methods or apparatus for producing changes in chromosome number.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Unicellular algae

C12N 1/12

Fungal micro-organisms

C12N 1/14

Specific mutations prepared by genetic engineering on plant cell or plant tissues

C12N 15/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Influencing the growth of plants without producing new plants, non-chemically.

A01G 7/00

Influencing the growth of plants without producing new plants, chemically.

A01N 25/00-A01N 65/00

A01K 5/00

Feeding devices for stock or game

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Stock

Animals kept or raised for use or pleasure

A01K 7/00

Watering equipment for stock or game

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Stock

Animals kept or raised for use or pleasure

A01K 9/00

Sucking apparatus for young stock

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Stock

Animals kept or raised for use or pleasure

A01N fr

Preservation of bodies of humans or animals or plants or parts thereof; Biocides, e.g. as disinfectants, as pesticides or as herbicides;Pest repellants or attractants;Plant growth regulators

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Compositions, physical forms thereof, and the application or method of use of specific materials, compositions, or single compounds for the following purposes:

Compositions used to protect the wound and scions of newly grafted plants or to cover the wounds on pruned plants (i.e. grafting wax).

Chemical agents used for the sexual sterilization of invertebrates (e.g. insects).

Relationship between large subject matter areas

While substances that chemically modify a plant's metabolism are classified in A01N, compositions that affect the growth of a plant solely by supplying nutrients ordinarily required for growth, e.g. fertiliser, plant food, are classified in C05. Materials used to prevent or cure mineral deficiencies in plants, such as iron chelates used to cure iron chlorosis, are also classified in C05.

The activities (e.g. rodenticidal, herbicidal) of biocidal, pest repellent, pest attractant or plant growth regulatory preparations must also be classified in A01P, when such activities are determined to be invention information.

When biocides, pest repellents, pest attractants or plant growth regulators are compounds or contain compounds which are determined to be invention information, the compounds must also be classified in C01, C07, C08, or C12N. When these compounds are considered to be of interest for search purposes, they may also be classified in C01, C07, C08, or C12N.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Apparatus therefor

A01G 5/06

Preservation of food or foodstuff, e.g. pasteurizing, sterilizing

A23B, A23K 3/00, A23L 3/00

Preservation or chemical ripening of harvested fruits or vegetables

A23B 7/00

Compositions for medical, dental or toilet purposes which kill or prevent the growth or proliferation of unwanted organisms

A61K

Sex sterilants for animals other than invertebrates

A61K

Mixtures of pesticides with fertilisers

C05G

Fungicidal, bactericidal, insecticidal, disinfecting or antiseptic paper

D21H

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Plant grafting

A01G 1/06

Devices for preserving flowers

A01G 5/06

Electric or magnetic treatment of plants for promoting growth

A01G 7/04

Sterilising soil by steam

A01G 11/00

Protecting plants (e.g. protective covers; devices for generating heat, smoke or fog; devices protecting against animals)

A01G 13/00

Means for catching or killing insects

A01M 1/00, A01M 5/00

Apparatus for destroying vermin in soil or food stuffs

A01M 17/00

Apparatus for the destruction of vegetation

A01M 21/00

Scaring devices e.g. bird-scaring apparatus

A01M 29/00

Hunting decoys

A01M 31/06

Methods or apparatus for disinfection or sterilisation of materials not characterized by the agent employed

A61L 2/00, A61L 12/00

Paints containing biocides, e.g. fungicides, insecticides, pesticides

C09D 5/14

Anti-fouling paints and underwater paints

C09D 5/16

Soil-conditioning materials or soil-stabilising materials

C09K 17/00

Undifferentiated human, animal or plant cells or tissues and their cultivation and maintenance

C12N 5/00

Biocidal agents (e.g. fungicidal, bactericidal, or insecticidal agents) which are in or on paper

D21H 21/36

Special rules of classification

In groups A01N 27/00-A01N 65/00, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place for an active ingredient.

A composition, i.e. a mixture of two or more active ingredients is classified in the last of groups A01N 27/00-A01N 65/00 that provides for at least one of these active ingredients.

Any part of a composition which is not identified by classification according to the last appropriate place of an active ingredient, and which itself is determined to be novel and non-obvious, must also be classified. The part can be either a single ingredient or a composition in itself.

Any part of a composition which is not identified by the classification according the last appropriate place, and which is considered to represent information of interest for search, may also be classified. This can for example be the case when it is considered of interest to enable searching of compositions using a combination of classification symbols. Such non-obligatory classification should be given as "additional information".

Where a compound is described as existing in tautomeric forms, it is classified as if existing in the form which is classified last in the system.

Compounds that are covered by different main groups because of alternatively specified functional groups or other structural features of their formulae are classified in each relevant main group.

Salts formed between two or more organic compounds are classified as the compound providing the essential ion and is also classified as the compound providing the other ion.

Salts or metal chelates of an organic compound are classified as the compound.

In this subclass, a foodstuff is not considered to be an active ingredient.

Different materials applied in sequence, at different times, are considered to be a mixture of all materials employed.

Synergistic or potentiated compositions are classified as if the synergist or potentiator is an active ingredient.

In groups A01N 25/00-A01N 65/00, the symbol X means nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur or a halogen; Y means nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur. A dotted line between atoms indicates an optional bond, e.g. .... indicates one or two single bonds or a double bond.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Acaricide

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying mites and ticks or making them less harmful.

Alkali metal

One of the following elements: Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr.

Alkaline earth metal

One of the following elements: Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra.

Arthropodicide

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying arthropods, e.g. insects, arachnids, crustaceans or making them less harmful.

Biocide

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or mitigating any living organism (e.g., plant, animal). Examples of a biocide are: acaricide, arthropodicide, fungicide, insecticide, molluscicide, rodenticide (see Synonyms and Keywords).

Disinfectant

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or mitigating microorganisms.

Fungicide

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying moulds and fungi or making them less harmful.

Halogen

One of the following elements: F, Cl, Br, I, At.

Heavy metal

A metal other than light metal.

Herbicide

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying plant life or making it less harmful.

Insecticide

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying insects or making them less harmful.

Light metal

One of the following elements: alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, Be, Al, Mg.

Metal

An element other than non-metal.

Molluscicide

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying molluscs, e.g. snails, clams or making them less harmful.

Non-metal

One of the following elements: H, B, C, Si, N, P, O, S, Se, Te, noble gas, halogen.

Pesticide

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying any pest (e.g., insects, rodents) or making it less harmful.

Plant

A young tree, shrub, vegetable, or flower newly planted, or intended for planting

Plant growth regulator

Materials which alter the plant or may affect plant growth through a chemical modification of the plant metabolism, such as auxins.

Rodenticide

Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying rodents, e.g. rats, mice or making them less harmful.

A01N 25/00 fr

Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators, characterised by their forms, or by their non-active ingredients or by their methods of application;Substances for reducing the noxious effect of the active ingredients to organisms other than pests

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Apparatus for the destruction of noxious animals or noxious plants

A01M

A01N 25/18 fr

Vapour or smoke emitting compositions with delayed or sustained release

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fumigators

A01M 13/00

A23D 7/05

Edible oil or fat compositions containing an aqueous phase

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Essential cooling

The cooling is an essential, i.e. indispensable characteristic of the working-up.

A23F fr

Coffee;Tea;Their substitutes;Manufacture, preparation, or infusion thereof

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Tea.

Tea substitutes, e.g. mate, lemon balm, rose hips.

Extracts or infusions of tea and tea substitutes.

Tea flavour, tea oil.

Methods of manufacturing, preparing and modifying tea and tea substitutes, e.g. oxidation, fermentation, removing caffeine, extraction, drying, concentrating, flavouring.

Coffee.

Coffee substitutes, e.g. grain coffee.

Extracts or infusions of coffee and coffee substitutes.

Coffee flavour, coffee oil.

Methods of manufacturing, preparing and modifying coffee and coffee substitutes, e.g. treating green coffee, roasting, grinding, removing caffeine, extraction, drying, concentrating, flavouring.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

This subclass does not cover chemical compounds, e.g. alkaloids such as caffeine, theophylline, theobromine, or their preparation as such, which subject matter is covered by classes C07 (organic chemistry) and C08 (organic macromolecular compounds).

Physical or chemical processes or apparatus in general, e.g. boiling, extraction or filtration, are covered by class B01.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Picking of tea

A01D 46/04

Picking of coffee

A01D 46/06

Synthetic tea flavours

A23L 1/226

Synthetic coffee flavours

A23L 1/234

Machines for cleaning, blanching, drying or roasting fruits or vegetables, e.g. coffee

A23N 12/00

Coffee mills

A47J 42/00

Medicinal preparations containing plant material from tea or tea substitutes or from coffee or coffee substitutes

A61K 36/00

e.g.

A61K 36/74, A61K 36/82, A61K 36/28

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Chocolate, confectionery or ice-cream containing coffee or tea

A23G

Preservation of foods or foodstuffs, in general, e.g. freeze-drying or spray-drying

A23L

Shaping or working of foodstuffs, not fully covered by a single other subclass, e.g. agglomerating, granulating or tabletting

A23P

Coffee or tea pots

A47G 19/14

Tea infusers, e.g. egg-shaped infusers

A47G 19/16

Tea or coffee pot cosies

A47G 19/20

Apparatus for making beverages, e.g. coffee or tea

A47J 31/00

Packaging of substances, e.g. tea, which are intended to be infused in the package, i.e. filling tea bags

B65B 29/02

Attaching, or forming and attaching, string handles or tags to tea bags

B65B 29/04

Disposable containers or packages with contents which are infused or dissolved in situ

B65D 85/804

Disposable tea bags

B65D 85/808

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Alkaloid

The stimulant xanthine drugs caffeine, theobromine and theophylline contained in coffee beans and/or tea leaves.

Coffee

Stimulant product or beverage made from roasted seeds, commonly called coffee beans, which come from a plant of the genus Coffea, e.g. Coffea arabica or Coffea canephora.

Coffee substitutes

Coffee substitutes (solid or liquid) are non-coffee products normally without caffeine, used to substitute coffee while preserving its taste. Grain coffee and other substitutes can be made by roasting or decocting various organic substances. Common ingredients include acorn, barley and malt, beech nut, chicory root, corn, fig and rye.

Decaffeination

Process of removing the alkaloid caffeine from coffee beans or tea leaves.

Herbal tea

Any Camellia sinensis-free product or beverage prepared by hot water infusion of plant material, usually leaves but also including fruits, flowers and possibly even bark or other parts. Herbal teas are belonging to the group of tea substitutes.

Tea

Stimulant product or beverage made from the leaves of the traditional tea plant (Camellia sinensis).

Tea substitutes

Tea substitutes (solid or liquid) are non-tea products, i.e. not coming from the traditional tea plant (Camellia sinensis), e.g. mate (Ilex paraguariensis), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), rose hips (Rosa canina), etc.; cf. herbal tea.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the words "Lyophilisation" and "freeze-drying" are often used as synonyms.

A23J

Protein compositions for foodstuffs;Working-up proteins for foodstuffs;Phosphatide compositions for foodstuffs

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Obtaining of protein compositions for foodstuffs, e.g. from meat, fish or sea animals, blood, eggs, hair, cereals, leguminous or other vegetable seeds, waste water, yeasts or milk.

Bulk opening of eggs and separation of yolks from whites.

Working-up of proteins for foodstuffs, e.g. by texturising using freezing, extrusion, expansion, coagulation from or in a bath; by hydrolysis using chemical agents or enzymes.

Phosphatide compositions for foodstuffs, e.g. lecithin.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Phosphatides in oils or fats are classified in C11B.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Treatment of flour or dough by adding proteins before or during baking

A21D 2/26

Dairy products, e.g. milk, butter, cheese; Milk or cheese substitutes; Making thereof

A23C 9/00, A23C 11/00, A23C 17/00-A23C 23/00

Cocoa products

A23G 1/44

Sweetmeats, confectionery or marzipan

A23G 3/44

Chewing gum

A23G 4/14

Frozen sweets containing peptides or proteins

A23G 9/38

Food or foodstuffs containing proteins as gelling or thickening agents

A23L 1/0562

Dietetic products containing proteins as additive

A23L 1/305

Proteins as adding ingredients for non-alcoholic beverages

A23L 2/66

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Animal feeding-stuff

A23K 1/00

Protein compositions or phosphatide compositions for pharmaceuticals or cosmetics

A61K 8/64, A61K 9/38, A61K 9/64

Phosphatides per se

C07F

General processes for the preparation of peptides

C07K 1/00

Peptides e.g. oligopeptides, proteins

C07K 4/00, C07K 14/00

Immunoglobulins

C07K 16/00

Carrier-bound or immobilised peptides and preparation thereof

C07K 17/00

Hybridpeptides

C07K 19/00

Macromolecular materials from blood

C08H

Preparation of glue

C09H

Gelatin not for foodstuffs

C09H 1/00-C09H 9/04

Analysis of food

G01N 33/02

Enzymes and preparation thereof

C12N 9/00

Preparation of peptides or proteins using fermentation or enzymes

C12P 21/00

Use of substances as emulsifying, wetting, dispersing or foam-producing agents

B01F 17/30

Special rules of classification

In groups A23J 3/04-A23J 3/20, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

Subject matter classified in groups A23J 3/22-A23J 3/30 is also classified in groups A23J 3/04-A23J 3/20 if the nature of the protein is of interest.

A23K 1/00 fr

Animal feeding-stuffs

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Detoxicating or removing bitter tastes from seeds, e.g. lupin seeds for fodder or food

A23L 1/211

A23K 1/04 fr

Animal feeding-stuffs from blood

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Proteins from blood

A23J 1/06

A23K 1/14 fr

Animal feeding-stuffs from vegetable materials, e.g. potatoes or roots without ensilaging

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Preserving food

A23B, A23L

A23K 1/18 fr

Animal feeding-stuffs specially adapted for particular animals

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Milk Substitutes

A23C 11/00

A23K 3/02 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Silos

E04H

A23L fr

Foods, foodstuffs or non-alcoholic beverages, not covered by subclasses A21D or A23B to A23J;Their preparation or treatment, e.g. cooking, modification of nutritive qualities, physical treatment;Preservation of foods or foodstuffs, in general

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Any foods, foodstuffs or non-alcoholic beverages that are not covered by the following subclasses:

Examples of foods, foodstuffs or non-alcoholic beverages covered by this subclass are:

Preparation or treatment of the above foods, foodstuffs or non-alcoholic beverages provided for in this subclass, including:

Modification of such foods or beverages to change their nutritional content for dietary reasons, and these modified foods or beverages per se.

Preservation of foods or foodstuffs in general, e.g. by pasteurising, sterilising, heating, freezing, drying, pressurising, irradiation or treatment with chemicals, specially adapted for foods or foodstuffs.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

In relation to foods, foodstuffs or non-alcoholic beverages per se, and in relation to their preparation and treatment including physical treatment, this subclass is residual to subclasses A21D, A23B, A23C, A23D, A23F, A23G or A23J. These subclasses relate to flour or dough (A21D), dairy products (A23C), edible oils or fats (A23D), coffee, tea or their substitutes (A23F), cocoa, chocolate, confectionery or ice-cream (A23G) and protein compositions (A23J).

In relation to preservation of foods or foodstuffs in general, this subclass is the primary home for this subject-matter. However, preservation subject matter specifically adapted for certain foods can also be found in any of the above subclasses. For example, preservation of flour or dough or bakery products is subject-matter for subclass A21D, and preservation of meat, fish, eggs, fruit, vegetables and edible seeds e.g. cereals is subject matter for subclass A23B. Preservation of milk or milk preparations is subject matter for subclass A23C.

In relation to preservation, deciding between this subclass and the other subclasses listed above is generally a matter of function or application (see Guide Paragraphs 85-87). Where the particular preservation technology is the main point of interest classification is made in this subclass, and where the application to particular foodstuffs is the main interest classification is made in the subclasses listed above. Some double-classification is evident.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Apiculture

A01K 47/00-A01K 59/00

Coffee whitener compositions

A23C 11/00

Animal foods or fodder

A23K

Treating harvested fruit or vegetables in bulk

A23N

Machines or apparatus for extracting juice

A23N 1/00, A47J 19/00

Shaping or working of foodstuffs not fully covered by this or a single other subclass

A23P

Apparatus for baking, roasting, grilling or frying

A47J 37/00

Preserving foods or foodstuffs in association with packaging

B65B 55/00

Packages for foodstuffs with provision for absorbing fluids

B65D 81/26

Essential oils in general

C11B 9/00

Preparation of malt for brewing

C12C

Preservation of alcoholic beverages

C12H

Preparation of non-alcoholic beverages by removal of alcohol

C12H 3/00
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Edible extracts or preparations for medicinal purposes

A61K
Places in relation to which this subclass is residual:

See above.

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Emulsifiers in general

B01F 17/00

Purifying water

C02F

Devices for drying foodstuffs

F26B

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Food

In addition to the commonly accepted foods or foodstuffs, the term in this subclass also extends to cover less traditional items such as thickening agents (e.g. starch), flavouring agents, artificial sweeteners, food colouring agents, etc.

A23L 1/222

Natural spices, flavouring agents, or condiments from fruit

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Essential oil

A concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants

A23L 1/307

Reducing nutritive value;Dietetic products with reduced nutritive value

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Nutritive value

The nutritive value represents the energetic or calorific content of nutrition

A44B fr

Buttons, pins, buckles, slide fasteners, or the like

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

The following fasteners or their essential parts:

Making slide fasteners, touch-and-close fasteners (e.g. VELCRO®, hook-and-loop, barb-and-pile fabrics), and other fasteners of this subclass.

Accessories or ancillary devices for the fasteners of this subclass when they are used exclusively with one of the varieties of fasteners (e.g. button cards) or have their operations either influencing or being influenced by the operation of the fastener (e.g. slide fastener pulling cords).

The following additional devices associated with either the fasteners of this class or accoutrements, garments, and haberdashery:

Note

The only "other types" of fasteners appropriate for this subclass are those that are capable of use with or actually used with accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery. Therefore, it must be either a commonly known practice to use a particular type of fastener with accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery (e.g., snap fasteners) or the patent documents for a particular type of fastener must frequently disclose their use with accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery. However, it is not required that all, or even the majority, of the fasteners covered by a particular category of fastener be specially adapted for use, or disclose their intended use, with accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

General relationship of A44B with F16B

Fasteners per se that either (a) require a tool for completing their normal fastening (e.g. screws, nails, stitches) or (b) are destroyed or destructively deformed to fasten or unfasten (e.g. staples, rivets) are excluded from A44B. These fasteners per se

However, when F16B types of fasteners or other tool driven or deformed fasteners are used to mount fasteners or fastener components appropriate for A44B, and are attached to or cooperate with at least one of their components, they are properly classified within A44B as an additional feature of the fasteners with which they are utilized.

General relationship of A44B with subclasses for accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery

Fasteners appropriately classified within A44B are often broadly claimed or disclosed in combination with the structure they secure or fasten. If the detail of the structure they secure or fasten specifies only the portion of the structure (e.g. dress belt tip or holes) necessary for either completing the fastening operation or mounting the fastening means, the combinations are proper for A44B.

If the details of the accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery being secured are more than that needed to complete the fastening operation or mount the fastener, then the combination is appropriate for the accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery subclasses (e.g. A41D, A41F).

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Fastening devices specially adapted for specific types of garments

A41F

Buttonholes or eyelets for buttonholes

A41F 1/02

Corset fasteners

A41F 1/04

Glove fasteners

A41F 1/06

Garter fasteners

A41F 1/08

Belts, girdles, or waistbands for trousers or skirts

A41F 9/00

Thumbtacks

B43M 15/00

Devices for fastening or securing constructional elements or machine parts together

F16B

Hand-manipulated hooks or eyes (e.g. swivel hook for dog leash)

F16B 45/00
Places covering apparatus or methods for making, or for positioning on the structure being fastened, fasteners or components of fasteners appropriate for this subclass

Appliances or methods for marking-out, perforating, or making buttonholes

A41H 25/00

Appliances or methods for setting fasteners on garments

A41H 37/00

Processing sheet metal, tubes or profiles to make haberdashery

B21D 53/46

Processing sheet metal, tubes or profiles to make buttons

B21D 53/48

Processing sheet metal, tubes or profiles to make metal slide fasteners parts

B21D 53/50

Wire-working to produce devices for fastening (e.g. slide fastener elements, buttons)

B21F 45/16

Pressure or injection die casting of slide fasteners and slide fastener parts

B22D 17/16

Producing slide fastener elements from plastic or other substances in a plastic state

B29D 5/00

Producing buttons or semi-finished button parts from plastic or other substances in a plastic state

B29D 19/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For garments in general

A41D

For protective aprons having fastening devices

A41D 13/04

For neckties having fastening or holding devices associated with the knot or collar

A41D 25/00

For hats having fastening devices

A42B 1/00

For head covering fastening means other than hatpins

A42B 7/00

For laces in general and for footwear having fastening devices

A43C

For machines, tools, equipment, or methods for setting fasteners on footwear

A43D 100/00

For brooches or clips having decorative or ornamental aspects

A44C 1/00

For medals or badges having pin fastening devices

A44C 3/00

For hair-holding devices

A45D 8/00

For work bench type holding clamps

B25B 5/00

For paper clips or like paper fasteners for temporarily attaching sheets together

B42F 1/02

For elements specially adapted for fastening, fixing, or finishing upholstery

B68G 7/12

For sewing apparatus or machines with mechanism for lateral movement of the needle or the work or both for making ornamental pattern seams, for sewing buttonholes, for reinforcing openings, or for fastening articles (e.g. buttons) by sewing

D05B 3/00

For sewing needles

D05B 85/00

For hand operated latches or bolts for doors or windows (e.g., door hooks)

E05C

Special rules of classification

Decorative mock-fastening devices that do not function as fasteners (e.g. ornamental buttons on coats, fake zippers on clothing), but that look like the fasteners or one of their essential parts covered by A44B, are classified within the main groups of this subclass that provide for the fasteners they are intended to resemble.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Button

A hand manipulated fastener that includes a rigid or semirigid portion (i.e. button) which is attached (e.g. sewn) to the structure it is intended to fasten or secure (e.g. clothing) in a manner that allows its reorientation by either movement about its attachment or movement of the structure it secures. A button is intended to be used with a complementary opening having a flaccid portion (e.g. buttonholes, looped cords) that forms the second essential part of the fastener.

Buckle

A hand manipulated fastener including engaging or holding means and structure for guiding during fastening, which can selectively hold a cooperating strap or belt that is either the structure secured (e.g. end of a dress belt) or a second portion of the fastener (e.g. securing strap of a backpack flap).

Pin

A hand manipulated fastener that includes both (1) a portion specifically shaped (e.g. pointed) to facilitate impaling of and penetration into the structure fastened or secured and (2) a remaining portion (e.g. head) intended to be manually pushed on that does not penetrate the structure fastened or secured.

Slide fastener

A hand manipulated fastener that includes (1) two, opposed, elongated, configured surfaces that are each attached by mounting means to a secured structure and are intended to directly contact and interlock with each other when fastened and (2) a sliding device that is much shorter in length than the surfaces and which travels along their length to forcibly shift them into or out of interlocking engagement.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the words slide fastener and zipper are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the words cufflink and sleeve-link are often used as synonyms.

A45B fr

Walking sticks;Umbrellas;Ladies' or like fans

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tables with means for holding umbrellas

A47B 37/04

A45D fr

Hairdressing or shaving equipment;Manicuring or other cosmetic treatment

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For applying therapeutic or disinfecting substances A61M, e.g.

A61M 35/00

Containers in general

B65D

A47B fr

Tables;Desks;Office furniture;Cabinets;Drawers;General details of furniture

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Storing articles in warehouses or magazines

B65G 1/00

Built-in cupboards as part of a building

E04F 19/08

Step-stools

A47C 12/00

Furniture joints

F16B

A47L fr

Domestic washing or cleaning;Suction cleaners in general

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Pneumatically taking-up undesirable matter from roads or like surfaces

E01H 1/08

A61B fr

Diagnosis;Surgery;Identification

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Apparatus, instruments, implements, or processes that are either specially adapted or intended to be solely utilized for evaluating, examining, measuring, monitoring, studying, or testing particular characteristics and aspects of either living or dead human and animal bodies for medical purposes (i.e., diagnosis). Diagnosis consists of scrutinizing the following characteristics or aspects of bodies:

Apparatus, instruments, implements, or processes that are either specially adapted or intended to be solely utilized for medical procedures employing physical actions (e.g., laser cutting, pressure of fluid) on portions of human or animal bodies to correct, enhance, or inspect (e.g., autopsies) them for medical purposes (i.e., surgery). Surgery consists of the following medical procedures:

Apparatus, instruments, implements, or processes that are either specially adapted or intended to be solely utilized in procedures for identifying individual human beings (e.g., finger printing, by recognition of shape or dimension of body part) using unique characteristics of their bodies (i.e. identification).

Adjunct or supplementary means specially adapted for use in, or intended for exclusive use in, diagnosis, surgery, or identification. These adjunct or supplementary means contribute to the effectiveness (e.g., surgical drapes) or safety (e.g., operating gloves) of a medical procedure, but may or may not (e.g., protective covers for scalpels) themselves involve any direct contact with a body.

Components of diagnosis, surgery, or identification means with structural features limiting their usefulness to medical procedures.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Several subclasses provide for subject matter that is used for 'diagnosis'. The relationship between these subclasses with regard to the type of 'diagnosis' covered by each is as follows:

Subclass A61B provides for diagnosis in general.

A61B also provides for any surgical or identification apparatus or methods when

A61B additionally provides for any diagnostic apparatus or methods combined with therapy apparatus or method normally covered by subclass A61H or A61N when

Subclass A61H provides for diagnostic means or steps that are combined with massage and physical therapy apparatus or methods used for the treatment of disease or disability (i.e., an abnormal condition of the body) by utilization of direct mechanical energy; when the diagnostic means or step is used solely for operational feedback purposes to enhance therapy.

Subclass A61N provides for diagnostic means or steps that are combined with medical treatment therapy apparatus or methods used for the treatment of disease or disability by utilization of forms of energy other than direct mechanical energy; when the means or step is used solely for operational feedback purposes to enhance therapy.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Tools or instruments for operating on the mouth portion of a human being (e.g., tooth saws)

A61C 3/00

Saliva removers combined with instruments for opening or keeping open the mouth (e.g., mouth props, tongue guards, tongue depressors, cheek spreaders)

A61C 17/10

Medical instruments, implements, tools, or methods specially adapted so as to limit their usefulness to only animals

A61D

Methods or devices for treatment of eyes, putting in contact lenses, eye surgery, or correcting squinting

A61F 9/00

Ear surgery

A61F 11/00

Physical therapy apparatus that includes diagnostic feedback means for influencing operation

A61H

Syringes and suction, pumping or atomizing devices for medical use (e.g. cups, breast relievers, irrigators, sprays, powder insufflators, atomizers, inhalers), apparatus for general or local anesthetics, devices or methods for causing a change in the state of consciousness, catheters, dilators, and apparatus for introducing medicines into the body other than orally

A61M

Non-surgical treatment of medical conditions or physical injuries by utilization of forms of energy not directly generated by mechanical apparatus, devices, or means that includes diagnostic feedback means for influencing its operation

A61N

Clinical thermometers for measuring the temperature of body parts

G01K 5/00

Methods or arrangements for reading or recognizing patterns, e.g. fingerprints

G06K 9/00

Recognizing, identifying, or verifying the identity of human beings by analyzing their voice or speech

G10L 17/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Operating tables and auxiliary devices for these tables

A61G 13/00

Operating chairs

A61G 15/00

Apparatus for artificial respiration or heart stimulation

A61H 31/00

Containers specially adapted for medical or pharmaceutical purposes

A61J 1/00

Devices for administering medicines orally

A61J 7/00

Materials for surgical sutures or for ligaturing blood vessels

A61L 17/00

Surgical adhesives or cements and adhesives for colostomy devices

A61L 24/00

Materials for colostomy devices

A61L 28/00

Measuring or testing processes involving enzymes or micro organisms

C12Q 1/00

Analyzing samples of biological material

G01N

Obtaining records using waves other than optical waves and viewing such records by using optical means

G03B 42/00

A61B 1/24 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mouth openers for animals

A61D 15/00

A61B 3/00 fr

Apparatus for testing the eyes;Instruments for examining the eyes

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices for treatment of the eyes

A61F 9/00

Exercisers for the eyes

A61H 5/00

Optical systems in general

G02B

A61B 3/04 fr

Trial frames;Sets of lenses for use therewith

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lenses per se

G02C 7/02

A61B 3/125 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Contact lenses per se

G02C 7/04

A61B 5/0215 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Solid probes

A61M 23/00

Catheters

A61M 25/00

A61B 5/025 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electric stethoscopes

A61B 7/04

A61B 5/04 fr

Measuring bioelectric signals of the body or parts thereof

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electrically conductive preparations for use in therapy or testing in vivo

A61K 50/00

A61B 5/055 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements or instruments for measuring magnetic variables involving electronic or nuclear magnetic resonance, in general

G01R 33/20

A61B 5/103 fr

Measuring devices for testing the shape, pattern, size or movement of the body or parts thereof, for diagnostic purposes

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring aids for tailors

A41H 1/00

A61B 5/22 fr

Ergometry;Measuring muscular strength or the force of a muscular blow

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring of work or force, in general

G01L

A61B 6/00 fr

Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, e.g. combined with radiation therapy equipment

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

X-ray contrast preparations

A61K 49/04

Preparations containing radioactive substances

A61K 51/00

X-ray photographic processes

G03C 5/16

X-ray apparatus or circuits therefor

H05G 1/00

Irradiation devices

G21K

Radiation therapy per se

A61N 5/00

A61B 6/02 fr

Devices for diagnosis sequentially in different planes;Stereoscopic radiation diagnosis

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Stereoscopic photography

G03B 35/00

A61B 6/03 fr

Computerised tomographs

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Data processing equipment for medical or biological purposes

G06F 17/00,G06F 19/00

A61B 6/10 fr

Application or adaptation of safety means

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Protection against dangerous radiation in general

G21F

A61B 8/00 fr

Diagnosis using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ultrasound therapy

A61N 7/00

Systems using the reflection or reradiation of acoustic waves, e.g. acoustic imaging

G01S 15/00

A61B 8/06 fr

Measuring blood flow

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring volume flow in general

G01F, G01F 1/66, G01F 1/72

Measuring speed of fluids in general

G01P 5/00

A61B 10/00 fr

Other methods or instruments for diagnosis, e.g. for vaccination diagnosis;Sex determination;Ovulation-period determination;Throat striking implements

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Vaccination prophylaxis, vaccination therapy

A61B 17/20

Menstruation tables

G06C 3/00

A61B 17/02 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Drainage appliances for wounds

A61M 27/00

A61B 17/04 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Suture materials

A61L 17/00

A61B 17/06 fr

Needles;Holders or packages for needles or suture materials

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Nerve needles for teeth

A61C 5/02

A61B 17/10 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Containers, packaging elements or packages specially adapted for particular articles or with special means for dispensing contents

B65D 83/00, B65D 85/00

A61B 17/12 fr

Insert title tags here...

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Specially adapted for vas deferens or fallopian tubes

A61F 6/20

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Materials for ligaturing blood vessels

A61L 17/00

A61B 17/135 fr

Insert title tags here...

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

For measuring blood pressure

A61B 5/022

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Inflatable pressure pads

A61F 5/34

A61B 17/20 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Diagnosis by vaccination

A61B 10/00

A61B 17/22 fr

Implements for squeezing-off ulcers or the like on inner organs of the body;Implements for scraping-out cavities of body organs, e.g. bones;For invasive removal or destruction of calculus using mechanical vibrations;For removing obstructions in blood vessels, not otherwise provided for

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

For biopsy

A61B 10/02

Gynaecological or obstetrical instruments or methods

A61B 17/42
Places in relation to which this subclass is residual:

Dilators

A61M 29/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ultrasound therapy

A61N 7/00

A61B 17/225 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ultrasound therapy

A61N 7/00

A61B 17/42 fr

Gynaecological or obstetrical instruments or methods

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Dilators

A61M 29/00

A61B 17/425 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Specially adapted for use with animals

A61D 19/00

A61B 17/46 fr

Embryotomes

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For animals

A61D 1/10

A61B 17/50 fr

Instruments, other than pincettes or toothpicks, for removing foreign bodies from the human body

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Locating otherwise

A61B 5/06

Locating by radiation

A61B 6/00

A61B 17/56 fr

Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints;Devices specially adapted therefor

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Orthopaedic methods or devices for non-surgical treatment of bones or joints

A61F 5/00

A61B 17/60 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bandages, dressings or absorbent pads

A61F 13/00

A61B 18/00 fr

Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electrically conductive preparations for use in therapy or testing in vivo, e.g conductive adhesives or gels to be used with electrodes

A61K 50/00

A61B 18/04 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Hyperthermia using electric or magnetic fields, radiation or ultrasound

A61N

A61C fr

Dentistry;Oral or dental hygiene

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Apparatus (i.e. instruments, implements, machines, structures, tools) or processes that are specially adapted for, or limited to use in, creating artificial teeth, mounting artificial teeth, supporting artificial teeth, or repairing artificial teeth or their supports (e.g. denture articulators), and wherein the dental prostheses made or fixed by the apparatus or process are used exclusively for humans or both humans and animals.

Apparatus or methods utilized to prevent, discourage, or cure oral diseases (i.e. diseases occurring exclusively within the oral cavity such as enamel caries or periodontitis) in humans or both humans and animals.

Apparatus, devices, or methods used for one or more of the following:

Apparatus (i.e. instruments, implements, machines, structures, tools) or processes that are specially adapted for, or limited to use in, the treatment, reconstruction, removal, insertion, replacement, repair, transfixing or testing of either natural teeth, artificial teeth that are permanently affixed within the oral cavity, gums, or other portions of the oral cavity having an effect on their operation (e.g. portions of jawbone supporting teeth), and wherein the apparatus or processes are used exclusively for humans or both humans and animals.

Apparatus, devices, or methods used for

Dental prostheses devices or artificial dental implant devices per se or their components (e.g. artificial teeth, mounting or attaching means for artificial teeth, devices for supplementing jawbones, crowns) used within the oral cavity.

Dental implants formed from biological material or consisting of oral cavity parts originating either from a donor source or from the patient that are intended to be introduced, or reintroduced, into the patient's oral cavity to correct a dental or oral hygiene problem (e.g. modified natural teeth or jawbone material from a donor).

Adjunct, auxiliary, or supplementary means or structures that contribute to the effectiveness or safety of dental procedures or their products and are specially adapted to be used either:

Specially adapted components of apparatus having structural features limiting them to use with at least one of the dental apparatus types specified above (e.g. dust collectors, illumination devices).

Accessories specially adapted for use with at least one of the above types of apparatus, means, or structures (e.g. devices for measuring the length of the root canal of a tooth).

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Subclass A61C (this subclass) provides for devices used by others to clean an individual's teeth. It also provides for devices used by individuals upon their own teeth to remove foreign matter from the surface of their teeth or enhance the appearance of their teeth when the device is not specifically provided for elsewhere.

Subclass A46B covers manually moved or powered brushes, and in particular toothbrushes, used for cleaning that are not specifically provided for elsewhere. It also covers arrangements of brush bristles per se and the handle structure for brushes.

Subclass A61D covers devices used by individuals to remove foreign matter from the surface of the teeth of animals or enhance the appearance of the teeth of animals when the device is not specifically provided for elsewhere and is limited to use solely on animals.

Subclass A61K covers preparations that are used for medical, dental, or cosmetic purposes in the oral cavity.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Manual toothbrushes

A46B

Positioning or arrangements of toothbrush bristles per se for manual or powered toothbrushes

A46B 9/04

Instruments for depressing the tongue

A61B 13/00

Tongue scrapers

A61B 17/24

Dental apparatus and methods peculiar to animals

A61D 5/00

Preparations used in dentistry for purposes other than cleaning

A61K 6/00

Preparations used for cosmetic cleaning of teeth or mouth

A61K 8/00

Dental or operating chairs

A61G 15/00

Dental work stands

A61G 15/14

Dental hypodermic syringes

A61M 5/178

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Non-dental implants or prostheses

A61F

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Oral cavity

The part of human or animal mouth that includes the inside lining of the lips and cheeks (buccal mucosa), the teeth or their artificial permanently affixed replacements, the gums, the front two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth below the tongue, the bony roof of the mouth (hard palate), and the area immediately behind the wisdom teeth (retromolar trigone).

A61C 1/18 fr

Flexible shafts;Clutches or the like

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Flexible shafts in general

F16C

Clutches in general

F16D

A61C 13/08 fr

Artificial teeth;Making same

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Kilns for artificial teeth

F27B

A61C 13/225 fr

Fastening prostheses in the mouth

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bases for prostheses

A61C 13/01

A61C 13/38 fr

Tools not otherwise provided for, for use in connection with dental prostheses or the making thereof

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Implanting tools

A61C 8/00

A61C 17/10 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mouth opening devices per se

A61B 1/24

Tongue depressors per se

A61B 13/00

A61D fr

Veterinary instruments, implements, tools, or methods

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Apparatus (i.e. instruments, implements, machines, structures, tools) or processes for enhancing or controlling the breeding of companion, domesticated, exotic, or wild animals (e.g. artificial vaginas, uterus disinfecting means), wherein the apparatus or processes are specially adapted to be only usable with animals.

Apparatus (i.e. instruments, implements, machines, structures, tools) or processes limited to use in the treatment, reconstruction, removal or replacement of the teeth, gums, or other parts within the mouth of companion, domesticated, exotic, or wild animals for medical purposes (i.e. dentistry), wherein the apparatus or processes are specially adapted to be only usable with animals and for dental procedures.

Apparatus (i.e. instruments, implements, machines, structures, tools) or processes for introducing medication (e.g. vaccines) or other material having an effect on bodily functions (e.g. seminal fluids, euthanasia poisons, stimulants) into or onto the bodies of companion, domesticated, exotic, or wild animals, wherein the apparatus or processes are specially adapted to be only usable with animals and for medical purposes.

Apparatus (i.e. instruments, implements, machines, structures, tools) or processes for medical procedures that employ physical actions on portions of companion, domesticated, exotic, or wild animal bodies to correct, enhance, inspect, or treat them (i.e. surgery), wherein the apparatus or processes are specially adapted to be only usable with animals and for medical procedures. Animal surgery consists of the following medical procedures:

Apparatus (i.e. instruments, implements, machines, structures, tools) or processes for evaluating, examining, measuring, monitoring, studying, or testing particular characteristics and aspects of the bodies of companion, domesticated, exotic, or wild animals (i.e. diagnosis), wherein the apparatus or processes are specially adapted to be only usable with animals and for medical purposes. Animal diagnosis consists of scrutinizing the following characteristics or aspects of animal bodies:

Implements, devices, or materials that are:

Adjunct, auxiliary, or supplementary structures or means (e.g. operating tables, clean rooms) that are specially adapted to be only usable with companion, domesticated, exotic, or wild animals during their diagnosis, dentistry, surgery, or for other medical purposes. These adjunct, auxiliary, or supplementary structures or means contribute to the effectiveness (e.g. washing devices) or safety (e.g. handling gloves, mouth openers) of medical procedures, but may or may not themselves involve direct contact with the animal's body (e.g. thermometer holder).

Specially adapted components of apparatus having structural features limiting them to use with diagnostic, dental, or surgical apparatus for animals.

Accessories specially adapted for use with the above types of apparatus, means, or structures.

All other types of apparatus (i.e. instruments, implements, machines, structures, tools) or processes that are not specifically provided for in another subclass which are

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Embodiments of apparatus, instruments, implements, structures, tools, or processes that are used on both humans and animals (i.e. have a more general utility) for maintaining their health or for other medical purposes are classified in another subclass based on their human usage and not in subclass A61D.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Apparatus or methods normally used by non-medical personnel in the care of animals to maintain their health e.g. animal husbandry

A01K

Animal feed bags

A01K 5/00

Sucking apparatus for young stock

A01K 9/00

Animal dehorners

A01K 17/00

Apparatus to help wean animals

A01K 19/00

Devices for assisting or preventing mating

A01K 21/00

Animal feeding-stuffs with antibiotics

A23K 1/17

Mouth openers for use on humans and animals

A61B 1/24

A61D 1/02 fr

Trocars or cannulas for teats

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Milking catheters

A01J 3/00

A61D 3/00 fr

Appliances for supporting or fettering animals for operative purposes

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Apparatus for fettering animals to be slaughtered

A22B 1/00

A61D 7/00 fr

Devices or methods for introducing solid, liquid, or gaseous remedies or other materials into or onto the bodies of animals

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Syringes

A61M

A61D 9/00 fr

Bandages, poultices, compresses specially adapted to veterinary purposes

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fetlock-joint protecting rings

A01K 13/00

A61D 11/00 fr

Washing devices or gaseous curative baths specially adapted to veterinary purposes

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Accessories for milking machines for treating of udders or teats

A01J 7/04

A61D 15/00 fr

Mouth openers

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fetlock-joint protecting rings or devices to prevent crib-biting

A01K 13/00

A61F fr

Filters implantable into blood vessels;Prostheses;Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents;Orthopaedic, nursing or contraceptive devices;Fomentation;Treatment or protection of eyes or ears;Bandages, dressings or absorbent pads;First-aid kits

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Apparatus, devices or methods for physically correcting or altering the body of patients or disabled persons that are directly and for prolonged periods of time (i.e. not just during acute exceptional circumstances) used on or in the body of the patient or the disabled person:

Methods or devices (e.g. head or eye-gaze-direction actuated control devices, oral communication actuated control devices) for enabling patients or disabled persons to operate independent apparatus or machines (i.e. apparatus such as room lights or doors that is not a part of, or used in conjunction with the functioning of, artificial or natural parts of their body) without the application of direct force from the part of the human body that would normally be used by individuals for controlling operation of the independent apparatus or machine such as a hand, foot or their artificial equivalents.

Contraceptive devices for males (e.g. condoms, vas deferens occluders) or females (e.g. pessaries, intra-uterine type, fallopian occluders).

Devices for medical or hygienic care of living individuals that are worn by the individual or directly contact the body of the individual during their care:

Heating or cooling devices for medical or therapeutic treatment of the human body and for body cavities, e.g. compresses, warming pads, pans or mats, hot water bottles, ice bags.

Protective devices for the eyes, e.g. goggles, eye-masks worn to prevent particulates or chemicals from striking the eyes.

Devices for inserting contact lenses.

Protective devices for the ears, e.g. ear plugs or earmuffs.

Auxiliary appliances for wound dressings; dispensing containers for dressings or bandages; packages or wrapping arrangements for used pads, e.g. for disposal.

Containers having various emergency medical supplies such as bandages, simple medical tools, and medicines (i.e. first-aid kits) that are intended to be used for administering initial treatment to injured or sick individuals.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

If an apparatus, method, device, or material is usable for both humans and animals for the same purpose and in the same manner, and it is otherwise proper for this subclass, classification is made only in subclass A61F. Similar devices or processes to those covered by subclass A61F that are usable exclusively for animals or are used in animals in a different manner or for different purposes than for humans, are classified in subclass A61D.

Surgical apparatus or processes in general are covered by subclass A61B.

Subclass A61H provides for massage, chiropractic, or physical therapy apparatus or processes used for the treatment of disease, injuries or disability (i.e. an abnormal condition of the body) by utilization of direct mechanical energy.

Chemical and material aspects of prostheses, structures inserted into tubular structures of human bodies, bandages, dressings, absorbent pads or surgical articles are covered by subclass A61L.

With regard to human organs and their parts, the exact distinction between the artificial devices implantable into human bodies that are proper for subclass A61F and those proper for subclass A61M is somewhat imprecise. Therefore, for analogous situations that are not specifically covered by existing groups of these subclasses, the following listings are intended to provide guidance.

Subclass A61F provides for the following replacements or substitutes for internal body organs or their parts: hollow or tubular parts of organs (e.g. bladders, tracheae, bronchi, heart valves and blood vessels, bile ducts), structural supporting or maintaining devices for such parts (e.g. stents), artificial eyes and artificial ears.

Subclass A61M provides for the following replacements or substitutes for internal body organs or their parts: artificial hearts (based on catchword index), artificial livers, artificial lungs, artificial pancreas, artificial kidneys and catheters in general.

Devices for introducing media into or onto the body, devices for taking media from the body are also covered by subclass A61M.

Spectacles, sunglasses, contact lenses or goggles insofar as they have the features of vision correction or protection against high levels of visible and ultraviolet light are covered by subclass G02C.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Brassieres

A41C 3/00

Cosmetic articles, e.g. wigs, hair pieces

A41G

Caps with means for protecting the eyes or the ears

A42B 1/06

Ordinary arch supports for shoes

A43B 7/14

Artificial nails

A45D 31/00

Heating or cooling means in connection with bedsteads or mattresses

A47C 21/00

Surgical instruments

A61B 17/00

Devices for closing wounds, or holding wounds closed

A61B 17/03

Dental prostheses

A61C 13/00

Chiropractic methods or devices

A61H 1/00

Appliances for aiding patients or disabled persons to walk

A61H 3/00

Massage of the genitals

A61H 19/00

Chemical aspects of contraception

A61K

Chemical aspects of, or use of materials for, bandages, dressings or absorbent pads

A61L 15/00, A61L 26/00

Adhesives for costolomy devices

A61L 24/00

Surgical adhesives or cements

A61L 24/00

Materials for prostheses

A61L 27/00

Materials for costolomy devices

A61L 28/00

Artificial hearts, kidneys

A61M 1/00

Irrigators

A61M 3/02

Drainage appliances for wounds

A61M 27/00

Dilators

A61M 29/00

Valves specially adapted for medical use

A61M 39/00

Making artificial eyes from organic plastic material

B29C, B29D 11/02

Arm rests for use as writing aids

B43L 15/00

Arrangements of tyre-inflating valves to tyres or rims

B60C 29/00

Safety devices for welding in general

F16P 1/06

Removable contact lenses

G02C 7/04

Sunglasses or goggles having the same features as spectacles

G02C

Electric heating elements

H05B

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Undergarments

A41B 9/00

Baby linen

A41B 13/00

Corsets or girdles

A41C 1/00

Surgical drapes

A61B 19/08

Transdermal drug delivery patches

A61K 9/70

Exercising apparatus specially adapted for particular parts of the body

A63B 23/00

Goggles for swimming

A63B 33/00

Diving masks

B63C 11/12

Materials for prostheses

A61L 27/00

Balloon catheters

A61M 25/10

Dilators

A61M 29/00

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Absorbent articles

Articles adapted to absorb liquid excreted by the body.

Dilator

A (surgical) device or instrument used to dilate, distend, enlarge, expand, stretch an opening, organ, passage, tube, canal or cavity of a human or animal body (e.g. urethrotomy, tracheotomy, nasal, anal or cervix (Hegar's dilator) or vaginal dilation, bougienage, percutaneous dilation of tissues (Byrd dilator), whereas stents are not dilators but prostheses for providing patency, or preventing collapsing of tubular structures of the body.

Disabled person

A human being that is unable to do certain basic physical tasks (e.g. walking) due to a physical or mental impairment/condition.

Patient

A human being awaiting or undergoing any form of (a) medical care (e.g. testing) or treatment by medical staff (e.g. doctors, dentists, midwives, chiropractors), or (b) physical tending (e.g. feeding) by care giver (e.g. hospice or nursing home staff) due to impairment.

Stent

Balloon- or self-expandable tubular device for use in the treatment of duct-like organs typified for example by a blood vessel, biliary tract, urinary tract, digestive tract, and the like providing patency.

Stent graft

Stent with a tubular member made of a synthetic resin affixed to the inside or outside of the stent.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the expression "device for fluid management" is often used with the meaning of incontinence article.

A61F 5/02 fr

Orthopaedic corsets

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Arm-rests for use as writing aids

B43L 15/00

A61F 5/34 fr

Pressure pads filled with air or liquid

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Connection of valves to inflatable elastic bodies

B60C 29/00

A61F 5/458 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Connection of valves to inflatable elastic bodies

B60C 29/00

A61F 7/00 fr

Heating or cooling appliances for medical or therapeutic treatment of the human body

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electric heating elements

H05B

A61F 9/00 fr

Methods or devices for treatment of the eyes;Devices for putting in contact-lenses;Devices to correct squinting;Apparatus to guide the blind;Protective devices for the eyes, carried on the body or in the hand

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Appliances for aiding patients or disabled persons to walk

A61H 3/00

A61G fr

Transport, personal conveyances, or accommodation specially adapted for patients or disabled persons;Operating tables or chairs;Chairs for dentistry;Funeral devices

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Specially adapted vehicles (e.g., ambulances), handling apparatus (e.g., wheelchair lifts), or methods or devices (e.g., stretchers) for moving patients or disabled persons who are passive participants in their relocation (e.g., the persons are handled in a manner similar to loads).

Personal conveyances

Specially adapted structures (e.g., hospital or treatment rooms for medical purposes, baby incubators) or devices (e.g., bedpans, hospital beds, trapeze or pull-up bars) used

Specially adapted supporting surfaces for sustaining patients in a recumbent or seated position during recovery, surgery, dental work, or similar types of medical treatment.

Funeral devices

Auxiliary appliances (e.g., trolleys for medicine) or accessories (e.g., prescription list) specially adapted for use with the other invention information covered by this subclass.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

General relationship of A61G with subclasses for care or alteration of the human body

A61G does not cover apparatus or methods that are directly used on an individual's body to perform medical care and therapy or to alter it after death. The types of medical care, therapy, and body alterations not covered by A61G consist of:

Subclasses A01N, A61B, A61C, A61F, A61H, A61K, A61M, A61N, and F23G provide appropriately for apparatus or methods for medical care, therapy, or body alterations of these types. The specific classifications that are of interest for search purposes are specified in the references of A61G or its groups.

However, A61G does provide for specific structural modifications that merely facilitate the use of apparatus or methods of these types for medical care or therapy when in combination with subject matter that is otherwise appropriate for this subclass (e.g., special supports for patients with burns).

A61G also provides for life supporting or sustaining devices that control the local environment during treatment or recovery of patients (e.g., baby incubators).

General relationship of A61G with vehicles adapted for use by disabled

A61G covers personal conveyances and "vehicle-like" conveyances (e.g., wheelchairs, stretchers) that are explicitly designed for use by only a single patient or disabled person and intended to normally travel relatively short distances along the ground or similar support surface (e.g., hallway).

The subclass for a specific type of standard roadway vehicle (i.e., vehicles designed and intended for general thoroughfare usage over long distances, such as B62K for cycles) covers their vehicles that have been specially adapted for use by a disabled operator.

The subclass for a specific type of "special-utility" vehicle (i.e., vehicles that have another primary purpose other than transport, such as riding lawn mowers or forklifts) covers their vehicles that have been specially adapted for use by a disabled operator.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Devices per se for enabling disabled persons to operate an apparatus or device not forming part of the body

A61F4/00

Restraining devices for the body or for body parts and restraining shirts that are used for non-surgical treatment of patients' bones or joints

A61F 5/37

Equipment for beds, treatment tables, floor frames or the like for extending or stretching

A61F 5/045

Appliances for aiding invalids to walk about

A61H3/00

Bathing devices for special therapeutic or hygienic purposes

A61H 33/00

For bicycles specially adapted for disabled riders

B62K 3/16

Inclined lifts associated with stairways for transporting disabled persons or wheelchairs

B66B 9/08

Illumination of operating tables

F21L, F21S, F21V

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For preserving of the dead bodies of humans, animals, or the parts thereof

A01N1/00

For sanitary equipment not otherwise provided for

A47K

For body washing or cleaning implements

A47K7/00

For sanitary closets or urinals without flushing and chamber pots

A47K11/00

For appliances for supporting or fettering animals during operations

A61D3/00

For vehicles adapted to transport meat

B60P3/05

For vehicles adapted to transport refrigerated goods

B60P3/20

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Disabled person

a human being that is unable to do a basic physical task (e.g., walking) due to a physical or mental impairment/condition.

Funeral device

apparatus associated with (e.g., coffin) or for performing (e.g., casket lowering device) activities connected with the burial, cremation, entombment, or other methods of honoring or disposing of (e.g., freeze drying) the remains of the body of a deceased individual.

Patient

a human being awaiting or undergoing any form of (a) medical care (e.g., testing) or treatment by medical staff (e.g., doctors, dentists, midwifes, chiropractors) or (b) physical tending (e.g., feeding) by caretakers (e.g., hospice or nursing home staff) due to impairment.

Personal conveyance

a vehicle-like device (e.g., wheelchairs) that is:

not specifically adapted for traveling significant distances (e.g., between cities) along thoroughfares (e.g., railways, roads, sidewalks) with normal traffic (e.g., trucks),

explicitly designed (i.e., not merely adaptations of a standard production vehicle) for carrying, and intended to be limited to use by, a single patient or disabled person at any given time, and

potentially capable of having either its movement controlled or powered by the patient or disabled person carried by it.

A61G 1/003 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices in general for lifting patients or disabled persons

A61G 7/10

A61G 1/007 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ski vehicles

A63C 5/00

A61G 1/01 fr

Sheets specially adapted for use as or with stretchers

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Restraining devices used in nursing

A61F 5/37

A61G 5/00 fr

Chairs or personal conveyances specially adapted for patients or disabled persons, e.g. wheelchairs

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Chairs with toilet conveniences

A47K 11/04

Running gear or propulsion features

B60K

A61G 7/16 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Chair beds

A47C 17/04

A61G 10/02 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Dust-free laboratory rooms

B01L 1/04

Decompression arrangements

B63C 11/32

Arrangements or adaptations in aircraft

B64D 13/00

Air-conditioning in general

F24F

A61G 12/00 fr

Accommodation for nursing, e.g. in hospitals, not covered by groups A61G 1/00-A61G 11/00, e.g. trolleys for transport of medicaments or food;Prescription lists

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Service or tea tables, trolleys or wagons

A47B 31/00

A61G 13/00 fr

Operating tables;Auxiliary appliances therefor

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Adjustability of tables in general

A47B 9/00

A61G 15/00 fr

Operating chairs;Dental chairs;Accessories specially adapted therefor, e.g. work stands

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Barbers' chairs

A47C 1/04

A61G 17/08 fr

Urns

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Columbaria

E04H 13/00

A61J 1/00 fr

Containers specially adapted for medical or pharmaceutical purposes

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Antithrombogenic treatment of articles for conditioning blood

A61L 33/00

Devices for introducing media into or onto the body

A61M

A61J 3/02 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Pulverising in general

B02C

A61J 7/00 fr

Devices for administering medicines orally, e.g. spoons;Pill counting devices;Arrangements for time indication or reminder for taking medicine

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Calibrated capacity measures for fluids or fluent solid material

G01F 19/00

A61J 9/00 fr

Feeding-bottles in general

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electric heating elements

H05B

A61J 13/00 fr

Breast-nipple shields

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Breast-pumps

A61M 1/06

A61J 15/00 fr

Feeding-tubes for therapeutic purposes

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Drinking tubes as table-ware

A47G 21/18

A61K fr

Preparations for medical, dental, or toilet purposes

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Compositions which are:

Used as preparations for dentistry, e.g. for artificial teeth, for filling or for capping teeth, or for taking dental impressions.

Used for cosmetic purposes for treating the skin, hair, nails, teeth or oral cavity with a view to cleaning them, changing their appearance, correcting body odours, protecting them or keeping them in good condition.

Used for medicinal purposes, e.g. drugs, biological compositions, when they are capable of:

Processes

Relationship between large subject matter areas

A01N covers the preservation of bodies of humans or animals or plants or parts thereof; biocides, e.g. as disinfectants, as pesticides, as herbicides .

Compounds per se are classified in C01, C07 or C08.

C08K covers the use of substances as compounding ingredients.

Compositions per se containing polymers are classified in C08L.

Micro-organisms per se are classified in C12N.

Multiple classification

The therapeutic activity of medicinal preparations is further classified in A61P.

The use of cosmetics or similar toilet preparations is further classified in A61Q.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Sex sterilants for invertebrates per se

A01N

Artificial nails per se

A45D31/00

Devices or methods specially adapted for bringing pharmaceutical products into particular physical or administering forms

A61J

Disinfections, sterilisation or deodorization of air; Chemical aspects of, or use of materials for, bandages, dressings, absorbent pads or surgical articles

A61L

Essential oils, perfumes

C11B9/00

Detergent compositions

C11D

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Biocides, pest repellants or attractants per se

A01N 25/00-A01N 65/00

Wigs

A41G3/00

Hair pieces, inserts, rolls, pads or the like

A41G5/00

Processes of waving, straightening or curling hair

A45D7/00

Containers or accessories specially adapted for handling toilet or cosmetic substances

A45D34/00

Diagnosis; Surgery; Identification

A61B

Dentistry

A61C

Electrotherapy; Magnetotherapy; Radiation therapy; Ultrasound therapy

A61N

Mixing, dissolving, emulsifying, dispersing

B01F

Measuring or testing processes involving enzymes or micro-organisms; Compositions or test papers therefor; Processes of preparing such compositions; Condition-responsive control in microbiological or enzymological processes

C12Q

Investigating or analysing materials by determining their chemical or physical properties

G01N

Special rules of classification

Attention is drawn to the definitions of groups of chemical elements following the title of section C.

In this subclass, with the exception of group 8/00, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

Attention is drawn to the Notes in class C07, for example the Notes following the title of the subclass C07D, setting forth the rules for classifying organic compounds in that class, which rules are also applicable, if not otherwise indicated, to the classification of organic compounds of A61K.

A composition, i.e. a mixture of two or more ingredients is classified in the last of groups A61K 31/00-A61K 47/00 that provides for at least one of these ingredients.

Any part of a composition which is not identified by classification according to the last appropriate place of an active ingredient, and which itself is determined to be novel and non-obvious, must also be classified. The part can be either a single ingredient or a composition in itself.

Any part of a composition which is not identified by the classification according the last appropriate place, and which is considered to represent information of interest for search, may also be classified. This can for example be the case when it is considered of interest to enable searching of compositions using a combination of classification symbols. Such non-obligatory classification should be given as "additional information".

A61K 6/00 fr

Preparations for dentistry

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Dentistry

A61C

A61K 6/04 fr

Use of metals or alloys

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alloys per se

C22C

A61K 6/06 fr

Use of inorganic cements

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cements per se

C04B

A61K 6/08 fr

Use of natural or synthetic resins

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Resins per se

C08

A61K 6/10 fr

Compositions for taking dental impressions

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Impression methods

A61C 9/00

A61K 8/00 fr

Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Casings or accessories for storing or handling of solid or pasty toilet or cosmetic substances are classified in A45D 40/00

A61K 9/00 fr

Medicinal preparations characterised by special physical form

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast preparations or magnetic resonance imaging contrast preparations are classified in group A61K 49/18

Praparations containing radioactive substances are classified in group A61K 51/12

A61K 9/68 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Non-medicinal aspects, preparing chewing gum

A23G 4/00

A61K 9/70 fr

Web, sheet or filament bases

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bandages, dressings or absorbent pads

A61F 13/00

A61K 50/00 fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electrodes specially adapted for electrocardiography

A61B 5/0408

Electrodes specially adapted for foetal cardiography

A61B 5/0448

Electrodes specially adapted for electroencephalography

A61B 5/0478

Electrodes specially adapted for electromyography

A61B 5/0492

Electrodes for electrotherapy

A61N 1/04

A61N fr

Electrotherapy;Magnetotherapy;Radiation therapy;Ultrasound therapy

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Specially adapted apparatus, instruments, devices, or processes for the following types of therapy:

Components having specialized structural features that limit their use to the apparatus, instruments, or devices for the types of therapy appropriate for this subclass.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Several subclasses provide for subject matter that is used for therapy. The relationship between these subclasses in regard to the type of therapy covered by each is as follows:

Subclass A61N provides for medical treatment-type therapy by apparatus or methods utilizing forms of energy other than direct mechanical energy when they are not used for surgical purposes and they are intended to either

In particular, subclass A61N covers implanted devices, when the implanted device is not a replacement or supplementation of an actual portion of the organ or part, utilizing forms of energy other than direct mechanical energy to stimulate organs or body parts in a manner that facilitates, regulates, or improves their normal functioning.

Subclass A61H provides for massage and physical-type therapy apparatus or methods for the treatment of disease or disability (i.e., an abnormal condition of the body) by utilization of direct mechanical energy. The apparatus or methods appropriate for this subclass do not surgically alter any portion of the bodies during treatment. Usually, the massage and therapy apparatus and methods of this subclass are intended to facilitate the healing of diseases, reduce the impact of injuries, or beneficially influence the condition of disabled body parts by physically moving a part of a body (e.g., devices for exercising a passive body member) solely by direct physical contact with, or stimulation of, external surfaces of the body or naturally occurring cavities in the body. However, stimulation of internal organs or body parts, such as artificial respiration and stimulation of the heart, when it is done by direct mechanical energy is also considered proper for this subclass.

Subclass A61K and Subclass A61P provide for drug-type therapy using chemical compounds or medicinal preparations specially adapted for use in healing, benefiting, or destroying abnormal conditions of the body (e.g., diseases, birth defects) and the specific therapeutic activities that the chemical compounds and medicinal preparations are used for.

Subclass A61B provides for surgery and surgical-type therapy that alters or repairs organs and body parts. It also provides for any surgical or diagnostic apparatus or methods that would otherwise be proper for subclass A61H or A61N when the apparatus or methods are used for both purposes or combined together. In particular, subclass A61B provides for surgical instruments, devices, or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body (e.g., electromagnetic radiation surgery) to alter or repair it.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Apparatus for diagnosis or surgery combined with, or applicable also as, therapy apparatus

A61B

Apparatus for radiation diagnosis

A61B 6/00

Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body (e.g., radiation surgery, electro-surgery)

A61B 18/00

Instruments, implements, tools, or methods specially adapted so as to limit their use to only animals

A61D

Apparatus or methods utilizing direct mechanical energy in therapy intended to treat disease or disability

A61H

Percussion or vibration massage apparatus (e.g. using supersonic vibration)

A61H 23/00

Apparatus or methods for stimulating specific reflex points by heating or cooling within the cell-life limits

A61H 39/06

Devices for applying radioactive material to the body

A61M 36/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring bioelectrical signals of the body or body parts

A61B 5/04

Surgical accessories

A61B 19/00

Artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body

A61F 2/00

Heating or cooling appliances for medical or therapeutic treatment

A61F 7/00

Saunas

A61H 33/06

Radiopharmaceuticals

A61K 51/12

Anaesthetic apparatus in general

A61M

Artificial hearts and circulatory assistance means intended for implantation

A61M 1/12

Pressure infusion pumps

A61M 5/142

Devices or methods to cause a change in the state of consciousness by mechanical, optical or acoustical means, e.g. audiovisual stimuli

A61M 21/00

Therapeutic chemical compounds or medicinal preparation used to treat sicknesses or abnormal conditions of the body

A61P

Measurement of nuclear X-radiation

G01T

Techniques for handling of particles or electromagnetic radiation

G21K

Incandescent lamps having general utility

H01K

Infrared radiators for heating

H05B

A61P fr

Therapeutic activity of chemical compounds or medicinal preparations

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Therapeutic activity of chemical compounds or medicinal preparations.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

For medicinal, dental or cosmetic preparations to be appropriate for this subclass, it must also be appropriate for one of the following: subclasses A61K or C12N, or classes C01, C07, and C08.

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Preparations brought into direct contact with the skin for affording protection against external influences

A61Q 17/00

Special rules of classification

In this subclass, all of the different therapeutic activities stated in the claims or significantly disclosed as examples in the disclosure are classified in all appropriate places.

The classification symbols of this subclass are not listed first when assigned to patent documents.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Drug(s)

includes chemical compounds or compositions with therapeutic activity, i.e. having the ability to cause a physiological, pharmacological or biological effect.

A61Q fr

Use of cosmetics or similar toilet preparations

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

The use of cosmetics or similar toilet preparations.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

For a cosmetic or similar toilet preparation to be appropriate for this subclass, it must also be appropriate for one of the following: main group A61K8/00 , subclasses C07C, C07D, C07F, C07G, C07H, C07J, C07K, C11D and C12N or classes C01 and C08.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Deodorisation of air

A61L 9/00

Drugs for dermatological disorders

A61P 17/02-A61P 17/16

Essential oils or perfumes per se

C11B 9/00

Special rules of classification

In this subclass, all uses of cosmetics or similar toilet preparations stated in the claims or significantly disclosed as examples in the disclosure are classified in all appropriate places.

The classification symbols of this subclass are not listed first when assigned to patent documents.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations

include compositions or preparations for the skin, hair, nails, teeth or oral cavity which are used to clean them, change their appearance, correct body odours, and protect or keep them in good condition.

A61Q 7/00 fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Preparations with therapeutic activity

A61P 17/14

A61Q 13/00

Formulations or additives for perfume preparations

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Essential oil

A concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants

A61Q 17/00 fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Drugs for treating burns

A61P 17/02

A61Q 17/02 fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Pest repellants

A01N

A62D fr

Chemical means for extinguishing fires;Processes for making harmful chemical substances harmless, or less harmful, by effecting a chemical change;Composition of materials for coverings or clothing for protecting against harmful chemical agents;Composition of materials for transparent parts of gas-masks, respirators, breathing bags or helmets;Composition of chemical materials for use in breathing apparatus

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Compositions:

Use of chemical substances in extinguishing fires.

Chemical, bio-chemical or physico-chemical processes for chemically altering harmful chemical substances into safe or less dangerous substances.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Fire prevention, fire containment or fire fighting, e.g. portable extinguishers or fire-fighting vehicles

A62C

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fireproof paints

C09D 5/18

Fireproofing materials

C09K 21/00

Special rules of classification

Multiple classification

When enzymes or microorganisms are used within processes fully provided for in subclass A62D in order to liberate, separate or purify a preexisting compound or composition or to treat or clean textiles or solid material surfaces, they should also be classified in subclass C12S based upon its Note (1) to provide a complete search.

A62D 3/00 fr

Processes for making harmful chemical substances harmless, or less harmful, by effecting a chemical change in the substances

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Processes for chemically altering harmful chemical substances into safe or less-dangerous substances.

These processes can be chemical, bio-chemical or physico-chemical processes, e.g. use of special chemical reagents for chemical fixing, which result in the decomposition or transformation of the harmful chemical substances into harmless or less harmful substances because of a change in their chemical structure.

These processes can comprise the step of dissolving or dispersing the harmful chemical substances in water for the purpose of treating them, or the step of producing, for treatment, a gaseous product from a non-gaseous harmful chemical substance.

The harmful chemical substance can be one component of a mixture, e.g. a component in contaminated sludge.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

The disposal of solid waste or the reclamation of contaminated soil is classified elsewhere, i.e. in class B09. However, the treatment of a specific harmful chemical substance in solid waste resulting in the change of its chemical constitution to make it harmless or less harmful is covered by A62D.

In the same way, treatment of sludge is not classified here with the exception of the treatment of a specific harmful chemical substance in the sludge, e.g. in residues from industrial processes (excluding contaminants from municipal sewage treatment) resulting in the change of its chemical constitution to make it harmless or less harmful.

Preventive chemical treatments, e.g. to prevent the formation of harmful chemical substances are classified elsewhere, depending on the kind of treatment and/or the context of application.

Processes using enzymes or micro-organisms classified in A62D 3/00 are also classified in subclass C12S.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Detoxification of foods or foodstuffs

A23L 1/015

Apparatus for chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general

B01

Treatment of gases, e.g.:

Chemical or biological purification of smoke or fumes, e.g. flue gas

B01D 53/34

Purification or modifying the chemical compositions of combustible gases containing carbon monoxide

C10K

Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust

F01N 3/00

Consuming noxious gases by combustion

F23G 7/06

Chemical processes resulting in the production of a useful product, e.g.:

using untreated contaminated fly ash as raw material in the manufacture of cement

C04B 7/26

metals obtained from residues or scrap

C22B

Treatment of radioactively-contaminated waste

G21F 9/00
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Treatment of waste water, sewage or sludge

C02F

Making explosives harmless by detonation

F42D 5/04

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Disinfection or sterilizing methods specially adapted for refuse

A61L 11/00

Waste or refuse as compounding ingredient for glass, cement, mortar, concrete, artificial stone or ceramics

C03 C04B

Materials for absorbing liquids to remove pollution, e.g. oil, gasoline, fat

C09K 3/32

Destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials

C10B

Destructive hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials

C10G 1/06

Micro-organisms, enzymes or compositions thereof

C12N

Consuming waste by combustion

F23G

Removal or treatment of combustion products or combustion residues

F23J

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Catalyst

Substance which either increases or decreases the speed of a chemical reaction, without itself undergoing a permanent chemical change.

Catalyst

Catalyst

Chalcogen

Also known as chalcogenides, specifically O, S, Se, Te.

Harmful

Directly toxic to living organisms, with the exception of toxic to plants only.

Harmful chemical substances

Chemical waste substances which are too hazardous or toxic to be discarded in an ordinary municipal landfill.

Halogens

The elements F, Cl, Br ,I , At.

Physico-chemical

Having at least one chemical step and one physical step.

Sludge

Residue (normally viscous) from an industrial, residential, or agricultural process.

A62D 7/02 fr

Clear-view sheets which prevent the formation of water drops or ice

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Materials for minimising adherence of ice or water to surfaces

C09K 3/18

A62D 9/00 fr

Compositions of chemical substances for use in breathing aparatus

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Production of oxygen-generating compounds in general

C01B 13/00

Processes for the production of oxygen from chemicals in general

C25B 1/02

A63B fr

Apparatus for physical training, gymnastics, swimming, climbing or fencing; Ball games; Training equipment

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Gymnastic or exercising apparatus or equipment, of which examples are:

Climbing or mountaineering apparatus, including apparatus for climbing trees or poles.

Swimming aids or equipment, e.g. flippers, goggles.

Balls for ball games including:

Rackets, bats or other striking implements for ball games, e.g. tennis rackets and similar, golf clubs, baseball bats, cricket bats, hockey sticks.

Accessories for golf; accessories for other ball games.

Targets or goals for ball games; tennis and similar nets and accessories therefor.

Implements for throwing, e.g. darts, javelins, spears, throwing-hammers, boomerangs, discus discs, quoits, juggling clubs.

Miscellaneous sporting games, e.g. miniature golf, juggling, curling, badminton, shuttlecock or like games, games using a hockey puck; projectiles for these games which do not fall into the above category of balls for ball games.

Training appliances for particular sports, e.g. for fencing, riding, skiing, rowing, punching-balls for boxing, golf swing trainers, artificial mountain slopes.

Other games or sports accessories, e.g. indicating or scoring devices, body protectors.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Some sporting subject matter is to be found in other subclasses of class A63. Skates, skis and their bindings, roller skates, skate-boards and the design or layout of playing-courts, rinks, bowling-greens or water-skiing areas or the like are classified in A63C. Bowling-alleys, bowling-games and equipment for bowls (but not the balls which are in A63B) and billiards or snooker are classified in A63D. Merry-go-rounds, swings, rocking-horses, toy animals for riding, chutes, switchbacks, water roundabouts, helter-skelters or the like are classified in A63G. Toys are in A63H. Racing, riding sports and equipment and accessories therefore, including race-courses and race-tracks, are in A63K.

In relation to apparatus or methods for manufacturing balls, it should be borne in mind that working of plastics or substances in a plastic state is classified in class B29 and the chemical or compositional aspects of balls is in Section C, e.g. compositions for making golf balls are usually in subclass C08L.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Protective equipment in the form of clothing or garments for sporting purposes

A41D 13/00

in the form of caps or hats

A42B 1/08

Helmets

A42B 3/00

Apparatus for passive exercising or massage

A61H

Unicycles

B62K 1/00

Vessels or like floating structures for pleasure or sport

B63B 35/71, B63B 35/73

Life-saving in water

B63C 9/00

Breathing aids for swimming, e.g. snorkels

B63C 11/12

Divers' sleds or like craft

B63C 11/46

Training of parachutists

B64D 23/00

Archers' finger tabs

F41B 5/16

Traps for clay-pigeon targets

F41J 9/18

Devices for exercising or strengthening of fingers or arms in teaching music

G09B 15/06
In relation to climbing or mountaineering equipment:

Non-skid devices or attachments for footwear, e.g. crampons

A43C 15/00

Breathing masks or helmets for use at high altitudes

A62B 18/00

Safety belts for climbers

A62B 35/00

Picks

B25D 7/00

Ladders attached to fixed structures

E06C 9/04

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring muscular strength

A61B 5/22

Connecting valves to inflatable elastic bodies

B60C 29/00

Throwing weapons

F41B

e.g. sling-weapons

F41B 3/00

Stop watches

G04F

Timing devices

G07C

A63B 41/00 fr

Hollow inflatable balls

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Valves, e.g. self-closing valves

F16K

A63B 41/12 fr

Tools or devices for blowing up or closing balls

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Air pumps per se for flowing up balls

F04

A63B 55/08 fr

Wheeled carriers for golf bags

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Running gear or propulsion features for wheeled carriers for golf bags

B60

A63H fr

Toys, e.g. tops, dolls, hoops, building blocks

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Toys of the following types:

Special methods or compositions for the manufacture of dolls, toy animals, toy figures or parts thereof.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Toys are often imitations or miniatures of "genuine", "full-size" working devices, machines or apparatus with a practical use. However toys normally have structural details that make them unsuitable for operation similar to that of a full-size equivalent. For the full-size working device, the relevant subclass should be consulted, for example "proper" vehicles, aircraft, etc. should be classified in classes B60-B64 and gearing in general (instead of gearing for toys) is in subclass F16H. In borderline cases where it is difficult to distinguish between a toy and a full-size working device, it may be necessary to classify in several places.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Blowing smoke-rings

A24F 13/30

Dolls' footwear

A43B 3/28

Flying discs

A63B 65/10

Throwing toys as part of a game

A63F 9/02

Traffic games with figures moved by players

A63F 9/14

Changeable or secret pictures

B44F 1/10

Spring toy guns

F41B 3/00

Firecrackers

F42B 4/04

Hand-thrown impact-exploded noise makers

F42B 4/16

Kaleidoscopes

G02B 27/08

Toy ticket punches

G07B 9/02
Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:
Examples (not mentioned above) of devices, articles or apparatus which are applicable to humans instead of toys, or of "full-size" working devices or machines with a practical use:

Eyelashes, eyebrows for humans

A41G

Savings boxes

A45C 1/12

Artificial eyes for humans

A61F 2/14

Picture books

B42D 1/00

Parachutes for aeronautics

B64D

Ultra-small engines, e.g. for driving models

F02B 75/34

Models or scenery for general purposes

G09B

Music, sound or noise production in general

G10

Transformers

H01F

Electric motors per se

H02K

Converters

H02M

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Toy

A plaything to be actively played with by children or others; something contrived for amusement rather than for practical or serious use.

Toy figure

A toy that is a caricature or a stylised or symbolic form of a human being, animal, cartoon, fictional character or mythological being.

B01D fr

Separation

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Processes and apparatus for evaporation, distillation, sublimation, crystallisation, solvent extraction, chromatography, sedimentation, filtration, dust precipitation, gas cleaning, absorption, adsorption, separation of isotopes.

Cold traps, cold baffles.

Treating liquids by displacement, adsorption, separation or degasification.

Treating gases or vapours by separation, recovering, chemical or biological purification of waste gases.

Separation using semi-permeable membranes, dialysis, osmosis, ultrafiltration.

Separation of suspended particles from liquids by sedimentation, flocculation, settling, filtration or other processes.

Separation of dispersed particles from gases or vapours, by filtration, gravity, inertia or centrifugal forces, or using liquid as separating agent.

Similar processes which are not concerned with, or limited to, separation.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

For apparatus used in drying or evaporation, F26B takes precedence over this subclass.

Separation of isotopes of the same chemical element is covered by group B01D 59/00, whatever process or apparatus is employed; this group therefore takes precedence over other subclasses of class B01.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Separating solids from solids by wet methods

B03B, B03D

Separating solids from solids using liquids or using pneumatic jigs or tables

B03B

Magnetic or electrostatic separation of solid materials from solid materials or fluids, separation by high-voltage electric fields

B03C

Flotation, differential sedimentation

B03D

Separating solids from solids by dry methods, e.g. sieving, screening, sifting or using gas currents

B07B

Centrifuges

B04B

Vortex apparatus, e.g. cyclones

B04C

Presses per se for squeezing-out liquid from liquid-containing material

B30B 9/02

Making single crystals

C30B

Into single crystals

C30B 23/00

Manufacture of hollow fibres

D01D 5/24, D01F 1/08

Separation of difficult-to-condense gases or air by liquefaction

F25J 3/00

Condensers

F28B
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Blood or infusion liquid filters

A61M 5/165

Screens or sieves per se

B07B 1/00

Extrusion filters

B29C 47/68

Filtering spinning solution or melt

D01D 1/10

Filtration of lubricants

F16N 39/06

Suction cleaner filters

A47L 9/10

Filters for breathing-protection purposes

A62B 23/00

Filtering air for vehicles

B60H 3/06

Separating pneumatically-conveyed materials from propelling gas

B65G 53/60

Exhaust or silencing apparatus for machines or engines having means for removing solid constituents of exhaust

F01N 3/02

Air cleaners for the intakes of gas-turbine or jet-propulsion plants

F02C 7/05

Air cleaners for the intakes of combustion engines

F02M 35/024

Air cleaners for the intakes of compressors

F04B 39/16

Filtering in air-conditioning

F24F 3/16

Arrangement or mounting of filters in air-conditioning, air-humidification or ventilation

F24F 13/28

Purification or separation of nitrogen

C01B 21/04

Working-up unidentified gaseous mixtures obtained by cracking hydrocarbon oils

C10G 70/00

Cleaning coal gas

C10K

Working-up of natural gas, or synthetic natural gas

C10L 3/10

Investigating materials

G01N 30/00

Treatment of milk by dialysis, reverse osmosis or ultrafiltration

A23C 9/142

Treatment of milk by electrodialysis

A23C 9/144

Artificial kidneys

A61M 1/14

Treatment of water e.g. softening of water by ion-exchange

C02F, C02F 1/42

Treatment of water by dialysis, osmosis or reverse osmosis

C02F 1/44

Treatment of water by electrodialysis

C02F 1/469

Apparatus for enzymology or microbiology with dialysis means

C12M 1/12

Production or purification of sugar juices, e.g. by osmosis

C13D 3/16

Extraction of sugar from molasses, e.g. by osmosis

C13J 1/08

Diaphragms for electrolysis

C25B 13/00, C25C 7/04

Osmosis as energy source

F03G 7/00

Special rules of classification

Group B01D 59/00 (separation of isotopes) takes precedence over other groups of this subclass since it covers separation of isotopes of the same chemical element, whatever process or apparatus is employed.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Filtration

The separation of a fluid-solid mixture, involving passage of most of the fluid through a porous barrier which retains most of the solid particulates contained in the mixture; includes straining solids from fluids.

Filter medium

A porous barrier or porous arrangement of material, which lets a fluid pass while retaining most of the solids which were mixed with it.

Filtering element

A section of filter medium in addition to parts to which the medium is demountably or permanently fixed, including other sections of medium, end caps, peripheral frames or edge strips, but excluding housings.

Filter housing

The fluid-constraining impervious vessel, whether open or closed, which contains, or is adapted to contain one or more filtering elements or filter media.

Filter chamber

The space within a housing where filtering elements or filter media are located; partitions may divide a single housing into a plurality of chambers.

Filtering apparatus

Filtering elements combined with housings, cleaning arrangements, motor or like parts, which are characteristic of the particular type of apparatus. Ancillary devices such as pumps or valves are considered part of a filtering apparatus when inside the apparatus. Ancillary devices performing similar or different unit operations such as comminutors, mixers or non-filtering separators, whether or not inside the apparatus, are not considered part of a filtering apparatus. The term does not extend to apparatus, e.g. washing machines, of which the filter forms only a part.

B01D 1/00 fr

Evaporating

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Preparation of starch

C08B 30/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Prevention of incrustation

C23F

B01D 1/20 fr

Sprayers

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Sprayers in general

B05B

B01D 3/00 fr

Distillation or related exchange processes in which liquids are contacted with gaseous media, e.g. stripping

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Preparation of alcoholic beverages by distillation

C12G 3/12

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Gas chromatography

B01D 15/08

Destructive distillation

C10B

B01D 3/16 fr

Fractionating columns in which vapour bubbles through liquid

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Packing elements

B01J 19/30, B01J 19/32

B01D 8/00 fr

Cold traps;Cold baffles

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Pumps for evacuating by condensing or freezing

F04B 37/08

B01D 15/00 fr

Separating processes involving the treatment of liquids with solid sorbents;Apparatus therefor

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Treating liquids with moving adsorbents.

Non-selective adsorption treatment of liquids with ion-exchange materials in processes where no ion-exchange occurs (e.g. purification or regeneration treatments).

Selective adsorption treatments of liquids with ion-exchange materials as adsorbents.

Separation processes and apparatus using selective adsorption e.g. chromatography.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Separating processes involving the treatment of liquids with liquid sorbents

B01D 11/00

Preparative gas chromatography

B01D 53/02

Separation of isotopes of the same chemical element

B01D 59/00

Sorbent materials in general

B01J 20/00

Sorbents for chromatography

B01J 20/281

Ion-exchange processes or materials

B01J 39/00-B01J 49/00

Treatment of water

C02F

e.g. softening of water by ion-exchange

C02F 1/42
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Investigative or analytical chromatography

G01N 30/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Sorption and chromatography relating to particular applications, or relating to treating particular compounds or groups of compounds, may be classified in the following non-exhaustive list:

Modifying dairy products by dialysis, osmosis, filtration or ion-exchange

A23C 9/14

Treating blood or products derived therefrom

A61K 35/14

Separation of optically active compounds

C07B 57/00

Purification of hydrocarbons by adsorption

C07C 7/12

Extraction, separation or purification of peptides by chromatography

C07K 1/16

Refining hydrocarbon oils with solid sorbents

C10G 25/00

Refining fats or fatty oils by adsorption

C11B 3/10

Purification of alcoholic beverages with ion-exchange or adsorption material

C12H 1/04

Separating or purifying micro-organisms or enzymes

C12N 9/00

Purification of sugar juices using adsorption agents

C13D 3/12

Special rules of classification

In order that group B01D 15/08 may provide a basis for a complete search with respect to chromatography, all subject matter of interest should also be classified in this group even when it is classified primarily in application-oriented place(s) (see Informative References).

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Adsorption

A separation process which involves the transfer and resulting equilibrium distribution of one or more solutes between a fluid phase and adsorbing particles.

Sorbent

A material which separates a constituent from a fluid mixture containing such constituents. The action in most instances is that of selective retention (i.e. the sorbent removes only the part of the fluid mixture for which it has the greatest affinity). The retained constituent cannot be removed by shaking, brushing or similar mechanical action, but generally can be removed by heating, pressure reduction, or use of a stripping or denuding fluid.

Chromatography

A process in which a liquid is flowed along a linear path comprising a sorbent, with which the liquid competes in affinity for a constituent of the liquid. The constituent is sorbed from the moving liquid by the relatively immobile sorbent and re-dissolved by a later passing portion of the liquid until an equilibrium of the sorbing-dissolving step is set up causing the constituent to concentrate in a specific volume of the sorbent and to move along the path of the liquid at a rate slower than such liquid.

Adsorption chromatography

Separation is based mainly on differences between the adsorption affinities of the sample components for the surface of an active solid.

Partition chromatography

Separation is based mainly on differences between the solubilities of the sample components in the stationary phase (gas chromatography) or on differences between the solubilities of the components in the mobile and stationary phases (liquid chromatography).

Exclusion chromatography

Separation is based mainly on exclusion effects, such as differences in molecular size (size-exclusion chromatography) and/or shape or charge

Affinity chromatography

The particular variant of chromatography in which the unique biological specificity of the analyte and ligand interaction is utilised for the separation.

Bonded phase

A stationary phase which is covalently bonded to the support particles or to the inside wall of the column tubing.

Synonyms and Keywords

HPLC

High performance liquid chromatography, sometimes also referred to as high pressure liquid chromatography

B01D 17/00 fr

Separation of liquids, not provided for elsewhere, e.g. by thermal diffusion

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Places in relation to which this subclass is residual:

Devices for separating or removing fatty or oily substances or similar floating material from water, waste water, or sewage

C02F 1/40

Cleaning or keeping clear the surface of open water from oil or like materials

E02B 15/04

Arrangements for separating lubricants from refrigerants

F25B 43/02

B01D 19/02 fr

Foam dispersion or prevention

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Foam dispersion or prevention during boiling

B01B 1/02

Foam dispersion or prevention during fermentation

C12

B01D 21/00 fr

Separation of suspended solid particles from liquids by sedimentation

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Devices for separating or removing fatty or oily substances or similar floating material from water, waste water, or sewage

C02F 1/40

B01D 21/01 fr

Insert title tags here...

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Using flocculating agents for purifying water

C02F 1/52

Using flocculating agents for liquid radioactive waste

G21F 9/10

B01D 21/26 fr

Separation of sediment aided by centrifugal force

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Centrifuges

B04B

Cyclones

B04C

B01D 33/052 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Presses per se for squeezing out liquid using an endless pressing band

B30B 9/24

B01D 39/18 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Making filter paper

D21F 11/14

B01D 39/20 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Porous ceramic material

C04B 38/00

Making alloys by powder metallurgy

C22C 1/04

B01D 47/14 fr

Packed scrubbers

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Packing elements

B01J 19/30, B01J 19/32

B01D 51/00 fr

Auxiliary pretreatment of gases or vapours to be cleaned from dispersed particles

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Preventing dust fires is classified in subclass A62C

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Pretreatment specially adapted for magnetic separation

B03C 1/005

Pretreatment specially adapted for electrostatic separation

B03C 3/01

B01D 53/00 fr

Separation of gases or vapours;Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases;Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases or aerosols

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Separation of difficult-to-condense gases or air by liquefaction

F25J
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

For the separation of specific gases or vapours, see the relevant places, e.g. for purification or separation of nitrogen

C01B 21/04

Working-up undefined gaseous mixtures obtained by cracking hydrocarbon oils

C10G 70/00

Cleaning coal gas

C10K

Working-up of natural gas, or synthetic natural gas

C10L 3/10

For investigating materials

G01N 30/00

B01D 53/18 fr

Absorbing units;Liquid distributors therefor

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Packing elements

B01J 19/30, B01J 19/32

B01D 53/22 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Manufacturing semi-permeable membranes

B01D 67/00

Form, structure or properties of semi-permeable membranes

B01D 69/00

Material for semi-permeable membranes

B01D 71/00

B01D 57/02 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Treatment of water, waste water, sewage or sludge by electrophoresis

C02F 1/469

Electrophoretic production of compounds or non-metals

C25B 7/00

Investigating or analysing materials by using electrophoresis

G01N 27/26

B01D 59/38 fr

Separation by electrochemical methods

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Separation by electrochemical methods in general

B01J

B01J fr

Chemical or physical processes, e.g. catalysis, colloid chemistry;Their relevant apparatus

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Treatment of milk

A23C 9/14

Separation by ion-exchangers

B01D

E.g. separation of liquids by ion-exchange adsorbents

B01D 15/04

Chromatography involving ion-exchange

B01D 15/36

Separation of isotopes

B01D 59/00

Compounds per se, see the relevant classes, e.g.

C01, C07, C08

Treatment of water

C02F 1/42

Refining of hydrocarbon oils, in the absence of hydrogen, with solid sorbents

C10G 25/00

Purification of sugar juices

C13D 3/14

Extraction of sugar from molasses

C13J 1/06

Extraction of metal compounds from ores or concentrates by wet processes

C22B 3/00

Using ion-exchange for investigating or analysing materials

G01N 30/96

Treating radioactively contaminated material

G21F 9/12

B03D fr

Flotation; Differential sedimentation

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Apparatus or methods using liquids for the separation of solids from solids, such apparatus or methods consisting of the following:

Flotation type separation apparatus or methods that may include one or more of the following:

Differential sedimentation type separation apparatus or methods that may include coagulation or flocculation.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

In Section B, the separation of different materials, e.g. of different matter, size or state, is predominantly found in the following subclasses: B01D, B03B, B03C, B03D, B04B, B04C, B07B, B07C.

The classifying characteristics of these subclasses are:

The first of these characteristics involves six different aspects, assembled in three groups:

These subclasses are to be used according to the following general rules:

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Combinations of dry separating apparatus with wet separating apparatus

B03B

Sink-float separation

B03B 5/28
Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Separating isotopes

B01D 59/00

Treatment of water, waste water or sewage by flotation

C02F 1/24

Flotation apparatus for enzymology or microbiology

C12M 1/09

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Processes or devices capable of general use, for removing adhering liquid from separated materials

B01D

Froth dispersion

B01D 19/02

Sedimentation in general

B01D 21/00

Devices for feeding measured quantities of reagents

B01J 4/02

Conditioners

B03B 1/00

Centrifuges

B04B

Separating by dry methods

B07

Detergents, soaps

C11D

Special rules of classification

In groups B03D 1/001-B03D 1/018 (advanced level), in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

In groups B03D 1/001-B03D 1/018 (advanced level), it is desirable to add the appropriate indexing code(s) from each of groups B03D 101/00 or B03D 103/00.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Coagulation

The process by which a liquid changes to a thickened, curdlike, insoluble state by some kind of chemical or physical process, excluding by evaporation.

Differential sedimentation

A separation process using gravity or centrifugal force to initiate differential settling of suspended solids, for example at the bottom of a tank. Different solid materials settle at different rates.

Flocculation

This refers to a process where a solute comes out of solution in the form of floc or "flakes". The term is also used to refer to the process by which fine particulates are caused to clump together into floc. The floc may then float to the top of the liquid, settle to the bottom of the liquid, or can be readily filtered from the liquid. Sodium silicate is a common flocculating agent.

Flotation

(Also known as froth flotation) A separation process whereby water and chemicals are added to a mixture of solids to form a pulp while developing differences in surface tension between the various species in the solids mixture. The pulp is then copiously aerated and the preferred (aerophilic) species clings to bubbles and floats as a mineralized froth, which is then skimmed off.

B04B fr

Centrifuges

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Centrifuges that are intended for separating, mixing, drying, extracting, purifying or other ways of treating mixtures composed of matter in the following physical states:

Such centrifuges may comprise centrifuges with rotary bowls provided with solid jackets for separating predominantly liquid mixtures with or without solid particles; centrifuges with rotary bowls in which solid particles or bodies become separated by centrifugal force and simultaneously sifted or filtered; or other centrifuges including radial chamber apparatus such as butyrometers or counter-current apparatus.

Elements or accessories of centrifuges such as casings, lids, rotary bowls, drives, gearing, suspending or balancing of rotary bowls, feeding, charging or discharging of bowls, control arrangements, heating, cooling or suppressing the formation of foam.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Separation of isotopes of the same chemical element is covered by B01D 59/00, whatever process or apparatus is employed. Processes for separation of different isotopes of the same chemical element by centrifuging are covered by B01D 59/20.

Processes in general that use centrifugal force for separating, extracting or purifying components of mixtures are covered in subclasses B01D and B07B, and not in subclass B04B with the apparatus for accomplishing these processes. Examples of such processes can be found in the "References relevant to classification in this subclass" section below, in the subsection entitled "Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system".

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

High-speed drum mills

B02C 19/11

Cyclone separators

B04C
Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Centrifuges for producing filtered coffee

A47J 31/22

Dental appliances for receiving spittle, with or without rinsing means therefore, e.g. dental basins, spittoons or cuspidors

A61C 17/14

Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes, other treatment of blood in a by-pass of the natural circulatory system

A61M 1/36

Processes for separation of non-miscible liquids by centrifugal force

B01D 17/038

Processes for using centrifuges for separating sediment

B01D 21/26

Processes for separating dispersed particles from gases or vapours by gravity, inertia or centrifugal forces

B01D 45/00, B01D 45/12

Processes for separation of gases or vapours or for recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases by centrifugal force

B01D 53/24

Processes using centrifugal force for selective separation of solid materials carried by, or dispersed in, gas currents

B07B 7/08

Centrifugal casting machines

B22D

Treatment of water, waste water or sewage by centrifugal separation

C02F 1/38

Domestic spin dryers

D06F

Lubrication of machines or engines in general, details of lubricant purifying means

F01M 11/03

Exhaust or silencing apparatus for machines or engines having means for removing solid constituents of exhaust, using inertial or centrifugal separators

F01N 3/037

Drying solid material by using centrifuges

F26B 5/08

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Filters in general

B01D

Separation in general

B01D

Magnetic or electrostatic separators

B03C

Sieves in general

B07B

Shock absorbers, vibration dampers

F16F

Analysing materials by determining their physical or chemical properties e.g. during centrifuging

G01N

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Centrifuge

Machine or apparatus for separating, mixing, drying, extracting, purifying, or like treating in which centrifugal effects are generated by rotary bowls or other rotors. Where such a machine or apparatus involves pumping effects, such effects must be incidental or subsidiary to the treating.

B04C fr

Apparatus using free vortex flow, e.g. cyclones

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Apparatus for separating, mixing or like treating (e.g. drying, extracting, purifying) in which centrifugal or centripetal effects are generated by free vortex flow, otherwise than by rotary bowls, rotors or curved passages. The free vortex flow generated may follow a flat spiral, have an unchanged or constant axial direction, or have a reversible axial direction. The mixtures treated are composed of the following physical states of matter:

Combinations of such apparatus with other devices, e.g. fans.

Accessories for such devices e.g. safety or control devices.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Separation of isotopes of the same chemical element is covered by B01D 59/00, whatever process or apparatus is employed.

Processes in general that use free vortex flow, e.g. cyclones, for separating, extracting or purifying components of mixtures are covered in subclass B01D, and not in subclass B04C with the apparatus for accomplishing these processes.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Combinations of cyclones with filters, for separating particles from gases or vapours

B01D 50/00

Jet mills

B02C 19/06

Combinations of cyclones with electrostatic precipitating arrangements

B03C 3/14

Cyclonic type combustion apparatus using fluent fuel

F23C 3/00

Vortex burners e.g. for cyclone-type combustion apparatus

F23D 1/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangement or disposition of cyclones or other devices with centrifugal action, in suction cleaners

A47L 9/16

Separation in general

B01D

Magnetic or electrostatic separators

B03C

Centrifugal separators

B04B

Selective separation of solid materials carried by or dispersed in gas currents, using centrifugal force

B07B 7/08

Mounting or connecting of lubricant purifying means relative to a machine or engine

F01M 11/03

Crankcase ventilating or breathing having means for purifying air before leaving crankcase, e.g. removing oil

F01M 13/04

Exhaust or silencing apparatus for machines or engines having means for removing solid constituents of exhaust, using inertial or centrifugal separators

F01N 3/037

Fluid dynamics in general

F15D

Compression machines, plant or systems using vortex effect

F25B 9/04

Analysing materials by determining their physical or chemical properties, e.g. while the centrifugal or centripetal effects generated by a vortex flow are acting on the sample

G01N

B05B fr

Spraying apparatus; Atomizing apparatus; Nozzles

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Apparatus for the release or projection of drops or droplets into the atmosphere or into a chamber to form a mist or the like. The materials to be projected may be suspended in a stream of gas or vapour.

Apparatus as above, for the release or projection of streams or sprays of other fluent materials into the atmosphere or into a chamber.

Examples of such apparatus, and subcomponents thereof covered by this subclass, include:

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Subclass B05C relates to apparatus for applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces in general. This subject matter generally relates to contact methods e.g. spreading, pouring, dipping, rubbing, using rollers, using fluidized bed techniques etc. and not to spraying or atomizing apparatus which is proper for B05B. However "projecting" of the liquid or other fluent material to the inside of hollow work is also covered by B05C 7/02 and this may be regarded as overlapping with B05B.

Subclass B05D relates to processes (including processes performed by spraying) for applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces in general.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Spray-mixers with nozzles

B01F 5/20

Aerosol containers

B65D 83/14

Drinking fountains

E03B 9/20
Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Watering gardens, fields, sports grounds or the like

A01G 25/00

Sprayers or atomisers specially adapted for therapeutic purposes

A61M 11/00

Inhalators

A61M 15/00

Sand-blasting

B24C

Coating of articles during shaping of substances in a plastic state

B29C 39/10, B29C 39/18, B29C 41/20, B29C 41/30, B29C 43/18, B29C 43/28, B29C 45/14, B29C 47/02

Nozzles for ink-jet printing mechanisms

B41J 2/135

Dropping or releasing powdered, liquid or gaseous matter in flight

B64D 1/16

Nozzles for liquid-dispensing, e.g. in vehicle service stations

B67D 7/42

Supplying combustion engines in general with combustible mixtures or constituents thereof

F02M

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Domestic cleaning

A47L

Mixing in general

B01F

Cleaning in general by methods involving the use or presence of a liquid

B08B 3/00

Forming layered products

B32B

Closures for containers

B65D

Conveying articles or workpieces through baths of liquid

B65G 49/02

Handling webs or filaments in general

B65H

Surface treatment of glass by coating

C03C 17/00, C03C 25/10

Coating or impregnation of mortars, concrete, stone or ceramics

C04B 41/45, C04B 41/61, C04B 41/81

Paints, varnishes, lacquers

C09D

Enamelling of metals, applying a vitreous layer to metals, chemical cleaning or degreasing of metallic objects

C23

Electroplating

C25D

Treating of textile materials by liquids, gases or vapours

D06B

Laundering

D06F

Treating roads

E01C

Anti-splash devices for water taps

E03C 1/08

Means for pumping fluids

F04

Valves, e.g. water-taps

F16K

Burners

F23D

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Coating

The application of liquid, gaseous, fluent or particulate materials to a surface. The applied material may become solid after drying (e.g. paint).

Other fluent materials

Fluent materials other than liquids, including semi-liquids, pastes, melts, solutions, dispersions, suspensions, particulate materials, gases or vapours.

Particulate materials

Solid materials that have been cut up or ground into very small pieces including powders, granules, short fibres or chips.

B05B 12/00 fr

Arrangements or special adaptations of delivery controlling means in spraying systems

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Controlling in general

G05

B05B 15/00 fr

Details of spraying plant or apparatus not otherwise provided for;Accessories

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Accessories applicable to other methods of applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces

B05C

B07B fr

Separating solids from solids by sieving, screening or sifting, or by using gas currents;Other separating by dry methods applicable to bulk material, e.g. loose articles fit to be handled like bulk material.

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Apparatus or methods for the separation of solids from solids that include:

Relationship between large subject matter areas

In Section B, the separation of different materials, e.g. of different matter, size, or state, is predominantly found in the following subclasses: B01D, B03B, B03C, B03D, B04B, B04C, B07B, B07C.

The classifying characteristics of these subclasses are:

The first of these characteristics involves six different aspects, assembled in three groups:

These subclasses are to be used according to the following general rules:

Sorting peculiar to particular materials or adapted to a specific purpose may be covered in other classes, see for example the non-exhaustive list of places for special adaptions in the following subsection.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Separating isotopes

B01D 59/00

Combinations of dry separating apparatus with wet separating apparatus or pneumatic tables

B03B

Separating solids from solids using pneumatic tables or jigs

B03B 4/00

Hand sorting, postal sorting, sorting by switching or other devices actuated in response to detection or measurement of some feature of articles or samples of material

B07C
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Grading or sorting of eggs

A01K 43/00, A01K 43/04

Machines for sorting heel lifts in shoe-making

A43D 33/06

Sorting arrangements for handling work specially combined with, or arranged in, or specially adapted for use in connection with, machine tools

B23Q 7/12

Straining or screening of pulp in paper-making

D21D 5/02

Rotary screen-drums used in paper-making

D21D 5/06

Sorting of coins

G07D

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Separation in general; solid/gas separation in general

B01D

Wet separating processes, sorting by processes using fluent material in the same way as liquid

B03

Wet separating using liquids

B03B, B03D

Sorting by magnetic or electrostatic separation of solid materials from solid materials or fluids, separation by high-voltage electric fields

B03C

Centrifuges or vortex apparatus for carrying out physical processes, e.g.

B04

Centrifuges

B04B

Cyclones

B04C

B07C fr

Postal sorting;Sorting individual articles, or bulk material fit to be sorted piece-meal, e.g by picking

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tube mail systems

B65G 51/04

Sorting information records, e.g. punched cards

G06F 7/10

B21B 17/00 fr

Tube-rolling by rollers of which the axes are arranged essentially perpendicular to the axis of the work, e.g. "axial" tube-rolling

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Control of tube rolling

B21B 37/78

B21B 19/00 fr

Tube-rolling by rollers arranged outside the work and having their axes not perpendicular to the axis of the work

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Control of tube rolling

B21B 37/78

B21B 21/00 fr

Pilgrim-step tube-rolling

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Control of tube rolling

B21B 37/78

B21B 23/00 fr

Tube-rolling not restricted to methods provided for in only one of groups B21B 17/00-B21B 21/00, e.g. combined processes

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Control of tube rolling

B21B 37/78

B21B 25/00 fr

Mandrels for metal tube rolling mills, e.g. mandrels of the types used in the methods covered by group B21B 17/00;Accessories or auxiliary means therefor

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Control of tube rolling

B21B 37/78

B21C fr

Manufacture of metal sheets, wire, rods, tubes, profiles or like semi-manufactured products otherwise than by rolling;Auxiliary operations used in connection with metal-working without essentially removing material

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Continuous casting

B22D 11/00

Pressure welding by means of a rolling mill

B23K 20/04

B22D 33/00 fr

Equipment for handling moulds

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangement of indicating or measuring devices

B22D 2/00

B22D 35/00 fr

Equipment for conveying molten metal into beds or moulds

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangement of indicating or measuring devices

B22D 2/00

B22D 37/00 fr

Controlling or regulating the pouring of molten metal from a casting melt-holding vessel

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangement of indicating or measuring devices

B22D 2/00

B22D 39/00 fr

Equipment for supplying molten metal in rations

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangement of indicating or measuring devices

B22D 2/00

B22D 41/00 fr

Casting melt-holding vessels, e.g. ladles, tundishes, cups or the like

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangement of indicating or measuring devices

B22D 2/00

B22D 43/00 fr

Mechanical cleaning, e.g. skimming of molten metals

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangement of indicating or measuring devices

B22D 2/00

B22D 45/00 fr

Equipment for casting, not otherwise provided for

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangement of indicating or measuring devices

B22D 2/00

B23B fr

Turning;Boring

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

For surgical purposes

A61B 17/16

Earth or rock drilling

E21B

B23D fr

Planing;Slotting;Shearing;Broaching;Sawing;Filing;Scraping;Like operations for working metal by removing material, not otherwise provided for

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Surgical saws

A61B 17/14

Sawing wood or similar material

B27B

B23D 67/00 fr

Filing or rasping machines or devices

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Sharpening saw teeth thereby

B23D 63/10

B23D 69/00 fr

Filing or rasping machines or devices, characterised only by constructional features of particular parts, e.g. guiding arrangements, drives

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Sharpening saw teeth thereby

B23D 63/10

B23D 71/00 fr

Filing or rasping tools;Securing arrangements therefor

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Sharpening saw teeth thereby

B23D 63/10

B23D 73/00 fr

Making files or rasps

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Sharpening saw teeth thereby

B23D 63/10

B23K fr

Soldering or unsoldering;Welding;Cladding or plating by soldering or welding;Cutting by applying heat locally, e.g. flame cutting;Working by laser beam

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Essentially requiring the use of welding machines or welding equipment, see the relevant groups for the welding machines or welding equipment

B24B fr

Machines, devices, or processes for grinding or polishing;Dressing or conditioning of abrading surfaces;Feeding of grinding, polishing, or lapping agents

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

If peculiar to a particular type of machine or device, see the relevant group therefor

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

If applicable to other machine tools

B23Q

B26B fr

Hand-held cutting tools not otherwise provided for

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

For horticultural purposes

A01G

Bone shears

A22C 17/06

Metal shears

B23D

B26D

Cutting;Details common to machines for severing, e.g. by cutting, perforating, punching, stamping-out

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Plant

Any of a kingdom (Plantae) of multicellular eukaryotic mostly photosynthetic organisms typically lacking locomotive movement or obvious nervous or sensory organs and possessing cellulose cell walls.

B27J 7/00

Mechanical working of tree or plant materials not otherwise provided for

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Plant

Any of a kingdom (Plantae) of multicellular eukaryotic mostly photosynthetic organisms typically lacking locomotive movement or obvious nervous or sensory organs and possessing cellulose cell walls.

B28C fr

Preparing clay;Producing mixtures containing clay or cementitious material, e.g plaster

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Mixers in general

B01F

Concrete paving mixers combined with distributing devices

E01C 19/00

Machines for preparing mixtures of road-metal with bitumen

E01C 19/10

B29D fr

Shaping or joining of plastics;Shaping of substances in a plastic state, in general;After treatment of the shaped products, e.g. repairing

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Making laminated products by combining previously unconnected layers which become one product whose layer will remain together

B32B 37/00-B32B 41/00

B32B fr

Layered products, i.e. products built-up of strata of flat or non-flat, e.g. cellular or honeycomb, form

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Layered products comprising different kinds of material.

Layered products not characterized by the kind of material used.

Products similar to layered products but comprising only material in the form of a sheet or network embedded in a mass of plastics or of physically-similar substances which mass penetrates the said sheet or network and lies on both sides of the latter (e.g. so that the sheet or network reinforces the plastics substance) provided that the embedded sheet or network extends coherently or connectedly over substantially the whole area of the product; thus the embedded sheet or network may be a fabric or a series of rods connected by cross wires.

Methods or apparatus for making layered products; Method or apparatus for treating layers or layered products either preliminary to or subsequent to their manufacture.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

The classification of layered products is provided for in many places, most of which are confined to a particular kind of material. However, in order that this subclass may provide a basis for making a complete search with respect to layered products, any similar layered products that specify relevant useful information are classified in this subclass even though it may also be classified in other classes.

However, this subclass does not cover:

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Etched metallic patterns on the surface of a printed circuit board

H05K1/00

Special rules of classification

In groups B32B1/00-B32B 33/00, at each level of indentation, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the first appropriate place.

In groups B32B9/00-B32B29/00 a "specific substance" covers specified alternative substances if they are all covered by a single main group.

Layered products are classified in groups B32B37/00 or B32B38/00 if not characterized by their structure or composition.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

adhesive

substance applied in any state or in any manner, which is incorporated for the purpose of bonding.

laminating

the combining of a base layer formed from a sheet (e.g., a fabric) or network (e.g., a series of rods connected by cross wires) of material and a mass of plastic, or another physically similar substance, that surrounds or embeds the base layer (i.e., it covers at least the outer surfaces of the opposite elongated sides of the layer) by encasement or penetration of the layer.

partial laminating

laminating wherein one layer does not fully cover a surface of another layer.

layer

sheet or strip or stratum having a small thickness relative to its other dimensions which, together with at least one other layer, exists in a product, whether it pre-existed, e.g. as a separate sheet or strip, or was formed during the production of the layered product. It may or may not be homogeneous or cohesive; it may be an assembly of fibres or pieces of material. It may be discontinuous, e.g. in the form of a grating, honeycomb, or frame. It may or may not be in complete contact with the next layer, e.g. a corrugated layer against a flat layer.

layered product

product composed of layers (continuous, discontinuous, or with gaps) of any form (e.g., honeycomb, corrugated) secured together in any way. Normally of substantially uniform thickness overall (i.e., ignoring local variations such as are produced by a corrugated face layer); may be in the form of an article, e.g., a container. This term is of wider scope than "laminate", covering material with voids between or in any layer.

filamentary layer

a layer of threads or filaments of any substance (e.g. wires) of more or less unlimited length placed in an orderly arrangement and secured together; it may be woven, knitted, braided, or netted, or formed of threads crossed or laid side and bonded together.

fibrous layer

a random assembly of fibres or filaments, usually of limited length, e.g. felt, fleece; the fibres may or may not be interengaged or connected, e.g. by adhesive.

particulate layer

layer that is composed from numerous small separate particles, e.g. chips, finely chopped fibres, powder.

film

formed on a layer by spreading a substance thereon; a film is not considered to constitute a layer itself if it serves only as an adhesive or it purpose is merely to finish the surface of a layer.

B41M 5/00 fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Organic dyes or closely-related compounds for producing dyes per se

C09B

B41M 5/20 fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Processes in which the current is transformed into a heat pattern for obtaining a transfer to a receiving sheet

B41M 5/382

B41M 5/40 fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Recording sheets characterised by the coating used to improve ink, dye or pigment receptivity, e.g. for ink-jet or thermal dye transfer recording

B41M 5/50

B60B fr

Vehicle wheels;Castors;Axles;Increasing wheel adhesion

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Wheels for roller skates

A63C 17/22

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Hand tools in general

B25

Tools for mounting tyres

B60C 25/00

Joining wheel units to motor vehicles or trailers during manufacturing, e.g. assembling

B62D 65/12

B60J 11/00 fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Non-fixed roofs

B60J 7/00

Liners for load platforms or load compartments

B60R 13/01

Railway wagon or like covers

B61D 39/00

Hoods or weather screens for children's carriages or perambulators

B62B 9/14

Covers for seats of cycles

B62J 1/18

Parking covers for cycles

B62J 19/00

Hoods or weather-guards for sidecars

B62K 27/16

Mud-guards or protecting devices for wheels of children's carriages or perambulators

B62B 9/16

B60K fr

Arrangement or mounting of propulsion units or of transmissions in vehicles;Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers;Auxiliary drives;Instrumentation or dashboards for vehicles;Arrangements in connection with cooling, air intake, gas exhaust, or fuel supply, of propulsion units, in vehicles

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Elastic mountings per se

F16F

B60K 1/00 fr

Arrangement or mounting of electrical propulsion units

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Of control devices for such units

B60K 26/00

B60K 3/00 fr

Arrangement or mounting of steam or gaseous- pressure propulsion units

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Of control devices for such units

B60K 26/00

B60K 5/00 fr

Arrangement or mounting of internal-combustion or jet-propulsion units

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Of control devices for such units

B60K 26/00

B60K 6/00 fr

Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Of control devices for such units

B60K 26/00

B60K 6/42 fr

Characterised by the architecture of the hybrid vehicle

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Differential gearing distribution type

Series-parallel type HEVs in which the combustion engine power is distributed by a differential, e.g. a planetary gearing, to the first motor-generator and the wheels, and the electric power generated by the first motor-generator is used to drive the second motor-generator mechanically connected to either the wheels or the combustion engine. The series-mode energy flow path is established when the second motor-generator is driven by the electric power generated by the first motor-generator, while the parallel-mode energy flow path is established when the wheels are driven by both the combustion engine and the second motor-generator. Motor-generator currents are controlled to determine the energy flow path through the drive units.

Example: The combustion engine is mechanically connected to a motor-generator via a first element of a differential gearing. A second motor-generator is connected to a second element of the differential gearing. The differential gearing also connects one or both of the motor-generators to the wheels.

Electrical distribution type

Series-parallel type HEVs in which the engine power is distributed, using a first motor-generator which is specific as a double rotor-type motor-generator, into mechanical power for driving the wheels and electric power for driving a second motor-generator connected to either the wheels or the combustion engine. The series-mode energy flow path is established when the second motor-generator is driven by the electric power generated by the first motor-generator, while the parallel-mode energy flow path is established when the wheels are driven by both the combustion engine and the second motor-generator. Motor-generator currents are controlled to determine the energy flow path through the drive units.

Example: The combustion engine shaft is mechanically connected to the inner rotor of a double-rotor type motor-generator. The outer rotor of the double-rotor type is connected to the second motor generator which is connected to the shaft driving the wheels.

Motor-assist type

Parallel type HEVs in which the motor-generator only assist the combustion engine and cannot drive the wheels alone.

Example: The motor-generator is mechanically connected to the engine. There is no clutch or differential gearing between motor-generator and engine. The combustion engine is mechanically connected to the wheels.

Parallel type

HEVs having a single motor-generator in which both the combustion engine and the motor-generator can directly drive the wheels. Parallel type HEVs in which the motor-generator only assist the combustion engine and cannot drive the wheels alone are specially defined as "motor assist type". Therefore "parallel type" is assigned to HEVs in which the motor generator can drive the wheels alone without the engine being connected to the wheels.

Example: There is a single motor-generator and the combustion engine is mechanically connected to the motor-generator, via a clutch or via differential gearing. The motor-generator is also mechanically connected to the wheels. The vehicle is driven electrically by the motor-generator or mechanically by the engine or by both in combination.

Series-parallel switching type

Series-parallel type HEVs in which the mode can be switched between series mode and parallel mode.

Example: The combustion engine is directly connected to a first motor-generator. There is a second motor-generator mechanically connected to the wheels and a clutch between the two motor-generators. In the series mode the clutch will be disengaged and the second motor generator will drive the wheels by using the electric power generated by the first motor generator. In the parallel mode the clutch will be engaged and the engine directly drives the wheels with or without assistance by the motor generators.

Series-parallel type

HEVs having at least two motor-generators, which include the functions of both the series type and the parallel type.

Series type

HEVs having at least two motor-generators in which the first motor-generator is mechanically connected for driving or braking the wheels supplied by a battery which power is mostly generated by the second motor-generator mechanically connected to the combustion engine.

Example: The combustion engine is mechanically connected to a motor-generator. The combustion engine is not mechanically connected to the wheels. All the output energy of the combustion engine is converted to electrical energy. The energy is used to drive a second electric machine connected to the wheels and/or to charge the energy storing means. The second electric machine will be used as generator during braking.

B60K 6/50 fr

Architecture of the driveline characterised by arrangement or kind of transmission units

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Particular arrangements of transmission units.

Kind or type of transmission units, e.g. CVT.

Four wheel drive arrangements.

B60K 7/00 fr

Disposition of motor in, or adjacent to, traction wheel

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Of control devices for such units

B60K 26/00

B60K 8/00 fr

Arrangement or mounting of propulsion units not provided for in one of main groups B60K 1/00-B60K 7/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Of control devices for such units

B60K 26/00

B60L fr

Electric equipment or propulsion of electrically-propelled vehicles;Magnetic suspension or levitation for vehicles;Electrodynamic brake systems for vehicles, in general.

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Feeding of power to auxiliary equipment of vehicles, e.g. electric heating or lighting circuits.

Current-collectors and arrangements thereof on rail or road vehicles or on electrically-propelled vehicles in general, e.g. rollers in contact with trolley wire, pantographs or third-rail current-collectors.

Electrodynamic brake systems for vehicles in general, e.g. electric resistor braking, electric regenerative braking or eddy-current braking.

Electric propulsion of vehicles with power supply external to the vehicle or supplied within the vehicle.

Electric propulsion of vehicles with power supply from force of nature, e.g. sun or wind.

Electric propulsion for monorail vehicles, suspension vehicles or rack railways.

Magnetic suspension or levitation for vehicles.

Methods, circuits or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles.

Monitoring operating variables, e.g. speed, deceleration or power consumption.

Electric devices on electrically-propelled vehicles for safety purposes, e.g. dead-man's devices, devices for limiting the current under mechanical overload conditions or for preventing excessive speed of the vehicle.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

This subclass is the general place for subject-matter relating to the electric propulsion of vehicles, for control of the propulsion and for collecting electrical power therefor. However conjoint control of two or more vehicle subunits, one of which may be an electrical propulsion unit, and subject-matter relating to control of hybrid vehicles comprising an internal-combustion motor and an electric motor, are covered in subclass B60W. Further subject-matter relating to arrangements or mounting of electrical propulsion units, electric gearings or auxiliary drives in vehicles, are covered in subclass B60K.

This subclass is also the application-oriented place for subject-matter relating to electrodynamic or dynamo-electric braking systems for vehicles. The function-oriented places for such systems are subclasses H02K and H02P.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Propulsion systems only for toy electric vehicles

A63H

Electric coupling devices combined with mechanical couplings of vehicles

B60D 1/62

Electric heating for vehicles

B60H

Arrangements or mounting of electrical propulsion units in vehicles

B60K 1/00

Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems

B60K 6/00

Arrangements or mounting of electric gearing in vehicles

B60K 17/12, B60K 17/14

Auxiliary drives on vehicles

B60K 25/00

Arrangement of signalling or lighting devices, the mounting or supporting thereof or circuits therefor, for vehicles in general

B60Q

Power-driven ground-engaging fittings for manoeuvring the vehicle

B60S 9/205

Vehicle brake control systems in general

B60T

Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function, including control of electrical propulsion units

B60W 10/00

Control systems specially adapted for hybrid vehicles

B60W 20/00

Electric locomotives or railcars

B61C 3/00

Preventing wheel slip by reducing power in rail vehicles

B61C 15/08

Dynamo-electric machines, e.g. dynamo-electric brakes

H02K, H02K 49/00

Starting, controlling, braking of electric machines or converters in general

H02P

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Power supply lines for supplying power to electrically-propelled vehicles

B60M

Railway track circuits in general

B61L

Lighting in general

F21, H05B

Switches in general

H01H

Coupling devices for electric connections in general

H01R

Electric converters

H02M

Electric heating in general

H05B

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Electrodynamic braking system

An electric machine that acts as a brake. Braking is accomplished by reversing the electric fields on the machine, effectively turning it into a generator. The usage of the generated power, either in useful applications or as dissipation of heat, restrains the motor-generator and provides a braking action.

As such, this term is virtually coterminous with "dynamo-electric braking system" (see below). However the term "electrodynamic" on its own is broader and less clear than the term "dynamo-electric". It means "pertaining to electric current, electricity in motion and the effects of magnetism and induction", and could theoretically encompass electrical devices other than dynamo-electric devices.

Dynamo-electric braking system

A dynamo-electric machine is a device for converting electrical energy into mechanical energy or mechanical energy into electrical energy or combinations thereof, which involve electromagnetic induction. In respect of brakes, a braking effect could be produced by converting the kinetic energy of a vehicle into electrical energy, for dissipation (e.g. by resistors or as eddy-currents) or for storage (e.g. by regenerative braking). Alternatively, electrical energy could be supplied to the device to drive it into reverse, thereby producing a braking effect.

Vehicle

This term has been used with the following two variations in meaning within this subclass:

(1) all varieties of apparatus (e.g. automobiles) intended to carry people or goods significant distances (e.g. between cities, to or from separate building complexes) across land or over water, except those restricted to one of the following types: rail vehicles, waterborne vessels, aircraft, space vehicles, hand carts, cycles, animal-drawn vehicles or sledges, which are covered by the relevant subclasses of B61-B64. Moreover the term "vehicle" also includes (i) vehicular characteristics which are common to more than one of the above-listed types of vehicles, and (ii) certain characteristics restricted to automobiles, road trailers or cross-country trailers.

(2) In some instances of this definition, the term "vehicle" has been qualified by another word which takes its meaning outside the scope of (1) above (e.g. "rail vehicle"); in such cases the word "vehicle" takes its broader dictionary meaning.

The reader can determine from the context whether an occurrence of the word "vehicle" in this definition falls within the meaning stated in (1) or (2).

Synonyms and Keywords

Maglev

Magnetic levitation vehicle

B60R fr

Vehicles , vehicle fittings, or vehicle parts, not otherwise provided for

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Any categories of vehicles per se that:

Vehicle components or parts of the following types when they are either of general utility or specially adapted for a category of vehicle proper for this subclass:

Vehicle components or parts of general utility that are for uses other than those specified above and that are not specially adapted for or restricted to usage with

Relationship between large subject matter areas

General relationship between B60R and other subclasses providing for devices or fittings for preventing injuries to passengers of vehicles

B60R covers safety devices or fittings for preventing or reducing direct-impact type injuries to occupants of vehicles when they are specifically for the types of vehicles proper for class B60 or are of general utility (i.e. usable on vehicles of several types). In addition to this, B60R covers air bags, seat belts or safety harnesses used in motor or rail-type vehicles of all types (i.e. land vehicles ).

B60P covers safety devices for securing or bracing loads other than occupants on vehicles .

B64D (in particular B64D 25/00) covers safety devices or fittings for aircraft and, in particular, safety belts and harnesses used on aircraft.

B63B (in particular B63B 23/00) and B63C (in particular B63C 9/00) cover safety devices or fittings for boats or ships.

A62B 35/00 covers safety belts or harnesses that are not used in vehicles or that are not limited to use in vehicles .

General relationship between B60R and other subclasses providing compartments, holding devices, or mounting devices in vehicles

B60R includes vehicle compartments or holding devices for storing or mounting articles in a non-use position when they are of general utility or not specifically provided for in an appropriate subclass for the category of vehicle they are on. Normally the 'articles' stored or held are not the primary payload of the vehicle (see B60P reference) and are limited to stowed articles that are the personal property of their occupants (e.g. luggage, skis), used by their occupants when traveling (e.g. maps, flashlights), or used for vehicle maintenance (e.g. jacks, tools). The 'articles' stored or held may also be an essential or primary vehicle component of the types specified in the main group titles of B60R (e.g. mirrors, air bags). Moreover, B60R also provides for devices for holding or mounting other types of 'articles' in a use position, but only when the 'articles' held or mounted are not essential to the operation of the vehicle (e.g. ceiling/roof liner, radio) or are secondary-type vehicle components (e.g. electrical wiring for circuits).

Other vehicle subclasses provide for compartments or component mounting devices when they are structurally limited to use only with a specific vehicle type provided for elsewhere. The exception to this statement is for those essential or primary vehicle components that are expressly provided for in specific groups of B60R (e.g. vehicle mirrors, bumpers, seat belts). Other vehicle subclasses provide for compartments or component mounting devices when they are for housing, positioning, or holding 'articles' that are the distinguishing essential or primary operational components for their category of vehicle (e.g. curtain-forming nozzle for aircushion vehicle ). However, in these situations, the operational components of vehicles must be useable in the held or housed position, or easily repositioned from a stored position to a position for use, for their primary purpose (e.g. B62D 25/08 for engine compartments, B60J 1/16 for vehicle windows slidable into non-use area of doors, B60Q 1/05 for retractable vehicle head lights) versus merely being transported freight.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Fire prevention, containment, or extinguishing specially adapted for vehicles

A62C 3/07

Cooling, heating, or ventilating devices for compartments that store goods within passenger vehicles

B60H 1/00

Special receptacles, compartments, or holders on vehicles for the refuse, food, beverages, or cigarettes of occupants

B60N 3/00

Vehicles with living accommodations for people (e.g. caravans with closets or bathrooms)

B60P 3/32

Vehicle safety devices for securing or bracing loads other than the occupants

B60P 7/06

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Wheels and axles for vehicles

B60B

Tyres for vehicles

B60C

Vehicles for use both on rail and on road

B60F 1/00

Vehicles for use on land and in or on water

B60F 3/00

Vehicles convertible to travel in or on different media

B60F 5/00

Vehicles predominantly for transporting loads

B60P

Air-cushion vehicles

B60V

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Direct-impact type injury

For drivers or passengers within a vehicle this consists of the types of injuries caused by a portion of an occupant's body striking a component that is within or encloses the passenger compartment of their vehicle (e.g. a bumper actuated air bag specifically protecting a passenger from hitting the steering wheel in contrast to an energy absorbing bumper protecting the vehicle ) and for non-occupants this consists of the types of injuries caused by a portion of a non-occupant's body striking an exterior component of a vehicle (e.g. a bumper actuated safety net catching a pedestrian prior to hitting the vehicle for specifically protecting the pedestrian in contrast to a flexible vehicle body part that is intended to resist damage due to any type of impact).

Vehicle

This term has been used with the following two variations in meaning within this subclass:

(1) all varieties of apparatus (e.g. automobiles) intended to carry people or goods significant distances (e.g. between cities, to or from separate building complexes) across land, over water, or through the air except those restricted to one of the following types: rail vehicles , waterborne vessels, aircraft, space vehicles , hand carts, cycles, animal-drawn vehicles , or sledges. Moreover, the term " vehicle " also includes (i) vehicular characteristics which are common to more than one of the above-listed types of vehicles , (ii) certain characteristics restricted to automobiles, road trailers, or cross-country trailers, and (iii) all land vehicles having characteristics specifically adapted for occupant safety such as air bags, seat belts, or safety harnesses.

(2) In some instances in this definition, the term " vehicle " has been qualified by another word which takes its meaning outside the scope of (1) above (e.g. "rail vehicle "), in such cases the word " vehicle " takes its broader dictionary meaning.

The reader can determine from the context whether an occurrence of the word " vehicle " in this definition falls within the meaning stated in (1) or (2).

B60R 16/00 fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices for measuring, signalling, controlling or distributing tyre pressure or temperature, specially adapted for mounting on vehicles

B60C 23/00

Central door locking

E05B 65/36

B60R 16/033 fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries

H02J 7/00

B60R 16/04 fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangement or mounting of batteries for electrical propulsion

B60K 1/04

Supplying batteries to, or removing batteries from, vehicles

B60S 5/06

B60R 16/06 fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Carrying-off electrostatic charges in general

H05F 3/00

B60R 16/08 fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangement of fuel conduits

B60K 15/01

B60R 21/00 fr

Arrangements or fittings on vehicles for protecting or preventing injuries to occupants or pedestrians in case of accidents or other traffic risks

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Vehicles of this subclass that include specially adapted arrangements, devices, or fittings attachable to or forming part of vehicles for either:

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Safety belts or body harnesses in vehicles

B60R 22/00

Safety devices for propulsion unit control specially adapted for, or arranged in, vehicles

B60K 28/00

Crash or safety seats constructed to protect the occupant from the effect of abnormal g-forces

B60N 2/42

Energy-absorbing arrangements for hand wheels for steering vehicles

B62D 1/11

Energy-absorbing arrangements for vehicle steering columns

B62D 1/19

Safety devices or fittings for aircraft and, in particular, safety belts and harnesses used on aircraft

B64D 25/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Apparatus or methods for life-saving in general

A62B

Safety devices for securing or bracing loads other than occupants on vehicles

B60P

B60R 21/02 fr

Occupant safety arrangements or fittings

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Vehicles of main group B60R 21/00 wherein the specially adapted arrangements, devices, or fittings are for either preventing or reducing direct-impact type injuries to occupants of vehicles or otherwise directly protecting occupants of vehicles.

B60R 22/00 fr

Safety belts or body harnesses in vehicles

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Vehicles of this subclass that include specially adapted flexible strap-like members or their arrangements that are intended to:

Specially adapted devices or fittings for cooperating with the flexible strap-like members.

Note.

Many of the flexible strap-like members are activated to protectively engage the occupant by extreme changes in or abnormal vehicular movement (e.g. sharp deceleration, collision with an object, vehicle turnover) or by means detecting the potential for this type of change or movement (e.g. radar signaling impending collision with another vehicle activates).

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Safety belts or body harnesses in general

A62B 35/00

Electrical circuits for triggering safety arrangement in case of vehicle accidents or impending vehicle accidents

B60R 21/01

Inflatable members forming a safety belt or harness, or used in combination with a safety belt or harness arrangement, on a vehicle

B60R 21/18

B60T fr

Vehicle brake control systems or parts thereof;Brake control systems or parts thereof, in general;Arrangement of braking elements on vehicles in general;Portable devices for preventing unwanted movement of vehicles;Vehicle modifications to facilitate cooling of brakes

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Arrangement of braking elements on vehicles (as defined in the Glossary of terms below).

Portable devices for preventing unwanted movement of vehicles, and especially where the devices are specially adapted to engage an exterior portion of a stationary vehicle to prevent or restrain its movement, e.g. chocks.

Vehicle modifications to facilitate cooling of brakes.

Control systems or parts thereof, in general or specially adapted for vehicles, for processing variables which influence the extent or duration of a braking event, for the following purposes:

Component parts, details or accessories of brake control systems, for example:

Relationship between large subject matter areas

B61H covers brakes or other retarding apparatus peculiar to rail vehicles, and arrangement or disposition of brakes or other retarding apparatus in rail vehicles, but the following aspects thereof in relation to rail vehicles are covered in B60T:

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Brakes or other retarding apparatus peculiar to rail vehicles; Arrangement or disposition of brakes or other retarding apparatus in rail vehicles (see above)

B61H

Electrodynamic brake systems and control thereof for vehicles, and in general

B60L

Conjoint control of brakes and other drive units of vehicles, such as engine, gearing or clutch (this may be particularly significant when traction control systems operating on more than just brakes are being classified)

B60W

Arrangement of braking elements on cycles

B62L

Arrangement of braking elements on aircraft

B64C 25/42

Dynamo-electric brakes

H02K 49/00

test

G10L

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Brakes themselves, i.e. the devices where the braking effect actually occurs, and actuators directly acting on those devices

F16D

Railway stops, track brakes or retarding apparatus, fixed to permanent way

B61K 7/00

Safety arrangements on roads for slowing, redirecting or stopping errant vehicles, e.g. guard posts, bollards

E01F 15/00

Special rules of classification

In group B60T 8/00, when the subject matter to be classified is characterised by both electronic and non-electronic aspects, it should be classified both in group B60T 8/17 or its subgroups, and in group B60T 8/18.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Boosters

Means for providing power assistance to the braking effort

Vehicle

This term can have two different meanings here, viz.

(1) all vehicles except those restricted to one of the following types of vehicles: rail vehicles, waterborne vessels, aircraft, space vehicles, hand carts, cycles, animal-drawn vehicles, and sledges, which are covered by the relevant subclasses of B61-B64. The term "vehicle" also includes

(i) vehicular characteristics which are common to more than one of the above-listed types, and

(ii) certain characteristics restricted to automobiles, road or cross-country trailers.

(2) In some instances in this definition, the term "vehicle" has been qualified by another word which takes its meaning outside the scope of (1) above (e.g. "rail vehicle"), in which case the word "vehicle" takes its normal dictionary meaning.

The reader can determine from the context whether an occurrence of the word "vehicle" in this definition falls within the meaning stated in (1) or (2).

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

ABS

Anti-lock Braking System

ASR

Anti-Spin Regulation

EBA

Electronic Brake Assist

EBD

Electronic Brakeforce Distribution

In patent documents the following expressions are often used as synonyms:

antilock, anti-lock, anti-skid, antiskid, anti-blocking;

wheel slip, wheel-slip, wheel spin, wheel-spin;

traction control, anti-spin regulation - for combating wheel-spin.

B60T 7/14 fr

Insert title tags here...

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Dead-man's devices for electrically-propelled vehicles

B60L 3/02

B60T 8/175 fr

Brake regulation specially adapted to prevent excessive wheel spin during vehicle acceleration, e.g. for traction control

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Safety devices for propulsion unit control responsive to, or preventing, skidding of wheels

B60K 28/16

B60T 8/32 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electric devices on electrically propelled vehicles indicating the wheel slip

B60L 3/10

B60T 11/16 fr

Master control, e.g. master cylinders

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Master cylinders associated with vacuum boosters

B60T 13/565

B60T 13/00 fr

Transmitting braking action from initiating means to ultimate brake actuator with power assistance or drive;Brake systems incorporating such transmitting means, e.g. air-pressure brake systems

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for adjusting wheel-braking force to meet varying vehicular or ground-surface conditions

B60T 8/00

Valves incorporated in such systems

B60T 15/00

B60T 13/08 fr

Overrun brakes

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Automatic brake-action initiating means specially adapted for trailers

B60T 7/20

B60T 15/00 fr

Construction, arrangement, or operation of valves incorporated in power brake systems and not covered by groups B60T 11/00 or B60T 13/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Connection of valves to inflatable elastic bodies

B60C 29/00

B60T 15/08 fr

Driver's valves for pressure brakes having automatic control

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Automatic initiation of braking in general

B60T 7/12

B60T 17/04 fr

Arrangement of piping, valves in the piping, e.g. cut-off valves, couplings or air hoses

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Pipes, cut-off valves, couplings, air hoses per se

F16C, F16K, F16L

B60T 17/08 fr

Brake cylinders other than ultimate actuators

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

With built-in wear-compensating mechanisms, ultimate actuators

F16D 49/00-F16D 65/00

B60V fr

Air-cushion vehicles

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Vehicles that are specifically designed, or specially adapted, to be wholly or partially supported, at least some of the time during their travel over a surface (e.g. water, land, floors, railways, roads, sidewalks, runways), by a thin cushion or film of gaseous fluid (e.g. air). Wherein the gaseous fluid of the cushion or film is at least partially:

Components of the above vehicles having structural features that limit them to use with vehicles supported during travel on a thin cushion or film of gaseous fluid.

The making of vehicles that are specifically designed to be:

Specially adapted method steps or apparatus, which are part of an entire manufacturing process, for the manufacture of components essential to forming or maintaining the thin cushion or film of gaseous fluid for vehicles of the type that are only partially supported, or supported only part time during travel, by the gaseous fluid.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Between B60V and other vehicle manufacturing subclasses

B60V covers the manufacture of vehicles that are designed to be exclusively supported by a thin cushion or film of gaseous fluid at all times when traveling.

Despite the fact that B60V covers the structure of certain combination or convertible types of vehicles, it does not cover the total method or means for making or assembling these vehicles. In the situations where a vehicle includes an alternative, supplemental, or primary means for supporting it during travel that is not an air cushion, the manufacture of this type of vehicle is covered in the same subclass that provides for the manufacture of vehicles relying solely for support on its particular type of alternative, supplemental, or primary means. Subclasses B62D, B63B, and B64F cover the manufacture of the various types of combination or convertible vehicles.

Nevertheless, B60V does cover specific manufacturing steps or apparatus that are a part of a total process used to make combination or convertible vehicles that are partially supported, or supported part time, by the gaseous fluid if the manufacturing steps or apparatus are specially adapted for the manufacture of components of the vehicles used to form or maintain the thin cushion or film of gaseous fluid.

B62D 65/00 "Designing, manufacturing, e.g. assembling, facilitating disassembly, or structurally modifying motor vehicles or trailers, not otherwise provided for" covers subject matter pertaining to the designing and manufacturing of motor vehicles, rail vehicles and trailers, as well as the designing and manufacturing of convertible types and/or combination types of these vehicles.

B63B "Ships or other waterborne vessels; Equipment for shipping" provides for the construction of hulls in group 3/00 and the methods of designing, building, maintaining, converting, refitting, repairing or determining properties of vessels in group 9/00.

B64F 5/00 "Designing, manufacturing, assembling, cleaning, maintaining or repairing aircraft, not otherwise provided for" covers the manufacture or assembly of aircraft.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

General manufacturing of various vehicle parts

B23P 15/00

Assembling and disassembling of various metal parts

B23P 19/04

Assembling of a multiplicity of different parts to compose units

B23P 21/00

Designing, manufacturing, assembling, facilitating disassembly, or structurally modifying motor vehicles or trailers

B62D 65/00

The construction of hulls

B63B 3/00

Methods of designing, building, maintaining, converting, refitting, repairing, or determining properties of vessels

B63B 9/00

Designing, manufacturing, or assembling aircraft, not otherwise provided for

B64F 5/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mowers supported by an air-cushion

A01D 34/695

Devices that assist either manually moving over a short distance (e.g. within a building or buildings) or tilting heavy loads by using pressurized fluid supplied from an independent source to provide a cushion of fluid between a load and floor

B65G 7/06

Conveying articles through pipes or tubes by fluid flow or pressure and the conveying of articles over a surface using pressurized fluid jets located in the surface

B65G 51/00

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Vehicle

This term has been used with the following two variations in meaning within this subclass:

(1) all varieties of apparatus (e.g. automobiles) intended to carry people or goods significant distances (e.g. between cities, to or from separate building complexes) across land, over water, or through the air except those restricted to one of the following types: rail vehicles , waterborne vessels, aircraft, space vehicles , hand carts, cycles, animal-drawn vehicles , or sledges.

(2) In some instances in this definition, the term " vehicle " has been qualified by another word which takes its meaning outside the scope of (1) above (e.g. "rail vehicle "), in which case the word " vehicle " takes its broader meaning in (1) above (i.e. without the specified exception of particular types of vehicles from its scope). The reader can determine from the context whether an occurrence of the word " vehicle " in this definition falls within the meaning stated in (1) or (2).

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the terms hovercraft , ground-effect vehicle , surface-effect vehicle , and air-cushion vehicle are often used as synonyms.

B60V 1/00 fr

Air cushion vehicles

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Vehicles of this subclass that are specifically designed, or specially adapted, to be wholly supported during their travel over a surface (e.g. water, land, floors, railways, roads, sidewalks, runways) by a thin cushion or film of gaseous fluid.

Components of the above vehicles having structural features that limit them to use with vehicles supported during travel on a thin cushion or film of gaseous fluid.

Components of other types of vehicles supported during travel at least part of time on a thin cushion or film of gaseous fluid, when the components are of a general utility for, and limited in use to, creating a thin cushion or film of gaseous fluid.

The making of vehicles that are specifically designed to be:

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Land vehicles, waterborne vessels, or aircraft adapted or modified to travel on air cushions

B60V 3/00

B60V 3/00 fr

Land vehicles, waterborne vessels, or aircraft, adapted or modified to travel on air cushions

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Vehicles of this subclass that are specifically designed, or specially adapted, to be supported entirely or partially at least some of the time by means other than their thin cushion or film of gaseous fluid during travel across land, over water, or through the air.

Components of the above types of vehicles having structural features that restrict them to use with a particular type of vehicle (e.g. ship), when the components have utility for, and are limited in use to, creating a thin cushion or film of gaseous fluid.

Specially adapted method steps or apparatus, which are part of an entire manufacturing process, for the manufacture of components essential to forming or maintaining the thin cushion or film of gaseous fluid for vehicles of the type that are only partially supported, or supported only part time, by the gaseous fluid during travel on land, over water, or through the air.

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Vehicles for use both on rail and on road, amphibious or like vehicles, or convertible vehicles

B60F

B60V 3/02 fr

Land vehicles

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Vehicles of main group B60V 3/00 having wheel or wheel-substitute type supporting means (e.g. endless tracks, skids) for alternative or supplemental engaging of land (e.g. roadway, rail) during travel.

Vehicles specifically designed to be exclusively supported solely by a thin cushion or film of gaseous fluid and restricted to a specific path by solid guiding structure (e.g. channel, trough) during traveling.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Railway systems that include sliding or levitation means

B61B 13/08

Pneumatic tunnel-type railway system (e.g. atmospheric railways)

B61B 13/10

B60V 3/06 fr

Waterborne vessels

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Vehicles of main group B60V 3/00 having structure (e.g. a hull) that allows the vehicle (e.g. ship) to be supported alternatively or supplementally by direct floating contact with water during travel.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Hydrodynamic or hydrostatic features of hulls or of hydrofoils that reduce surface friction by using air bubbles or air layers

B63B 1/38

B60V 3/08 fr

Aircraft

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Vehicles of main group B60V 3/00 having structure specifically designed to allow them to travel significant distances above the surface of the earth (i.e. higher than most manmade obstructions such as buildings) while supported by air (e.g. helicopters).

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Aeroplanes or helicopters without any air cushion creating means other than standard components associated with flight

B64C

B60W fr

Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function; Control systems specially adapted for hybrid vehicles; Road vehicle drive control systems for purposes not related to the control of a particular sub-unit

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Control systems for conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function.

Control systems specially adapted for hybrid vehicles.

Purposes of road vehicledrive control systems for purposes that are

Estimation or calculation of driving parameters for road vehicle drive systems that are used for purposes

Details of control systems for road vehicle drive control, e.g. monitoring of signals for controllers that are used for purposes

Relationship between large subject matter areas

B60W is the application-oriented place covering vehicle drive control systems in general that are not related to a particular sub-unit or used for conjoint control of two or more sub-units. The control of a single particular sub-unit, or same type multiple sub-units for the same purpose are not covered by this subclass and have to be classified in the relevant class for the sub-unit, e.g. F02D or F16H. Where a single particular sub-unit is controlled by signal or commands from other sub-units, the control of this single sub-unit is classified in the relevant place for this sub-unit. For example the control of variable ratio gearing by means of signals from the engine or accelerator is classified in the subclass for gearing F16H.

Conjoint control of driveline units, e.g. engines, and variable-ratio gearing occurring only transiently during ratio shift and being also characterized by the control of the gearing is also classified in the subclass for gearing F16H.

One main group (B60W 20/00) is intended for all control systems specially adapted for hybrid vehicles. This group also covers control systems specially adapted for hybrid vehicles that do not reveal any use of conjoint control. The arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for common propulsion of a hybrid vehicle will be classified in the subclass B60K. Conjoint control of pure electric drive units like motor and battery will be classified in subclass B60L. When the architecture or type of transmission of the hybrid vehicle is also of interest, it should be classified in the relevant groups of main group B60K 6/00.

This subclass also cover road vehicledrive control systems not related to any particular sub-unit, i.e. which do not specify which sub-unit is activated or actuated by the control system. For example a control system or control method for predicting a collision which is not related to the control of any specific sub-unit will be correctly covered by the appropriate group B60W 30/08.

Detecting means in general (e.g. ultrasonic radar, TV camera, image processing, or measuring means) are covered by the classes G01, G06 or H04 and their appropriate subclasses.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electrical and internal combustion motors

B60K 6/00

Vehicle fittings for automatically controlling vehicle speed by acting on a single sub-unit

B60K 31/00

Propulsion of purely electrically-propelled vehicles with power supplied within the vehicle

B60L 11/00

Electrical circuits for triggering safety arrangements to protect or prevent injuries to occupants or pedestrians

B60R 21/01

Brake control systems for vehicle drive stability

B60T 8/1755

Traffic control systems i.e. systems transmitting information to a plurality of vehicles simultaneously in order to co-ordinate the flow of vehicles or systems controlling platoons of vehicles

G08G 1/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Controlling combustion engines, such controlling being peculiar to the devices driven thereby, the devices being other than parts or accessories essential to engine operation, e.g. controlling of engines by signals external thereto

F02D 29/00

Combinations of clutches and brakes

F16D 67/00

Control functions within change-speed- or reversing-gearings for conveying rotary motion

F16H 61/00

Systems for controlling position, course, altitude, or attitude of land, water, air, or space vehicles

G05D 1/00

Anti-collision systems

G08G 1/16

Special rules of classification

Multi-aspect classification practice is used in this subclass for road vehicledrive control systems using conjoint control. Whenever one or more specific types of subunits are controlled, classification in main group B60W 10/00 should be given for each of the different sub-units controlled. For each controlled sub-unit a classification symbol should be added in the relevant place. When documents classified in main group B60W 10/00 are also relevant for main groups B60W 20/00 to 50/00, a classification in one of these groups is required.

Within main group B60W 20/00 to 50/00 the first place priority rule is applied, i.e. at each hierarchical level, obligatory classification is made in the first appropriate place. When several novel and non-obvious technical subjects are disclosed, the first place priority rule is separately applied to each of them.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Automatic control

Using control systems for mechanising or assisting, to a full- or partial extent, tasks associated with driving of the vehicle, e.g. those normally carried out by the driver or those necessary to control the motion of the vehicle.

Auxiliary equipment

A subsidiary or supplementary device of the propulsion, transmission or other units of the vehicle, e.g. a pump for supply of pressure for the control unit.

Conjoint control

A programmed or condition-responsive automatic controller on-board the vehicle, embodying control logic for plural vehicle sub-units and sends control signals to actuators of two or more vehicle sub-units, so that the sub-units act together to solve a particular problem or in response to a particular driving condition.

Conjoint control of diverse vehicle sub-units

Such control of different sub-units within the same vehicle for those vehicles defined under note to class B60, and of general applicability to different types of vehicles normally under the control of a human driver.

Cruise control

A system for automatically controlling vehicle speed, which may include additional functions e.g. control of distance between vehicles, so-called "Adaptive Cruise Control" (ACC).

Drive control system

An electronic system in a road vehicle for automatically controlling the movement of that vehicle in order to take certain actions.

Driving parameter

All input or output parameters of the road vehicledrive control systems, e.g. road specific parameters, driver or passenger related parameters, state variables of motion of the vehicle body or parameters related to the vehicle itself like load or weight of the vehicle.

Hybrid vehicle

Vehicles having two or more prime movers of more than one type, e.g. electrical and internal combustion motors, and that are either singularly or in combination used for propulsion of the vehicle.

Road vehicle

A vehicle normally under the control of a human driver for transportation on roads, e.g. an automobile, truck or bus.

Sub-unit

One of the following vehicle systems: propulsion systems; clutch system; change-speed gearing system; system for distributing drive torque between front and rear axles; axle differential system; brake system; steering system or suspension system; energy storage means; fuel cells or other auxiliary equipments.

B60W 20/00 fr

Control systems specially adapted for hybrid vehicles, i.e. vehicles having two or more prime movers of more than one type, e.g. electrical and internal combustion motors, all used for the propulsion of the vehicle

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems

B60K6/00

Special rules of classification

Multi-aspect classification practice is used in this group for control systems specially adapted for hybrid vehicles. Whenever one or more specific types of subunits are controlled, classification in main group B60W 10/00 should be given for each of the different sub-units controlled. When the architecture or type of transmission of the hybrid vehicle is of interest, it should be classified in the relevant groups of B60K 6/00.

B61B fr

Railway systems;Equipment therefor not otherwise provided for

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Devices specially adapted or mounted for storing and repeatedly paying-out and re-storing lengths of material

B65H 75/34

B61D fr

Body details or kinds or railway vehicules

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For vehicles in general

B60

B61G fr

Coupling specially adapted for railway vehicles;Draught or buffing appliances specially adapted for railway vehicles

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Vehicle connections in general

B60D

B61L fr

Guiding railway traffic;Ensuring the safety of railway traffic

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Means for controlling and safeguarding railway vehicle traffic, including apparatus and processes that are specially adapted, or intended to be utilized, for the following categories related to railway vehicle traffic:

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Arrangement, mounting or supporting of signaling devices for vehicles in general

B60Q

Railway vehicle brakes or other retarding apparatus

B61H

Derailing or re-railing blocks on the track, and for railway stops, scotch-blocks, track brakes or retarders fixed to the permanent way

B61K

Detectors indicating the overheating of railway vehicle axle bearings

B61K 9/04

Rail, switch, point or crossing construction

E01B

Rail joints

E01B 11/00

Electrically insulated rail joints

E01B 11/54

Cattle guards fixed to the permanent way

E01B 17/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Power supply lines for electrically propelled vehicles

B60M

The arrangement of signaling or lighting devices, the mounting or supporting thereof for rail vehicles

B61D

Illumination in general; illumination for signaling, marking or indicating; details of lighting devices or systems

F21

Visible signaling arrangements in general

G08B 5/00

An alarm responsive to an abnormal condition

G08B 21/00 G08B 23/00

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Scotch-block

A wedge to prevent the movement of an opening switch rail of a set of points or of stationary vehicles.

B62B fr

Hand-propelled vehicles, e.g. hand carts or perambulators;Sledges

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Chairs or multi-track cycles specially adapted for invalids

A61G 5/00

B62D fr

Motor vehicles;Trailers

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Steering devices applicable only to steerable undercarriages for aircraft

B64C 25/50

B62D 47/00 fr

Motor vehicles or trailers predominantly for carrying passengers

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Understructures, i.e. chassis frames, characterised by the vehicle type

B62D 21/18

B62D 49/00 fr

Tractors

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Understructures, i.e. chassis frames, characterised by the vehicle type

B62D 21/18

B62D 51/00 fr

Motor vehicles characterised by the driver not being seated

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Understructures, i.e. chassis frames, characterised by the vehicle type

B62D 21/18

B62D 53/00 fr

Tractor-trailer combinations;Road trains

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Understructures, i.e. chassis frames, characterised by the vehicle type

B62D 21/18

B62D 55/00 fr

Endless-track vehicles

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Understructures, i.e. chassis frames, characterised by the vehicle type

B62D 21/18

B62D 57/00 fr

Vehicles characterised by having other propulsion or other ground-engaging means than wheels or endless track, alone or in addition to wheels or endless track

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Understructures, i.e. chassis frames, characterised by the vehicle type

B62D 21/18

B62D 59/00 fr

Trailers with driven ground wheels or the like

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Understructures, i.e. chassis frames, characterised by the vehicle type

B62D 21/18

B62D 61/00 fr

Motor vehicles or trailers, characterised by the arrangement or number of wheels, not otherwise provided for, e.g. four wheels in diamond pattern

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Understructures, i.e. chassis frames, characterised by the vehicle type

B62D 21/18

B62D 63/00 fr

Motor vehicles or trailers not otherwise provided for

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Understructures, i.e. chassis frames, characterised by the vehicle type

B62D 21/18

B62J fr

Cycle saddles or seats;Accessories peculiar to cycles and not otherwise provided for, e.g. article carriers or cycle protectors

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangement of signalling or lighting devices, the mounting or supporting thereof or circuits therefor, for vehicles in general

B60Q

For vehicles in general

B60R

Guards in general

F16P

B65D fr

Containers for storage or transport of articles or materials, e.g. bags, barrels, bottles, boxes, cans, cartons, crates, drums, jars, tanks, hoppers, forwarding containers; Accessories, closures or fittings therefor; Packaging elements; Packages

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Rigid or semi-rigid containers in general (e.g. containers formed by folding or erecting one or more blanks of stiff paper) that are used for temporarily holding goods or materials during their storage or transport, which goods or materials are intended to be eventually removed from the container for their intended purpose.

Structural details of, and fittings for, rigid or semi-rigid containers (e.g. linings, partitions, inspection windows, handles, nesting/stacking features), not covered elsewhere.

Flexible containers in general (e.g. sacks, bags, squeezable toothpaste tubes) that are used for temporarily holding goods or materials during their storage or transport, which goods or materials are intended to be eventually removed from the container for their intended purpose.

Structural details of, and fittings for, flexible containers, not covered elsewhere.

Devices or structure for closing access openings for flexible, rigid or semi-rigid containers to prevent spillage of the goods or materials stored therein (e.g. caps, crown seals, foil or paper covers, lids or discs).

Structural details of access openings for flexible, rigid or semi-rigid containers that are specially adapted to cooperate with, or are characterized by the form of, the closure devices or structure used with them (e.g. screw thread around opening).

Means for securing the above closure devices, filling and discharging devices, arrangements for preventing refilling (e.g. by tampering or adding unwanted or noxious substances), means for discouraging unauthorized opening (e.g. child-proof closures), and other details.

Kinds or types of packaging elements, e.g. external or internal frames, straps for bundling, wrappers etc.

Kinds or types of packages, e.g. bundles, bales, articles attached to cards, sheets or webs or (partially) enclosed in strips, sheets, blanks, tubes or webs of flexible sheet material, and packages formed by enclosing articles or materials in preformed containers.

Containers, packaging elements or packages of special types or forms, or specially adapted for organisms, articles or materials presenting particular transport, storage or dispensing problems; such as for frangible material, storing in vacuum or superatmospheric pressure, preventing deterioration or decay of contents.

Containers specially adapted for particular articles or materials, e.g. tyres, cigarettes, spaghetti, eggs, optical apparatus, bricks, tape cassettes, sweets, jumbo rolls, machines or engines, ice-cream, poisons or corrosive chemicals.

Large containers, e.g. of ISO type (see Glossary), especially for bulk storage or for carrying freight.

Containers, packaging elements or packages with auxiliary means or provision for displaying articles or materials.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

This subclass, which is intended to be as comprehensive as possible, only excludes containers or packages of a nature clearly confined to a single other subclass, which are classified in that subclass.

Relationship with subclass B65B

There is some affinity between this subclass and subclass B65B which covers machines, apparatus or devices for, or methods of, packaging articles or materials. This subclass (B65D) covers methods of packaging that are wholly characterised by the form of the package produced or by the form of the container or packaging element used, as distinct from the operations performed or the apparatus employed, which are covered by subclass B65B.

Relationship with subclasses B67B, B67C and B67D

There is also affinity between this subclass and subclasses B67B, B67C and B67D. B67B covers methods or apparatus for applying closure members to bottles, jars or similar containers or for opening closed containers; it also covers securing bottle closures with wire or protecting or decorating such closures, whereas this subclass (B65D) covers the closures themselves.

B67C covers methods or apparatus for filling or emptying of bottles or other containers, while this subclass (B65D) covers constructions of containers or closures that allow filling or emptying. B67D covers methods or apparatus for dispensing, delivering or transferring liquids from containers, while this subclass (B65D) covers constructions of containers or closures that allow such dispensing, delivering or transferring.

Making containers

This is not covered by this subclass. Reference should be made to subclasses dealing with the working of the material concerned (e.g. class B29) or to subclass B31B in respect of forming foldable or erectable blanks.

Overlap with many application places

There is overlap between the function-oriented aspects of the containers or packages covered by this subclass and the various applications of such containers or packages, which are extremely numerous. Some of the applications of containers or packages are covered by this subclass but others are covered elsewhere. The usual "function – application" guidance applies here, as indicated in paragraphs 85-87 of the Guide.

The reader is directed to the "References relevant to classification" section below for a non-exhaustive list of possible places where applications of containers may occur, and of places where containers or packages having a specified use or application are classified when that place is not in B65D.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Binding of hay or straw

A01D, A01F 1/00

Containers specially adapted for storing agricultural or horticultural products

A01F 25/14

Containers specially adapted for use in dairies

A01J

Devices for transporting live fish

A01K 63/02

Cigar or cigarette receptacles or boxes

A24F 15/00

Cards for buttons, collar-studs or sleeve-links

A44B 7/00

Purses, luggage, hand-carried bags

A45C

Pencil boxes

A45C 11/34

Cosmetic or toilet equipment

A45D

Travelling or camp equipment, sacks or packs carried on the body

A45F

Brushes combined or associated with tubular containers

A46B 11/00

Containers or the like for shops, stores, offices, bars or the like

A47F 1/04

Showcases or show cabinets with dispensing arrangements

A47F 3/02

Household or table equipment

A47G

Mail or newspapers receptacles

A47G 29/12

Kitchen equipment

A47J

Lids or covers for cooking vessels

A47J 36/06

Vacuum-insulated bottles or the like

A47J 41/00

Dispensers for liquid soap

A47K 5/12

Packages for surgical knives, scalpels or blades therefore

A61B 17/3215

Packages or wrapping arrangements for used absorbent pads

A61F 13/551

Coffins

A61G 17/00

Containers or ampoules specially adapted for medical or pharmaceutical purposes

A61J 1/00

Feeding bottles with thermometers

A61J 9/02

Containers with disinfecting linings

A61L 2/00

Hand tools for discharging fluent material through an outlet orifice by pressure

B05C 17/005

Magazines for screws or nuts in combination with spanners, wrenches or screwdrivers

B25B 23/06

Nail dispensers

B25C 3/00

Opening devices for envelopes, incorporated during envelope manufacture

B43M 5/00

Separate devices for opening envelopes

B43M 7/00

Bureau accessories for applying liquids, e.g. adhesive

B43M 11/00

Paint cans

B44D 3/12

Containers associated with vehicles

B60-B64

e.g. vehicle fuel tanks

B60K 15/03

Sack holders

B65B 67/00

Refuse receptacles

B65F 1/00

Filling or emptying bunkers, hoppers or like containers

B65G 65/30

Handling sheets, webs or filamentary material

B65H

Elevators or lifts

B66B

Load-engaging elements or devices attached to lifting or lowering gear of cranes or adapted for connection therewith for transmitting lifting forces

B66C

Pallets or like platforms in devices for lifting or lowering bulky or heavy goods for loading or unloading purposes

B66F 9/12

Construction or assembling of bulk storage containers employing civil engineering techniques in situ or off the site

E04H 7/00

Oil cans

F16N 3/00

Covers or similar closure members for pressure vessels in general

F16J 13/00

Storing gases

F17

Containers for carrying smallarms

F41C 33/06

Packaging of ammunition or explosive charges

F42B 39/00

Packaging for photosensitive or like materials, e.g. photographic films

G03C 3/00

Coin deliverers

G07D 1/00

Containers for record carriers, specially adapted for cooperation with the recording or reproducing apparatus

G11B 23/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Droppers

B01L 3/00

Liquid sprayers; nozzles or spouts

B05B

Making closures by working metal sheet

B21D 51/44

Connection of valves to inflatable elastic bodies

B60C 29/00

Affixing labels

B65C 3/06

Sealings in general

F16J 15/00

Flexible elongated elements for supporting pipes, cables or protective tubing

F16L 3/137

Special rules of classification

In this subclass, groups B65D 5/00, B65D 27/00, B65D 30/00 or B65D 65/00 include constructional features of foldable or erectable container or wrapper blanks as well as the containers or wrappers formed by folding or erecting such blanks.

Containers, packaging elements or packages classified in group B65D 85/00 are also classified according to their constructional or functional features, if such features are of interest.

Tamper-indicating means for containers of closures are classified in the group appropriate to the type of container or closure, e.g. B65D 5/43, B65D 5/54, B65D 17/00, B65D 27/30, B65D 27/34, B65D 33/34, B65D 41/32, B65D 47/36, B65D 49/12, B65D 51/20, B65D 55/06.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Rigid or semi-rigid containers

These include:

containers not deformed by, or not taking up the shape of, their contents;

containers adapted to be temporarily deformed to expel their contents;

pallets; and

trays.

Flexible containers

These include:

containers deformed by, or taking up the shape of, their contents; and

containers adapted to be permanently deformed to expel their contents.

Packaging elements

These include:

elements, other than containers, for covering, protecting, stiffening or holding together articles or materials to be stored or transported; and

packaging materials of special type or form not provided for in other subclasses.

Packages

These include:

combinations of containers or packaging elements with articles or materials to be stored or transported; and

articles joined together for convenience of storage or transport.

Paper

In relation to this subclass, this term includes materials, e.g. cardboard, plastic sheet materials, laminated materials or metal foils, worked in a manner analogous to paper.

Large containers

These are containers having about the size of containers used in container traffic, sometimes referred to as freight, bulk storage, forwarding or "ISO" (International Standardization Organization) containers, or larger containers.

Blank

Any sheet of paper or other planar material that is pre-shaped, cut/punched out to have holes or slots, perforated/slit to form fold lines, or otherwise modified so that it can subsequently be folded or erected according to a pre-selected pattern to form a container such as a box or carton. Blanks are frequently interim products of a manufacturing process that will require further assembly operations (e.g. corner gluing of carton) to become actual containers. However, the term also covers blanks that require only manual manipulation to fashion or disassemble a container and this is normally done for purposes of economical storage of the container (e.g. folding packing boxes for house moves).

Container

A structure having both a bottom portion for supporting removable contents stored or shipped therein, and a peripheral wall structure for at least partially surrounding or encompassing the contents while stored or transported, including structures where the same physical wall can fulfil both these functions.

Accessories

In relation to the word "accessories" in the B65D subclass title, this word means fixtures or fittings which are associated with the container to fulfil a particular purpose relative to the functioning of the container.

B65D 25/00 fr

Details of other kinds or types of rigid or semi-rigid containers

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For pallets

B65D 19/38

Of large containers

B65D 90/00

B65D 39/00 fr

Closures arranged within necks or pouring openings or in discharge apertures, e.g. stoppers

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Closure flaps or lids attached to, or incorporated in, containers, or foldable or erectable container blanks, made of paper

B65D 3/00, B65D 5/00

Closure walls of containers specially constructed to be opened by cutting, piercing, or tearing of wall portions

B65D 17/00

Applying closure members to bottles, jars, or similar containers

B67B

Covers or similar closure members, for pressure vessels in general

F16J 13/00

B65D 41/00 fr

Caps, e.g. crown caps, crown seals, i.e. members having parts arranged for engagement with the external periphery of a neck or wall defining a pouring opening or discharge aperture;Protective cap-like covers for closure members, e.g. decorative covers of metal foil or paper

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Closure flaps or lids attached to, or incorporated in, containers, or foldable or erectable container blanks, made of paper

B65D 3/00, B65D 5/00

Closure walls of containers specially constructed to be opened by cutting, piercing, or tearing of wall portions

B65D 17/00

Applying closure members to bottles, jars, or similar containers

B67B

Covers or similar closure members, for pressure vessels in general

F16J 13/00

B65D 43/00 fr

Lids or covers for rigid or semi-rigid containers

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Closure flaps or lids attached to, or incorporated in, containers, or foldable or erectable container blanks, made of paper

B65D 3/00, B65D 5/00

Closure walls of containers specially constructed to be opened by cutting, piercing, or tearing of wall portions

B65D 17/00

Applying closure members to bottles, jars, or similar containers

B67B

Covers or similar closure members, for pressure vessels in general

F16J 13/00

B65D 45/00 fr

Clamping or other pressure-applying devices for securing or retaining closure members

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Closure flaps or lids attached to, or incorporated in, containers, or foldable or erectable container blanks, made of paper

B65D 3/00, B65D 5/00

Closure walls of containers specially constructed to be opened by cutting, piercing, or tearing of wall portions

B65D 17/00

Applying closure members to bottles, jars, or similar containers

B67B

Covers or similar closure members, for pressure vessels in general

F16J 13/00

B65D 47/00 fr

Closures with filling and discharging, or with discharging, devices

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Closure flaps or lids attached to, or incorporated in, containers, or foldable or erectable container blanks, made of paper

B65D 3/00, B65D 5/00

Closure walls of containers specially constructed to be opened by cutting, piercing, or tearing of wall portions

B65D 17/00

Applying closure members to bottles, jars, or similar containers

B67B

Covers or similar closure members, for pressure vessels in general

F16J 13/00

Fluid delivery valves in general

F16K 21/00

B65D 49/00 fr

Arrangements or devices for preventing refilling of containers

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Closure flaps or lids attached to, or incorporated in, containers, or foldable or erectable container blanks, made of paper

B65D 3/00, B65D 5/00

Closure walls of containers specially constructed to be opened by cutting, piercing, or tearing of wall portions

B65D 17/00

Applying closure members to bottles, jars, or similar containers

B67B

Covers or similar closure members, for pressure vessels in general

F16J 13/00

B65D 50/00 fr

Closures with means for discouraging unauthorised opening or removal thereof, with or without indicating means, e.g. child-proof closures

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Closure flaps or lids attached to, or incorporated in, containers, or foldable or erectable container blanks, made of paper

B65D 3/00, B65D 5/00

Closure walls of containers specially constructed to be opened by cutting, piercing, or tearing of wall portions

B65D 17/00

Applying closure members to bottles, jars, or similar containers

B67B

Covers or similar closure members, for pressure vessels in general

F16J 13/00

B65D 51/00 fr

Closures not otherwise provided for

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Closure flaps or lids attached to, or incorporated in, containers, or foldable or erectable container blanks, made of paper

B65D 3/00, B65D 5/00

Closure walls of containers specially constructed to be opened by cutting, piercing, or tearing of wall portions

B65D 17/00

Applying closure members to bottles, jars, or similar containers

B67B

Covers or similar closure members, for pressure vessels in general

F16J 13/00

B65D 53/00 fr

Sealing or packing elements;Sealings formed by liquid or plastic material

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Closure flaps or lids attached to, or incorporated in, containers, or foldable or erectable container blanks, made of paper

B65D 3/00, B65D 5/00

Closure walls of containers specially constructed to be opened by cutting, piercing, or tearing of wall portions

B65D 17/00

Applying closure members to bottles, jars, or similar containers

B67B

Covers or similar closure members, for pressure vessels in general

F16J 13/00

B65D 55/00 fr

Accessories for container closures not otherwise provided for

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Closure flaps or lids attached to, or incorporated in, containers, or foldable or erectable container blanks, made of paper

B65D 3/00, B65D 5/00

Closure walls of containers specially constructed to be opened by cutting, piercing, or tearing of wall portions

B65D 17/00

Applying closure members to bottles, jars, or similar containers

B67B

Covers or similar closure members, for pressure vessels in general

F16J 13/00

B65D 55/06 fr

Deformable or tearable wires, strings, or strips;Use of seals

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Seals per se

G09F 3/00

B65D 63/00 fr

Flexible elongated elements, e.g straps, for bundling or supporting articles

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For supporting pipes, cables or protective tubing

F16L 3/137

B65D 65/00 fr

Wrappers or flexible covers;Packaging materials of special type or form

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Layered products per se

B32B

B65D 83/06 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Spraying or atomising apparatus in general

B05B

B65D 83/14 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Spraying or atomising apparatus in general

B05B

Siphons, pumping of fluid by direct contact of another fluid

F04F

Vessels for containing or storing compressed, liquefied, or solidified gases

F17C

B65D 90/18 fr

Castors, rolls, or the like, e.g. detachable

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Castors in general

B60B

B65D 90/32 fr

Arrangements for preventing, or minimising the effect of, excessive or insufficient pressure

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Valves per se

F16K

B65D 90/46 fr

Arrangements for carrying off, or preventing the formation of electrostatic charges

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Carrying-off, or preventing the formation of electrostatic charges in general

H05F

B65D 90/54 fr

Gates or closures

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Covers or similar closure members, for pressure vessels in general

F16J 13/00

B65G fr

TRANSPORT OR STORAGE DEVICES, e.g. CONVEYERS FOR LOADING OR TIPPING;SHOP CONVEYER SYSTEMS;PNEUMATIC TUBE CONVEYERS

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Luggage carriers

A45C 13/38

Holders or carriers for hand articles or for use while travelling or camping

A45F 5/00

Vehicles in general, axles, wheels

B60

Air-cushion vehicles

B60V

Handcarts, sledges, features of hand-propelled wheeled devices or pedestrian-controlled, power-driven vehicles equally applicable to handcarts

B62B

Ship-moving devices

B63C, E02C

Loading or unloading by soil-shifting or like equipment

E02F

Drag-line scraper conveyers

E02F 3/46

Stacking or de-stacking data record cards in association with machines for marking or sensing data

G06K

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Containers, pallets

B65D

Escalators or moving walkways

B66B 21/00

Air-cushions as bearing elements

F16C 29/00

B65G 15/00 fr

Conveyers having endless load-conveying surfaces, i.e. belts and like continuous members, to which tractive effort is transmitted by means other than endless driving elements of similar configuration

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Loading or unloading

B65G 65/00

B65G 17/00 fr

Conveyers having an endless traction element, e.g. a chain, transmitting movement to a continuous or substantially-continuous load-carrying surface or to a series of individual load-carriers;Endless-chain conveyers in which the chains form the load-carrying surface

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Loading or unloading

B65G 65/00

B65G 19/00 fr

Conveyers comprising an impeller or a series of impellers carried by an endless traction element and arranged to move articles or materials over a supporting surface or underlying material, e.g. endless scraper conveyers

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Loading or unloading

B65G 65/00

B65G 25/00 fr

Conveyers comprising a cyclically-moving, e.g. reciprocating, carrier or impeller which is disengaged from the load during the return part of its movement

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Loading or unloading

B65G 65/00

B65G 27/00 fr

Jigging conveyers

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Loading or unloading

B65G 65/00

B65G 29/00 fr

Rotary conveyers, e.g. rotating discs, arms, star-wheels or cones

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Loading or unloading

B65G 65/00

B65G 31/00 fr

Mechanical throwing machines for articles or solid materials

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Loading or unloading

B65G 65/00

B65G 33/00 fr

Screw or rotary spiral conveyers

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Loading or unloading

B65G 65/00

B65G 35/00 fr

Mechanical conveyers not otherwise provided for

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Loading or unloading

B65G 65/00

B65G 37/00 fr

Combinations of mechanical conveyers of the same kind, or of different kinds, of interest apart from their application in particular machines or use in particular manufacturing processes

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Loading or unloading

B65G 65/00

B65H fr

HANDLING THIN OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL, e.g. SHEETS, WEBS, CABLES

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Winding or unwinding metal band or like flexible metallic material during manufacture

B21C

In selective printing mechanisms

B41J

Working or processing wire

B21F, B21G

Unwinding, paying-out, forwarding, or winding ropes or cables in load-moving apparatus

B61B, B65G, B66

Creels, warping, beaming, or leasing machines or methods for textile manufacturing purposes

D02H

In cinematographic or photographic apparatus

G03B

Winding, unwinding, or feeding tape to, in, or from, information-processing apparatus

G06, G11B

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Manipulators

B25J

B66B fr

Elevators;Escalators or moving walkways

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Transporting apparatus of the types specified herein for people or discrete loads when used in conjunction with buildings, complexes of buildings, mines, or similar scale manmade structures or natural formations (e.g. caves).

Elevating apparatus (i.e., elevators or lifts) for shifting a discrete load (e.g., person(s), freight), in its entirety, a significant distance (e.g., at least the height of a normal floor of a building) from an entry level (e.g., landing) to a vertically spaced exit level along a shaft. To be proper for this subclass, the elevating apparatus must include:

Conveying apparatus (i.e., an assemblage of elements for moving a load along a predetermined path) for transporting pedestrians (i.e., escalators or moving walkways) from an entrance location to at least one horizontally spaced egress location. To be proper for this subclass, the conveying apparatus must:

Components of the elevating or conveying apparatus when:

Ancillary devices (e.g., elevator call registration systems) for either the elevating or conveying apparatus which are:

Explanatory Notes or Graphics

(1) Note. Examples of special adaptations for escalators or moving walkways that facilitate the transport of pedestrians are:

(2) Note. Elevating or conveying apparatus otherwise proper for the definition which is either specially modified for use with, or combined with, apparatus for doing work on or treating (e.g., machine tools, furnaces) the discrete loads being carried (e.g., tools shaping load during elevation, transporting human body during its cremation) are covered in appropriate subclasses for this subject matter.

(3) Note. The load support surfaces of elevators or lifts are intended to support their loads only for a short period of time during handling. Surfaces intended to either support an article in a nonuse storage location, support a useable machine or tool, or move one portion of a machine or article relative to another portion thereof are covered in appropriate subclasses for this subject matter.

(4) Note. The discrete load transported by the elevating apparatus of this subclass is either

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Life-saving devices used as an alternative to normal egress means (e.g., stairs) during rescue to lower persons in cages, bags, or similar supports from buildings or other structures

A62B 1/02

Amusement rides (e.g., roundabouts, and Ferris wheels) that are, or may include as a part of their structure, elevating or conveying apparatus

A63G

Arrangements of ammunition handlers in military-type sea vessels

B63G

Equipment for handling freight or for facilitating passenger embarkation or the like to aircraft

B64D 9/00

Hoists, lifts, or conveyers for loading or unloading in general

B65G

Hoists, lifts, or conveyers for storing articles, individually or in orderly arrangement, in warehouses or magazines

B65G 1/00

Braking or detent devices controlling normal movements of winding drums or barrels for capstans, hoist, or winches

B66D

Lifting or elevating devices for ships

E02C

Multi-vehicle garages provided with mechanical means for lifting vehicles

E04H 6/12

Hoists for feeding ammunition or projectiles to launching apparatus or to loading mechanisms for weapons

F41A 9/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lifting and lowering devices for moving disabled persons or patients

A61G

Hoisting or lowering devices for coffins

A61G 19/00

Funicular rail-bound systems with rigid ground-supported tracks and cable traction (e.g., cliff railways)

B61B 9/00

Ski-lift, sleigh-lift, or the like trackless systems with only guided towing cables

B61B 11/00

Devices for lifting or lowering bulky or heavy goods for loading or unloading purposes

B66F

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Cable

a flaccid, elongated, flexible element that can transmit force only when under tension (e.g., rope, wire, chain).

Drive means

means for supplying motive force to an element to be moved which includes both force generating means (e.g., motor) and structural linkage (e.g., gears) needed to transmit the force from the generating means to the element.

Landing

an in situ floor within a structure (e.g., building) (a) that is located adjacent to an elevator shaft or the entrance or egress points of the conveying apparatus' path and (b) to or from which a load (e.g., passenger, cargo, pedestrian) transfers during the charging or discharging of the load-underlying support surface of an elevator or conveying apparatus.

Shaft

a long, narrow, in situ passageway within a structure (e.g., building, ship, mine) which defines the fixed path between the vertically spaced load entrance and exit levels traveled by the load-underlying support surface of an elevator.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the terms elevator and lift are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the term dumbwaiter is often used with the meaning of a very small elevator or lift (e.g., normally the support is too small for a person) for moving housekeeping or food items between floors.

B81B fr

Micro-structural devices or systems, e.g. micro-mechanical devices

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Very small micro-mechanical devices which include at least one essential operational component that has all of the following attributes:

Very small three-dimensional structural formations (i.e. microstructures) that have all of the following attributes:

Systems including a discrete micro-mechanical device or microstructure and at least one other discrete micro-mechanical device, micro-electronic device, or micro-optical device (e.g. Micro-Mechanical Systems, Micro-Electronic-Mechanical Systems/MEMS, Micro-optical-Mechanical Systems) that have all of the following attributes:

Components of micro-mechanical devices or microstructures having specialized structural features that limit them to use with their device or structure.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

General relationship of microstructures of B81B with micro-sized structures found in the subclasses of sections C and H

The microstructures covered by this subclass are expected to perform a structural function when interacting with their local environment and are intentionally designed to specifically perform this type of task. This requirement precludes the classification of micro-sized structures within this subclass that either

Micro-electronic devices and micro-optical devices per se are classified in the subclasses of section H (Electricity) and G (Physics) even if they also inherently (e.g. a micro-sized wire between two substrates that supports the upper substrate), or intentionally (e.g. an aerodynamically shaped micro-processor on a wing), accomplish a secondary structural function. Micro-electronic devices and micro-optical devices are found in particular in G02B, G11B, H01L, and H01P.

Chemically and biologically formed structures per se that are mere byproducts of processes are classified in the subclasses of section C, "Chemistry; Metallurgy". However, chemically and biologically formed microstructures are classified in B81B when they are the primary intended product of their processes and the microstructures perform a structural function when interacting with their local environment.

Relationship of microstructures of B81B and micro-sized structures in B32B

Microstructures that merely form part of layered products (e.g. bonded or encased micro-sized substrates) are classified in B32B when their intended use is not specified or they are of general utility. However, when at least one of the layers of the layered product is micro-sized and accomplishes a particular structural function (e.g. honeycomb layer forms micro-sized channels for directing fluid to micro-sized pump) they are classified in B81B.

Special rules for classification between this subclass and other subclasses

If the operation or practical utility of micro-sized devices, structures, or systems covered by this subclass are not inherently limited to a microscopic environment, they are also obligatorily classified in the subclasses appropriately providing for their structural or functional features when produced on a larger scale.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Products that are essentially two-dimensional layered structures

B32B

Atomic scale structures produced by manipulation of single atoms or molecules

B82B

Micro-optical devices per se

G02F

Semiconductors or other solid-state devices per se or combined with other devices formed on a common substrate

H01L
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Microcapsules for medicinal preparations

A61K 9/50

Micromanipulators

B25J 7/00

Micromanipulators combined with microscopes

G02B 21/32

Magnetic heads used with record carriers for information storage

G11B 5/127

Waveguide microstrips

H01P 3/08

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Pressure sensors

G01L 9/00

Mechanical vibration measuring devices and ultrasonic, sonic, or infrasonic wave measuring devices

G01H

Devices for measuring linear or angular speed, acceleration, or deceleration

G01P

Photomechanical processing of semiconductor devices

G03F

Special rules of classification

Identical micro-mechanical devices, microstructures, or micro-structural systems that are not operationally interlinked to each other and are merely produced on a common substrate that is an interim product; are not classified as a system, but in the groups providing for the individual device, structure, or system.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Micro-electronic device

Any kind of electronic device that has at least one essential operational component not visible without the use of an optical microscope.

Micro-optical device

Any kind of optical device that has at least one essential operational component not visible without the use of an optical microscope.

Micro-sized

Having a dimension not visible without the use of an optical microscope (e.g. typically within the range of 10-4 to 10-7 meters).

Structural function

The effect of structural features of a microstructure on the mechanical properties of media in contact with the microstructure (e.g. directing of a sampled fluid's flow).

B81C fr

Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of micro-structural devices or systems

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Processes having one or more steps, or apparatus adapted for performing at least one step in such processes, with specialized features directly related to the manufacture or treatment of specific types of micro-sized products (e.g., typically within the range of 10-4 to 10-7 meters).

The manufacturing or treating of these micro-sized products must create a structural, as opposed to a purely chemical or electronic, feature that is essential to their use.

The types of micro-sized products that are manufactured or treated in this subclass consist of the following varieties:

Mechanical devices (i.e., micro-mechanical devices) which include at least one essential operational component that has all of the following attributes:

Three-dimensional structural formations (i.e., microstructures) that have all of the following attributes:

Systems including a discrete micro-mechanical device or microstructure and at least one other discrete micro-mechanical device, micro-electronic device, or microoptical device (e.g., Micro-Mechanical Systems, Micro-Electronic-Mechanical Systems/MEMS, Microoptical-Mechanical Systems) that have all of the following attributes:

Components of micro-mechanical devices or microstructures having specialized structural features that limit them to use with their device or structure.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

General relationship of B81C with subclasses of sections C and H

This class covers processes or apparatus for the manufacture or treatment of microstructures that perform a structural function when interacting with their local environment and are intentionally designed to specifically perform this type of task. This requirement precludes the classification of the manufacture or treatment of micro-sized structures per se within this subclass that either

However, processes or apparatus for chemically and biologically forming microstructures are classified in B81C when these microstructures are the primary intended product of their processes and the microstructures perform an appropriate structural function when interacting with their local environment.

Processes or apparatus for the manufacture or treatment of chemically and biologically formed micro-sized structures per se are classified in the subclasses of section C, "Chemistry; Metallurgy".

Processes or apparatus for the manufacture or treatment of micro-electronic devices and microoptical devices per se are classified in the subclasses of section H, "Electricity" even if they also inherently (e.g., a micro-sized wire between two substrates that supports the upper substrate), or intentionally (e.g., an aerodynamically shaped micro-processor for wings), accomplish a secondary structural function. The manufacture or treatment of micro-electronic devices and microoptical devices is found in particular in H01L (e.g. H01L 21/00) and H01P (e.g., H01P 11/00) respectively.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Chemical or physical processes or relevant apparatus for making microcapsules or microballoons

B01J13/02

Specially adapted processes or apparatus restricted to the manufacture or treatment of products that are essentially two-dimensional layered structures

B32B

Specially adapted processes or apparatus involved in the manufacture of atomic scale structures produced by manipulation of atoms or molecules

B82B

For processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment of piezo-electric, electrostrictive, or magnetostrictive elements per se

H01L41/22

For processes or apparatus specially adapted to the manufacture or treatment of wave-guide micro-strips

H01P3/08

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For processes or apparatus specially adapted to the manufacture or treatment of pressure sensors

G01L9/00

For processes or apparatus specially adapted to the manufacture or treatment of acceleration measuring devices

G01P15/00

For processes or apparatus specially adapted to the manufacture or treatment of micromanipulators structurally combined with microscopes

G02B21/32

For photomechanical processing of semiconductor devices

G03F

For processes or apparatus specially adapted to the manufacture or treatment of magnetic heads

G11B5/127

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Manufacture

a chemical, electrical, or mechanical process or apparatus for accomplishing one or more of the following operations on a micro-mechanical device, micro-structure, or micro system proper for this subclass: assembling, associating, bonding, casting, coating, constructing, creating, cutting, distorting, electric photographing, etching, fabricating, fastening, finishing, joining, juxtaposing, machining, molding, positioning, shaping, or working.

Micro-electronic device

any kind of electronic device that has at least one essential operational component not visible without the use of an optical microscope.

Microoptical device

any kind of optical device that has at least one essential operational component not visible without the use of an optical microscope.

Micro-sized

having a dimension not visible without the use of an optical microscope (e.g., typically within the range of 10-4 to 10-7 meters).

Structural function

effect of structural features of a microstructure on the mechanical properties of media in contact with the microstructure (e.g., directing of a sampled fluid's flow).

B82B fr

Nano-structures; Manufacture or treatment thereof

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Precise arrangements of matter on molecular or atomic level having particularly shaped configurations (i.e. nano-structural assemblages) formed during manufacture which are distinct from both naturally occurring and chemically produced chemical or biological arrangements composed of similar matter, wherein each assemblage includes at least one essential integral element:

The essential integral elements of nano-structural assemblages when they include structural features limiting their use to these assemblages.

The manufacture or treatment of the above type of nano-structural assemblages when the manufacturing or treating creates an essential structural feature of an assemblage and utilizes either:

Relationship between large subject matter areas

General relationship of B82B with section C:

The terminology "particularly shaped configurations ----- distinct from both naturally occurring and chemically produced chemical or biological arrangements composed of similar matter" in the definition statement is intended to preclude classification of chemical or biological structures per se in this subclass that are similar in size. As a practical matter, what is intended by "distinct" in this phrase is that the only nano-sized structures appropriate for this subclass are those that accomplish a function that is not inherent in the chemical or biological composition from which they are formed (e.g. a nano-sized structure shaped so that an atom or molecule component is movable between locations to act as a switch in an electrical operation would be classified in B82B even if it were formed using a method that included a chemical or biological step).

The subclasses under section C, "Chemistry; Metallurgy", specifically provide for the majority of these excluded chemical or biological structures per se, or specially adapted processes or apparatus for the manufacture or treatment thereof (e.g. in classes C08, C12).

Special rules for additional classification in other subclasses:

Except when the operation or practical utility of the nano-structure is inherently completely limited to a microscopic environment, the nano-structures that are covered by this subclass should also be obligatorily classified in subclasses that otherwise appropriately provide for their novel and unobvious structural or functional features.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system

Nanocapsules for medicinal preparations

A61K 9/51

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Investigating or analyzing surface structures in atomic ranges using scanning-probe techniques

G01Q 10/00-G01Q 90/00

Details of apparatus using scanning-probe techniques

G01Q 10/00-G01Q 90/00

Thin magnetic film formed from spin-exchange coupled multi-layers

H01F 10/32

Apparatus or processes specially adapted for manufacturing or assembling devices by applying magnetic films to substrates that are formed from nanostructures

H01F41/30

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Manufacture

Chemical, electrical, or mechanical process or apparatus for accomplishing one or more of the following operations on a nano structural assemblage or an essential integral element thereof: assembling, associating, bonding, constructing, creating, cutting, distorting, electric photographing, etching, fabricating, fastening, finishing, joining, juxtaposing, positioning, shaping, or working.

C01B fr

Non-metallic elements; Compounds thereof

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

The chemical elements of hydrogen, halogen (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine), oxygen, sulfur, phosphorus, silicon, nitrogen, boron, selenium, tellurium, and noble gases (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radon).

Compounds solely composed of any of the