IPC Definitions - November 24, 2009

A01 fr

Agriculture;Forestry;Animal husbandry;Hunting;Trapping;Fishing

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Plant

Any of a kingdom (Plantae) of multicellular eukaryotic mostly photosynthetic organisms typically lacking locomotive movement or obvious nervous or sensory organs and possessing cellulose cell walls.

A01B fr

Soil working in agriculture or forestry;Parts, details or accessories of agricultural machines or implements, in general

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Seat constructions

A47C

Wheels

B60B

Shelters for drivers

B60J

Seats specially adapted for vehicles, arrangement or mounting of seats in vehicles

B60N 2/00

Wheel scrapers

B60S 1/68

A01D fr

Harvesting;Mowing

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Wheels

B60B

Wheel scrapers

B60S 1/68

A01H fr

New plants or processes for obtaining them;Plant reproduction by tissue culture techniques

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

New plants (including multicellular algae, multicellular fungi and lichens).

Processes for modifying genotypes or phenotypes.

Plant reproduction by tissue culture techniques.

Methods or apparatus for producing changes in chromosome number.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Unicellular algae

C12N 1/12

Fungal micro-organisms

C12N 1/14

Specific mutations prepared by genetic engineering on plant cell or plant tissues

C12N 15/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Influencing the growth of plants without producing new plants, non-chemically.

A01G 7/00

Influencing the growth of plants without producing new plants, chemically.

A01N 25/00-A01N 65/00

A01K 5/00

Feeding devices for stock or game

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Stock

Animals kept or raised for use or pleasure

A01K 7/00

Watering equipment for stock or game

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Stock

Animals kept or raised for use or pleasure

A01K 9/00

Sucking apparatus for young stock

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Stock

Animals kept or raised for use or pleasure

A01N fr

Preservation of bodies of humans or animals or plants or parts thereof; Biocides, e.g. as disinfectants, as pesticides or as herbicides;Pest repellants or attractants;Plant growth regulators

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Compositions, physical forms thereof, and the application or method of use of specific materials, compositions, or single compounds for the following purposes:

Compositions used to protect the wound and scions of newly grafted plants or to cover the wounds on pruned plants (i.e. grafting wax).

Chemical agents used for the sexual sterilization of invertebrates (e.g. insects).

Relationship between large subject matter areas

While substances that chemically modify a plant's metabolism are classified in A01N, compositions that affect the growth of a plant solely by supplying nutrients ordinarily required for growth, e.g. fertiliser, plant food, are classified in C05. Materials used to prevent or cure mineral deficiencies in plants, such as iron chelates used to cure iron chlorosis, are also classified in C05.

The activities (e.g. rodenticidal, herbicidal) of biocidal, pest repellent, pest attractant or plant growth regulatory preparations must also be classified in A01P, when such activities are determined to be invention information.

When biocides, pest repellents, pest attractants or plant growth regulators are compounds or contain compounds which are determined to be invention information, the compounds must also be classified in C01, C07, C08, or C12N. When these compounds are considered to be of interest for search purposes, they may also be classified in C01, C07, C08, or C12N.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Apparatus therefor

A01G 5/06

Preservation of food or foodstuff, e.g. pasteurizing, sterilizing

A23BA23K 3/00A23L 3/00

Preservation or chemical ripening of harvested fruits or vegetables

A23B 7/00

Compositions for medical, dental or toilet purposes which kill or prevent the growth or proliferation of unwanted organisms

A61K

Sex sterilants for animals other than invertebrates

A61K

Mixtures of pesticides with fertilisers

C05G

Fungicidal, bactericidal, insecticidal, disinfecting or antiseptic paper

D21H

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Plant grafting

A01G 1/06

Devices for preserving flowers

A01G 5/06

Electric or magnetic treatment of plants for promoting growth

A01G 7/04

Sterilising soil by steam

A01G 11/00

Protecting plants (e.g. protective covers; devices for generating heat, smoke or fog; devices protecting against animals)

A01G 13/00

Means for catching or killing insects

A01M 1/00, A01M 5/00

Apparatus for destroying vermin in soil or food stuffs

A01M 17/00

Apparatus for the destruction of vegetation

A01M 21/00

Scaring devices e.g. bird-scaring apparatus

A01M 29/00

Hunting decoys

A01M 31/06

Methods or apparatus for disinfection or sterilisation of materials not characterized by the agent employed

A61L 2/00, A61L 12/00

Paints containing biocides, e.g. fungicides, insecticides, pesticides

C09D 5/14

Anti-fouling paints and underwater paints

C09D 5/16

Soil-conditioning materials or soil-stabilising materials

C09K 17/00

Undifferentiated human, animal or plant cells or tissues and their cultivation and maintenance

C12N 5/00

Biocidal agents (e.g. fungicidal, bactericidal, or insecticidal agents) which are in or on paper

D21H 21/36

Special rules of classification

In groups A01N 27/00-A01N 65/00, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place for an active ingredient.

A composition, i.e. a mixture of two or more active ingredients is classified in the last of groups A01N 27/00-A01N 65/00 that provides for at least one of these active ingredients.

Any part of a composition which is not identified by classification according to the last appropriate place of an active ingredient, and which itself is determined to be novel and non-obvious, must also be classified. The part can be either a single ingredient or a composition in itself.

Any part of a composition which is not identified by the classification according the last appropriate place, and which is considered to represent information of interest for search, may also be classified. This can for example be the case when it is considered of interest to enable searching of compositions using a combination of classification symbols. Such non-obligatory classification should be given as "additional information".

Where a compound is described as existing in tautomeric forms, it is classified as if existing in the form which is classified last in the system.

Compounds that are covered by different main groups because of alternatively specified functional groups or other structural features of their formulae are classified in each relevant main group.

Salts formed between two or more organic compounds are classified as the compound providing the essential ion and is also classified as the compound providing the other ion.

Salts or metal chelates of an organic compound are classified as the compound.

In this subclass, a foodstuff is not considered to be an active ingredient.

Different materials applied in sequence, at different times, are considered to be a mixture of all materials employed.

Synergistic or potentiated compositions are classified as if the synergist or potentiator is an active ingredient.

In groups A01N 25/00-A01N 65/00, the symbol X means nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur or a halogen; Y means nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur. A dotted line between atoms indicates an optional bond, e.g. .... indicates one or two single bonds or a double bond.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Acaricide

any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying mites and ticks or making them less harmful.

Alkali metal

one of the following elements: Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr.

Alkaline earth metal

one of the following elements: Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra.

Arthropodicide

any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying arthropods, e.g. insects, arachnids, crustaceans or making them less harmful.

Biocide

any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or mitigating any living organism (e.g., plant, animal). Examples of a biocide are: acaricide, arthropodicide, fungicide, insecticide, molluscicide, rodenticide (see Synonyms and Keywords).

Disinfectant

any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or mitigating microorganisms.

Fungicide

any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying moulds and fungi or making them less harmful.

Halogen

one of the following elements: F, Cl, Br, I, At.

Heavy metal

a metal other than light metal.

Herbicide

any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying plant life or making it less harmful.

Insecticide

any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying insects or making them less harmful.

Light metal

one of the following elements: alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, Be, Al, Mg.

Metal

an element other than non-metal.

Molluscicide

any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying molluscs, e.g. snails, clams or making them less harmful.

Non-metal

one of the following elements: H, B, C, Si, N, P, O, S, Se, Te, noble gas, halogen.

Pesticide

any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying any pest (e.g., insects, rodents) or making it less harmful.

Plant

A young tree, shrub, vegetable, or flower newly planted, or intended for planting

Plant growth regulator

materials which alter the plant or may affect plant growth through a chemical modification of the plant metabolism, such as auxins.

Molluscicide

any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying molluscs, e.g. snails, clams or making them less harmful.

Rodenticide

any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing or destroying rodents, e.g. rats, mice or making them less harmful.

A01N 25/00 fr

Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators, characterised by their forms, or by their non-active ingredients or by their methods of application;Substances for reducing the noxious effect of the active ingredients to organisms other than pests

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Apparatus for the destruction of noxious animals or noxious plants

A01M

A01N 25/18 fr

Vapour or smoke emitting compositions with delayed or sustained release

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fumigators

A01M 13/00

A23D 7/05

Edible oil or fat compositions containing an aqueous phase

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Essential cooling

The cooling is an essential, i.e. indispensable characteristic of the working-up.

A23L 1/222

Natural spices, flavouring agents, or condiments from fruit

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Essential oil

A concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants

A23L 1/307

Reducing nutritive value;Dietetic products with reduced nutritive value

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Nutritive value

The nutritive value represents the energetic or calorific content of nutrition

A44B fr

Buttons, pins, buckles, slide fasteners, or the like

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

The following fasteners or their essential parts:

Making slide fasteners, touch-and-close fasteners (e.g. VELCRO®, hook-and-loop, barb-and-pile fabrics), and other fasteners of this subclass.

Accessories or ancillary devices for the fasteners of this subclass when they are used exclusively with one of the varieties of fasteners (e.g. button cards) or have their operations either influencing or being influenced by the operation of the fastener (e.g. slide fastener pulling cords).

The following additional devices associated with either the fasteners of this class or accoutrements, garments, and haberdashery:

Note

The only "other types" of fasteners appropriate for this subclass are those that are capable of use with or actually used with accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery. Therefore, it must be either a commonly known practice to use a particular type of fastener with accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery (e.g., snap fasteners) or the patent documents for a particular type of fastener must frequently disclose their use with accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery. However, it is not required that all, or even the majority, of the fasteners covered by a particular category of fastener be specially adapted for use, or disclose their intended use, with accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

General relationship of A44B with F16B

Fasteners per se that either (a) require a tool for completing their normal fastening (e.g. screws, nails, stitches) or (b) are destroyed or destructively deformed to fasten or unfasten (e.g. staples, rivets) are excluded from A44B. These fasteners per se

However, when F16B types of fasteners or other tool driven or deformed fasteners are used to mount fasteners or fastener components appropriate for A44B, and are attached to or cooperate with at least one of their components, they are properly classified within A44B as an additional feature of the fasteners with which they are utilized.

General relationship of A44B with subclasses for accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery

Fasteners appropriately classified within A44B are often broadly claimed or disclosed in combination with the structure they secure or fasten. If the detail of the structure they secure or fasten specifies only the portion of the structure (e.g. dress belt tip or holes) necessary for either completing the fastening operation or mounting the fastening means, the combinations are proper for A44B.

If the details of the accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery being secured are more than that needed to complete the fastening operation or mount the fastener, then the combination is appropriate for the accoutrements, garments, or haberdashery subclasses (e.g. A41D, A41F).

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Fastening devices specially adapted for specific types of garments

A41F

Buttonholes or eyelets for buttonholes

A41F 1/02

Corset fasteners

A41F 1/04

Glove fasteners

A41F 1/06

Garter fasteners

A41F 1/08

Belts, girdles, or waistbands for trousers or skirts

A41F 9/00

Thumbtacks

B43M 15/00

Devices for fastening or securing constructional elements or machine parts together

F16B

Hand-manipulated hooks or eyes (e.g. swivel hook for dog leash)

F16B 45/00
Places covering apparatus or methods for making, or for positioning on the structure being fastened, fasteners or components of fasteners appropriate for this subclass

Appliances or methods for marking-out, perforating, or making buttonholes

A41H 25/00

Appliances or methods for setting fasteners on garments

A41H 37/00

Processing sheet metal, tubes or profiles to make haberdashery

B21D 53/46

Processing sheet metal, tubes or profiles to make buttons

B21D 53/48

Processing sheet metal, tubes or profiles to make metal slide fasteners parts

B21D 53/50

Wire-working to produce devices for fastening (e.g. slide fastener elements, buttons)

B21F 45/16

Pressure or injection die casting of slide fasteners and slide fastener parts

B22D 17/16

Producing slide fastener elements from plastic or other substances in a plastic state

B29D 5/00

Producing buttons or semi-finished button parts from plastic or other substances in a plastic state

B29D 19/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For garments in general

A41D

For protective aprons having fastening devices

A41D 13/04

For neckties having fastening or holding devices associated with the knot or collar

A41D 25/00

For hats having fastening devices

A42B 1/00

For head covering fastening means other than hatpins

A42B 7/00

For laces in general and for footwear having fastening devices

A43C

For machines, tools, equipment, or methods for setting fasteners on footwear

A43D 100/00

For brooches or clips having decorative or ornamental aspects

A44C 1/00

For medals or badges having pin fastening devices

A44C 3/00

For hair-holding devices

A45D 8/00

For work bench type holding clamps

B25B 5/00

For paper clips or like paper fasteners for temporarily attaching sheets together

B42F 1/02

For elements specially adapted for fastening, fixing, or finishing upholstery

B68G 7/12

For sewing apparatus or machines with mechanism for lateral movement of the needle or the work or both for making ornamental pattern seams, for sewing buttonholes, for reinforcing openings, or for fastening articles (e.g. buttons) by sewing

D05B 3/00

For sewing needles

D05B 85/00

For hand operated latches or bolts for doors or windows (e.g., door hooks)

E05C

Special rules of classification

Decorative mock-fastening devices that do not function as fasteners (e.g. ornamental buttons on coats, fake zippers on clothing), but that look like the fasteners or one of their essential parts covered by A44B, are classified within the main groups of this subclass that provide for the fasteners they are intended to resemble.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Button

A hand manipulated fastener that includes a rigid or semirigid portion (i.e. button) which is attached (e.g. sewn) to the structure it is intended to fasten or secure (e.g. clothing) in a manner that allows its reorientation by either movement about its attachment or movement of the structure it secures. A button is intended to be used with a complementary opening having a flaccid portion (e.g. buttonholes, looped cords) that forms the second essential part of the fastener.

Buckle

A hand manipulated fastener including engaging or holding means and structure for guiding during fastening, which can selectively hold a cooperating strap or belt that is either the structure secured (e.g. end of a dress belt) or a second portion of the fastener (e.g. securing strap of a backpack flap).

Pin

A hand manipulated fastener that includes both (1) a portion specifically shaped (e.g. pointed) to facilitate impaling of and penetration into the structure fastened or secured and (2) a remaining portion (e.g. head) intended to be manually pushed on that does not penetrate the structure fastened or secured.

Slide fastener

A hand manipulated fastener that includes (1) two, opposed, elongated, configured surfaces that are each attached by mounting means to a secured structure and are intended to directly contact and interlock with each other when fastened and (2) a sliding device that is much shorter in length than the surfaces and which travels along their length to forcibly shift them into or out of interlocking engagement.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the words slide fastener and zipper are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the words cufflink and sleeve-link are often used as synonyms.

A45B fr

Walking sticks;Umbrellas;Ladies' or like fans

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tables with means for holding umbrellas

A47B 37/04

A45D fr

Hairdressing or shaving equipment;Manicuring or other cosmetic treatment

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For applying therapeutic or disinfecting substances A61M, e.g.

A61M 35/00

Containers in general

B65D

A47B fr

Tables;Desks;Office furniture;Cabinets;Drawers;General details of furniture

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Storing articles in warehouses or magazines

B65G 1/00

Built-in cupboards as part of a building

E04F 19/08

Step-stools

A47C 12/00

Furniture joints

F16B

A47L fr

Domestic washing or cleaning;Suction cleaners in general

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Pneumatically taking-up undesirable matter from roads or like surfaces

E01H 1/08

A61B fr

Diagnosis;Surgery;Identification

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Apparatus, instruments, implements, or processes that are either specially adapted or intended to be solely utilized for evaluating, examining, measuring, monitoring, studying, or testing particular characteristics and aspects of either living or dead human and animal bodies for medical purposes (i.e., diagnosis). Diagnosis consists of scrutinizing the following characteristics or aspects of bodies:

Apparatus, instruments, implements, or processes that are either specially adapted or intended to be solely utilized for medical procedures employing physical actions (e.g., laser cutting, pressure of fluid) on portions of human or animal bodies to correct, enhance, or inspect (e.g., autopsies) them for medical purposes (i.e., surgery). Surgery consists of the following medical procedures:

Apparatus, instruments, implements, or processes that are either specially adapted or intended to be solely utilized in procedures for identifying individual human beings (e.g., finger printing, by recognition of shape or dimension of body part) using unique characteristics of their bodies (i.e. identification).

Adjunct or supplementary means specially adapted for use in, or intended for exclusive use in, diagnosis, surgery, or identification. These adjunct or supplementary means contribute to the effectiveness (e.g., surgical drapes) or safety (e.g., operating gloves) of a medical procedure, but may or may not (e.g., protective covers for scalpels) themselves involve any direct contact with a body.

Components of diagnosis, surgery, or identification means with structural features limiting their usefulness to medical procedures.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Several subclasses provide for subject matter that is used for 'diagnosis'. The relationship between these subclasses with regard to the type of 'diagnosis' covered by each is as follows:

Subclass A61B provides for diagnosis in general.

A61B also provides for any surgical or identification apparatus or methods when

A61B additionally provides for any diagnostic apparatus or methods combined with therapy apparatus or method normally covered by subclass A61H or A61N when

Subclass A61H provides for diagnostic means or steps that are combined with massage and physical therapy apparatus or methods used for the treatment of disease or disability (i.e., an abnormal condition of the body) by utilization of direct mechanical energy; when the diagnostic means or step is used solely for operational feedback purposes to enhance therapy.

Subclass A61N provides for diagnostic means or steps that are combined with medical treatment therapy apparatus or methods used for the treatment of disease or disability by utilization of forms of energy other than direct mechanical energy; when the means or step is used solely for operational feedback purposes to enhance therapy.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Tools or instruments for operating on the mouth portion of a human being (e.g., tooth saws)

A61C 3/00

Saliva removers combined with instruments for opening or keeping open the mouth (e.g., mouth props, tongue guards, tongue depressors, cheek spreaders)

A61C 17/10

Medical instruments, implements, tools, or methods specially adapted so as to limit their usefulness to only animals

A61D

Methods or devices for treatment of eyes, putting in contact lenses, eye surgery, or correcting squinting

A61F 9/00

Ear surgery

A61F 11/00

Physical therapy apparatus that includes diagnostic feedback means for influencing operation

A61H

Syringes and suction, pumping or atomizing devices for medical use (e.g. cups, breast relievers, irrigators, sprays, powder insufflators, atomizers, inhalers), apparatus for general or local anesthetics, devices or methods for causing a change in the state of consciousness, catheters, dilators, and apparatus for introducing medicines into the body other than orally

A61M

Non-surgical treatment of medical conditions or physical injuries by utilization of forms of energy not directly generated by mechanical apparatus, devices, or means that includes diagnostic feedback means for influencing its operation

A61N

Clinical thermometers for measuring the temperature of body parts

G01K 5/00

Methods or arrangements for reading or recognizing patterns, e.g. fingerprints

G06K 9/00

Recognizing, identifying, or verifying the identity of human beings by analyzing their voice or speech

G10L 17/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Operating tables and auxiliary devices for these tables

A61G 13/00

Operating chairs

A61G 15/00

Apparatus for artificial respiration or heart stimulation

A61H 31/00

Containers specially adapted for medical or pharmaceutical purposes

A61J 1/00

Devices for administering medicines orally

A61J 7/00

Materials for surgical sutures or for ligaturing blood vessels

A61L 17/00

Surgical adhesives or cements and adhesives for colostomy devices

A61L 24/00

Materials for colostomy devices

A61L 28/00

Measuring or testing processes involving enzymes or micro organisms

C12Q 1/00

Analyzing samples of biological material

G01N

Obtaining records using waves other than optical waves and viewing such records by using optical means

G03B 42/00

A61B 1/24 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mouth openers for animals

A61D 15/00

A61B 3/00 fr

Apparatus for testing the eyes;Instruments for examining the eyes

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices for treatment of the eyes

A61F 9/00

Exercisers for the eyes

A61H 5/00

Optical systems in general

G02B

A61B 3/04 fr

Trial frames;Sets of lenses for use therewith

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lenses per se

G02C 7/02

A61B 3/125 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Contact lenses per se

G02C 7/04

A61B 5/0215 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Solid probes

A61M 23/00

Catheters

A61M 25/00

A61B 5/025 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electric stethoscopes

A61B 7/04

A61B 5/04 fr

Measuring bioelectric signals of the body or parts thereof

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electrically conductive preparations for use in therapy or testing in vivo

A61K 50/00

A61B 5/055 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements or instruments for measuring magnetic variables involving electronic or nuclear magnetic resonance, in general

G01R 33/20

A61B 5/103 fr

Measuring devices for testing the shape, pattern, size or movement of the body or parts thereof, for diagnostic purposes

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring aids for tailors

A41H 1/00

A61B 5/22 fr

Ergometry;Measuring muscular strength or the force of a muscular blow

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring of work or force, in general

G01L

A61B 6/00 fr

Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, e.g. combined with radiation therapy equipment

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

X-ray contrast preparations

A61K 49/04

Preparations containing radioactive substances

A61K 51/00

X-ray photographic processes

G03C 5/16

X-ray apparatus or circuits therefor

H05G 1/00

Irradiation devices

G21K

Radiation therapy per se

A61N 5/00

A61B 6/02 fr

Devices for diagnosis sequentially in different planes;Stereoscopic radiation diagnosis

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Stereoscopic photography

G03B 35/00

A61B 6/03 fr

Computerised tomographs

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Data processing equipment for medical or biological purposes

G06F 17/00,G06F 19/00

A61B 6/10 fr

Application or adaptation of safety means

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Protection against dangerous radiation in general

G21F

A61B 8/00 fr

Diagnosis using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ultrasound therapy

A61N 7/00

Systems using the reflection or reradiation of acoustic waves, e.g. acoustic imaging

G01S 15/00

A61B 8/06 fr

Measuring blood flow

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring volume flow in general

G01F, G01F 1/66, G01F 1/72

Measuring speed of fluids in general

G01P 5/00

A61B 10/00 fr

Other methods or instruments for diagnosis, e.g. for vaccination diagnosis;Sex determination;Ovulation-period determination;Throat striking implements

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Vaccination prophylaxis, vaccination therapy

A61B 17/20

Menstruation tables

G06C 3/00

A61B 17/02 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Drainage appliances for wounds

A61M 27/00

A61B 17/04 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Suture materials

A61L 17/00

A61B 17/06 fr

Needles;Holders or packages for needles or suture materials

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Nerve needles for teeth

A61C 5/02

A61B 17/10 fr

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Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Containers, packaging elements or packages specially adapted for particular articles or with special means for dispensing contents

B65D 83/00, B65D 85/00

A61B 17/12 fr

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References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Specially adapted for vas deferens or fallopian tubes

A61F 6/20

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Materials for ligaturing blood vessels

A61L 17/00

A61B 17/135 fr

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References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

For measuring blood pressure

A61B 5/022

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Inflatable pressure pads

A61F 5/34

A61B 17/20 fr

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Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Diagnosis by vaccination

A61B 10/00

A61B 17/22 fr

Implements for squeezing-off ulcers or the like on inner organs of the body;Implements for scraping-out cavities of body organs, e.g. bones;For invasive removal or destruction of calculus using mechanical vibrations;For removing obstructions in blood vessels, not otherwise provided for

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

For biopsy

A61B 10/02

Gynaecological or obstetrical instruments or methods

A61B 17/42
Places in relation to which this subclass is residual:

Dilators

A61M 29/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ultrasound therapy

A61N 7/00

A61B 17/225 fr

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Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ultrasound therapy

A61N 7/00

A61B 17/42 fr

Gynaecological or obstetrical instruments or methods

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Dilators

A61M 29/00

A61B 17/425 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Specially adapted for use with animals

A61D 19/00

A61B 17/46 fr

Embryotomes

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For animals

A61D 1/10

A61B 17/50 fr

Instruments, other than pincettes or toothpicks, for removing foreign bodies from the human body

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Locating otherwise

A61B 5/06

Locating by radiation

A61B 6/00

A61B 17/56 fr

Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints;Devices specially adapted therefor

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Orthopaedic methods or devices for non-surgical treatment of bones or joints

A61F 5/00

A61B 17/60 fr

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Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bandages, dressings or absorbent pads

A61F 13/00

A61B 18/00 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electrically conductive preparations for use in therapy or testing in vivo, e.g conductive adhesives or gels to be used with electrodes

A61K 50/00

A61B 18/04 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Hyperthermia using electric or magnetic fields, radiation or ultrasound

A61N

A61C fr

Dentistry;Oral or dental hygiene

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Apparatus (i.e. instruments, implements, machines, structures, tools) or processes that are specially adapted for, or limited to use in, creating artificial teeth, mounting artificial teeth, supporting artificial teeth, or repairing artificial teeth or their supports (e.g. denture articulators), and wherein the dental prostheses made or fixed by the apparatus or process are used exclusively for humans or both humans and animals.

Apparatus or methods utilized to prevent, discourage, or cure oral diseases (i.e. diseases occurring exclusively within the oral cavity such as enamel caries or periodontitis) in humans or both humans and animals.

Apparatus, devices, or methods used for one or more of the following:

Apparatus (i.e. instruments, implements, machines, structures, tools) or processes that are specially adapted for, or limited to use in, the treatment, reconstruction, removal, insertion, replacement, repair, transfixing or testing of either natural teeth, artificial teeth that are permanently affixed within the oral cavity, gums, or other portions of the oral cavity having an effect on their operation (e.g. portions of jawbone supporting teeth), and wherein the apparatus or processes are used exclusively for humans or both humans and animals.

Apparatus, devices, or methods used for

Dental prostheses devices or artificial dental implant devices per se or their components (e.g. artificial teeth, mounting or attaching means for artificial teeth, devices for supplementing jawbones, crowns) used within the oral cavity.

Dental implants formed from biological material or consisting of oral cavity parts originating either from a donor source or from the patient that are intended to be introduced, or reintroduced, into the patient's oral cavity to correct a dental or oral hygiene problem (e.g. modified natural teeth or jawbone material from a donor).

Adjunct, auxiliary, or supplementary means or structures that contribute to the effectiveness or safety of dental procedures or their products and are specially adapted to be used either:

Specially adapted components of apparatus having structural features limiting them to use with at least one of the dental apparatus types specified above (e.g. dust collectors, illumination devices).

Accessories specially adapted for use with at least one of the above types of apparatus, means, or structures (e.g. devices for measuring the length of the root canal of a tooth).

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Subclass A61C (this subclass) provides for devices used by others to clean an individual's teeth. It also provides for devices used by individuals upon their own teeth to remove foreign matter from the surface of their teeth or enhance the appearance of their teeth when the device is not specifically provided for elsewhere.

Subclass A46B covers manually moved or powered brushes, and in particular toothbrushes, used for cleaning that are not specifically provided for elsewhere. It also covers arrangements of brush bristles per se and the handle structure for brushes.

Subclass A61D covers devices used by individuals to remove foreign matter from the surface of the teeth of animals or enhance the appearance of the teeth of animals when the device is not specifically provided for elsewhere and is limited to use solely on animals.

Subclass A61K covers preparations that are used for medical, dental, or cosmetic purposes in the oral cavity.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Manual toothbrushes

A46B

Positioning or arrangements of toothbrush bristles per se for manual or powered toothbrushes

A46B 9/04

Instruments used in visual or photographical inspection of the mouth (e.g. dentist mirrors, mouth opening devices)

A61B 1/24

Instruments for depressing the tongue

A61B 13/00

Tongue scrapers

A61B 17/24

Dental apparatus and methods peculiar to animals

A61D 5/00

Preparations used in dentistry for purposes other than cleaning

A61K 6/00

Preparations used for cosmetic cleaning of teeth or mouth

A61K 8/00

Dental or operating chairs

A61G 15/00

Dental work stands

A61G 15/14

Dental hypodermic syringes

A61M 5/178

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Other types of implants or prostheses for the body

A61F

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Oral cavity

The part of human or animal mouth that includes the inside lining of the lips and cheeks (buccal mucosa), the teeth or their artificial permanently affixed replacements, the gums, the front two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth below the tongue, the bony roof of the mouth (hard palate), and the area immediately behind the wisdom teeth (retromolar trigone).

A61G fr

Transport, personal conveyances, or accommodation specially adapted for patients or disabled persons;Operating tables or chairs;Chairs for dentistry;Funeral devices

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Specially adapted vehicles (e.g., ambulances), handling apparatus (e.g., wheelchair lifts), or methods or devices (e.g., stretchers) for moving patients or disabled persons who are passive participants in their relocation (e.g., the persons are handled in a manner similar to loads).

Personal conveyances

Specially adapted structures (e.g., hospital or treatment rooms for medical purposes, baby incubators) or devices (e.g., bedpans, hospital beds, trapeze or pull-up bars) used

Specially adapted supporting surfaces for sustaining patients in a recumbent or seated position during recovery, surgery, dental work, or similar types of medical treatment.

Funeral devices

Auxiliary appliances (e.g., trolleys for medicine) or accessories (e.g., prescription list) specially adapted for use with the other invention information covered by this subclass.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

General relationship of A61G with subclasses for care or alteration of the human body

A61G does not cover apparatus or methods that are directly used on an individual's body to perform medical care and therapy or to alter it after death. The types of medical care, therapy, and body alterations not covered by A61G consist of:

Subclasses A01N, A61B, A61C, A61F, A61H, A61K, A61M, A61N, and F23G provide appropriately for apparatus or methods for medical care, therapy, or body alterations of these types. The specific classifications that are of interest for search purposes are specified in the references of A61G or its groups.

However, A61G does provide for specific structural modifications that merely facilitate the use of apparatus or methods of these types for medical care or therapy when in combination with subject matter that is otherwise appropriate for this subclass (e.g., special supports for patients with burns).

A61G also provides for life supporting or sustaining devices that control the local environment during treatment or recovery of patients (e.g., baby incubators).

General relationship of A61G with vehicles adapted for use by disabled

A61G covers personal conveyances and "vehicle-like" conveyances (e.g., wheelchairs, stretchers) that are explicitly designed for use by only a single patient or disabled person and intended to normally travel relatively short distances along the ground or similar support surface (e.g., hallway).

The subclass for a specific type of standard roadway vehicle (i.e., vehicles designed and intended for general thoroughfare usage over long distances, such as B62K for cycles) covers their vehicles that have been specially adapted for use by a disabled operator.

The subclass for a specific type of "special-utility" vehicle (i.e., vehicles that have another primary purpose other than transport, such as riding lawn mowers or forklifts) covers their vehicles that have been specially adapted for use by a disabled operator.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Devices per se for enabling disabled persons to operate an apparatus or device not forming part of the body

A61F4/00

Restraining devices for the body or for body parts and restraining shirts that are used for non-surgical treatment of patients' bones or joints

A61F 5/37

Equipment for beds, treatment tables, floor frames or the like for extending or stretching

A61F 5/045

Appliances for aiding invalids to walk about

A61H3/00

Bathing devices for special therapeutic or hygienic purposes

A61H 33/00

For bicycles specially adapted for disabled riders

B62K 3/16

Inclined lifts associated with stairways for transporting disabled persons or wheelchairs

B66B 9/08

Illumination of operating tables

F21LF21SF21V

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For preserving of the dead bodies of humans, animals, or the parts thereof

A01N1/00

For sanitary equipment not otherwise provided for

A47K

For body washing or cleaning implements

A47K7/00

For sanitary closets or urinals without flushing and chamber pots

A47K11/00

For appliances for supporting or fettering animals during operations

A61D3/00

For vehicles adapted to transport meat

B60P3/05

For vehicles adapted to transport refrigerated goods

B60P3/20

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Disabled person

a human being that is unable to do a basic physical task (e.g., walking) due to a physical or mental impairment/condition.

Funeral device

apparatus associated with (e.g., coffin) or for performing (e.g., casket lowering device) activities connected with the burial, cremation, entombment, or other methods of honoring or disposing of (e.g., freeze drying) the remains of the body of a deceased individual.

Patient

a human being awaiting or undergoing any form of (a) medical care (e.g., testing) or treatment by medical staff (e.g., doctors, dentists, midwifes, chiropractors) or (b) physical tending (e.g., feeding) by caretakers (e.g., hospice or nursing home staff) due to impairment.

Personal conveyance

a vehicle-like device (e.g., wheelchairs) that is:

not specifically adapted for traveling significant distances (e.g., between cities) along thoroughfares (e.g., railways, roads, sidewalks) with normal traffic (e.g., trucks),

explicitly designed (i.e., not merely adaptations of a standard production vehicle) for carrying, and intended to be limited to use by, a single patient or disabled person at any given time, and

potentially capable of having either its movement controlled or powered by the patient or disabled person carried by it.

A61G 1/003 fr

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Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices in general for lifting patients or disabled persons

A61G 7/10

A61G 1/007 fr

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Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ski vehicles

A63C 5/00

A61G 1/01 fr

Sheets specially adapted for use as or with stretchers

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Restraining devices used in nursing

A61F 5/37

A61G 5/00 fr

Chairs or personal conveyances specially adapted for patients or disabled persons, e.g. wheelchairs

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Chairs with toilet conveniences

A47K 11/04

Running gear or propulsion features

B60K

A61G 7/16 fr

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Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Chair beds

A47C 17/04

A61G 10/02 fr

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Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Dust-free laboratory rooms

B01L 1/04

Decompression arrangements

B63C 11/32

Arrangements or adaptations in aircraft

B64D 13/00

Air-conditioning in general

F24F

A61G 12/00 fr

Accommodation for nursing, e.g. in hospitals, not covered by groups A61G 1/00-A61G 11/00, e.g. trolleys for transport of medicaments or food;Prescription lists

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Service or tea tables, trolleys or wagons

A47B 31/00

A61G 13/00 fr

Operating tables;Auxiliary appliances therefor

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Adjustability of tables in general

A47B 9/00

A61G 15/00 fr

Operating chairs;Dental chairs;Accessories specially adapted therefor, e.g. work stands

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Barbers' chairs

A47C 1/04

A61G 17/08 fr

Urns

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Columbaria

E04H 13/00

A61K fr

Preparations for medical, dental, or toilet purposes

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Compositions which are:

Used as preparations for dentistry, e.g. for artificial teeth, for filling or for capping teeth, or for taking dental impressions.

Used for cosmetic purposes for treating the skin, hair, nails, teeth or oral cavity with a view to cleaning them, changing their appearance, correcting body odours, protecting them or keeping them in good condition.

Used for medicinal purposes, e.g. drugs, biological compositions, when they are capable of:

Processes

Relationship between large subject matter areas

A01N covers the preservation of bodies of humans or animals or plants or parts thereof; biocides, e.g. as disinfectants, as pesticides, as herbicides .

Compounds per se are classified in C01, C07 or C08.

C08K covers the use of substances as compounding ingredients.

Compositions per se containing polymers are classified in C08L.

Micro-organisms per se are classified in C12N.

Multiple classification

The therapeutic activity of medicinal preparations is further classified in A61P.

The use of cosmetics or similar toilet preparations is further classified in A61Q.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Sex sterilants for invertebrates per se

A01N

Artificial nails per se

A45D31/00

Devices or methods specially adapted for bringing pharmaceutical products into particular physical or administering forms

A61J

Disinfections, sterilisation or deodorization of air; Chemical aspects of, or use of materials for, bandages, dressings, absorbent pads or surgical articles

A61L

Essential oils, perfumes

C11B9/00

Detergent compositions

C11D

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Biocides, pest repellants or attractants per se

A01N 25/00-A01N 65/00

Wigs

A41G3/00

Hair pieces, inserts, rolls, pads or the like

A41G5/00

Processes of waving, straightening or curling hair

A45D7/00

Containers or accessories specially adapted for handling toilet or cosmetic substances

A45D34/00

Diagnosis; Surgery; Identification

A61B

Dentistry

A61C

Electrotherapy; Magnetotherapy; Radiation therapy; Ultrasound therapy

A61N

Mixing, dissolving, emulsifying, dispersing

B01F

Measuring or testing processes involving enzymes or micro-organisms; Compositions or test papers therefor; Processes of preparing such compositions; Condition-responsive control in microbiological or enzymological processes

C12Q

Investigating or analysing materials by determining their chemical or physical properties

G01N

Special rules of classification

Attention is drawn to the definitions of groups of chemical elements following the title of section C.

In this subclass, with the exception of group 8/00, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

Attention is drawn to the Notes in class C07, for example the Notes following the title of the subclass C07D, setting forth the rules for classifying organic compounds in that class, which rules are also applicable, if not otherwise indicated, to the classification of organic compounds of A61K.

A composition, i.e. a mixture of two or more ingredients is classified in the last of groups A61K 31/00-A61K 47/00 that provides for at least one of these ingredients.

Any part of a composition which is not identified by classification according to the last appropriate place of an active ingredient, and which itself is determined to be novel and non-obvious, must also be classified. The part can be either a single ingredient or a composition in itself.

Any part of a composition which is not identified by the classification according the last appropriate place, and which is considered to represent information of interest for search, may also be classified. This can for example be the case when it is considered of interest to enable searching of compositions using a combination of classification symbols. Such non-obligatory classification should be given as "additional information".

A61K 6/00 fr

Preparations for dentistry

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Dentistry

A61C

A61K 6/04 fr

Use of metals or alloys

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alloys per se

C22C

A61K 6/06 fr

Use of inorganic cements

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cements per se

C04B

A61K 6/08 fr

Use of natural or synthetic resins

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Resins per se

C08

A61K 6/10 fr

Compositions for taking dental impressions

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Impression methods

A61C 9/00

A61K 8/00 fr

Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Casings or accessories for storing or handling of solid or pasty toilet or cosmetic substances are classified in A45D 40/00

A61K 9/00 fr

Medicinal preparations characterised by special physical form

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast preparations or magnetic resonance imaging contrast preparations are classified in group A61K 49/18

Praparations containing radioactive substances are classified in group A61K 51/12

A61K 9/68 fr

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Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Non-medicinal aspects, preparing chewing gum

A23G 4/00

A61K 9/70 fr

Web, sheet or filament bases

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bandages, dressings or absorbent pads

A61F 13/00

A61K 50/00 fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electrodes specially adapted for electrocardiography

A61B 5/0408

Electrodes specially adapted for foetal cardiography

A61B 5/0448

Electrodes specially adapted for electroencephalography

A61B 5/0478

Electrodes specially adapted for electromyography

A61B 5/0492

Electrodes for electrotherapy

A61N 1/04

A61N fr

Electrotherapy;Magnetotherapy;Radiation therapy;Ultrasound therapy

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Specially adapted apparatus, instruments, devices, or processes for the following types of therapy:

Components having specialized structural features that limit their use to the apparatus, instruments, or devices for the types of therapy appropriate for this subclass.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Several subclasses provide for subject matter that is used for therapy. The relationship between these subclasses in regard to the type of therapy covered by each is as follows:

Subclass A61N provides for medical treatment-type therapy by apparatus or methods utilizing forms of energy other than direct mechanical energy when they are not used for surgical purposes and they are intended to either

In particular, subclass A61N covers implanted devices, when the implanted device is not a replacement or supplementation of an actual portion of the organ or part, utilizing forms of energy other than direct mechanical energy to stimulate organs or body parts in a manner that facilitates, regulates, or improves their normal functioning.

Subclass A61H provides for massage and physical-type therapy apparatus or methods for the treatment of disease or disability (i.e., an abnormal condition of the body) by utilization of direct mechanical energy. The apparatus or methods appropriate for this subclass do not surgically alter any portion of the bodies during treatment. Usually, the massage and therapy apparatus and methods of this subclass are intended to facilitate the healing of diseases, reduce the impact of injuries, or beneficially influence the condition of disabled body parts by physically moving a part of a body (e.g., devices for exercising a passive body member) solely by direct physical contact with, or stimulation of, external surfaces of the body or naturally occurring cavities in the body. However, stimulation of internal organs or body parts, such as artificial respiration and stimulation of the heart, when it is done by direct mechanical energy is also considered proper for this subclass.

Subclass A61K and Subclass A61P provide for drug-type therapy using chemical compounds or medicinal preparations specially adapted for use in healing, benefiting, or destroying abnormal conditions of the body (e.g., diseases, birth defects) and the specific therapeutic activities that the chemical compounds and medicinal preparations are used for.

Subclass A61B provides for surgery and surgical-type therapy that alters or repairs organs and body parts. It also provides for any surgical or diagnostic apparatus or methods that would otherwise be proper for subclass A61H or A61N when the apparatus or methods are used for both purposes or combined together. In particular, subclass A61B provides for surgical instruments, devices, or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body (e.g., electromagnetic radiation surgery) to alter or repair it.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Apparatus for diagnosis or surgery combined with, or applicable also as, therapy apparatus

A61B

Apparatus for radiation diagnosis

A61B 6/00

Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body (e.g., radiation surgery, electro-surgery)

A61B 18/00

Instruments, implements, tools, or methods specially adapted so as to limit their use to only animals

A61D

Apparatus or methods utilizing direct mechanical energy in therapy intended to treat disease or disability

A61H

Percussion or vibration massage apparatus (e.g. using supersonic vibration)

A61H 23/00

Apparatus or methods for stimulating specific reflex points by heating or cooling within the cell-life limits

A61H 39/06

Devices for applying radioactive material to the body

A61M 36/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring bioelectrical signals of the body or body parts

A61B 5/04

Surgical accessories

A61B 19/00

Artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body

A61F 2/00

Heating or cooling appliances for medical or therapeutic treatment

A61F 7/00

Saunas

A61H 33/06

Radiopharmaceuticals

A61K 51/12

Anaesthetic apparatus in general

A61M

Artificial hearts and circulatory assistance means intended for implantation

A61M 1/12

Pressure infusion pumps

A61M 5/142

Devices or methods to cause a change in the state of consciousness by mechanical, optical or acoustical means, e.g. audiovisual stimuli

A61M 21/00

Therapeutic chemical compounds or medicinal preparation used to treat sicknesses or abnormal conditions of the body

A61P

Measurement of nuclear X-radiation

G01T

Techniques for handling of particles or electromagnetic radiation

G21K

Incandescent lamps having general utility

H01K

Infrared radiators for heating

H05B

A61P fr

Therapeutic activity of chemical compounds or medicinal preparations

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Therapeutic activity of chemical compounds or medicinal preparations.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

For medicinal, dental or cosmetic preparations to be appropriate for this subclass, it must also be appropriate for one of the following: subclasses A61K or C12N, or classes C01, C07, and C08.

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Preparations brought into direct contact with the skin for affording protection against external influences

A61Q 17/00

Special rules of classification

In this subclass, all of the different therapeutic activities stated in the claims or significantly disclosed as examples in the disclosure are classified in all appropriate places.

The classification symbols of this subclass are not listed first when assigned to patent documents.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Drug(s)

includes chemical compounds or compositions with therapeutic activity, i.e. having the ability to cause a physiological, pharmacological or biological effect.

A61Q fr

Use of cosmetics or similar toilet preparations

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

The use of cosmetics or similar toilet preparations.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

For a cosmetic or similar toilet preparation to be appropriate for this subclass, it must also be appropriate for one of the following: main group A61K8/00 , subclasses C07C, C07D, C07F, C07G, C07H, C07J, C07K, C11D and C12N or classes C01 and C08.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Deodorisation of air

A61L 9/00

Drugs for dermatological disorders

A61P 17/02-A61P 17/16

Essential oils or perfumes per se

C11B 9/00

Special rules of classification

In this subclass, all uses of cosmetics or similar toilet preparations stated in the claims or significantly disclosed as examples in the disclosure are classified in all appropriate places.

The classification symbols of this subclass are not listed first when assigned to patent documents.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations

include compositions or preparations for the skin, hair, nails, teeth or oral cavity which are used to clean them, change their appearance, correct body odours, and protect or keep them in good condition.

A61Q 7/00 fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Preparations with therapeutic activity

A61P 17/14

A61Q 13/00

Formulations or additives for perfume preparations

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Essential oil

A concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants

A61Q 17/00 fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Drugs for treating burns

A61P 17/02

A61Q 17/02 fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Pest repellants

A01N

A62D 3/00 fr

Processes for making harmful chemical substances harmless, or less harmful, by effecting a chemical change in the substances

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Processes for chemically altering harmful chemical substances into safe or less-dangerous substances.

These processes can be chemical, bio-chemical or physico-chemical processes, e.g. use of special chemical reagents for chemical fixing, which result in the decomposition or transformation of the harmful chemical substances into harmless or less harmful substances because of a change in their chemical structure.

These processes can comprise the step of dissolving or dispersing the harmful chemical substances in water for the purpose of treating them, or the step of producing, for treatment, a gaseous product from a non-gaseous harmful chemical substance.

The harmful chemical substance can be one component of a mixture, e.g. a component in contaminated sludge.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

The disposal of solid waste or the reclamation of contaminated soil is classified elsewhere, i.e. in class B09. However, the treatment of a specific harmful chemical substance in solid waste resulting in the change of its chemical constitution to make it harmless or less harmful is covered by A62D.

In the same way, treatment of sludge is not classified here with the exception of the treatment of a specific harmful chemical substance in the sludge, e.g. in residues from industrial processes (excluding contaminants from municipal sewage treatment) resulting in the change of its chemical constitution to make it harmless or less harmful.

Preventive chemical treatments, e.g. to prevent the formation of harmful chemical substances are classified elsewhere, depending on the kind of treatment and/or the context of application.

Processes using enzymes or micro-organisms classified in A62D 3/00 are also classified in subclass C12S.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Detoxification of foods or foodstuffs

A23L 1/015

Apparatus for chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general

B01

Treatment of gases, e.g.:

Chemical or biological purification of smoke or fumes, e.g. flue gas

B01D 53/34

Purification or modifying the chemical compositions of combustible gases containing carbon monoxide

C10K

Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust

F01N 3/00

Consuming noxious gases by combustion

F23G 7/06

Chemical processes resulting in the production of a useful product, e.g.:

using untreated contaminated fly ash as raw material in the manufacture of cement

C04B 7/26

metals obtained from residues or scrap

C22B

Treatment of radioactively-contaminated waste

G21F 9/00
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Treatment of waste water, sewage or sludge

C02F

Making explosives harmless by detonation

F42D 5/04

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Disinfection or sterilizing methods specially adapted for refuse

A61L 11/00

Waste or refuse as compounding ingredient for glass, cement, mortar, concrete, artificial stone or ceramics

C03 C04B

Materials for absorbing liquids to remove pollution, e.g. oil, gasoline, fat

C09K 3/32

Destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials

C10B

Destructive hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials

C10G 1/06

Micro-organisms, enzymes or compositions thereof

C12N

Consuming waste by combustion

F23G

Removal or treatment of combustion products or combustion residues

F23J

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Catalyst

Substance which either increases or decreases the speed of a chemical reaction, without itself undergoing a permanent chemical change.

Catalyst

Catalyst

Chalcogen

Also known as chalcogenides, specifically O, S, Se, Te.

Harmful

Directly toxic to living organisms, with the exception of toxic to plants only.

Harmful chemical substances

Chemical waste substances which are too hazardous or toxic to be discarded in an ordinary municipal landfill.

Halogens

The elements F, Cl, Br ,I , At.

Physico-chemical

Having at least one chemical step and one physical step.

Sludge

Residue (normally viscous) from an industrial, residential, or agricultural process.

A63B fr

Apparatus for physical training, gymnastics, swimming, climbing or fencing; Ball games; Training equipment

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Gymnastic or exercising apparatus or equipment, of which examples are:

Climbing or mountaineering apparatus, including apparatus for climbing trees or poles.

Swimming aids or equipment, e.g. flippers, goggles.

Balls for ball games including:

Rackets, bats or other striking implements for ball games, e.g. tennis rackets and similar, golf clubs, baseball bats, cricket bats, hockey sticks.

Accessories for golf; accessories for other ball games.

Targets or goals for ball games; tennis and similar nets and accessories therefor.

Implements for throwing, e.g. darts, javelins, spears, throwing-hammers, boomerangs, discus discs, quoits, juggling clubs.

Miscellaneous sporting games, e.g. miniature golf, juggling, curling, badminton, shuttlecock or like games, games using a hockey puck; projectiles for these games which do not fall into the above category of balls for ball games.

Training appliances for particular sports, e.g. for fencing, riding, skiing, rowing, punching-balls for boxing, golf swing trainers, artificial mountain slopes.

Other games or sports accessories, e.g. indicating or scoring devices, body protectors.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Some sporting subject matter is to be found in other subclasses of class A63. Skates, skis and their bindings, roller skates, skate-boards and the design or layout of playing-courts, rinks, bowling-greens or water-skiing areas or the like are classified in A63C. Bowling-alleys, bowling-games and equipment for bowls (but not the balls which are in A63B) and billiards or snooker are classified in A63D. Merry-go-rounds, swings, rocking-horses, toy animals for riding, chutes, switchbacks, water roundabouts, helter-skelters or the like are classified in A63G. Toys are in A63H. Racing, riding sports and equipment and accessories therefore, including race-courses and race-tracks, are in A63K.

In relation to apparatus or methods for manufacturing balls, it should be borne in mind that working of plastics or substances in a plastic state is classified in class B29 and the chemical or compositional aspects of balls is in Section C, e.g. compositions for making golf balls are usually in subclass C08L.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Protective equipment in the form of clothing or garments for sporting purposes

A41D 13/00

in the form of caps or hats

A42B 1/08

Helmets

A42B 3/00

Apparatus for passive exercising or massage

A61H

Unicycles

B62K 1/00

Vessels or like floating structures for pleasure or sport

B63B 35/71B63B 35/73

Life-saving in water

B63C 9/00

Breathing aids for swimming, e.g. snorkels

B63C 11/12

Divers' sleds or like craft

B63C 11/46

Training of parachutists

B64D 23/00

Archers' finger tabs

F41B 5/16

Traps for clay-pigeon targets

F41J 9/18

Devices for exercising or strengthening of fingers or arms in teaching music

G09B 15/06
In relation to climbing or mountaineering equipment:

Non-skid devices or attachments for footwear, e.g. mountain climbing irons

A43C 15/00

Breathing masks or helmets for use at high altitudes

A62B 18/00

Safety belts for climbers

A62B 35/00

Picks

B25D 7/00

Ladders attached to fixed structures

E06C 9/04

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring muscular strength

A61B 5/22

Connecting valves to inflatable elastic bodies

B60C 29/00

Throwing weapons

F41B

e.g. sling-weapons

F41B 3/00

Stop watches

G04F

Timing devices

G07C

Special rules of classification

None.

A63H fr

Toys, e.g. tops, dolls, hoops, building blocks

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Toys of the following types:

Special methods or compositions for the manufacture of dolls, toy animals, toy figures or parts thereof.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Toys are often imitations or miniatures of "genuine", "full-size" working devices, machines or apparatus with a practical use. However toys normally have structural details that make them unsuitable for operation similar to that of a full-size equivalent. For the full-size working device, the relevant subclass should be consulted, for example "proper" vehicles, aircraft, etc. should be classified in classes B60-B64 and gearing in general (instead of gearing for toys) is in subclass F16H. In borderline cases where it is difficult to distinguish between a toy and a full-size working device, it may be necessary to classify in several places.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Blowing smoke-rings

A24F 13/30

Dolls' footwear

A43B 3/28

Flying discs

A63B 65/10

Throwing toys as part of a game

A63F 9/02

Traffic games with figures moved by players

A63F 9/14

Changeable or secret pictures

B44F 1/10

Spring toy guns

F41B 3/00

Firecrackers

F42B 4/04

Hand-thrown impact-exploded noise makers

F42B 4/16

Kaleidoscopes

G02B 27/08

Toy ticket punches

G07B 9/02
Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:
Examples (not mentioned above) of devices, articles or apparatus which are applicable to humans instead of toys, or of "full-size" working devices or machines with a practical use:

Eyelashes, eyebrows for humans

A41G

Savings boxes

A45C 1/12

Artificial eyes for humans

A61F 2/14

Picture books

B42D 1/00

Parachutes for aeronautics

B64D

Ultra-small engines, e.g. for driving models

F02B 75/34

Models or scenery for general purposes

G09B

Music, sound or noise production in general

G10

Transformers

H01F

Electric motors per se

H02K

Converters

H02M

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Toy

A plaything to be actively played with by children or others; something contrived for amusement rather than for practical or serious use.

Toy figure

A toy that is a caricature or a stylised or symbolic form of a human being, animal, cartoon, fictional character or mythological being.

B01D fr

Separation

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Processes and apparatus for evaporation, distillation, sublimation, crystallisation, solvent extraction, chromatography, sedimentation, filtration, dust precipitation, gas cleaning, absorption, adsorption, separation of isotopes.

Cold traps, cold baffles.

Treating liquids by displacement, adsorption, separation or degasification.

Treating gases or vapours by separation, recovering, chemical or biological purification of waste gases.

Separation using semi-permeable membranes, dialysis, osmosis, ultrafiltration.

Separation of suspended particles from liquids by sedimentation, flocculation, settling, filtration or other processes.

Separation of dispersed particles from gases or vapours, by filtration, gravity, inertia or centrifugal forces, or using liquid as separating agent.

Similar processes which are not concerned with, or limited to, separation.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

For apparatus used in drying or evaporation, F26B takes precedence over this subclass.

Separation of isotopes of the same chemical element is covered by group B01D 59/00, whatever process or apparatus is employed; this group therefore takes precedence over other subclasses of class B01.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Separating solids from solids by wet methods

B03BB03D

Separating solids from solids using liquids or using pneumatic jigs or tables

B03B

Magnetic or electrostatic separation of solid materials from solid materials or fluids, separation by high-voltage electric fields

B03C

Flotation, differential sedimentation

B03D

Separating solids from solids by dry methods, e.g. sieving, screening, sifting or using gas currents

B07B

Centrifuges

B04B

Vortex apparatus, e.g. cyclones

B04C

Presses per se for squeezing-out liquid from liquid-containing material

B30B 9/02

Making single crystals

C30B

Into single crystals

C30B 23/00

Manufacture of hollow fibres

D01D 5/24D01F 1/08

Separation of difficult-to-condense gases or air by liquefaction

F25J 3/00

Condensers

F28B
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Blood or infusion liquid filters

A61M 5/165

Screens or sieves per se

B07B 1/00

Extrusion filters

B29C 47/68

Filtering spinning solution or melt

D01D 1/10

Filtration of lubricants

F16N 39/06

Suction cleaner filters

A47L 9/10

Filters for breathing-protection purposes

A62B 23/00

Filtering air for vehicles

B60H 3/06

Separating pneumatically-conveyed materials from propelling gas

B65G 53/60

Exhaust or silencing apparatus for machines or engines having means for removing solid constituents of exhaust

F01N 3/02

Air cleaners for the intakes of gas-turbine or jet-propulsion plants

F02C 7/05

Air cleaners for the intakes of combustion engines

F02M 35/024

Air cleaners for the intakes of compressors

F04B 39/16

Filtering in air-conditioning

F24F 3/16

Arrangement or mounting of filters in air-conditioning, air-humidification or ventilation

F24F 13/28

Purification or separation of nitrogen

C01B 21/04

Working-up unidentified gaseous mixtures obtained by cracking hydrocarbon oils

C10G 70/00

Cleaning coal gas

C10K

Working-up of natural gas, or synthetic natural gas

C10L 3/10

Investigating materials

G01N 30/00

Treatment of milk by dialysis, reverse osmosis or ultrafiltration

A23C 9/142

Treatment of milk by electrodialysis

A23C 9/144

Artificial kidneys

A61M 1/14

Treatment of water e.g. softening of water by ion-exchange

C02F, C02F 1/42

Treatment of water by dialysis, osmosis or reverse osmosis

C02F 1/44

Treatment of water by electrodialysis

C02F 1/469

Apparatus for enzymology or microbiology with dialysis means

C12M 1/12

Production or purification of sugar juices, e.g. by osmosis

C13D 3/16

Extraction of sugar from molasses, e.g. by osmosis

C13J 1/08

Diaphragms for electrolysis

C25B 13/00C25C 7/04

Osmosis as energy source

F03G 7/00

Special rules of classification

Group B01D 59/00 (separation of isotopes) takes precedence over other groups of this subclass since it covers separation of isotopes of the same chemical element, whatever process or apparatus is employed.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Filtration

The separation of a fluid-solid mixture, involving passage of most of the fluid through a porous barrier which retains most of the solid particulates contained in the mixture; includes straining solids from fluids.

Filter medium

A porous barrier or porous arrangement of material, which lets a fluid pass while retaining most of the solids which were mixed with it.

Filtering element

A section of filter medium in addition to parts to which the medium is demountably or permanently fixed, including other sections of medium, end caps, peripheral frames or edge strips, but excluding housings.

Filter housing

The fluid-constraining impervious vessel, whether open or closed, which contains, or is adapted to contain one or more filtering elements or filter media.

Filter chamber

The space within a housing where filtering elements or filter media are located; partitions may divide a single housing into a plurality of chambers.

Filtering apparatus

Filtering elements combined with housings, cleaning arrangements, motor or like parts, which are characteristic of the particular type of apparatus. Ancillary devices such as pumps or valves are considered part of a filtering apparatus when inside the apparatus. Ancillary devices performing similar or different unit operations such as comminutors, mixers or non-filtering separators, whether or not inside the apparatus, are not considered part of a filtering apparatus. The term does not extend to apparatus, e.g. washing machines, of which the filter forms only a part.

B01D 1/00 fr

Evaporating

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Preparation of starch

C08B 30/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Prevention of incrustation

C23F

B01D 1/20 fr

Sprayers

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Sprayers in general

B05B

B01D 3/00 fr

Distillation or related exchange processes in which liquids are contacted with gaseous media, e.g. stripping

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Preparation of alcoholic beverages by distillation

C12G 3/12

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Gas chromatography

B01D 15/08

Destructive distillation

C10B

B01D 3/16 fr

Fractionating columns in which vapour bubbles through liquid

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Packing elements

B01J 19/30B01J 19/32

B01D 8/00 fr

Cold traps;Cold baffles

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Pumps for evacuating by condensing or freezing

F04B 37/08

B01D 15/00 fr

Separating processes involving the treatment of liquids with solid sorbents;Apparatus therefor

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Treating liquids with moving adsorbents.

Non-selective adsorption treatment of liquids with ion-exchange materials in processes where no ion-exchange occurs (e.g. purification or regeneration treatments).

Selective adsorption treatments of liquids with ion-exchange materials as adsorbents.

Separation processes and apparatus using selective adsorption e.g. chromatography.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Separating processes involving the treatment of liquids with liquid sorbents

B01D 11/00

Preparative gas chromatography

B01D 53/02

Separation of isotopes of the same chemical element

B01D 59/00

Sorbent materials in general

B01J 20/00

Sorbents for chromatography

B01J 20/281

Ion-exchange processes or materials

B01J 39/00-B01J 49/00

Treatment of water

C02F

e.g. softening of water by ion-exchange

C02F 1/42
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Investigative or analytical chromatography

G01N 30/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Sorption and chromatography relating to particular applications, or relating to treating particular compounds or groups of compounds, may be classified in the following non-exhaustive list:

Modifying dairy products by dialysis, osmosis, filtration or ion-exchange

A23C 9/14

Treating blood or products derived therefrom

A61K 35/14

Separation of optically active compounds

C07B 57/00

Purification of hydrocarbons by adsorption

C07C 7/12

Extraction, separation or purification of peptides by chromatography

C07K 1/16

Refining hydrocarbon oils with solid sorbents

C10G 25/00

Refining fats or fatty oils by adsorption

C11B 3/10

Purification of alcoholic beverages with ion-exchange or adsorption material

C12H 1/04

Separating or purifying micro-organisms or enzymes

C12N 9/00

Purification of sugar juices using adsorption agents

C13D 3/12

Special rules of classification

In order that group B01D 15/08 may provide a basis for a complete search with respect to chromatography, all subject matter of interest should also be classified in this group even when it is classified primarily in application-oriented place(s) (see Informative References).

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Adsorption

A separation process which involves the transfer and resulting equilibrium distribution of one or more solutes between a fluid phase and adsorbing particles.

Sorbent

A material which separates a constituent from a fluid mixture containing such constituents. The action in most instances is that of selective retention (i.e. the sorbent removes only the part of the fluid mixture for which it has the greatest affinity). The retained constituent cannot be removed by shaking, brushing or similar mechanical action, but generally can be removed by heating, pressure reduction, or use of a stripping or denuding fluid.

Chromatography

A process in which a liquid is flowed along a linear path comprising a sorbent, with which the liquid competes in affinity for a constituent of the liquid. The constituent is sorbed from the moving liquid by the relatively immobile sorbent and re-dissolved by a later passing portion of the liquid until an equilibrium of the sorbing-dissolving step is set up causing the constituent to concentrate in a specific volume of the sorbent and to move along the path of the liquid at a rate slower than such liquid.

Adsorption chromatography

Separation is based mainly on differences between the adsorption affinities of the sample components for the surface of an active solid.

Partition chromatography

Separation is based mainly on differences between the solubilities of the sample components in the stationary phase (gas chromatography) or on differences between the solubilities of the components in the mobile and stationary phases (liquid chromatography).

Exclusion chromatography

Separation is based mainly on exclusion effects, such as differences in molecular size (size-exclusion chromatography) and/or shape or charge

Affinity chromatography

The particular variant of chromatography in which the unique biological specificity of the analyte and ligand interaction is utilised for the separation.

Bonded phase

A stationary phase which is covalently bonded to the support particles or to the inside wall of the column tubing.

Synonyms and Keywords

HPLC

High performance liquid chromatography, sometimes also referred to as high pressure liquid chromatography

B01D 17/00 fr

Separation of liquids, not provided for elsewhere, e.g. by thermal diffusion

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Places in relation to which this subclass is residual:

Devices for separating or removing fatty or oily substances or similar floating material from water, waste water, or sewage

C02F 1/40

Cleaning or keeping clear the surface of open water from oil or like materials

E02B 15/04

Arrangements for separating lubricants from refrigerants

F25B 43/02

B01D 19/02 fr

Foam dispersion or prevention

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Foam dispersion or prevention during boiling

B01B 1/02

Foam dispersion or prevention during fermentation

C12

B01D 21/00 fr

Separation of suspended solid particles from liquids by sedimentation

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Devices for separating or removing fatty or oily substances or similar floating material from water, waste water, or sewage

C02F 1/40

B01D 21/01 fr

Insert title tags here...

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Using flocculating agents for purifying water

C02F 1/52

Using flocculating agents for liquid radioactive waste

G21F 9/10

B01D 21/26 fr

Separation of sediment aided by centrifugal force

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Centrifuges

B04B

Cyclones

B04C

B01D 33/052 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Presses per se for squeezing out liquid using an endless pressing band

B30B 9/24

B01D 39/18 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Making filter paper

D21F 11/14

B01D 39/20 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Porous ceramic material

C04B 38/00

Making alloys by powder metallurgy

C22C 1/04

B01D 47/14 fr

Packed scrubbers

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Packing elements

B01J 19/30B01J 19/32

B01D 51/00 fr

Auxiliary pretreatment of gases or vapours to be cleaned from dispersed particles

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Preventing dust fires is classified in subclass A62C

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Pretreatment specially adapted for magnetic separation

B03C 1/005

Pretreatment specially adapted for electrostatic separation

B03C 3/01

B01D 53/00 fr

Separation of gases or vapours;Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases;Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases or aerosols

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Separation of difficult-to-condense gases or air by liquefaction

F25J
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

For the separation of specific gases or vapours, see the relevant places, e.g. for purification or separation of nitrogen

C01B 21/04

Working-up undefined gaseous mixtures obtained by cracking hydrocarbon oils

C10G 70/00

Cleaning coal gas

C10K

Working-up of natural gas, or synthetic natural gas

C10L 3/10

For investigating materials

G01N 30/00

B01D 53/18 fr

Absorbing units;Liquid distributors therefor

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Packing elements

B01J 19/30B01J 19/32

B01D 53/22 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Manufacturing semi-permeable membranes

B01D 67/00

Form, structure or properties of semi-permeable membranes

B01D 69/00

Material for semi-permeable membranes

B01D 71/00

B01D 57/02 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Treatment of water, waste water, sewage or sludge by electrophoresis

C02F 1/469

Electrophoretic production of compounds or non-metals

C25B 7/00

Investigating or analysing materials by using electrophoresis

G01N 27/26

B01D 59/38 fr

Separation by electrochemical methods

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Separation by electrochemical methods in general

B01J

B01J fr

Chemical or physical processes, e.g. catalysis, colloid chemistry;Their relevant apparatus

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Treatment of milk

A23C 9/14

Separation by ion-exchangers

B01D

E.g. separation of liquids by ion-exchange adsorbents

B01D 15/04

Chromatography involving ion-exchange

B01D 15/36

Separation of isotopes

B01D 59/00

Compounds per se, see the relevant classes, e.g.

C01C07C08

Treatment of water

C02F 1/42

Refining of hydrocarbon oils, in the absence of hydrogen, with solid sorbents

C10G 25/00

Purification of sugar juices

C13D 3/14

Extraction of sugar from molasses

C13J 1/06

Extraction of metal compounds from ores or concentrates by wet processes

C22B 3/00

Using ion-exchange for investigating or analysing materials

G01N 30/96

Treating radioactively contaminated material

G21F 9/12

B03D fr

Flotation; Differential sedimentation

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Apparatus or methods using liquids for the separation of solids from solids, such apparatus or methods consisting of the following:

Flotation type separation apparatus or methods that may include one or more of the following:

Differential sedimentation type separation apparatus or methods that may include coagulation or flocculation.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

In Section B, the separation of different materials, e.g. of different matter, size or state, is predominantly found in the following subclasses: B01D, B03B, B03C, B03D, B04B, B04C, B07B, B07C.

The classifying characteristics of these subclasses are:

The first of these characteristics involves six different aspects, assembled in three groups:

These subclasses are to be used according to the following general rules:

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Combinations of dry separating apparatus with wet separating apparatus

B03B

Sink-float separation

B03B 5/28
Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Separating isotopes

B01D 59/00

Treatment of water, waste water or sewage by flotation

C02F 1/24

Flotation apparatus for enzymology or microbiology

C12M 1/09

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Processes or devices capable of general use, for removing adhering liquid from separated materials

B01D

Froth dispersion

B01D 19/02

Sedimentation in general

B01D 21/00

Devices for feeding measured quantities of reagents

B01J 4/02

Conditioners

B03B 1/00

Centrifuges

B04B

Separating by dry methods

B07

Detergents, soaps

C11D

Special rules of classification

In groups B03D 1/001-B03D 1/018 (advanced level), in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

In groups B03D 1/001-B03D 1/018 (advanced level), it is desirable to add the appropriate indexing code(s) from each of groups B03D 101/00 or B03D 103/00.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Coagulation

The process by which a liquid changes to a thickened, curdlike, insoluble state by some kind of chemical or physical process, excluding by evaporation.

Differential sedimentation

A separation process using gravity or centrifugal force to initiate differential settling of suspended solids, for example at the bottom of a tank. Different solid materials settle at different rates.

Flocculation

This refers to a process where a solute comes out of solution in the form of floc or "flakes". The term is also used to refer to the process by which fine particulates are caused to clump together into floc. The floc may then float to the top of the liquid, settle to the bottom of the liquid, or can be readily filtered from the liquid. Sodium silicate is a common flocculating agent.

Flotation

(Also known as froth flotation) A separation process whereby water and chemicals are added to a mixture of solids to form a pulp while developing differences in surface tension between the various species in the solids mixture. The pulp is then copiously aerated and the preferred (aerophilic) species clings to bubbles and floats as a mineralized froth, which is then skimmed off.

B04B fr

Centrifuges

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Centrifuges that are intended for separating, mixing, drying, extracting, purifying or other ways of treating mixtures composed of matter in the following physical states:

Such centrifuges may comprise centrifuges with rotary bowls provided with solid jackets for separating predominantly liquid mixtures with or without solid particles; centrifuges with rotary bowls in which solid particles or bodies become separated by centrifugal force and simultaneously sifted or filtered; or other centrifuges including radial chamber apparatus such as butyrometers or counter-current apparatus.

Elements or accessories of centrifuges such as casings, lids, rotary bowls, drives, gearing, suspending or balancing of rotary bowls, feeding, charging or discharging of bowls, control arrangements, heating, cooling or suppressing the formation of foam.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Separation of isotopes of the same chemical element is covered by B01D 59/00, whatever process or apparatus is employed. Processes for separation of different isotopes of the same chemical element by centrifuging are covered by B01D 59/20.

Processes in general that use centrifugal force for separating, extracting or purifying components of mixtures are covered in subclasses B01D and B07B, and not in subclass B04B with the apparatus for accomplishing these processes. Examples of such processes can be found in the "References relevant to classification in this subclass" section below, in the subsection entitled "Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system".

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

High-speed drum mills

B02C 19/11

Cyclone separators

B04C
Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Centrifuges for producing filtered coffee

A47J 31/22

Dental appliances for receiving spittle, with or without rinsing means therefore, e.g. dental basins, spittoons or cuspidors

A61C 17/14

Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes, other treatment of blood in a by-pass of the natural circulatory system

A61M 1/36

Processes for separation of non-miscible liquids by centrifugal force

B01D 17/038

Processes for using centrifuges for separating sediment

B01D 21/26

Processes for separating dispersed particles from gases or vapours by gravity, inertia or centrifugal forces

B01D 45/00B01D 45/12

Processes for separation of gases or vapours or for recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases by centrifugal force

B01D 53/24

Processes using centrifugal force for selective separation of solid materials carried by, or dispersed in, gas currents

B07B 7/08

Centrifugal casting machines

B22D

Treatment of water, waste water or sewage by centrifugal separation

C02F 1/38

Domestic spin dryers

D06F

Lubrication of machines or engines in general, details of lubricant purifying means

F01M 11/03

Exhaust or silencing apparatus for machines or engines having means for removing solid constituents of exhaust, using inertial or centrifugal separators

F01N 3/037

Drying solid material by using centrifuges

F26B 5/08

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Filters in general

B01D

Separation in general

B01D

Magnetic or electrostatic separators

B03C

Sieves in general

B07B

Shock absorbers, vibration dampers

F16F

Analysing materials by determining their physical or chemical properties e.g. during centrifuging

G01N

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Centrifuge

Machine or apparatus for separating, mixing, drying, extracting, purifying, or like treating in which centrifugal effects are generated by rotary bowls or other rotors. Where such a machine or apparatus involves pumping effects, such effects must be incidental or subsidiary to the treating.

B04C fr

Apparatus using free vortex flow, e.g. cyclones

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Apparatus for separating, mixing or like treating (e.g. drying, extracting, purifying) in which centrifugal or centripetal effects are generated by free vortex flow, otherwise than by rotary bowls, rotors or curved passages. The free vortex flow generated may follow a flat spiral, have an unchanged or constant axial direction, or have a reversible axial direction. The mixtures treated are composed of the following physical states of matter:

Combinations of such apparatus with other devices, e.g. fans.

Accessories for such devices e.g. safety or control devices.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Separation of isotopes of the same chemical element is covered by B01D 59/00, whatever process or apparatus is employed.

Processes in general that use free vortex flow, e.g. cyclones, for separating, extracting or purifying components of mixtures are covered in subclass B01D, and not in subclass B04C with the apparatus for accomplishing these processes.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Combinations of cyclones with filters, for separating particles from gases or vapours

B01D 50/00

Jet mills

B02C 19/06

Combinations of cyclones with electrostatic precipitating arrangements

B03C 3/14

Cyclonic type combustion apparatus using fluent fuel

F23C 3/00

Vortex burners e.g. for cyclone-type combustion apparatus

F23D 1/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangement or disposition of cyclones or other devices with centrifugal action, in suction cleaners

A47L 9/16

Separation in general

B01D

Magnetic or electrostatic separators

B03C

Centrifugal separators

B04B

Selective separation of solid materials carried by or dispersed in gas currents, using centrifugal force

B07B 7/08

Mounting or connecting of lubricant purifying means relative to a machine or engine

F01M 11/03

Crankcase ventilating or breathing having means for purifying air before leaving crankcase, e.g. removing oil

F01M 13/04

Exhaust or silencing apparatus for machines or engines having means for removing solid constituents of exhaust, using inertial or centrifugal separators

F01N 3/037

Fluid dynamics in general

F15D

Compression machines, plant or systems using vortex effect

F25B 9/04

Analysing materials by determining their physical or chemical properties, e.g. while the centrifugal or centripetal effects generated by a vortex flow are acting on the sample

G01N

B05B fr

Spraying apparatus; Atomizing apparatus; Nozzles

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Apparatus for the release or projection of drops or droplets into the atmosphere or into a chamber to form a mist or the like. The materials to be projected may be suspended in a stream of gas or vapour.

Apparatus as above, for the release or projection of streams or sprays of other fluent materials into the atmosphere or into a chamber.

Examples of such apparatus, and subcomponents thereof covered by this subclass, include:

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Subclass B05C relates to apparatus for applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces in general. This subject matter generally relates to contact methods e.g. spreading, pouring, dipping, rubbing, using rollers, using fluidized bed techniques etc. and not to spraying or atomizing apparatus which is proper for B05B. However "projecting" of the liquid or other fluent material to the inside of hollow work is also covered by B05C 7/02 and this may be regarded as overlapping with B05B.

Subclass B05D relates to processes (including processes performed by spraying) for applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces in general.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Spray-mixers with nozzles

B01F 5/20

Aerosol containers

B65D 83/14

Drinking fountains

E03B 9/20
Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Watering gardens, fields, sports grounds or the like

A01G 25/00

Sprayers or atomisers specially adapted for therapeutic purposes

A61M 11/00

Inhalators

A61M 15/00

Sand-blasting

B24C

Coating of articles during shaping of substances in a plastic state

B29C 39/10B29C 39/18B29C 41/20B29C 41/30B29C 43/18B29C 43/28B29C 45/14B29C 47/02

Nozzles for ink-jet printing mechanisms

B41J 2/135

Dropping or releasing powdered, liquid or gaseous matter in flight

B64D 1/16

Nozzles for liquid-dispensing, e.g. in vehicle service stations

B67D 5/37

Supplying combustion engines in general with combustible mixtures or constituents thereof

F02M

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Domestic cleaning

A47L

Mixing in general

B01F

Cleaning in general by methods involving the use or presence of a liquid

B08B 3/00

For further classification of forming layered products

B32B

Closures for containers

B65D

Conveying articles or workpieces through baths of liquid

B65G 49/02

Handling webs or filaments in general

B65H

Surface treatment of glass by coating

C03C 17/00C03C 25/10

Coating or impregnation of mortars, concrete, stone or ceramics

C04B 41/45C04B 41/61C04B 41/81

Paints, varnishes, lacquers

C09D

Enamelling of metals, applying a vitreous layer to metals, chemical cleaning or degreasing of metallic objects

C23

Electroplating

C25D

Treating of textile materials by liquids, gases or vapours

D06B

Laundering

D06F

Treating roads

E01C

Anti-splash devices for water taps

E03C 1/08

Valves, e.g. water-taps

F16K

Burners

F23D

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Coating

The application of liquid, gaseous, fluent or particulate materials to a surface. The applied material may become solid after drying (e.g. paint).

Other fluent materials

Fluent materials other than liquids, including semi-liquids, pastes, melts, solutions, dispersions, suspensions, particulate materials, gases or vapours.

Particulate materials

Solid materials that have been cut up or ground into very small pieces including powders, granules, short fibres or chips.

B07B fr

Separating solids from solids by sieving, screening or sifting, or by using gas currents;Other separating by dry methods applicable to bulk material, e.g. loose articles fit to be handled like bulk material.

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Apparatus or methods for the separation of solids from solids that include:

Relationship between large subject matter areas

In Section B, the separation of different materials, e.g. of different matter, size, or state, is predominantly found in the following subclasses: B01D, B03B, B03C, B03D, B04B, B04C, B07B, B07C.

The classifying characteristics of these subclasses are:

The first of these characteristics involves six different aspects, assembled in three groups:

These subclasses are to be used according to the following general rules:

Sorting peculiar to particular materials or adapted to a specific purpose may be covered in other classes, see for example the non-exhaustive list of places for special adaptions in the following subsection.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Separating isotopes

B01D 59/00

Combinations of dry separating apparatus with wet separating apparatus or pneumatic tables

B03B

Separating solids from solids using pneumatic tables or jigs

B03B 4/00

Hand sorting, postal sorting, sorting by switching or other devices actuated in response to detection or measurement of some feature of articles or samples of material

B07C
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Grading or sorting of eggs

A01K 43/00A01K 43/04

Machines for sorting heel lifts in shoe-making

A43D 33/06

Sorting arrangements for handling work specially combined with, or arranged in, or specially adapted for use in connection with, machine tools

B23Q 7/12

Straining or screening of pulp in paper-making

D21D 5/02

Rotary screen-drums used in paper-making

D21D 5/06

Sorting of coins

G07D

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Separation in general; solid/gas separation in general

B01D

Wet separating processes, sorting by processes using fluent material in the same way as liquid

B03

Wet separating using liquids

B03BB03D

Sorting by magnetic or electrostatic separation of solid materials from solid materials or fluids, separation by high-voltage electric fields

B03C

Centrifuges or vortex apparatus for carrying out physical processes, e.g.

B04

...

Centrifuges

B04B

...

Cyclones

B04C

B07C fr

Postal sorting;Sorting individual articles, or bulk material fit to be sorted piece-meal, e.g by picking

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tube mail systems

B65G 51/04

Sorting information records, e.g. punched cards

G06F 7/10

B21B 17/00 fr

Tube-rolling by rollers of which the axes are arranged essentially perpendicular to the axis of the work, e.g. "axial" tube-rolling

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Control of tube rolling

B21B 37/78

B21B 19/00 fr

Tube-rolling by rollers arranged outside the work and having their axes not perpendicular to the axis of the work

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Control of tube rolling

B21B 37/78

B21B 21/00 fr

Pilgrim-step tube-rolling

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Control of tube rolling

B21B 37/78

B21B 23/00 fr

Tube-rolling not restricted to methods provided for in only one of groups B21B 17/00-B21B 21/00, e.g. combined processes

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Control of tube rolling

B21B 37/78

B21B 25/00 fr

Mandrels for metal tube rolling mills, e.g. mandrels of the types used in the methods covered by group B21B 17/00;Accessories or auxiliary means therefor

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Control of tube rolling

B21B 37/78

B21C fr

Manufacture of metal sheets, wire, rods, tubes, profiles or like semi-manufactured products otherwise than by rolling;Auxiliary operations used in connection with metal-working without essentially removing material

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Continuous casting

B22D 11/00

Pressure welding by means of a rolling mill

B23K 20/04

B22D 33/00 fr

Equipment for handling moulds

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangement of indicating or measuring devices

B22D 2/00

B22D 35/00 fr

Equipment for conveying molten metal into beds or moulds

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangement of indicating or measuring devices

B22D 2/00

B22D 37/00 fr

Controlling or regulating the pouring of molten metal from a casting melt-holding vessel

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangement of indicating or measuring devices

B22D 2/00

B22D 39/00 fr

Equipment for supplying molten metal in rations

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangement of indicating or measuring devices

B22D 2/00

B22D 41/00 fr

Casting melt-holding vessels, e.g. ladles, tundishes, cups or the like

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangement of indicating or measuring devices

B22D 2/00

B22D 43/00 fr

Mechanical cleaning, e.g. skimming of molten metals

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangement of indicating or measuring devices

B22D 2/00

B22D 45/00 fr

Equipment for casting, not otherwise provided for

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangement of indicating or measuring devices

B22D 2/00

B23B fr

Turning;Boring

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

For surgical purposes

A61B 17/16

Earth or rock drilling

E21B

B23D fr

Planing;Slotting;Shearing;Broaching;Sawing;Filing;Scraping;Like operations for working metal by removing material, not otherwise provided for

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Surgical saws

A61B 17/14

Sawing wood or similar material

B27B

B23D 67/00 fr

Filing or rasping machines or devices

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Sharpening saw teeth thereby

B23D 63/10

B23D 69/00 fr

Filing or rasping machines or devices, characterised only by constructional features of particular parts, e.g. guiding arrangements, drives

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Sharpening saw teeth thereby

B23D 63/10

B23D 71/00 fr

Filing or rasping tools;Securing arrangements therefor

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Sharpening saw teeth thereby

B23D 63/10

B23D 73/00 fr

Making files or rasps

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Sharpening saw teeth thereby

B23D 63/10

B23K fr

Soldering or unsoldering;Welding;Cladding or plating by soldering or welding;Cutting by applying heat locally, e.g. flame cutting;Working by laser beam

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Essentially requiring the use of welding machines or welding equipment, see the relevant groups for the welding machines or welding equipment

B24B fr

Machines, devices, or processes for grinding or polishing;Dressing or conditioning of abrading surfaces;Feeding of grinding, polishing, or lapping agents

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

If peculiar to a particular type of machine or device, see the relevant group therefor

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

If applicable to other machine tools

B23Q

B26B fr

Hand-held cutting tools not otherwise provided for

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

For horticultural purposes

A01G

Bone shears

A22C 17/06

Metal shears

B23D

B26D

Cutting;Details common to machines for severing, e.g. by cutting, perforating, punching, stamping-out

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Plant

Any of a kingdom (Plantae) of multicellular eukaryotic mostly photosynthetic organisms typically lacking locomotive movement or obvious nervous or sensory organs and possessing cellulose cell walls.

B27J 7/00

Mechanical working of tree or plant materials not otherwise provided for

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Plant

Any of a kingdom (Plantae) of multicellular eukaryotic mostly photosynthetic organisms typically lacking locomotive movement or obvious nervous or sensory organs and possessing cellulose cell walls.

B28C fr

Preparing clay;Producing mixtures containing clay or cementitious material, e.g plaster

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Mixers in general

B01F

Concrete paving mixers combined with distributing devices

E01C 19/00

Machines for preparing mixtures of road-metal with bitumen

E01C 19/10

B29D

Shaping or joining of plastics;Shaping of substances in a plastic state, in general;After treatment of the shaped products, e.g. repairing

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Making laminated products by combining previously unconnected layers which become one product whose layer will remain together

B32B 37/00-B32B 41/00

B32B fr

Layered products, i.e. products built-up of strata of flat or non-flat, e.g. cellular or honeycomb, form

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Layered products comprising different kinds of material.

Layered products not characterized by the kind of material used.

Products similar to layered products but comprising only material in the form of a sheet or network embedded in a mass of plastics or of physically-similar substances which mass penetrates the said sheet or network and lies on both sides of the latter (e.g. so that the sheet or network reinforces the plastics substance) provided that the embedded sheet or network extends coherently or connectedly over substantially the whole area of the product; thus the embedded sheet or network may be a fabric or a series of rods connected by cross wires.

Methods or apparatus for making layered products; Method or apparatus for treating layers or layered products either preliminary to or subsequent to their manufacture.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

The classification of layered products is provided for in many places, most of which are confined to a particular kind of material. However, in order that this subclass may provide a basis for making a complete search with respect to layered products, any similar layered products that specify relevant useful information are classified in this subclass even though it may also be classified in other classes.

However, this subclass does not cover:

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Etched metallic patterns on the surface of a printed circuit board

H05K1/00

Special rules of classification

In groups B32B1/00-B32B 33/00, at each level of indentation, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the first appropriate place.

In groups B32B9/00-B32B29/00 a "specific substance" covers specified alternative substances if they are all covered by a single main group.

Layered products are classified in groups B32B37/00 or B32B38/00 if not characterized by their structure or composition.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

adhesive

substance applied in any state or in any manner, which is incorporated for the purpose of bonding.

laminating

the combining of a base layer formed from a sheet (e.g., a fabric) or network (e.g., a series of rods connected by cross wires) of material and a mass of plastic, or another physically similar substance, that surrounds or embeds the base layer (i.e., it covers at least the outer surfaces of the opposite elongated sides of the layer) by encasement or penetration of the layer.

partial laminating

laminating wherein one layer does not fully cover a surface of another layer.

layer

sheet or strip or stratum having a small thickness relative to its other dimensions which, together with at least one other layer, exists in a product, whether it pre-existed, e.g. as a separate sheet or strip, or was formed during the production of the layered product. It may or may not be homogeneous or cohesive; it may be an assembly of fibres or pieces of material. It may be discontinuous, e.g. in the form of a grating, honeycomb, or frame. It may or may not be in complete contact with the next layer, e.g. a corrugated layer against a flat layer.

layered product

product composed of layers (continuous, discontinuous, or with gaps) of any form (e.g., honeycomb, corrugated) secured together in any way. Normally of substantially uniform thickness overall (i.e., ignoring local variations such as are produced by a corrugated face layer); may be in the form of an article, e.g., a container. This term is of wider scope than "laminate", covering material with voids between or in any layer.

filamentary layer

a layer of threads or filaments of any substance (e.g. wires) of more or less unlimited length placed in an orderly arrangement and secured together; it may be woven, knitted, braided, or netted, or formed of threads crossed or laid side and bonded together.

fibrous layer

a random assembly of fibres or filaments, usually of limited length, e.g. felt, fleece; the fibres may or may not be interengaged or connected, e.g. by adhesive.

particulate layer

layer that is composed from numerous small separate particles, e.g. chips, finely chopped fibres, powder.

film

formed on a layer by spreading a substance thereon; a film is not considered to constitute a layer itself if it serves only as an adhesive or it purpose is merely to finish the surface of a layer.

B41M 5/00 fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Organic dyes or closely-related compounds for producing dyes per se

C09B

B41M 5/20 fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Processes in which the current is transformed into a heat pattern for obtaining a transfer to a receiving sheet

B41M 5/382

B41M 5/40 fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Recording sheets characterised by the coating used to improve ink, dye or pigment receptivity, e.g. for ink-jet or thermal dye transfer recording

B41M 5/50

B60B fr

Vehicle wheels;Castors;Axles;Increasing wheel adhesion

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Wheels for roller skates

A63C 17/22

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Hand tools in general

B25

Tools for mounting tyres

B60C 25/00

Joining wheel units to motor vehicles or trailers during manufacturing, e.g. assembling

B62D 65/12

B60J 11/00 fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Non-fixed roofs

B60J 7/00

Liners for load platforms or load compartments

B60R 13/01

Railway wagon or like covers

B61D 39/00

Hoods or weather screens for children's carriages or perambulators

B62B 9/14

Covers for seats of cycles

B62J 1/18

Parking covers for cycles

B62J 19/00

Hoods or weather-guards for sidecars

B62K 27/16

Mud-guards or protecting devices for wheels of children's carriages or perambulators

B62B 9/16

B60K fr

Arrangement or mounting of propulsion units or of transmissions in vehicles;Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers;Auxiliary drives;Instrumentation or dashboards for vehicles;Arrangements in connection with cooling, air intake, gas exhaust, or fuel supply, of propulsion units, in vehicles

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Elastic mountings per se

F16F

B60K 1/00 fr

Arrangement or mounting of electrical propulsion units

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Of control devices for such units

B60K 26/00

B60K 3/00 fr

Arrangement or mounting of steam or gaseous- pressure propulsion units

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Of control devices for such units

B60K 26/00

B60K 5/00 fr

Arrangement or mounting of internal-combustion or jet-propulsion units

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Of control devices for such units

B60K 26/00

B60K 6/00 fr

Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Of control devices for such units

B60K 26/00

B60K 6/50 fr

Architecture of the driveline characterised by arrangement or kind of transmission units

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Particular arrangements of transmission units.

Kind or type of transmission units, e.g. CVT.

Four wheel drive arrangements.

B60K 7/00 fr

Disposition of motor in, or adjacent to, traction wheel

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Of control devices for such units

B60K 26/00

B60K 8/00 fr

Arrangement or mounting of propulsion units not provided for in one of main groups B60K 1/00-B60K 7/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Of control devices for such units

B60K 26/00

B60L fr

Electric equipment or propulsion of electrically-propelled vehicles; Magnetic suspension or levitation for vehicles; Electrodynamic brake systems for vehicles, in general.

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Feeding of power to auxiliary equipment of vehicles, e.g. electric heating or lighting circuits.

Current-collectors and arrangements thereof on rail or road vehicles or on electrically-propelled vehicles in general, e.g. rollers in contact with trolley wire, pantographs or third-rail current-collectors.

Electrodynamic brake systems for vehicles in general, e.g. electric resistor braking, electric regenerative braking or eddy-current braking.

Electric propulsion of vehicles with power supply external to the vehicle or supplied within the vehicle.

Electric propulsion of vehicles with power supply from force of nature, e.g. sun or wind.

Electric propulsion for monorail vehicles, suspension vehicles or rack railways.

Magnetic suspension or levitation for vehicles.

Methods, circuits or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles.

Monitoring operating variables, e.g. speed, deceleration or power consumption.

Electric devices on electrically-propelled vehicles for safety purposes, e.g. dead-man's devices, devices for limiting the current under mechanical overload conditions or for preventing excessive speed of the vehicle.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

This subclass is the general place for subject-matter relating to the electric propulsion of vehicles, for control of the propulsion and for collecting electrical power therefor. However conjoint control of two or more vehicle subunits, one of which may be an electrical propulsion unit, and subject-matter relating to control of hybrid vehicles comprising an internal-combustion motor and an electric motor, are covered in subclass B60W. Further subject-matter relating to arrangements or mounting of electrical propulsion units, electric gearings or auxiliary drives in vehicles, are covered in subclass B60K.

This subclass is also the application-oriented place for subject-matter relating to electrodynamic or dynamo-electric braking systems for vehicles. The function-oriented places for such systems are subclasses H02K and H02P.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Propulsion systems only for toy electric vehicles

A63H

Electric coupling devices combined with mechanical couplings of vehicles

B60D 1/62

Electric heating for vehicles

B60H

Arrangements or mounting of electrical propulsion units in vehicles

B60K 1/00

Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems

B60K 6/00

Arrangements or mounting of electric gearing in vehicles

B60K 17/12B60K 17/14

Auxiliary drives on vehicles

B60K 25/00

Arrangement of signalling or lighting devices, the mounting or supporting thereof or circuits therefor, for vehicles in general

B60Q

Power-driven ground-engaging fittings for manoeuvring the vehicle

B60S 9/205

Vehicle brake control systems in general

B60T

Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function, including control of electrical propulsion units

B60W 10/00

Control systems specially adapted for hybrid vehicles

B60W 20/00

Electric locomotives or railcars

B61C 3/00

Preventing wheel slip by reducing power in rail vehicles

B61C 15/08

Dynamo-electric machines, e.g. dynamo-electric brakes

H02KH02K 49/00

Starting, controlling, braking of electric machines or converters in general

H02P

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Power supply lines for supplying power to electrically-propelled vehicles

B60M

Railway track circuits in general

B61L

Lighting in general

F21H05B

Switches in general

H01H

Coupling devices for electric connections in general

H01R

Electric converters

H02M

Electric heating in general

H05B

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Electrodynamic braking system

An electric machine that acts as a brake. Braking is accomplished by reversing the electric fields on the machine, effectively turning it into a generator. The usage of the generated power, either in useful applications or as dissipation of heat, restrains the motor-generator and provides a braking action.

As such, this term is virtually coterminous with "dynamo-electric braking system" (see below). However the term "electrodynamic" on its own is broader and less clear than the term "dynamo-electric". It means "pertaining to electric current, electricity in motion and the effects of magnetism and induction", and could theoretically encompass electrical devices other than dynamo-electric devices.

Dynamo-electric braking system

A dynamo-electric machine is a device for converting electrical energy into mechanical energy or mechanical energy into electrical energy or combinations thereof, which involve electromagnetic induction. In respect of brakes, a braking effect could be produced by converting the kinetic energy of a vehicle into electrical energy, for dissipation (e.g. by resistors or as eddy-currents) or for storage (e.g. by regenerative braking). Alternatively, electrical energy could be supplied to the device to drive it into reverse, thereby producing a braking effect.

Vehicle

This term has been used with the following two variations in meaning within this subclass:

(1) all varieties of apparatus (e.g. automobiles) intended to carry people or goods significant distances (e.g. between cities, to or from separate building complexes) across land or over water, except those restricted to one of the following types: rail vehicles, waterborne vessels, aircraft, space vehicles, hand carts, cycles, animal-drawn vehicles or sledges, which are covered by the relevant subclasses of B61-B64. Moreover the term "vehicle" also includes (i) vehicular characteristics which are common to more than one of the above-listed types of vehicles, and (ii) certain characteristics restricted to automobiles, road trailers or cross-country trailers.

(2) In some instances of this definition, the term "vehicle" has been qualified by another word which takes its meaning outside the scope of (1) above (e.g. "rail vehicle"); in such cases the word "vehicle" takes its broader dictionary meaning.

The reader can determine from the context whether an occurrence of the word "vehicle" in this definition falls within the meaning stated in (1) or (2).

Synonyms and Keywords

Maglev

Magnetic levitation vehicle

B60R fr

Vehicles , vehicle fittings, or vehicle parts, not otherwise provided for

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Any categories of vehicles per se that:

Vehicle components or parts of the following types when they are either of general utility or specially adapted for a category of vehicle proper for this subclass:

Vehicle components or parts of general utility that are for uses other than those specified above and that are not specially adapted for or restricted to usage with

Relationship between large subject matter areas

General relationship between B60R and other subclasses providing for devices or fittings for preventing injuries to passengers of vehicles

B60R covers safety devices or fittings for preventing or reducing direct-impact type injuries to occupants of vehicles when they are specifically for the types of vehicles proper for class B60 or are of general utility (i.e. usable on vehicles of several types). In addition to this, B60R covers air bags, seat belts or safety harnesses used in motor or rail-type vehicles of all types (i.e. land vehicles ).

B60P covers safety devices for securing or bracing loads other than occupants on vehicles .

B64D (in particular B64D 25/00) covers safety devices or fittings for aircraft and, in particular, safety belts and harnesses used on aircraft.

B63B (in particular B63B 23/00) and B63C (in particular B63C 9/00) cover safety devices or fittings for boats or ships.

A62B 35/00 covers safety belts or harnesses that are not used in vehicles or that are not limited to use in vehicles .

General relationship between B60R and other subclasses providing compartments, holding devices, or mounting devices in vehicles

B60R includes vehicle compartments or holding devices for storing or mounting articles in a non-use position when they are of general utility or not specifically provided for in an appropriate subclass for the category of vehicle they are on. Normally the 'articles' stored or held are not the primary payload of the vehicle (see B60P reference) and are limited to stowed articles that are the personal property of their occupants (e.g. luggage, skis), used by their occupants when traveling (e.g. maps, flashlights), or used for vehicle maintenance (e.g. jacks, tools). The 'articles' stored or held may also be an essential or primary vehicle component of the types specified in the main group titles of B60R (e.g. mirrors, air bags). Moreover, B60R also provides for devices for holding or mounting other types of 'articles' in a use position, but only when the 'articles' held or mounted are not essential to the operation of the vehicle (e.g. ceiling/roof liner, radio) or are secondary-type vehicle components (e.g. electrical wiring for circuits).

Other vehicle subclasses provide for compartments or component mounting devices when they are structurally limited to use only with a specific vehicle type provided for elsewhere. The exception to this statement is for those essential or primary vehicle components that are expressly provided for in specific groups of B60R (e.g. vehicle mirrors, bumpers, seat belts). Other vehicle subclasses provide for compartments or component mounting devices when they are for housing, positioning, or holding 'articles' that are the distinguishing essential or primary operational components for their category of vehicle (e.g. curtain-forming nozzle for aircushion vehicle ). However, in these situations, the operational components of vehicles must be useable in the held or housed position, or easily repositioned from a stored position to a position for use, for their primary purpose (e.g. B62D 25/08 for engine compartments, B60J 1/16 for vehicle windows slidable into non-use area of doors, B60Q 1/05 for retractable vehicle head lights) versus merely being transported freight.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Fire prevention, containment, or extinguishing specially adapted for vehicles

A62C 3/07

Cooling, heating, or ventilating devices for compartments that store goods within passenger vehicles

B60H 1/00

Special receptacles, compartments, or holders on vehicles for the refuse, food, beverages, or cigarettes of occupants

B60N 3/00

Vehicles with living accommodations for people (e.g. caravans with closets or bathrooms)

B60P 3/32

Vehicle safety devices for securing or bracing loads other than the occupants

B60P 7/06

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Wheels and axles for vehicles

B60B

Tyres for vehicles

B60C

Vehicles for use both on rail and on road

B60F 1/00

Vehicles for use on land and in or on water

B60F 3/00

Vehicles convertible to travel in or on different media

B60F 5/00

Vehicles predominantly for transporting loads

B60P

Air-cushion vehicles

B60V

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Direct-impact type injury

For drivers or passengers within a vehicle this consists of the types of injuries caused by a portion of an occupant's body striking a component that is within or encloses the passenger compartment of their vehicle (e.g. a bumper actuated air bag specifically protecting a passenger from hitting the steering wheel in contrast to an energy absorbing bumper protecting the vehicle ) and for non-occupants this consists of the types of injuries caused by a portion of a non-occupant's body striking an exterior component of a vehicle (e.g. a bumper actuated safety net catching a pedestrian prior to hitting the vehicle for specifically protecting the pedestrian in contrast to a flexible vehicle body part that is intended to resist damage due to any type of impact).

Vehicle

This term has been used with the following two variations in meaning within this subclass:

(1) all varieties of apparatus (e.g. automobiles) intended to carry people or goods significant distances (e.g. between cities, to or from separate building complexes) across land, over water, or through the air except those restricted to one of the following types: rail vehicles , waterborne vessels, aircraft, space vehicles , hand carts, cycles, animal-drawn vehicles , or sledges. Moreover, the term " vehicle " also includes (i) vehicular characteristics which are common to more than one of the above-listed types of vehicles , (ii) certain characteristics restricted to automobiles, road trailers, or cross-country trailers, and (iii) all land vehicles having characteristics specifically adapted for occupant safety such as air bags, seat belts, or safety harnesses.

(2) In some instances in this definition, the term " vehicle " has been qualified by another word which takes its meaning outside the scope of (1) above (e.g. "rail vehicle "), in such cases the word " vehicle " takes its broader dictionary meaning.

The reader can determine from the context whether an occurrence of the word " vehicle " in this definition falls within the meaning stated in (1) or (2).

B60R 16/00 fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices for measuring, signalling, controlling or distributing tyre pressure or temperature, specially adapted for mounting on vehicles

B60C 23/00

Central door locking

E05B 65/36

B60R 16/033 fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries

H02J 7/00

B60R 16/04 fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangement or mounting of batteries for electrical propulsion

B60K 1/04

Supplying batteries to, or removing batteries from, vehicles

B60S 5/06

B60R 16/06 fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Carrying-off electrostatic charges in general

H05F 3/00

B60R 16/08 fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangement of fuel conduits

B60K 15/01

B60R 21/00 fr

Arrangements or fittings on vehicles for protecting or preventing injuries to occupants or pedestrians in case of accidents or other traffic risks

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Vehicles of this subclass that include specially adapted arrangements, devices, or fittings attachable to or forming part of vehicles for either:

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Safety belts or body harnesses in vehicles

B60R 22/00

Safety devices for propulsion unit control specially adapted for, or arranged in, vehicles

B60K 28/00

Crash or safety seats constructed to protect the occupant from the effect of abnormal g-forces

B60N 2/42

Energy-absorbing arrangements for hand wheels for steering vehicles

B62D 1/11

Energy-absorbing arrangements for vehicle steering columns

B62D 1/19

Safety devices or fittings for aircraft and, in particular, safety belts and harnesses used on aircraft

B64D 25/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Apparatus or methods for life-saving in general

A62B

Safety devices for securing or bracing loads other than occupants on vehicles

B60P

B60R 21/02 fr

Occupant safety arrangements or fittings

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Vehicles of main group B60R 21/00 wherein the specially adapted arrangements, devices, or fittings are for either preventing or reducing direct-impact type injuries to occupants of vehicles or otherwise directly protecting occupants of vehicles.

B60R 22/00 fr

Safety belts or body harnesses in vehicles

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Vehicles of this subclass that include specially adapted flexible strap-like members or their arrangements that are intended to:

Specially adapted devices or fittings for cooperating with the flexible strap-like members.

Note.

Many of the flexible strap-like members are activated to protectively engage the occupant by extreme changes in or abnormal vehicular movement (e.g. sharp deceleration, collision with an object, vehicle turnover) or by means detecting the potential for this type of change or movement (e.g. radar signaling impending collision with another vehicle activates).

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Safety belts or body harnesses in general

A62B 35/00

Electrical circuits for triggering safety arrangement in case of vehicle accidents or impending vehicle accidents

B60R 21/01

Inflatable members forming a safety belt or harness, or used in combination with a safety belt or harness arrangement, on a vehicle

B60R 21/18

B60T fr

Vehicle brake control systems or parts thereof;Brake control systems or parts thereof, in general;Arrangement of braking elements on vehicles in general;Portable devices for preventing unwanted movement of vehicles;Vehicle modifications to facilitate cooling of brakes

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Arrangement of braking elements on vehicles (as defined in the Glossary of terms below).

Portable devices for preventing unwanted movement of vehicles, and especially where the devices are specially adapted to engage an exterior portion of a stationary vehicle to prevent or restrain its movement, e.g. chocks.

Vehicle modifications to facilitate cooling of brakes.

Control systems or parts thereof, in general or specially adapted for vehicles, for processing variables which influence the extent or duration of a braking event, for the following purposes:

Component parts, details or accessories of brake control systems, for example:

Relationship between large subject matter areas

B61H covers brakes or other retarding apparatus peculiar to rail vehicles, and arrangement or disposition of brakes or other retarding apparatus in rail vehicles, but the following aspects thereof in relation to rail vehicles are covered in B60T:

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Brakes or other retarding apparatus peculiar to rail vehicles; Arrangement or disposition of brakes or other retarding apparatus in rail vehicles (see above)

B61H

Electrodynamic brake systems and control thereof for vehicles, and in general

B60L

Conjoint control of brakes and other drive units of vehicles, such as engine, gearing or clutch (this may be particularly significant when traction control systems operating on more than just brakes are being classified)

B60W

Arrangement of braking elements on cycles

B62L

Arrangement of braking elements on aircraft

B64C 25/42

Dynamo-electric brakes

H02K 49/00

test

G10L

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Brakes themselves, i.e. the devices where the braking effect actually occurs, and actuators directly acting on those devices

F16D

Railway stops, track brakes or retarding apparatus, fixed to permanent way

B61K 7/00

Safety arrangements on roads for slowing, redirecting or stopping errant vehicles, e.g. guard posts, bollards

E01F 15/00

Special rules of classification

In group B60T 8/00, when the subject matter to be classified is characterised by both electronic and non-electronic aspects, it should be classified both in group B60T 8/17 or its subgroups, and in group B60T 8/18.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Boosters

Means for providing power assistance to the braking effort

Vehicle

This term can have two different meanings here, viz.

(1) all vehicles except those restricted to one of the following types of vehicles: rail vehicles, waterborne vessels, aircraft, space vehicles, hand carts, cycles, animal-drawn vehicles, and sledges, which are covered by the relevant subclasses of B61-B64. The term "vehicle" also includes

(i) vehicular characteristics which are common to more than one of the above-listed types, and

(ii) certain characteristics restricted to automobiles, road or cross-country trailers.

(2) In some instances in this definition, the term "vehicle" has been qualified by another word which takes its meaning outside the scope of (1) above (e.g. "rail vehicle"), in which case the word "vehicle" takes its normal dictionary meaning.

The reader can determine from the context whether an occurrence of the word "vehicle" in this definition falls within the meaning stated in (1) or (2).

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

ABS

Anti-lock Braking System

ASR

Anti-Spin Regulation

EBA

Electronic Brake Assist

EBD

Electronic Brakeforce Distribution

In patent documents the following expressions are often used as synonyms:

antilock, anti-lock, anti-skid, antiskid, anti-blocking;

wheel slip, wheel-slip, wheel spin, wheel-spin;

traction control, anti-spin regulation - for combating wheel-spin.

B60T 7/14 fr

Insert title tags here...

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Dead-man's devices for electrically-propelled vehicles

B60L 3/02

B60T 8/175 fr

Brake regulation specially adapted to prevent excessive wheel spin during vehicle acceleration, e.g. for traction control

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Safety devices for propulsion unit control responsive to, or preventing, skidding of wheels

B60K 28/16

B60T 8/32 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electric devices on electrically propelled vehicles indicating the wheel slip

B60L 3/10

B60T 11/16 fr

Master control, e.g. master cylinders

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Master cylinders associated with vacuum boosters

B60T 13/565

B60T 13/00 fr

Transmitting braking action from initiating means to ultimate brake actuator with power assistance or drive;Brake systems incorporating such transmitting means, e.g. air-pressure brake systems

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for adjusting wheel-braking force to meet varying vehicular or ground-surface conditions

B60T 8/00

Valves incorporated in such systems

B60T 15/00

B60T 13/08 fr

Overrun brakes

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Automatic brake-action initiating means specially adapted for trailers

B60T 7/20

B60T 15/00 fr

Construction, arrangement, or operation of valves incorporated in power brake systems and not covered by groups B60T 11/00 or B60T 13/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Connection of valves to inflatable elastic bodies

B60C 29/00

B60T 15/08 fr

Driver's valves for pressure brakes having automatic control

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Automatic initiation of braking in general

B60T 7/12

B60T 17/04 fr

Arrangement of piping, valves in the piping, e.g. cut-off valves, couplings or air hoses

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Pipes, cut-off valves, couplings, air hoses per se

F16CF16KF16L

B60T 17/08 fr

Brake cylinders other than ultimate actuators

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

With built-in wear-compensating mechanisms, ultimate actuators

F16D 49/00-F16D 65/00

B60V fr

Air-cushion vehicles

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Vehicles that are specifically designed, or specially adapted, to be wholly or partially supported, at least some of the time during their travel over a surface (e.g. water, land, floors, railways, roads, sidewalks, runways), by a thin cushion or film of gaseous fluid (e.g. air). Wherein the gaseous fluid of the cushion or film is at least partially:

Components of the above vehicles having structural features that limit them to use with vehicles supported during travel on a thin cushion or film of gaseous fluid.

The making of vehicles that are specifically designed to be:

Specially adapted method steps or apparatus, which are part of an entire manufacturing process, for the manufacture of components essential to forming or maintaining the thin cushion or film of gaseous fluid for vehicles of the type that are only partially supported, or supported only part time during travel, by the gaseous fluid.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Between B60V and other vehicle manufacturing subclasses

B60V covers the manufacture of vehicles that are designed to be exclusively supported by a thin cushion or film of gaseous fluid at all times when traveling.

Despite the fact that B60V covers the structure of certain combination or convertible types of vehicles, it does not cover the total method or means for making or assembling these vehicles. In the situations where a vehicle includes an alternative, supplemental, or primary means for supporting it during travel that is not an air cushion, the manufacture of this type of vehicle is covered in the same subclass that provides for the manufacture of vehicles relying solely for support on its particular type of alternative, supplemental, or primary means. Subclasses B62D, B63B, and B64F cover the manufacture of the various types of combination or convertible vehicles.

Nevertheless, B60V does cover specific manufacturing steps or apparatus that are a part of a total process used to make combination or convertible vehicles that are partially supported, or supported part time, by the gaseous fluid if the manufacturing steps or apparatus are specially adapted for the manufacture of components of the vehicles used to form or maintain the thin cushion or film of gaseous fluid.

B62D 65/00 "Designing, manufacturing, e.g. assembling, facilitating disassembly, or structurally modifying motor vehicles or trailers, not otherwise provided for" covers subject matter pertaining to the designing and manufacturing of motor vehicles, rail vehicles and trailers, as well as the designing and manufacturing of convertible types and/or combination types of these vehicles.

B63B "Ships or other waterborne vessels; Equipment for shipping" provides for the construction of hulls in group 3/00 and the methods of designing, building, maintaining, converting, refitting, repairing or determining properties of vessels in group 9/00.

B64F 5/00 "Designing, manufacturing, assembling, cleaning, maintaining or repairing aircraft, not otherwise provided for" covers the manufacture or assembly of aircraft.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

General manufacturing of various vehicle parts

B23P 15/00

Assembling and disassembling of various metal parts

B23P 19/04

Assembling of a multiplicity of different parts to compose units

B23P 21/00

Designing, manufacturing, assembling, facilitating disassembly, or structurally modifying motor vehicles or trailers

B62D 65/00

The construction of hulls

B63B 3/00

Methods of designing, building, maintaining, converting, refitting, repairing, or determining properties of vessels

B63B 9/00

Designing, manufacturing, or assembling aircraft, not otherwise provided for

B64F 5/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mowers supported by an air-cushion

A01D 34/695

Devices that assist either manually moving over a short distance (e.g. within a building or buildings) or tilting heavy loads by using pressurized fluid supplied from an independent source to provide a cushion of fluid between a load and floor

B65G 7/06

Conveying articles through pipes or tubes by fluid flow or pressure and the conveying of articles over a surface using pressurized fluid jets located in the surface

B65G 51/00

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Vehicle

This term has been used with the following two variations in meaning within this subclass:

(1) all varieties of apparatus (e.g. automobiles) intended to carry people or goods significant distances (e.g. between cities, to or from separate building complexes) across land, over water, or through the air except those restricted to one of the following types: rail vehicles , waterborne vessels, aircraft, space vehicles , hand carts, cycles, animal-drawn vehicles , or sledges.

(2) In some instances in this definition, the term " vehicle " has been qualified by another word which takes its meaning outside the scope of (1) above (e.g. "rail vehicle "), in which case the word " vehicle " takes its broader meaning in (1) above (i.e. without the specified exception of particular types of vehicles from its scope). The reader can determine from the context whether an occurrence of the word " vehicle " in this definition falls within the meaning stated in (1) or (2).

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the terms hovercraft , ground-effect vehicle , surface-effect vehicle , and air-cushion vehicle are often used as synonyms.

B60V 1/00 fr

Air cushion vehicles

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Vehicles of this subclass that are specifically designed, or specially adapted, to be wholly supported during their travel over a surface (e.g. water, land, floors, railways, roads, sidewalks, runways) by a thin cushion or film of gaseous fluid.

Components of the above vehicles having structural features that limit them to use with vehicles supported during travel on a thin cushion or film of gaseous fluid.

Components of other types of vehicles supported during travel at least part of time on a thin cushion or film of gaseous fluid, when the components are of a general utility for, and limited in use to, creating a thin cushion or film of gaseous fluid.

The making of vehicles that are specifically designed to be:

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Land vehicles, waterborne vessels, or aircraft adapted or modified to travel on air cushions

B60V 3/00

B60V 3/00 fr

Land vehicles, waterborne vessels, or aircraft, adapted or modified to travel on air cushions

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Vehicles of this subclass that are specifically designed, or specially adapted, to be supported entirely or partially at least some of the time by means other than their thin cushion or film of gaseous fluid during travel across land, over water, or through the air.

Components of the above types of vehicles having structural features that restrict them to use with a particular type of vehicle (e.g. ship), when the components have utility for, and are limited in use to, creating a thin cushion or film of gaseous fluid.

Specially adapted method steps or apparatus, which are part of an entire manufacturing process, for the manufacture of components essential to forming or maintaining the thin cushion or film of gaseous fluid for vehicles of the type that are only partially supported, or supported only part time, by the gaseous fluid during travel on land, over water, or through the air.

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Vehicles for use both on rail and on road, amphibious or like vehicles, or convertible vehicles

B60F

B60V 3/02 fr

Land vehicles

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Vehicles of main group B60V 3/00 having wheel or wheel-substitute type supporting means (e.g. endless tracks, skids) for alternative or supplemental engaging of land (e.g. roadway, rail) during travel.

Vehicles specifically designed to be exclusively supported solely by a thin cushion or film of gaseous fluid and restricted to a specific path by solid guiding structure (e.g. channel, trough) during traveling.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Railway systems that include sliding or levitation means

B61B 13/08

Pneumatic tunnel-type railway system (e.g. atmospheric railways)

B61B 13/10

B60V 3/06 fr

Waterborne vessels

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Vehicles of main group B60V 3/00 having structure (e.g. a hull) that allows the vehicle (e.g. ship) to be supported alternatively or supplementally by direct floating contact with water during travel.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Hydrodynamic or hydrostatic features of hulls or of hydrofoils that reduce surface friction by using air bubbles or air layers

B63B 1/38

B60V 3/08 fr

Aircraft

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Vehicles of main group B60V 3/00 having structure specifically designed to allow them to travel significant distances above the surface of the earth (i.e. higher than most manmade obstructions such as buildings) while supported by air (e.g. helicopters).

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Aeroplanes or helicopters without any air cushion creating means other than standard components associated with flight

B64C

B60W fr

Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function; Control systems specially adapted for hybrid vehicles; Road vehicle drive control systems for purposes not related to the control of a particular sub-unit

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Control systems for conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function.

Control systems specially adapted for hybrid vehicles.

Purposes of road vehicledrive control systems for purposes that are

Estimation or calculation of driving parameters for road vehicle drive systems that are used for purposes

Details of control systems for road vehicle drive control, e.g. monitoring of signals for controllers that are used for purposes

Relationship between large subject matter areas

B60W is the application-oriented place covering vehicle drive control systems in general that are not related to a particular sub-unit or used for conjoint control of two or more sub-units. The control of a single particular sub-unit, or same type multiple sub-units for the same purpose are not covered by this subclass and have to be classified in the relevant class for the sub-unit, e.g. F02D or F16H. Where a single particular sub-unit is controlled by signal or commands from other sub-units, the control of this single sub-unit is classified in the relevant place for this sub-unit. For example the control of variable ratio gearing by means of signals from the engine or accelerator is classified in the subclass for gearing F16H.

Conjoint control of driveline units, e.g. engines, and variable-ratio gearing occurring only transiently during ratio shift and being also characterized by the control of the gearing is also classified in the subclass for gearing F16H.

One main group (B60W 20/00) is intended for all control systems specially adapted for hybrid vehicles. This group also covers control systems specially adapted for hybrid vehicles that do not reveal any use of conjoint control. The arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for common propulsion of a hybrid vehicle will be classified in the subclass B60K. Conjoint control of pure electric drive units like motor and battery will be classified in subclass B60L. When the architecture or type of transmission of the hybrid vehicle is also of interest, it should be classified in the relevant groups of main group B60K 6/00.

This subclass also cover road vehicledrive control systems not related to any particular sub-unit, i.e. which do not specify which sub-unit is activated or actuated by the control system. For example a control system or control method for predicting a collision which is not related to the control of any specific sub-unit will be correctly covered by the appropriate group B60W 30/08.

Detecting means in general (e.g. ultrasonic radar, TV camera, image processing, or measuring means) are covered by the classes G01, G06 or H04 and their appropriate subclasses.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electrical and internal combustion motors

B60K 6/00

Vehicle fittings for automatically controlling vehicle speed by acting on a single sub-unit

B60K 31/00

Propulsion of purely electrically-propelled vehicles with power supplied within the vehicle

B60L 11/00

Electrical circuits for triggering safety arrangements to protect or prevent injuries to occupants or pedestrians

B60R 21/01

Brake control systems for vehicle drive stability

B60T 8/1755

Traffic control systems i.e. systems transmitting information to a plurality of vehicles simultaneously in order to co-ordinate the flow of vehicles or systems controlling platoons of vehicles

G08G 1/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Controlling combustion engines, such controlling being peculiar to the devices driven thereby, the devices being other than parts or accessories essential to engine operation, e.g. controlling of engines by signals external thereto

F02D 29/00

Combinations of clutches and brakes

F16D 67/00

Control functions within change-speed- or reversing-gearings for conveying rotary motion

F16H 61/00

Systems for controlling position, course, altitude, or attitude of land, water, air, or space vehicles

G05D 1/00

Anti-collision systems

G08G 1/16

Special rules of classification

Multi-aspect classification practice is used in this subclass for road vehicledrive control systems using conjoint control. Whenever one or more specific types of subunits are controlled, classification in main group B60W 10/00 should be given for each of the different sub-units controlled. For each controlled sub-unit a classification symbol should be added in the relevant place. When documents classified in main group B60W 10/00 are also relevant for main groups B60W 20/00 to 50/00, a classification in one of these groups is required.

Within main group B60W 20/00 to 50/00 the first place priority rule is applied, i.e. at each hierarchical level, obligatory classification is made in the first appropriate place. When several novel and non-obvious technical subjects are disclosed, the first place priority rule is separately applied to each of them.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Automatic control

Using control systems for mechanising or assisting, to a full- or partial extent, tasks associated with driving of the vehicle, e.g. those normally carried out by the driver or those necessary to control the motion of the vehicle.

Auxiliary equipment

A subsidiary or supplementary device of the propulsion, transmission or other units of the vehicle, e.g. a pump for supply of pressure for the control unit.

Conjoint control

A programmed or condition-responsive automatic controller on-board the vehicle, embodying control logic for plural vehicle sub-units and sends control signals to actuators of two or more vehicle sub-units, so that the sub-units act together to solve a particular problem or in response to a particular driving condition.

Conjoint control of diverse vehicle sub-units

Such control of different sub-units within the same vehicle for those vehicles defined under note to class B60, and of general applicability to different types of vehicles normally under the control of a human driver.

Cruise control

A system for automatically controlling vehicle speed, which may include additional functions e.g. control of distance between vehicles, so-called "Adaptive Cruise Control" (ACC).

Drive control system

An electronic system in a road vehicle for automatically controlling the movement of that vehicle in order to take certain actions.

Driving parameter

All input or output parameters of the road vehicledrive control systems, e.g. road specific parameters, driver or passenger related parameters, state variables of motion of the vehicle body or parameters related to the vehicle itself like load or weight of the vehicle.

Hybrid vehicle

Vehicles having two or more prime movers of more than one type, e.g. electrical and internal combustion motors, and that are either singularly or in combination used for propulsion of the vehicle.

Road vehicle

A vehicle normally under the control of a human driver for transportation on roads, e.g. an automobile, truck or bus.

Sub-unit

One of the following vehicle systems: propulsion systems; clutch system; change-speed gearing system; system for distributing drive torque between front and rear axles; axle differential system; brake system; steering system or suspension system; energy storage means; fuel cells or other auxiliary equipments.

B60W 20/00 fr

Control systems specially adapted for hybrid vehicles, i.e. vehicles having two or more prime movers of more than one type, e.g. electrical and internal combustion motors, all used for the propulsion of the vehicle

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems

B60K6/00

Special rules of classification

Multi-aspect classification practice is used in this group for control systems specially adapted for hybrid vehicles. Whenever one or more specific types of subunits are controlled, classification in main group B60W 10/00 should be given for each of the different sub-units controlled. When the architecture or type of transmission of the hybrid vehicle is of interest, it should be classified in the relevant groups of B60K 6/00.

B61B fr

Railway systems;Equipment therefor not otherwise provided for

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Devices specially adapted or mounted for storing and repeatedly paying-out and re-storing lengths of material

B65H 75/34

B61D fr

Body details or kinds or railway vehicules

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For vehicles in general

B60

B61G fr

Coupling specially adapted for railway vehicles;Draught or buffing appliances specially adapted for railway vehicles

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Vehicle connections in general

B60D

B61L fr

Guiding railway traffic;Ensuring the safety of railway traffic

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Means for controlling and safeguarding railway vehicle traffic, including apparatus and processes that are specially adapted, or intended to be utilized, for the following categories related to railway vehicle traffic:

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Arrangement, mounting or supporting of signaling devices for vehicles in general

B60Q

Railway vehicle brakes or other retarding apparatus

B61H

Derailing or re-railing blocks on the track, and for railway stops, scotch-blocks, track brakes or retarders fixed to the permanent way

B61K

Detectors indicating the overheating of railway vehicle axle bearings

B61K 9/04

Rail, switch, point or crossing construction

E01B

Rail joints

E01B 11/00

Electrically insulated rail joints

E01B 11/54

Cattle guards fixed to the permanent way

E01B 17/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Power supply lines for electrically propelled vehicles

B60M

The arrangement of signaling or lighting devices, the mounting or supporting thereof for rail vehicles

B61D

Illumination in general; illumination for signaling, marking or indicating; details of lighting devices or systems

F21

Visible signaling arrangements in general

G08B 5/00

An alarm responsive to an abnormal condition

G08B 21/00 G08B 23/00

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Scotch-block

A wedge to prevent the movement of an opening switch rail of a set of points or of stationary vehicles.

B62B fr

Hand-propelled vehicles, e.g. hand carts or perambulators;Sledges

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Chairs or multi-track cycles specially adapted for invalids

A61G 5/00

B62D fr

Motor vehicles;Trailers

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Steering devices applicable only to steerable undercarriages for aircraft

B64C 25/50

B62D 47/00 fr

Motor vehicles or trailers predominantly for carrying passengers

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Understructures, i.e. chassis frames, characterised by the vehicle type

B62D 21/18

B62D 49/00 fr

Tractors

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Understructures, i.e. chassis frames, characterised by the vehicle type

B62D 21/18

B62D 51/00 fr

Motor vehicles characterised by the driver not being seated

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Understructures, i.e. chassis frames, characterised by the vehicle type

B62D 21/18

B62D 53/00 fr

Tractor-trailer combinations;Road trains

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Understructures, i.e. chassis frames, characterised by the vehicle type

B62D 21/18

B62D 55/00 fr

Endless-track vehicles

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Understructures, i.e. chassis frames, characterised by the vehicle type

B62D 21/18

B62D 57/00 fr

Vehicles characterised by having other propulsion or other ground-engaging means than wheels or endless track, alone or in addition to wheels or endless track

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Understructures, i.e. chassis frames, characterised by the vehicle type

B62D 21/18

B62D 59/00 fr

Trailers with driven ground wheels or the like

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Understructures, i.e. chassis frames, characterised by the vehicle type

B62D 21/18

B62D 61/00 fr

Motor vehicles or trailers, characterised by the arrangement or number of wheels, not otherwise provided for, e.g. four wheels in diamond pattern

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Understructures, i.e. chassis frames, characterised by the vehicle type

B62D 21/18

B62D 63/00 fr

Motor vehicles or trailers not otherwise provided for

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Understructures, i.e. chassis frames, characterised by the vehicle type

B62D 21/18

B62J fr

Cycle saddles or seats;Accessories peculiar to cycles and not otherwise provided for, e.g. article carriers or cycle protectors

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangement of signalling or lighting devices, the mounting or supporting thereof or circuits therefor, for vehicles in general

B60Q

For vehicles in general

B60R

Guards in general

F16P

B65D fr

Containers for storage or transport of articles or materials, e.g. bags, barrels, bottles, boxes, cans, cartons, crates, drums, jars, tanks, hoppers, forwarding containers; Accessories, closures or fittings therefor; Packaging elements; Packages

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Rigid or semi-rigid containers in general (e.g. containers formed by folding or erecting one or more blanks of stiff paper) that are used for temporarily holding goods or materials during their storage or transport, which goods or materials are intended to be eventually removed from the container for their intended purpose.

Structural details of, and fittings for, rigid or semi-rigid containers (e.g. linings, partitions, inspection windows, handles, nesting/stacking features), not covered elsewhere.

Flexible containers in general (e.g. sacks, bags, squeezable toothpaste tubes) that are used for temporarily holding goods or materials during their storage or transport, which goods or materials are intended to be eventually removed from the container for their intended purpose.

Structural details of, and fittings for, flexible containers, not covered elsewhere.

Devices or structure for closing access openings for flexible, rigid or semi-rigid containers to prevent spillage of the goods or materials stored therein (e.g. caps, crown seals, foil or paper covers, lids or discs).

Structural details of access openings for flexible, rigid or semi-rigid containers that are specially adapted to cooperate with, or are characterized by the form of, the closure devices or structure used with them (e.g. screw thread around opening).

Means for securing the above closure devices, filling and discharging devices, arrangements for preventing refilling (e.g. by tampering or adding unwanted or noxious substances), means for discouraging unauthorized opening (e.g. child-proof closures), and other details.

Kinds or types of packaging elements, e.g. external or internal frames, straps for bundling, wrappers etc.

Kinds or types of packages, e.g. bundles, bales, articles attached to cards, sheets or webs or (partially) enclosed in strips, sheets, blanks, tubes or webs of flexible sheet material, and packages formed by enclosing articles or materials in preformed containers.

Containers, packaging elements or packages of special types or forms, or specially adapted for organisms, articles or materials presenting particular transport, storage or dispensing problems; such as for frangible material, storing in vacuum or superatmospheric pressure, preventing deterioration or decay of contents.

Containers specially adapted for particular articles or materials, e.g. tyres, cigarettes, spaghetti, eggs, optical apparatus, bricks, tape cassettes, sweets, jumbo rolls, machines or engines, ice-cream, poisons or corrosive chemicals.

Large containers, e.g. of ISO type (see Glossary), especially for bulk storage or for carrying freight.

Containers, packaging elements or packages with auxiliary means or provision for displaying articles or materials.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

This subclass, which is intended to be as comprehensive as possible, only excludes containers or packages of a nature clearly confined to a single other subclass, which are classified in that subclass.

Relationship with subclass B65B

There is some affinity between this subclass and subclass B65B which covers machines, apparatus or devices for, or methods of, packaging articles or materials. This subclass (B65D) covers methods of packaging that are wholly characterised by the form of the package produced or by the form of the container or packaging element used, as distinct from the operations performed or the apparatus employed, which are covered by subclass B65B.

Relationship with subclasses B67B, B67C and B67D

There is also affinity between this subclass and subclasses B67B, B67C and B67D. B67B covers methods or apparatus for applying closure members to bottles, jars or similar containers or for opening closed containers; it also covers securing bottle closures with wire or protecting or decorating such closures, whereas this subclass (B65D) covers the closures themselves.

B67C covers methods or apparatus for filling or emptying of bottles or other containers, while this subclass (B65D) covers constructions of containers or closures that allow filling or emptying. B67D covers methods or apparatus for dispensing, delivering or transferring liquids from containers, while this subclass (B65D) covers constructions of containers or closures that allow such dispensing, delivering or transferring.

Making containers

This is not covered by this subclass. Reference should be made to subclasses dealing with the working of the material concerned (e.g. class B29) or to subclass B31B in respect of forming foldable or erectable blanks.

Overlap with many application places

There is overlap between the function-oriented aspects of the containers or packages covered by this subclass and the various applications of such containers or packages, which are extremely numerous. Some of the applications of containers or packages are covered by this subclass but others are covered elsewhere. The usual "function – application" guidance applies here, as indicated in paragraphs 85-87 of the Guide.

The reader is directed to the "References relevant to classification" section below for a non-exhaustive list of possible places where applications of containers may occur, and of places where containers or packages having a specified use or application are classified when that place is not in B65D.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Binding of hay or straw

A01DA01F 1/00

Containers specially adapted for storing agricultural or horticultural products

A01F 25/14

Containers specially adapted for use in dairies

A01J

Devices for transporting live fish

A01K 63/02

Cigar or cigarette receptacles or boxes

A24F 15/00

Cards for buttons, collar-studs or sleeve-links

A44B 7/00

Purses, luggage, hand-carried bags

A45C

Pencil boxes

A45C 11/34

Cosmetic or toilet equipment

A45D

Travelling or camp equipment, sacks or packs carried on the body

A45F

Brushes combined or associated with tubular containers

A46B 11/00

Containers or the like for shops, stores, offices, bars or the like

A47F 1/04

Showcases or show cabinets with dispensing arrangements

A47F 3/02

Household or table equipment

A47G

Mail or newspapers receptacles

A47G 29/12

Kitchen equipment

A47J

Lids or covers for cooking vessels

A47J 36/06

Vacuum-insulated bottles or the like

A47J 41/00

Dispensers for liquid soap

A47K 5/12

Packages for surgical knives, scalpels or blades therefore

A61B 17/3215

Packages or wrapping arrangements for used absorbent pads

A61F 13/551

Coffins

A61G 17/00

Containers or ampoules specially adapted for medical or pharmaceutical purposes

A61J 1/00

Feeding bottles with thermometers

A61J 9/02

Containers with disinfecting linings

A61L 2/00

Hand tools for discharging fluent material through an outlet orifice by pressure

B05C 17/005

Magazines for screws or nuts in combination with spanners, wrenches or screwdrivers

B25B 23/06

Nail dispensers

B25C 3/00

Opening devices for envelopes, incorporated during envelope manufacture

B43M 5/00

Separate devices for opening envelopes

B43M 7/00

Bureau accessories for applying liquids, e.g. adhesive

B43M 11/00

Paint cans

B44D 3/12

Containers associated with vehicles

B60-B64

e.g. vehicle fuel tanks

B60K 15/03

Sack holders

B65B 67/00

Refuse receptacles

B65F 1/00

Filling or emptying bunkers, hoppers or like containers

B65G 65/30

Handling sheets, webs or filamentary material

B65H

Elevators or lifts

B66B

Load-engaging elements or devices attached to lifting or lowering gear of cranes or adapted for connection therewith for transmitting lifting forces

B66C

Pallets or like platforms in devices for lifting or lowering bulky or heavy goods for loading or unloading purposes

B66F 9/12

Construction or assembling of bulk storage containers employing civil engineering techniques in situ or off the site

E04H 7/00

Oil cans

F16N 3/00

Covers or similar closure members for pressure vessels in general

F16J 13/00

Storing gases

F17

Containers for carrying smallarms

F41C 33/06

Packaging of ammunition or explosive charges

F42B 39/00

Packaging for photosensitive or like materials, e.g. photographic films

G03C 3/00

Coin deliverers

G07D 1/00

Containers for record carriers, specially adapted for cooperation with the recording or reproducing apparatus

G11B 23/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Droppers

B01L 3/00

Liquid sprayers; nozzles or spouts

B05B

Making closures by working metal sheet

B21D 51/44

Connection of valves to inflatable elastic bodies

B60C 29/00

Affixing labels

B65C 3/06

Sealings in general

F16J 15/00

Flexible elongated elements for supporting pipes, cables or protective tubing

F16L 3/137

Special rules of classification

In this subclass, groups B65D 5/00, B65D 27/00, B65D 30/00 or B65D 65/00 include constructional features of foldable or erectable container or wrapper blanks as well as the containers or wrappers formed by folding or erecting such blanks.

Containers, packaging elements or packages classified in group B65D 85/00 are also classified according to their constructional or functional features, if such features are of interest.

Tamper-indicating means for containers of closures are classified in the group appropriate to the type of container or closure, e.g. B65D 5/43, B65D 5/54, B65D 17/00, B65D 27/30, B65D 27/34, B65D 33/34, B65D 41/32, B65D 47/36, B65D 49/12, B65D 51/20, B65D 55/06.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Rigid or semi-rigid containers

These include:

containers not deformed by, or not taking up the shape of, their contents;

containers adapted to be temporarily deformed to expel their contents;

pallets; and

trays.

Flexible containers

These include:

containers deformed by, or taking up the shape of, their contents; and

containers adapted to be permanently deformed to expel their contents.

Packaging elements

These include:

elements, other than containers, for covering, protecting, stiffening or holding together articles or materials to be stored or transported; and

packaging materials of special type or form not provided for in other subclasses.

Packages

These include:

combinations of containers or packaging elements with articles or materials to be stored or transported; and

articles joined together for convenience of storage or transport.

Paper

In relation to this subclass, this term includes materials, e.g. cardboard, plastic sheet materials, laminated materials or metal foils, worked in a manner analogous to paper.

Large containers

These are containers having about the size of containers used in container traffic, sometimes referred to as freight, bulk storage, forwarding or "ISO" (International Standardization Organization) containers, or larger containers.

Blank

Any sheet of paper or other planar material that is pre-shaped, cut/punched out to have holes or slots, perforated/slit to form fold lines, or otherwise modified so that it can subsequently be folded or erected according to a pre-selected pattern to form a container such as a box or carton. Blanks are frequently interim products of a manufacturing process that will require further assembly operations (e.g. corner gluing of carton) to become actual containers. However, the term also covers blanks that require only manual manipulation to fashion or disassemble a container and this is normally done for purposes of economical storage of the container (e.g. folding packing boxes for house moves).

Container

A structure having both a bottom portion for supporting removable contents stored or shipped therein, and a peripheral wall structure for at least partially surrounding or encompassing the contents while stored or transported, including structures where the same physical wall can fulfil both these functions.

Accessories

In relation to the word "accessories" in the B65D subclass title, this word means fixtures or fittings which are associated with the container to fulfil a particular purpose relative to the functioning of the container.

B65D 25/00 fr

Details of other kinds or types of rigid or semi-rigid containers

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For pallets

B65D 19/38

Of large containers

B65D 90/00

B65D 39/00 fr

Closures arranged within necks or pouring openings or in discharge apertures, e.g. stoppers

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Closure flaps or lids attached to, or incorporated in, containers, or foldable or erectable container blanks, made of paper

B65D 3/00B65D 5/00

Closure walls of containers specially constructed to be opened by cutting, piercing, or tearing of wall portions

B65D 17/00

Applying closure members to bottles, jars, or similar containers

B67B

Covers or similar closure members, for pressure vessels in general

F16J 13/00

B65D 41/00 fr

Caps, e.g. crown caps, crown seals, i.e. members having parts arranged for engagement with the external periphery of a neck or wall defining a pouring opening or discharge aperture;Protective cap-like covers for closure members, e.g. decorative covers of metal foil or paper

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Closure flaps or lids attached to, or incorporated in, containers, or foldable or erectable container blanks, made of paper

B65D 3/00B65D 5/00

Closure walls of containers specially constructed to be opened by cutting, piercing, or tearing of wall portions

B65D 17/00

Applying closure members to bottles, jars, or similar containers

B67B

Covers or similar closure members, for pressure vessels in general

F16J 13/00

B65D 43/00 fr

Lids or covers for rigid or semi-rigid containers

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Closure flaps or lids attached to, or incorporated in, containers, or foldable or erectable container blanks, made of paper

B65D 3/00B65D 5/00

Closure walls of containers specially constructed to be opened by cutting, piercing, or tearing of wall portions

B65D 17/00

Applying closure members to bottles, jars, or similar containers

B67B

Covers or similar closure members, for pressure vessels in general

F16J 13/00

B65D 45/00 fr

Clamping or other pressure-applying devices for securing or retaining closure members

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Closure flaps or lids attached to, or incorporated in, containers, or foldable or erectable container blanks, made of paper

B65D 3/00B65D 5/00

Closure walls of containers specially constructed to be opened by cutting, piercing, or tearing of wall portions

B65D 17/00

Applying closure members to bottles, jars, or similar containers

B67B

Covers or similar closure members, for pressure vessels in general

F16J 13/00

B65D 47/00 fr

Closures with filling and discharging, or with discharging, devices

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Closure flaps or lids attached to, or incorporated in, containers, or foldable or erectable container blanks, made of paper

B65D 3/00B65D 5/00

Closure walls of containers specially constructed to be opened by cutting, piercing, or tearing of wall portions

B65D 17/00

Applying closure members to bottles, jars, or similar containers

B67B

Covers or similar closure members, for pressure vessels in general

F16J 13/00

B65D 49/00 fr

Arrangements or devices for preventing refilling of containers

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Closure flaps or lids attached to, or incorporated in, containers, or foldable or erectable container blanks, made of paper

B65D 3/00B65D 5/00

Closure walls of containers specially constructed to be opened by cutting, piercing, or tearing of wall portions

B65D 17/00

Applying closure members to bottles, jars, or similar containers

B67B

Covers or similar closure members, for pressure vessels in general

F16J 13/00

B65D 50/00 fr

Closures with means for discouraging unauthorised opening or removal thereof, with or without indicating means, e.g. child-proof closures

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Closure flaps or lids attached to, or incorporated in, containers, or foldable or erectable container blanks, made of paper

B65D 3/00B65D 5/00

Closure walls of containers specially constructed to be opened by cutting, piercing, or tearing of wall portions

B65D 17/00

Applying closure members to bottles, jars, or similar containers

B67B

Covers or similar closure members, for pressure vessels in general

F16J 13/00

B65D 51/00 fr

Closures not otherwise provided for

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Closure flaps or lids attached to, or incorporated in, containers, or foldable or erectable container blanks, made of paper

B65D 3/00B65D 5/00

Closure walls of containers specially constructed to be opened by cutting, piercing, or tearing of wall portions

B65D 17/00

Applying closure members to bottles, jars, or similar containers

B67B

Covers or similar closure members, for pressure vessels in general

F16J 13/00

B65D 53/00 fr

Sealing or packing elements;Sealings formed by liquid or plastic material

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Closure flaps or lids attached to, or incorporated in, containers, or foldable or erectable container blanks, made of paper

B65D 3/00B65D 5/00

Closure walls of containers specially constructed to be opened by cutting, piercing, or tearing of wall portions

B65D 17/00

Applying closure members to bottles, jars, or similar containers

B67B

Covers or similar closure members, for pressure vessels in general

F16J 13/00

B65D 55/00 fr

Accessories for container closures not otherwise provided for

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Closure flaps or lids attached to, or incorporated in, containers, or foldable or erectable container blanks, made of paper

B65D 3/00B65D 5/00

Closure walls of containers specially constructed to be opened by cutting, piercing, or tearing of wall portions

B65D 17/00

Applying closure members to bottles, jars, or similar containers

B67B

Covers or similar closure members, for pressure vessels in general

F16J 13/00

B65G fr

TRANSPORT OR STORAGE DEVICES, e.g. CONVEYERS FOR LOADING OR TIPPING;SHOP CONVEYER SYSTEMS;PNEUMATIC TUBE CONVEYERS

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Luggage carriers

A45C 13/38

Holders or carriers for hand articles or for use while travelling or camping

A45F 5/00

Vehicles in general, axles, wheels

B60

Air-cushion vehicles

B60V

Handcarts, sledges, features of hand-propelled wheeled devices or pedestrian-controlled, power-driven vehicles equally applicable to handcarts

B62B

Ship-moving devices

B63CE02C

Loading or unloading by soil-shifting or like equipment

E02F

Drag-line scraper conveyers

E02F 3/46

Stacking or de-stacking data record cards in association with machines for marking or sensing data

G06K

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Containers, pallets

B65D

Escalators or moving walkways

B66B 21/00

Air-cushions as bearing elements

F16C 29/00

B65G 15/00 fr

Conveyers having endless load-conveying surfaces, i.e. belts and like continuous members, to which tractive effort is transmitted by means other than endless driving elements of similar configuration

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Loading or unloading

B65G 65/00

B65G 17/00 fr

Conveyers having an endless traction element, e.g. a chain, transmitting movement to a continuous or substantially-continuous load-carrying surface or to a series of individual load-carriers;Endless-chain conveyers in which the chains form the load-carrying surface

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Loading or unloading

B65G 65/00

B65G 19/00 fr

Conveyers comprising an impeller or a series of impellers carried by an endless traction element and arranged to move articles or materials over a supporting surface or underlying material, e.g. endless scraper conveyers

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Loading or unloading

B65G 65/00

B65G 25/00 fr

Conveyers comprising a cyclically-moving, e.g. reciprocating, carrier or impeller which is disengaged from the load during the return part of its movement

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Loading or unloading

B65G 65/00

B65G 27/00 fr

Jigging conveyers

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Loading or unloading

B65G 65/00

B65G 29/00 fr

Rotary conveyers, e.g. rotating discs, arms, star-wheels or cones

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Loading or unloading

B65G 65/00

B65G 31/00 fr

Mechanical throwing machines for articles or solid materials

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Loading or unloading

B65G 65/00

B65G 33/00 fr

Screw or rotary spiral conveyers

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Loading or unloading

B65G 65/00

B65G 35/00 fr

Mechanical conveyers not otherwise provided for

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Loading or unloading

B65G 65/00

B65G 37/00 fr

Combinations of mechanical conveyers of the same kind, or of different kinds, of interest apart from their application in particular machines or use in particular manufacturing processes

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Loading or unloading

B65G 65/00

B65H fr

HANDLING THIN OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL, e.g. SHEETS, WEBS, CABLES

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Winding or unwinding metal band or like flexible metallic material during manufacture

B21C

In selective printing mechanisms

B41J

Working or processing wire

B21FB21G

Unwinding, paying-out, forwarding, or winding ropes or cables in load-moving apparatus

B61BB65GB66

Creels, warping, beaming, or leasing machines or methods for textile manufacturing purposes

D02H

In cinematographic or photographic apparatus

G03B

Winding, unwinding, or feeding tape to, in, or from, information-processing apparatus

G06G11B

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Manipulators

B25J

B66B fr

Elevators;Escalators or moving walkways

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Transporting apparatus of the types specified herein for people or discrete loads when used in conjunction with buildings, complexes of buildings, mines, or similar scale manmade structures or natural formations (e.g. caves).

Elevating apparatus (i.e., elevators or lifts) for shifting a discrete load (e.g., person(s), freight), in its entirety, a significant distance (e.g., at least the height of a normal floor of a building) from an entry level (e.g., landing) to a vertically spaced exit level along a shaft. To be proper for this subclass, the elevating apparatus must include:

Conveying apparatus (i.e., an assemblage of elements for moving a load along a predetermined path) for transporting pedestrians (i.e., escalators or moving walkways) from an entrance location to at least one horizontally spaced egress location. To be proper for this subclass, the conveying apparatus must:

Components of the elevating or conveying apparatus when:

Ancillary devices (e.g., elevator call registration systems) for either the elevating or conveying apparatus which are:

Explanatory Notes or Graphics

(1) Note. Examples of special adaptations for escalators or moving walkways that facilitate the transport of pedestrians are:

(2) Note. Elevating or conveying apparatus otherwise proper for the definition which is either specially modified for use with, or combined with, apparatus for doing work on or treating (e.g., machine tools, furnaces) the discrete loads being carried (e.g., tools shaping load during elevation, transporting human body during its cremation) are covered in appropriate subclasses for this subject matter.

(3) Note. The load support surfaces of elevators or lifts are intended to support their loads only for a short period of time during handling. Surfaces intended to either support an article in a nonuse storage location, support a useable machine or tool, or move one portion of a machine or article relative to another portion thereof are covered in appropriate subclasses for this subject matter.

(4) Note. The discrete load transported by the elevating apparatus of this subclass is either

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Life-saving devices used as an alternative to normal egress means (e.g., stairs) during rescue to lower persons in cages, bags, or similar supports from buildings or other structures

A62B 1/02

Amusement rides (e.g., roundabouts, and Ferris wheels) that are, or may include as a part of their structure, elevating or conveying apparatus

A63G

Arrangements of ammunition handlers in military-type sea vessels

B63G

Equipment for handling freight or for facilitating passenger embarkation or the like to aircraft

B64D 9/00

Hoists, lifts, or conveyers for loading or unloading in general

B65G

Hoists, lifts, or conveyers for storing articles, individually or in orderly arrangement, in warehouses or magazines

B65G 1/00

Braking or detent devices controlling normal movements of winding drums or barrels for capstans, hoist, or winches

B66D

Lifting or elevating devices for ships

E02C

Multi-vehicle garages provided with mechanical means for lifting vehicles

E04H 6/12

Hoists for feeding ammunition or projectiles to launching apparatus or to loading mechanisms for weapons

F41A 9/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lifting and lowering devices for moving disabled persons or patients

A61G

Hoisting or lowering devices for coffins

A61G 19/00

Funicular rail-bound systems with rigid ground-supported tracks and cable traction (e.g., cliff railways)

B61B 9/00

Ski-lift, sleigh-lift, or the like trackless systems with only guided towing cables

B61B 11/00

Devices for lifting or lowering bulky or heavy goods for loading or unloading purposes

B66F

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Cable

a flaccid, elongated, flexible element that can transmit force only when under tension (e.g., rope, wire, chain).

Drive means

means for supplying motive force to an element to be moved which includes both force generating means (e.g., motor) and structural linkage (e.g., gears) needed to transmit the force from the generating means to the element.

Landing

an in situ floor within a structure (e.g., building) (a) that is located adjacent to an elevator shaft or the entrance or egress points of the conveying apparatus' path and (b) to or from which a load (e.g., passenger, cargo, pedestrian) transfers during the charging or discharging of the load-underlying support surface of an elevator or conveying apparatus.

Shaft

a long, narrow, in situ passageway within a structure (e.g., building, ship, mine) which defines the fixed path between the vertically spaced load entrance and exit levels traveled by the load-underlying support surface of an elevator.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the terms elevator and lift are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the term dumbwaiter is often used with the meaning of a very small elevator or lift (e.g., normally the support is too small for a person) for moving housekeeping or food items between floors.

B81B fr

Micro-structural devices or systems, e.g. micro-mechanical devices

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Very small micro-mechanical devices which include at least one essential operational component that has all of the following attributes:

Very small three-dimensional structural formations (i.e. microstructures) that have all of the following attributes:

Systems including a discrete micro-mechanical device or microstructure and at least one other discrete micro-mechanical device, micro-electronic device, or micro-optical device (e.g. Micro-Mechanical Systems, Micro-Electronic-Mechanical Systems/MEMS, Micro-optical-Mechanical Systems) that have all of the following attributes:

Components of micro-mechanical devices or microstructures having specialized structural features that limit them to use with their device or structure.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

General relationship of microstructures of B81B with micro-sized structures found in the subclasses of sections C and H

The microstructures covered by this subclass are expected to perform a structural function when interacting with their local environment and are intentionally designed to specifically perform this type of task. This requirement precludes the classification of micro-sized structures within this subclass that either

Micro-electronic devices and micro-optical devices per se are classified in the subclasses of section H (Electricity) and G (Physics) even if they also inherently (e.g. a micro-sized wire between two substrates that supports the upper substrate), or intentionally (e.g. an aerodynamically shaped micro-processor on a wing), accomplish a secondary structural function. Micro-electronic devices and micro-optical devices are found in particular in G02B, G11B, H01L, and H01P.

Chemically and biologically formed structures per se that are mere byproducts of processes are classified in the subclasses of section C, "Chemistry; Metallurgy". However, chemically and biologically formed microstructures are classified in B81B when they are the primary intended product of their processes and the microstructures perform a structural function when interacting with their local environment.

Relationship of microstructures of B81B and micro-sized structures in B32B

Microstructures that merely form part of layered products (e.g. bonded or encased micro-sized substrates) are classified in B32B when their intended use is not specified or they are of general utility. However, when at least one of the layers of the layered product is micro-sized and accomplishes a particular structural function (e.g. honeycomb layer forms micro-sized channels for directing fluid to micro-sized pump) they are classified in B81B.

Special rules for classification between this subclass and other subclasses

If the operation or practical utility of micro-sized devices, structures, or systems covered by this subclass are not inherently limited to a microscopic environment, they are also obligatorily classified in the subclasses appropriately providing for their structural or functional features when produced on a larger scale.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Products that are essentially two-dimensional layered structures

B32B

Atomic scale structures produced by manipulation of single atoms or molecules

B82B

Micro-optical devices per se

G02F

Semiconductors or other solid-state devices per se or combined with other devices formed on a common substrate

H01L
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Microcapsules for medicinal preparations

A61K 9/50

Micromanipulators

B25J 7/00

Micromanipulators combined with microscopes

G02B 21/32

Magnetic heads used with record carriers for information storage

G11B 5/127

Waveguide microstrips

H01P 3/08

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Pressure sensors

G01L 9/00

Mechanical vibration measuring devices and ultrasonic, sonic, or infrasonic wave measuring devices

G01H

Devices for measuring linear or angular speed, acceleration, or deceleration

G01P

Photomechanical processing of semiconductor devices

G03F

Special rules of classification

Identical micro-mechanical devices, microstructures, or micro-structural systems that are not operationally interlinked to each other and are merely produced on a common substrate that is an interim product; are not classified as a system, but in the groups providing for the individual device, structure, or system.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Micro-electronic device

Any kind of electronic device that has at least one essential operational component not visible without the use of an optical microscope.

Micro-optical device

Any kind of optical device that has at least one essential operational component not visible without the use of an optical microscope.

Micro-sized

Having a dimension not visible without the use of an optical microscope (e.g. typically within the range of 10-4 to 10-7 meters).

Structural function

The effect of structural features of a microstructure on the mechanical properties of media in contact with the microstructure (e.g. directing of a sampled fluid's flow).

B81C fr

Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of micro-structural devices or systems

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Processes having one or more steps, or apparatus adapted for performing at least one step in such processes, with specialized features directly related to the manufacture or treatment of specific types of micro-sized products (e.g., typically within the range of 10-4 to 10-7 meters).

The manufacturing or treating of these micro-sized products must create a structural, as opposed to a purely chemical or electronic, feature that is essential to their use.

The types of micro-sized products that are manufactured or treated in this subclass consist of the following varieties:

Mechanical devices (i.e., micro-mechanical devices) which include at least one essential operational component that has all of the following attributes:

Three-dimensional structural formations (i.e., microstructures) that have all of the following attributes:

Systems including a discrete micro-mechanical device or microstructure and at least one other discrete micro-mechanical device, micro-electronic device, or microoptical device (e.g., Micro-Mechanical Systems, Micro-Electronic-Mechanical Systems/MEMS, Microoptical-Mechanical Systems) that have all of the following attributes:

Components of micro-mechanical devices or microstructures having specialized structural features that limit them to use with their device or structure.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

General relationship of B81C with subclasses of sections C and H

This class covers processes or apparatus for the manufacture or treatment of microstructures that perform a structural function when interacting with their local environment and are intentionally designed to specifically perform this type of task. This requirement precludes the classification of the manufacture or treatment of micro-sized structures per se within this subclass that either

However, processes or apparatus for chemically and biologically forming microstructures are classified in B81C when these microstructures are the primary intended product of their processes and the microstructures perform an appropriate structural function when interacting with their local environment.

Processes or apparatus for the manufacture or treatment of chemically and biologically formed micro-sized structures per se are classified in the subclasses of section C, "Chemistry; Metallurgy".

Processes or apparatus for the manufacture or treatment of micro-electronic devices and microoptical devices per se are classified in the subclasses of section H, "Electricity" even if they also inherently (e.g., a micro-sized wire between two substrates that supports the upper substrate), or intentionally (e.g., an aerodynamically shaped micro-processor for wings), accomplish a secondary structural function. The manufacture or treatment of micro-electronic devices and microoptical devices is found in particular in H01L (e.g. H01L 21/00) and H01P (e.g., H01P 11/00) respectively.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Chemical or physical processes or relevant apparatus for making microcapsules or microballoons

B01J13/02

Specially adapted processes or apparatus restricted to the manufacture or treatment of products that are essentially two-dimensional layered structures

B32B

Specially adapted processes or apparatus involved in the manufacture of atomic scale structures produced by manipulation of atoms or molecules

B82B

For processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment of piezo-electric, electrostrictive, or magnetostrictive elements per se

H01L41/22

For processes or apparatus specially adapted to the manufacture or treatment of wave-guide micro-strips

H01P3/08

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For processes or apparatus specially adapted to the manufacture or treatment of pressure sensors

G01L9/00

For processes or apparatus specially adapted to the manufacture or treatment of acceleration measuring devices

G01P15/00

For processes or apparatus specially adapted to the manufacture or treatment of micromanipulators structurally combined with microscopes

G02B21/32

For photomechanical processing of semiconductor devices

G03F

For processes or apparatus specially adapted to the manufacture or treatment of magnetic heads

G11B5/127

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Manufacture

a chemical, electrical, or mechanical process or apparatus for accomplishing one or more of the following operations on a micro-mechanical device, micro-structure, or micro system proper for this subclass: assembling, associating, bonding, casting, coating, constructing, creating, cutting, distorting, electric photographing, etching, fabricating, fastening, finishing, joining, juxtaposing, machining, molding, positioning, shaping, or working.

Micro-electronic device

any kind of electronic device that has at least one essential operational component not visible without the use of an optical microscope.

Microoptical device

any kind of optical device that has at least one essential operational component not visible without the use of an optical microscope.

Micro-sized

having a dimension not visible without the use of an optical microscope (e.g., typically within the range of 10-4 to 10-7 meters).

Structural function

effect of structural features of a microstructure on the mechanical properties of media in contact with the microstructure (e.g., directing of a sampled fluid's flow).

B82B fr

Nano-structures; Manufacture or treatment thereof

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Precise arrangements of matter on molecular or atomic level having particularly shaped configurations (i.e. nano-structural assemblages) formed during manufacture which are distinct from both naturally occurring and chemically produced chemical or biological arrangements composed of similar matter, wherein each assemblage includes at least one essential integral element:

The essential integral elements of nano-structural assemblages when they include structural features limiting their use to these assemblages.

The manufacture or treatment of the above type of nano-structural assemblages when the manufacturing or treating creates an essential structural feature of an assemblage and utilizes either:

Relationship between large subject matter areas

General relationship of B82B with section C:

The terminology "particularly shaped configurations ----- distinct from both naturally occurring and chemically produced chemical or biological arrangements composed of similar matter" in the definition statement is intended to preclude classification of chemical or biological structures per se in this subclass that are similar in size. As a practical matter, what is intended by "distinct" in this phrase is that the only nano-sized structures appropriate for this subclass are those that accomplish a function that is not inherent in the chemical or biological composition from which they are formed (e.g. a nano-sized structure shaped so that an atom or molecule component is movable between locations to act as a switch in an electrical operation would be classified in B82B even if it were formed using a method that included a chemical or biological step).

The subclasses under section C, "Chemistry; Metallurgy", specifically provide for the majority of these excluded chemical or biological structures per se, or specially adapted processes or apparatus for the manufacture or treatment thereof (e.g. in classes C08, C12).

Special rules for additional classification in other subclasses:

Except when the operation or practical utility of the nano-structure is inherently completely limited to a microscopic environment, the nano-structures that are covered by this subclass should also be obligatorily classified in subclasses that otherwise appropriately provide for their novel and unobvious structural or functional features.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system

Nanocapsules for medicinal preparations

A61K 9/51

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Investigating or analyzing surface structures in atomic ranges using scanning-probe techniques

G01N 13/10

Details of apparatus using scanning-probe techniques

G12B 21/00

Thin magnetic film formed from spin-exchange coupled multi-layers

H01F 10/32

Apparatus or processes specially adapted for manufacturing or assembling devices by applying magnetic films to substrates that are formed from nanostructures

H01F41/30

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Manufacture

Chemical, electrical, or mechanical process or apparatus for accomplishing one or more of the following operations on a nano structural assemblage or an essential integral element thereof: assembling, associating, bonding, constructing, creating, cutting, distorting, electric photographing, etching, fabricating, fastening, finishing, joining, juxtaposing, positioning, shaping, or working.

C01B fr

Non-metallic elements; Compounds thereof

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

The chemical elements of hydrogen, halogen (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine), oxygen, sulfur, phosphorus, silicon, nitrogen, boron, selenium, tellurium, and noble gases (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radon).

Compounds solely composed of any of the elements listed above.

Carbon and compounds of carbon with any of the elements listed above, with the proviso that said compounds cannot contain a carbon atom having direct bonding to another carbon atom, a carbon atom having direct bonding to a hydrogen atom or a halogen atom, or a carbon atom having direct bonding to a nitrogen atom by a single or double bond.

Compounds composed solely of one or more metal atoms and hydrogen.

Peroxides and salts of peroxyacids.

Magnesium, calcium, strontium, or barium sulfides or polysulfides.

Alkali metal sulfides or polysulfides.

Thiosulfates, dithionites and polythionates.

Compounds containing selenium or tellurium.

Azides, metal amides and nitrites.

Carbamic acid and salts thereof.

Binary compounds containing a metal and either N, C or P.

Salts of the oxyacids of halogen or phosphorus.

Compounds consisting only of carbon atoms, e.g. fullerenes, carbon nanotubes.

Phosgene and thiophosgene.

Compounds containing silicon such as silicates, silicon oxides or colloidal silica, e.g. dispersions, gels, hydroorganosols, organosols.

Compounds containing boron.

Substances having molecular sieve properties, but not having base-exchange properties.

Substances having a combination of molecular sieve and base-exchange properties, e.g. crystalline zeolites.

Synthesis, treatment or modification of any of the elements or compounds above by:

Methods of preparing the following compounds, in general:

Apparatus:

Relationship between large subject matter areas

In Class C01, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, a compound is classified in the last appropriate subclass of this class. For example, lead oxide is classified in subclass C01G rather than in this subclass.

This subclass is a function oriented entry for the chemical elements and their compounds and does not cover the application or use of the elements and compounds under the subclass definition. For classifying such information other entries in IPC exist, for example:

Salts, adducts, or complexes formed between an inorganic compound of this subclass and an organic compound of class C07, are regarded as organic compounds and classified in class C07.

When a process produces multiple compounds only those which are intended or desired require classification and classification may be proper in multiple subclasses.

MULTIPLE CLASSIFICATION

Biocidal, pest attractant, or plant growth regulatory activity of chemical compounds or preparations is further classified in subclass A01P.

Therapeutic activity of chemical compounds or medicinal preparations is further classified in subclass A61P.

Uses of cosmetics or similar toilet preparations are further classified in subclass A61Q.

Processes using enzymes or micro-organisms in order to:

are further classified in subclass C12S.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Treatment of inorganic materials to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties; Preparation of carbon black

C09C

Intentional preparation of carbon dioxide by a fermentation process or the use of an enzyme

C12P 1/00

Preparation of elements or inorganic compounds except carbon dioxide, by a fermentation process or the use of an enzyme

C12P 3/00

Production of non-metallic elements or inorganic compounds by electrolysis or electrophoresis

C25B 1/00
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products

C04B 35/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Chemical or physical processes, e.g. catalysts, colloid chemistry; their relevant apparatus

B01J

Inorganic fertilisers

C05D

Organic chemistry

C07

Alloys

C22C

Chemical libraries containing only inorganic compounds or inorganic materials

C40B 40/18

Methods of creating chemical libraries

C40B 50/00

Special rules of classification

In this subclass, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, a compound or a process of making a compound appropriate for this subclass is classified in the last appropriate place.

In this subclass, tradenames that are often found in scientific and patent literature have been used to define precisely the scope of the groups.

This subclass provides for products which are intended or desired. When a process produces multiple compounds only those which are intended or desired require a classification. However, by-products can be given an additional classification if they or the processes for obtaining them are considered of interest for search.

Inorganic salts of a compound, unless specifically provided for elsewhere, are classified as that compound.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Base-exchange

The replacement of one cation absorbed on a material by another.

Binary compound

A compound containing and limited to two distinct chemical elements.

Direct bonding

Requires a bond between two adjacent atoms.

Inorganic compound

A compound devoid of a carbon atom and containing a non-metallic element, or

a compound containing a carbon atom, and satisfying one of the following criteria:

the compound cannot have a carbon atom having direct bonding to another carbon atom, or

the compound cannot have direct bonding between a carbon atom and a halogen or hydrogen atom, or

the compound cannot have direct bonding between a carbon and a nitrogen atom by a single or double bond.

The following are exceptions to the above and are to be considered as inorganic compounds: compounds consisting of only carbon atoms, (e.g. fullerenes), cyanogen, cyanogen halides, cyanamide, phosgene, thiophosgene, hydrocyanic acid, isocyanic acid, isothiocyanic acid, fulminic acid, unsubstituted carbamic acid, and salts of the previously mentioned acids and which contain the same limitations as to a carbon atom.

Isomorphous zeolites

Compounds isomorphous to zeolites wherein the aluminum or silicon atoms in the framework are partly or wholly replaced by atoms of other elements, e.g. by gallium, germanium, phosphorus or boron.

Metal

Any element other than a non-metal.

Metal hydride

Compound containing only metal and hydrogen.

Molecular sieve

Materials (e.g. zeolitic, mesoporous) having cavities and channels which by their size allow some molecules to pass through, but prevent others.

Non-metal

The elements of hydrogen, carbon, halogen (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine), oxygen, sulfur, phosphorus, silicon, nitrogen, boron, selenium, tellurium and noble gases (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radon).

Preparation

Covers synthesis, purification, separation, stabilisation, or use of additives, unless a separate place is provided in the classification scheme.

Zeolites

(i) Cystalline aluminosilicates with base-exchange and molecular sieve properties, having three dimensional, microporous lattice framework structure of tetrahedral oxide units;

(ii) Compounds isomorphous to those of the former category, wherein the aluminium or silicon atoms in the framework are partly or wholly replaced by atoms of other elements, e.g. by gallium, germanium, phosphorus or boron.

C01C fr

Ammonia; Cyanogen; Compounds thereof

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Ammonia and inorganic compounds thereof which contain at least one ammonium moiety.

Cyanogen and compounds thereof such as:

Synthesis, treatment or modification of any of the compounds above:

Methods of preparing ammonium salts in general.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

In Class C01, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, a compound is classified in the last appropriate subclass of this class. For example, complexes of nickel and ammonia are classified in C01G 53/12 rather than in this subclass.

This Subclass is a function oriented entry for the compounds themselves and does not cover the application or use of the compounds under the subclass definition. For classifying such information other entries in IPC exist, for example:

Ammonium salts of complex acids (other than complex cyanides) containing a metal in the anion are covered by the relevant groups of subclasses C01D-C01G, according to the metal.

Salts of polybasic acids with ammonium and a metal as cations are classified as though the ammonium were hydrogen.

Complex ammine salts are classified in the relevant groups of subclasses C01D-C01G, according to the metal.

Salts, adducts or complexes formed between an inorganic compound of this subclass and an organic compound of Class C07, are regarded as organic compounds and classified in C07.

When a process produces multiple compounds only those which are intended or desired require classification and classification may be proper in multiple subclasses.

Multiple classification

Biocidal, pest attractant, or plant growth regulatory activity of chemical compounds or preparations is further classified in A01P.

Therapeutic activity of chemical compounds or medicinal preparations is further classified in A61P.

Uses of cosmetics or similar toilet preparations are further classified in A61Q.

Processes using enzymes or micro-organisms in order to:

are further classified in subclass C12S.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Salts of the oxyacids of halogens

C01B 11/00

Peroxides, salts of peroxyacids

C 01B 15/00

Thiosulfates, dithionites, polythionates

C01B 17/64

Compounds containing selenium or tellurium

C01B 19/00

Azides

C01B 21/08

Metal amides

C01B 21/092

Ammonium salts of carbamic acid

C01B 21/12

Nitrites

C01B 21/50

Phosphides

C01B 25/08

Salts of the oxyacids of phosphorus

C01B 25/16

Ammonium phosphates

C01B 25/28

Compounds containing silicon

C01B 33/00

Compounds containing boron

C01B 35/00

Preparing inorganic compounds except carbon dioxide using enzymes or fermentation processes

C12P 3/00

Electrolytic production of inorganic compounds or non-metals

C25B 1/00

Processes of producing compounds in which electricity is simultaneously produced

C25B 5/00

Electrophoretic production of inorganic compounds or non-metals

C25B 7/00
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products

C04B 35/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Chemical or physical processes, e.g. catalysts, colloid chemistry; their relevant apparatus

B01J

General methods of preparing halides

C01B 9/00

Methods of preparing oxides or hydroxides in general

C01B 13/14

Methods of preparing sulfides or polysulfides in general

C01B 17/20

Methods of preparing sulfites in general

C01B 17/62

Methods of preparing sulphates in general

C01B 17/96

Methods of preparing nitrates in general

C01B 21/48

Methods of preparing carbonates or bicarbonates in general

C01B 31/24

Inorganic fertilisers

C05D

Organic chemistry

C07

Chemical libraries containing only inorganic compounds or inorganic materials

C40B 40/18

Methods of creating chemical libraries

C40B 50/00

Special rules of classification

In this subclass, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, a compound or a process of making a compound appropriate for this subclass is classified in the last appropriate place.

This subclass provides for inorganic non-metal ammonium compounds and cyanogens and compounds thereof which are intended or desired. When a process produces multiple compounds, only those which are intended or desired require a classification. However, by-products can be given an additional classification if they or the processes for obtaining them are considered of interest for search.

If an inorganic ammonium compound proper for this subclass contains two or more non-metal moieties, then a classification is given in the last relevant subgroup.

Inorganic ammonium compounds that are covered by different subgroups because of alternatively specified non-metal moieties are classified in each relevant subgroup.

Inorganic salts of a compound, unless specifically provided for elsewhere, are classified as that compound.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Direct bonding

Requires a bond between two adjacent atoms.

Inorganic compound

A compound devoid of a carbon atom and containing a non-metallic element or

a compound containing a carbon atom, and satisfying one of the following criteria:

the compound cannot have a carbon atom having direct bonding to another carbon atom, or

the compound cannot have direct bonding between a carbon atom and a halogen or hydrogen atom, or

the compound cannot have direct bonding between a carbon atom and a nitrogen atom by a single or double bond.

The following are exceptions to the above and are to be considered as inorganic compounds: compounds consisting of only carbon atoms, (e.g. fullerenes), cyanogen, cyanogen halides, cyanamide, phosgene, thiophosgene, hydrocyanic acid, isocyanic acid, isothiocyanic acid, fulminic acid, unsubstituted carbamic acid, and salts of the previously mentioned acids and which contain the same limitations as to a carbon atom.

Moiety

A specific part of a molecule.

Preparation

Covers synthesis, purification, separation, stabilisation or use of additives, unless a separate place is provided in the classification scheme.

C01G fr

Compounds containing metals not covered by subclasses C01D or C01F

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Inorganic compounds containing at least one of the following metals:

Synthesis, treatment or modification of any of the compounds proper for this subclass by:

Methods of preparing compounds of metals not covered by subclasses C01B, C01C, C01D or C01F, in general.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

In class C01, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, a compound is classified in the last appropriate subclass of this class. For example, lead carbonate is classified in subclass C01G 21/14, rather than in C01B.

Subclass C01G is a function oriented entry for the compounds themselves and does not cover the application or use of the compounds under the subclass definition. For classifying such information other entries in IPC exist, for example:

Salts, adducts or complexes formed between an inorganic compound of this subclass and an organic compound of Class C07, are regarded as organic compounds and classified in C07.

When a process produces multiple compounds only those which are intended or desired require classification and classification may be proper in multiple subclasses.

Multiple classification

Biocidal, pest attractant, or plant growth regulatory activity of chemical compounds or preparations is further classified in subclass A01P.

Therapeutic activity of chemical compounds or medicinal preparations is further classified in subclass A61P.

Uses of cosmetics or similar toilet preparations are further classified in subclass A61Q.

Processes using enzymes or micro-organisms in order to:

are further classified in subclass C12S.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Metal hydrides

C01B 6/00

Salts of oxyacids of halogens

C01B 11/00

Peroxides, salts of peroxyacids

C01B 15/00

Thiosulfates, dithionites or polythionates

C01B 17/64

Compounds containing selenium or tellurium

C01B 19/00

Binary compounds of nitrogen with metals, silicon or boron

C01B 21/06

Azides

C01B 21/08

Metal amides

C01B 21/092

Nitrites

C01B 21/50

Phosphides

C01B 25/08

Salts of oxyacids of phosphorus

C01B 25/16

Carbides

C01B 31/30

Compounds containing silicon

C01B 33/00

Compounds containing boron

C01B 35/00

Compounds having molecular sieve properties but not having base-exchange properties

C01B 37/00

Compounds having molecular sieve properties and base- exchange properties, e.g. crystalline zeolites

C01B 39/00

Cyanides

C01C 3/08

Salts of cyanic acid

C01C 3/14

Salts of cyanamide

C01C 3/16

Thiocyanates

C01C 3/20

Treatment of inorganic materials to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties; Preparation of carbon black

C09C

Preparing inorganic compounds except carbon dioxide using enzymes or fermentation processes

C12P 3/00

Manufacture of iron or steel

C21B

Obtaining metal compounds by metallurgical processes

C22B

Alloys

C22C

Electrolytic production of inorganic compounds or non-metals

C25B 1/00

Processes for producing compounds in which electricity is simultaneously generated

C25B 5/00

Electrophoretic production of inorganic compounds or non-metals

C25B 7/00

Electrolytic production of metals by electolysis of solutions

C25C 1/00

Electrolytic production of metals by electolysis of melts

C25C 3/00
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products

C04B 35/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Chemical or physical processes, e.g. catalysts, colloid chemistry; their relevant apparatus

B01J

General methods of preparing halides

C01B 9/00

Methods of preparing oxides or hydroxides in general

C01B 13/14

Methods of preparing sulfides or polysulfides in general

C01B 17/20

Methods of preparing sulfites in general

C01B 17/62

Methods of preparing sulfates in general

C01B 17/96

Methods of preparing nitrates in general

C01B 21/48

Methods of preparing carbonates or bicarbonates in general

C01B 31/24

Inorganic fertilisers

C05D

Organic compounds

C07

Electrolytic production of metal powders or porous metal masses

C25C 5/00

Chemical libraries containing only inorganic compounds or inorganic materials

C40B 40/18

Methods of creating chemical libraries

C40B 50/00

Special rules of classification

In this subclass, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, a compound or a process of making a compound appropriate for this subclass is classified in the last appropriate place.

Salts of polybasic acids with ammonium and a metal as cations are classified as though the ammonium were hydrogen.

Complex ammine salts are classified in the relevant groups of this subclass, according to the metal.

This subclass provides for products which are intended or desired. When a process produces multiple compounds only those which are intended or desired require a classification. However, by-products can be given an additional classification if they or the processes for obtaining them are considered of interest for search.

If an inorganic compound contains two or more metals of this subclass, then a classification is given in the last relevant main group.

If an inorganic compound contains a single metal and two or more non-metal moieties proper for this subclass, then a classification is given in the last relevant subgroup.

Compounds that are covered by different main groups because of alternatively specified metal atoms are classified in each relevant main group.

Compounds that are covered by different subgroups because of alternatively specified non-metal moieties are classified in each relevant subgroup.

Inorganic salts of a compound, unless specifically provided for elsewhere, are classified as that compound.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Direct bonding

Requires a bond between two adjacent atoms.

Inorganic compound

A compound devoid of a carbon atom and containing a non-metallic element or

a compound containing a carbon atom, and satisfying one of the following criteria:

the compound cannot have a carbon atom having direct bonding to another carbon atom, or

the compound cannot have direct bonding between a carbon atom and a halogen or hydrogen atom, or

the compound cannot have direct bonding between a carbon and a nitrogen atom by a single or double bond.

The following are exceptions to the above and are to be considered as inorganic compounds: compounds consisting of only carbon atoms, (e.g. fullerenes), cyanogen, cyanogen halides, cyanamide, phosgene, thiophosgene, hydrocyanic acid, isocyanic acid, isothiocyanic acid, fulminic acid, unsubstituted carbamic acid, and salts of the previously mentioned acids and which contain the same limitations as to a carbon atom.

Metal

Any element other than a non-metal.

Moiety

A specific part of a molecule.

Non-metal

The elements of hydrogen, carbon, halogen (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine), oxygen, sulfur, phosphorus, silicon, nitrogen, boron, selenium, tellurium and noble gases (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radon).

Preparation

Covers synthesis, purification, separation, stabilisation, or use of additives, unless a separate place is provided in the classification scheme.

Transuranic elements

Elements having higher atomic weights than uranium.

C02F fr

Treatment of water, waste water, sewage or sludge

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

The physical, chemical and biological treatment of water, waste water or sewage, e.g. by distillation or evaporation, by degassing, by centrifugal separation, by flocculation of suspended impurities, or by using plants such as algae.

Selection or use of compositions for such treatments.

Compositions (per se) specially adapted for such treatments.

Softening water and preventing scale; Adding scale preventatives or scale removers to water, e.g. adding sequestering agents.

Aeration of stretches of water.

Multistep treatment of water, waste water or sewage.

Treatment of sludge and devices therefor, e.g. bioreactors.

Devices for the treatment of water, waste water or sewage, e.g. devices for separating or removing fatty or oily substances or similar floating material.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Separation in general is classified in B01D.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Processes for making harmful chemical substances harmless, or less harmful, by effecting a chemical change in the substances

A62D 3/00

Settling tanks and filter devices

B01D

Adding materials to water to prevent corrosion

C23F

Cleaning or keeping clear the surface of open water, e.g. the sea

E02B 15/00

Devices for cleaning or keeping clear the surface of open water

E02B 15/04

Methods for obtaining or collecting drinking water or tap water

E03B 3/00

Treating radioactively-contaminated liquids

G21F 9/04
Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system.

Special arrangements on waterborne vessels of installations for producing fresh water

B63J 1/00

Special arrangements on waterborne vessels of installations for treating waste water or sewage.

B63J 4/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Medicinal water

A61K

Degasification of liquids in general

B01D 19/00

Ion-exchange in general

B01J

Packing elements in general

B01J 19/32

Device in sewers for separating liquid or solid substances from sewage

E03F 5/14

Methods of steam generation

F22B

Preheating boiler feed-water or accumulating preheated boiler feed-water

F22D

Incinerators or other apparatus for burning waste liquors

F23G 7/04

Special rules of classification

Processes using enzymes or micro-organisms classified in this subclass are not further classified in subclass C12S.

When classifying in this subclass, classification is also made in group B01D 15/08 insofar as subject matter of general interest relating to chromatography is concerned.

It is desirable to add the indexing codes of group C02F 101/00 for the nature of the contaminant and of group C02F 103/00 for the nature of the water, waste water, sewage or sludge to be treated which are considered to be of interest for search.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Sludge

Solids that remain after wastewater treatment. This material may be separated, treated and composted into fertilizer.

C02F 9/00 fr

Multistep treatment of water, waste water or sewage

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Only those combined water, waste water or sewage treating operations where the essential characteristic resides in the combination of the treatment steps.

Special rules of classification

In this group, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

Any individual step of a multistep treatment, which is not identified by the classification in the last appropriate place, and which is considered to represent information of interest for search, may also be classified in one or more of groups C02F 1/00-C02F 1/56 or C02F 1/66-C02F 7/00. This can, for example, be the case which it is considered of interest to enable searching of multistep treatments using a combination of classification symbols. Such non-obligatory classification should be given as "additional information".

Treatments where the essential characteristic resides in an individual step of the treatment, which treatments are covered by groups C02F 1/00-C02F 7/00, are not covered by group C02F 9/00. An example of such treatments is a treatment in which the essential characteristic resides in a chemical treatment step and in which the one or more other steps, such as filtration or settlement, are conventional.

C03B 37/075 fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Optical fibres

G02B 6/02

C03C 13/04 fr

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Optical fibres

G02B 6/02

C04B fr

Lime;Magnesia;Slag;Cements;Compositions thereof, e.g. mortars, concrete or like building materials;Artificial stone;Ceramics;Refractories;Treatment of natural stone

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Chemical aspects of the processing of lime, magnesia or dolomite and of molten slag.

Compositional aspects of:

Physico-chemical aspects of methods for obtaining mortars, concrete, artificial stones or ceramics , e.g. for delaying the setting time of mortar compositions.

Treatment including defibrillating of materials such as fillers , agglomerated or waste materials, or refuse to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone.

Porous mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramic ware, and the preparation thereof.

Methods and apparatus for:

After- treatment of artificial stones, mortars, concrete and ceramics , e.g. coating or impregnation of green concrete after primary shaping.

Non-mechanical treatment of natural stone.

Processing powders of inorganic compounds in preparation to the manufacturing of ceramic products .

The joining of burned ceramics with other articles by heating.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Granulating apparatus

B01J 2/00

Mechanical features relating to the working of mortars, concrete, stone, clay-wares or ceramics , e.g. mixing or shaping ceramic compositions, boring natural stone

B28

Chemical preparation of powders of inorganic compounds

C01

Devitrified glass-ceramics

C03C 10/00

Compositions containing free metal bonded to carbides, diamond, oxides, borides, nitrides, silicides, e.g. cermets, or other metal compounds, such as oxynitrides or sulfides, other than as macroscopic reinforcing agents

C22C

Building elements or constructions; Finishing work on buildings

E04

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Materials for prostheses or for coating prostheses

A61L 27/00

Chemical or biological purification of waste gases

B01D 53/34

Layered products

B32B

Treating inorganic non-fibrous materials to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties

C09C

Cementing or plastering compositions for boreholes or wells

C09K 8/00

Adhesives

C09J

Alloys based on refractory metals

C22C

Shaft or vertical furnaces in general

F27B 1/00

Hydraulic hardening materials , e.g. concretes, ceramics or refractories for protection against radiation, i.e. shielding

G21F 1/00

Special rules of classification

Active ingredients which react with cement compounds for forming new or modified mineralogical phases and are added before the hardening process, as well as cements added as additives to other cements , are classified in groups C04B 7/00 to C04B 12/00, e.g. in group C04B 7/42.

In each set of groups C04B 7/00 to C04B 32/00 and C04B 41/45 to C04B 41/91, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place, e.g. classifiable subject matter relating to:

an hydraulic cement is classified in main group C04B7/00;

an admixture of an additive to a cement after the burning step or in the absence of a burning step is classified in one or more of main groups C04B 14/00 to C04B 24/00;

an inorganic accelerator for cement is classified in main group C04B 22/00;

a mortar composition containing an hydraulic cement , an organic co-binder, fillers and active ingredients , such as surfactants and anti-foam agents, is classified in main group C04B 28/00.

Any ingredient of compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, classified in groups C04B 26/00 to C04B 32/00 in accordance with the previous special rules, and which itself is determined to be novel and non-obvious, must also be classified in groups C04B 7/00 to C04B 24/00 respecting these previous rules.

This can be the case when, e.g.:

the actual invention relates to one of the ingredients of the mixture;

a special organic co-binder is used in combination with an hydraulic cement (C04B 24/24).

Any ingredient of compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, which is not identified by the classification in groups C04B 26/00 to C04B 32/00 in accordance with the previous rules, and which is considered to represent information of particular interest for search, may also be classified respecting these previous notes. This can for example be the case when, it is considered of interest to enable searching of compositions using a combination of classification symbols. Such non-obligatory classification should be given as "additional information". For example:

the problem-solution aspect of the invention relates to one of the ingredients in particular, such as the corrosion problem of glass fibres in a concrete matrix (additional classification in C04B 14/42);

well defined Portland cement mortar mixture containing clay as an essential or characterising filler (additional classification in C04B 14/10);

unusual ingredients used.

Artificial stone compositions containing fibres but no binders, and voids which may occur between the intertwined fibres, are not considered porous in the sense of main group C04B 38/00. In the same way, such compositions, where binder is only present on the mutual contact points of the intertwined fibres, are not considered as compositions covered by main groups C04B 26/00 to C04B 28/00.

Use of indexing codes:

when classifying in main groups C04B 22/00 or C04B 24/00, it is desirable to add the indexing codes of group C04B 103/00 relating to the function or property of the active ingredients ;

when classifying in main groups C04B 26/00 to C04B 32/00, it is desirable to add the indexing codes of group C04B 111/00 relating to the function, property or use of the mortars, concrete or artificial stone.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Active ingredients

Ingredients having an effect on the mortar-, concrete- or artificial stone composition during processing or on the characteristics of the final product, e.g. as set accelerator, as dispersant or as gas generating agent. Other examples are processing aids or property improvers, e.g. grinding aids, used after the cement burning process or in the absence of such a burning process.

Cement

The binder proper, i.e. excluding any additional ingredient or additive added to the finished binder as such, with the exception of mixtures of binders.

Cement composition

In patent literature this term might be used in the sense of " cement " as well as in the sense of a "mortar-, concrete- or artificial stone composition". For classification and search, the term must be interpreted using the Glossary as guidance.

Clinker

The unground sintered product leaving the cement kiln. In patent literature this term might be used literally, i.e. to indicate the unground sintered product leaving the cement kiln, or it might be used to indicate the ground cement without any additive, i.e. not interground with additives such as gypsum.

Ceramics

Inorganic, non metallic products obtained by a process involving a shaping step and a sintering or comparable heat treatment step, with the exclusion of cements , cermets and glasses, glazes, vitreous enamels and devitrified glass ceramics .

Fillers

Inactive ingredients, include pigments, aggregates and fibrous reinforcing materials.

Fine ceramics

Ceramics having a polycrystalline fine-grained microstructure, e.g. of dimensions below 100 micrometer.

Hydraulic binder

For the purpose of classification and search in this subclass, the terms " cement " and " hydraulic binder " are considered to be equivalent, even if in literature, an hydraulic binder might be defined as a mixture of cement and one or more inorganic additives.

Mortar-

They are considered as a single group of materials, are mixtures of one or more binders with fillers or other ingredients. In the context of such compositions, the terms " cement " and "binder" are considered equivalent.

Resin mortar or resin concrete

Mortar or concrete containing resin as a binder instead of cement , i.e. excluding any inorganic binder and containing a considerable amount of inorganic filler compared with the amount of the organic binder.

Refractories

Ceramics or mortars withstanding high temperatures of at least about 1500 degrees C. For classification and search in this subclass no substantial distinction is made between the terms " refractories " and " ceramics ".

Porous materials

Materials which are deliberately made porous, e.g. by adding gas-forming, foaming, burnable or lightweight additives to the composition they are made of.

C04B 2/00 fr

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Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Hydraulic lime cements

C04B 7/34

C04B 5/00 fr

Treatment of molten slag;Artificial stone from molten slag

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Manufacture of slag wool

C03B

Treatment of slag in, or for the production of metals

C21B C22B

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mechanical aspects

B28B 1/54

C04B 12/00 fr

Cements not provided for in groups C04B 7/00 to C04B 11/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ammonium silicates per se and their preparation

C01C 1/00

Alkali metal silicates per se and their preparation

C01B 33/32

C04B 12/02 fr

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Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

In, or for, the manufacture of ceramics

C04B 33/00C04B 35/00

C04B 18/00 fr

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Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of waste materials for the manufacture of cement

C04B 7/24

C04B 18/14 fr

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Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For manufacture of cement

C04B 7/14

C04B 26/00 fr

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing only organic binders

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Mortar or concrete compositions that contain organic binders instead of cement, i. e. excluding any inorganic binder and containing a considerable amount of inorganic filler compared with the amount of the organic binder. Examples of such organic binders are: resins, polysaccharides and compounds having carbon-to-metal linkages.

Compositions covered by this main group are often referred to as polymer- or resin-mortars or concrete.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Mechanical features relating to the working of plastics, e.g. moulding polymer or resin concrete

B29

Compositions of macromolecular compounds

C08L

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bituminous compositions

C08L 95/00

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Resin- or polymer mortars or concrete

Mortar and concrete compositions based on organic binders only, i.e. excluding any inorganic binder. In patent literature these terms are sometimes used for compositions also containing an inorganic binder, e.g. Portland cement. If this is the case classification should not be made in this main group but in main group C04B 28/00.

C04B 28/06 fr

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Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Monolithic refractories or refractory mortars

C04B 35/66

C04B 30/02 fr

Compositions for artificial stone containing fibrous materials , not containing binders

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Artificial stone compositions containing fibres, but no binder. Though voids may result between the intertwined fibres these compositions are not considered porous in the sense of main group C04B 38/00.

C04B 33/28 fr

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Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mechanical features

B28B 1/26

C04B 35/00 fr

Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition;Ceramic compositions;Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Ceramic compositions or refractories based on oxides or oxide mixtures or solid solutions of two or more oxides; Processes for their manufacture.

Ceramic compositions based on rare earth compounds or on compounds of actinides; Processes for their manufacture.

Ceramic compositions or refractories based on non-oxides, e.g. on carbon, sulfides, selenides, fluorides, carbides, borides, nitrides or silicides; Processes for their manufacture.

Monolithic refractories or refractory mortars, including those whether or not containing clay; Processes for their manufacture.

Ceramic products containing macroscopic reinforcing agents, e.g. shaped metallic or non-metallic materials ; Processes for their manufacture.

Shaped ceramic products or refractories characterised by their composition; Processes for manufacturing these shaped ceramic products or refractories:

Processes characterised by the burning or sintering step.

Shaped products obtained by processes involving a melting step.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Mechanical features relating to the working of ceramics, e.g. mixing or shaping ceramic compositions

B28

Devitrified glass ceramics

C03C 10/00

Clay-wares

C04B 33/00

Compositions containing free metal bonded to carbides, diamond, oxides, borides, nitrides, silicides, e.g. cermets, or other metal compounds, such as oxynitrides or sulfides, other than as macroscopic reinforcing agents

C22C

Manufacture of ceramic fibres

D01F 9/08

Furnaces, kilns, ovens, or retorts

F27

Casings, linings, walls, roofs of furnaces, kilns, ovens, or retorts

F27D 1/00
Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Dental prostheses, e.g. porcelain or ceramic teeth

A61C 13/08

Materials for prostheses or for coating prostheses

A61L 27/00

Materials for catheters or for coating catheters

A61L 29/00

Materials for other surgical articles

A61L 31/00

Luminescent materials

C09K 11/00

Fireproofing materials

C09K 21/00

Materials for coating by flame or plasma spraying

C23C 4/10

Materials for coating by sputtering, e.g. ceramic targets

C23C 14/06

Materials for parts of bearings, e.g. sliding-contact bearings

F16C 33/00

Materials for friction linings

F16D 69/02

Materials for pistons, trunk pistons, plungers

F16J 1/01

Materials for piston-rings or seats therefor

F16J 9/26

Materials for rigid pipes

F16L 9/00

Materials for protection of pipes or pipe fittings against corrosion or incrustation

F16L 58/00

Luminescent materials for light screens

F21V 9/16

Materials for conductors or conductive bodies

H01B 1/00

Materials for insulators or insulating or dielectric bodies

H01B 3/00

Superconductive or hyperconductive conductors, cables, or transmission lines

H01B 12/00

Materials for varistor cores

H01C 7/105

Materials for magnets or magnetic bodies

H01F 1/00

Superconducting magnets or coils

H01F 6/00

Materials for fixed capacitors, e.g. ceramic dielectrics

H01G 4/12

Details of semiconductor or other solid state devices characterised by the material , e.g. ceramic substrates

H01L 23/00

Materials for superconductive or hyperconductive devices

H01L 39/00

Materials for piezo-electric or electrostrictive elements

H01L 41/00

Materials for inert electrodes with catalytic activity for electrochemical generators, e.g. for fuel cells

H01M 4/86

Materials for solid electrolytes of fuel cells

H01M 8/10

Dielectric resonators of the waveguide type

H01P 7/10

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Filters, membranes for separation processes

B01D

Catalysts

B01J

Articles characterised by particular shape, see the relevant classes, e.g. linings for casting ladles, tundishes, cups or the like

B22D 41/02

Producing shaped articles from the material , e.g. by slip-casting

B28B 1/00

Layered products essentially comprising ceramics , e.g. refractory products

B32B 18/00

Chemical preparation of powders of inorganic compounds

C01

Chemical composition of glasses, glazes, or vitreous enamels

C03C

Obtaining porous products

C04B 38/00

Alloys based on carbides, oxides, borides, nitrides or silicides, e.g. cermets

C22C 29/00

Single crystals or homogeneous polycrystalline material with defined structure

C30B 29/00

Casings, linings, walls of combustion chambers characterised by the shape of the bricks or blocks

F23M 5/02

Arrangement or mounting of linings for fire-boxes, e.g. fire-back

F24B 13/02

Basic electric elements

H01

Special rules of classification

In this group, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, compositions are classified according to the constituent present in the highest proportion by weight.

In this group, magnesium is considered as an alkaline earth metal.

In this group, a composite is considered as a sintered mixture of different powdered materials , other than sintering aids, the materials being present as separate phases in the sintered product .

In this group, fine ceramics are considered as products having a polycrystalline fine-grained microstructure, e.g. of dimensions below 100 micrometers.

The production of ceramic powder is classified in this group in so far as it relates to the preparation of powder with specific characteristics.

Any ingredient of a refractory mortar composition containing a hydraulic cement , e.g. aluminous cement , classified in C04B 35/66, which is considered to represent information of interest for search, may also be classified according to the Last Place Rule of note (2) after the subclass title of C04B, in groups C04B 7/00 to C04B 24/00. This can for example be the case when it is considered of interest to enable searching of compositions using a combination of classification symbols. Such non-obligatory classification should be given as "additional information". For example, such an additional classification in group C04B 24/00 may be given for an organic retarder added to the refractory mortar composition.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Ceramics

Inorganic, non-metallic products obtained by a process involving a shaping step and a sintering or comparable heat treatment step, with the exclusion of cements , cermets and glasses, glazes, vitreous enamels and devitrified glass ceramics .

Fine ceramics

Ceramics having a polycrystalline fine-grained microstructure, e.g. of dimensions below 100 micrometer.

Refractories

Ceramics or mortars withstanding high temperatures of at least about 1500 degrees C. For classification and search in this subclass, no substantial distinction is made between the terms " refractories " and " ceramics ".

Carbon-carbon composites

Products consisting of carbon fibres in a carbon matrix are usually referred to as " carbon-carbon composites ".

Porous materials

Materials which are deliberately made porous, e.g. by adding gas- forming, foaming, burnable or lightweight additives to the composition they are made of.

C04B 35/10 fr

Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition, based on aluminium oxide;Ceramic compositions based on aluminium oxide

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Abrasives

C09K 3/14

Materials for vessels of gas- or vapour discharge lamps

H01J 61/30

C04B 35/26 fr

Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition, based on ferrites;Ceramic compositions based on ferrites

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Abrasives

C09K 3/14

Selection of ferrites for their magnetic properties

H01F 1/34

C04B 35/45 fr

Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition, based on copper oxide or solid solutions thereof with other oxides;Ceramic compositions based on copper oxide or solid solutions thereof with other oxides

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Precursor materials for ceramic superconductors and high critical-temperature superconductive materials characterised by the ceramic-forming technique or the ceramic composition based on cuprates.

Non superconductive ceramic copper oxides or solid solutions thereof with other oxides.

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Single-crystals or homogeneous polycrystalline material with defined structure or crystallographic orientation characterised by the material or by the method

C30B

Superconductive conductors, cables, or transmission lines

H01B 12/00

Superconducting magnets or coils

H01F 6/00

Superconductors characterised by the material

H01L 39/12

Synonyms and Keywords

HTS or High-Tc

These abbreviations correspond to the term "high critical-temperature superconductor".

Y-Ba-Cu-O

In patent literature this abbreviation is used for the general substance group, which includes e.g. the compounds Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O x or Y 2 Ba 1 Cu 1 O 5 corresponding to the short cuts Y-123 or Y-211 .

Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O

In patent literature this abbreviation is used for the general substance group, which includes e.g. the compounds Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x or Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O x corresponding to the short cuts Bi-2223 or Bi-2212 .

Hg-Ba-Ca-Cu-O

In patent literature this abbreviation is used for the general substance group, which includes e.g. the compound Hg 1 Ba 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x corresponding to the short cut Hg-1223 .

Tl-Sr-Ca-Cu-O

In patent literature this abbreviation is used for the general substance group, which includes e.g. the compound Tl 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x corresponding to the short cut Tl-2223 .

C04B 35/453 fr

Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition, based on zinc, tin or bismuth oxides or solid solutions thereof with other oxides, e.g. zincates, stannates or bismuthates;Ceramic compositions based on zinc, tin or bismuth oxides or solid solutions thereof with other oxides, e.g. zincates, stannates or bismuthates

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Resistors, e.g. varistors based on ZnO

H01C 7/112

Target materials for coating by Physical Vapour Deposition

C23C 14/08

C04B 35/46 fr

Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition, based on titanium oxides or titanates;Ceramic compositions based on titanium oxides or titanates

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Ceramic compositions based on titanium oxides or titanates, containing also zirconium or hafnium oxides, zirconates or hafnates

C04B 35/49

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ceramic insulating or dielectric materials

H01B 3/12

Resistors, e.g. varistors, based on titanium oxide or titanates

H01C 7/115

Ceramic capacitors

H01G 4/12

Piezoelectric ceramics

H01L 41/187

Ceramic dielectric resonators

H01P 7/10

C04B 35/49 fr

Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition, based on zirconium or hafnium oxides or zirconates or hafnates, containing also titanium oxides or titanates;Ceramic compositions based on zirconium or hafnium oxides or zirconates or hafnates, containing also titanium oxides or titanates

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ceramic insulating or dielectric materials

H01B 3/12

Risistors, e.g. varistors, based on metal oxides

H01C 7/108

Ceramic capacitors

H01G 4/12

Piezoelectric ceramics

H01L 41/187

Ceramic dielectric resonators

H01P 7/10

C04B 35/50 fr

Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition, based on rare earth compounds;Ceramic compositions based on rare earth compounds

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Luminescent materials containing rare earth metals

C09K 11/77

Light filters; Selection of luminescent materials for light screens

F21V 9/16

Luminescent screens

H01J 1/63

Scintillation detectors

G01T 1/20 G01T 3/06

C04B 35/51 fr

Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition, based on compounds of actinides;Ceramic compositions based on compounds of actinides

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Nuclear fuel materials

G21C 3/62

C04B 35/56 fr

Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition, based on carbides;Ceramic compositions based on carbides

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Friction linings

F16D 69/02

C04B 35/622 fr

Forming processes;Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Preparing or treating powders of inorganic compounds in preparation to the manufacturing of ceramic products .

Non-mechanical aspects of ceramic-forming techniques . References relevant to classification in this main group.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Articles characterised by particular shape, e.g. linings for casting ladles, tundishes, cups or the like

B22D 41/02

Mechanical features relating to the shaping of clay or other ceramic compositions, e.g.

B28B

by injection moulding or

B28B 1/24

by slip-casting

B28B 1/26

by applying the material on to a core to form a layer thereon

B28B 1/30

Preparing clay or like ceramic compositions; Producing mixtures containing clay or like ceramic compositions

B28C

Working stone or stone-like materials

B28D

Chemical preparations of powders of inorganic compounds

C01

After- treatment of ceramics, e.g. coating or impregnation

C04B 41/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Patterns for foundry moulding; Manufacture thereof so far as not provided for in other classes

B22C 7/00

Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of sintering by using electric current, laser radiation or plasma

B22F 3/105

Working by laser beam

B23K 26/00

Layered products

B32B

Layered products essentially comprising ceramics, e.g. refractory products

B32B 18/00

Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces

G03F 7/00

Exposure, e.g. with laser beam

G03F 7/20

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Rapid Prototyping (RP)

RP is a forming method in which resin or powder material is used. RP devices build up a prototype body layer by layer, rapidly generating a three-dimensional free form. In the ceramic art, two kinds of RP are mainly applied.One is "3D Printing", the other is "Selective Laser Sintering" (see glossary of C04B 35/64).

3D Printing (3DP)

3DP is a general forming technique which is also used in the ceramic art, developed from stereolithography. Light-sensitive monomers are polymerised by a laser beam and solidified by gelation in this way. Through the gelation and solidification of an aqueous ceramic slurry, which contains the light-sensitive monomer, a component is built up in layers.

Synonyms and Keywords

Rapid Prototyping technologies are otherwise known as Solid Freeform Fabrication or Desktop Manufacturing or Layer Manufacturing technologies.

C04B 35/64 fr

Burning or sintering processes

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Burning methods for clay-wares

C04B 33/32

Furnaces, kilns, ovens, or retorts

F27

e.g. chamber type furnaces

F27B 17/00

Travelling or movable supports or containers for the charge of furnaces, kilns, ovens, retorts in so far as they are of kinds occurring in more than one kind of furnace

F27D 3/12

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)

A layer of ceramic powder is deposited on a support, and possibly compacted by a rolling device. A computer-controlled laser beam scans a two-dimensional cross-section of a part, selectively sintering the layer. A new layer of powder is deposited, compacted and sintered. After completion of the part, the unfused or unsintered powder, which helps hold the part during the process, is removed. This technique may allow local composition variations for gradient materials or manufacture of composites.

C04B 38/00 fr

Porous mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramic ware; Preparation thereof

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramic ware which are deliberately made porous, e.g. by adding gas-forming, foaming, lightweight or burnable additives to the compositions they are made of, and the preparation thereof.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Artificial stone compositions containing fibres, and voids which may occur between the intertwined fibres, but no binders

C04B 30/02

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Porous or cellular macromolecular materials

C08J 9/00

Special rules of classification

Porous mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramic ware characterised by the ingredients or compositions are also classified in groups C04B 2/00 to C04B 35/00.

C04B 40/00 fr

Insert title tags here...

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mechanical aspects

B28

Mechanical aspects B28, e.g. conditioning the materials prior to shaping

B28B 17/02

C04B 41/00 fr

After-treatment of mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramics;Treatment of natural stone

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Glazes, other than cold glazes

C03C 8/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces, in general

B05

Grinding or polishing

B24

Apparatus or processes for treating or working shaped articles of clay or other ceramic compositions, slag or mixtures containing cementitious material

B28B 11/00

Working stone or stone like materials

B28D

Conditioning of the materials prior to shaping

C04B 40/00

Etching, surface-brightening or pickling compositions in general

C09K 13/00

C06B fr

Explosive or thermic compositions; Manufacture thereof; Use of single substances as explosives

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Explosive compositions: compositions included are those containing both a fuel and sufficient oxidiser so that, upon initiation, they are capable of undergoing a chemical reaction of a relatively high rate of speed, resulting in the production of usable force for blasting, firearms, propelling missiles, or the like.

Thermic compositions; compositions included have

Compositions which are fuels for rocket engines and intended for reaction with an oxidant, excluding air, in order to provide thrust for motive power purposes.

Compositions used for affecting the explosion environment, e.g. for neutralising the poisonous gases of explosives or for cooling the explosion gases.

Methods or apparatus for preparing or treating, e.g. working-up, the compositions mentioned above, not otherwise provided for in the IPC.

Methods of using single substances as explosives.

Compositions mentioned above, defined by structure or arrangement of the components or products.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

This subclass does not cover chemical compounds or their preparation as such, which subject matter is covered by classes C01 (inorganic chemistry), C07 (organic chemistry) and C08 (organic macromolecular compounds).

The use of explosive or thermic compositions for welding operations is classified in subclass B23K, the compositions as such used therefor are additionally classified in subclass C06B.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Detonating or priming devices, fuses, chemical lighters or pyrophoric compositions

C06C

Blasting

F42D

Mechanical aspects of coated explosive charges

F42B

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Making harmful chemical substances harmless or less harmful, by effecting a chemical change in the substances

A62D 3/00

Special rules of classification

In this subclass, methods or apparatus for preparing or treating compositions are classified according to the particular components of the compositions.

In this subclass, with the exception of group C06B 21/00, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, a composition is classified in the last place that provides for an ingredient.

Glossary of terms

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Nitrated

Compounds having a nitro group or a nitrate ester group.

C06B 45/00 fr

Explosive or thermic compositions or products which are defined by structure or arrangement of component or product

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Explosive charges of particular form or shape

F42B 1/00F42B 3/00

Shape or structure of solid propellant charges for rocket-engine plants

F02K 9/10

C07B fr

General Methods of Organic Chemistry; Apparatus therefor

Definition statement

This subclass covers:

Methods of chemistry when specially adapted for organic chemistry and of general applicability in that filed, in which the method itself is of interest rather than the product, e.g. such methods as:

Apparatus for carrying out the above mentioned reactions and methods.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

General reactions and methods where the subject matter to be classified concerns the method or reaction per se and not its special adaptation to the actual product, are classified in this subclass. Preparation, purification, separation or stabilisation of defined compounds are classified in C07C-C07K.

When classifying in this subclass, classification is also made in group B01D 15/08 insofar as subject matter of general interest relating to chromatography is concerned.

References relevant to classification in this subclass

This subclass does not cover:

Preparation of carboxylic acid esters by telomerisation

C07C 67/47

Processes for preparing macromolecular compounds, e.g. telomerisation

C08FC08G

Fermentation or enzyme-using processes to synthesise a desired chemical compound or composition or to separate optical isomers from a racemic mixture

C12P

Production of organic compounds by electrolysis or electrophoresis

C25B 3/00C25B 7/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Preparation, separation, purification, or stabilization of hydrocarbons

C07C 1/00-C07C 7/00

Preparation, separation, pu