National Intellectual Property / Innovation / Science and Technology / Research and Development - Strategies/Plans
- What Is An Intellectual Property Strategy?
- Why Is An IP Strategy Useful?
- Who Manages an IP Strategy?
- National IP Strategies in the IP and New Technologies Data Base
- National IP / Innovation/ S&T / R&D Strategies/Plans
- 1. African Union
- 2. Australia
- 3. Brazil
- 4. Canada
- 5. China
- 6. Cuba
- 7. Czech Republic
- 8. Denmark
- 9. Ethiopia
- 10. European Union
- 11. Finland
- 12. Germany
- 13. Hungary
- 14. India
- 15. Jamaica
- 16. Japan
- 17. New Zealand
- 18. Philippines
- 19. Romania
- 20. South Africa
- 21. Sweden
- 22. United Kingdom
- 23. United States of America
An Intellectual Property Strategy also referred to as Innovation or Science and Technology Strategy or Plans are in some cases called Research and Development Plans.
An IP Strategy is a set of measures formulated and implemented by a government to encourage and facilitate effective creation, development and management of intellectual property. It outlines how to develop infrastructures and capacities to support inventors of IP to protect, develop and exploit their inventions. An IP Strategy may also be defined as a comprehensive national document which outlines how all the policy developments and implementation take place in a coordinated manner within a national framework.
It therefore spells out how best to develop the talent base for an innovation system that attracts foreign direct investment, and help in building an inclusive economy.
An IP Strategy is useful because it strengthens a nation's ability to generate economically valuable IP assets. All nations have rich human capital, universities, research institutions and entrepreneurial businesses. The goal of IP strategy is to provide a plan over time whereby all national stakeholders can work together to create, own, and exploit research results, innovations, new technologies, and works of creativity.
The authorities that manage IP Strategies differ from country to country. In Australia for instance, Backing Australia’s Ability- An Innovation Plan for the Future is managed by a Science and Innovation Ministerial Council. The council is chaired by the Prime Minister and advised by the Chief Science Secretary. In Denmark, their Strategy known as Industry Policy in Denmark. New Trends in Industrial Property Rights is managed by the Danish Agency for Science and Technology.
In the majority of other cases, the governments have formed Ministerial Councils or Commissions to be responsible for managing the strategies. Normally the Ministries responsible for Trade, Industry or Commerce, Research, Science and Technology, Education, Foreign Affairs, Manpower Development, Culture are included in the Ministerial Commission charged with managing a National IP Strategy.
There are as per January 2007, 23 National IP Strategies in the IP and New Technologies database. A summary of each strategy and their web-sites are provided in the section below. The data base is periodically updated and new national strategies added, as they become available.
African leaders have decided to dedicate the African Union Summit January 2007 to explore the role of science, technology and innovation in the socio-economic transformation of the continent. They will be considering specific policy issues pertaining to the advancement of the continent’s scientific and technology development, and in particular how science and technology can be wisely harnessed and applied to improve human development. Some of the issues to be considered, according to the Council, are:
- The role of modern biotechnology in African development and regional integration
- Increasing public expenditure on R&D
- Strategies for technology procurement and transfer
To read the Proposal of the African Ministers Council on Science and Technology go to http://www.africa-union.org/root/AU/Conferences/Past/2006/November/HRST/Science-tec/EXT.AU.EXP.ST.2(II) - Proposal for the Formation of Presidents Committee for ST.doc
The strategy “ Backing Australia’s Ability - An Innovation Action Plan for the Future” was introduced by the Australian Government in 2001 in order to strengthen Australia’s ability to generate ideas and undertake research, accelerate the commercial application of these ideas, and develop and retain Australian skilled human resources. The initiative is the largest and most comprehensive set of measures ever put in place by any Australian Government in support of science and innovation. It is an all-of-Government approach, the implementation of which is overseen by a Science and Innovation Ministerial Council chaired by the Prime Minister and advised by the Chief Scientist. See http://backingaus.innovation.gov.au/default2001.htm
Building on the initial 2001 Backing Australia’s Ability, the Government has launched in May 2004 “ Backing Australia’s Ability - Building Our Future Through Science and Innovation”. (See http://backingaus.innovation.gov.au/default2004.htm). This new strategy further strengthens the Government’s commitment to innovation and its commercialization for wealth creation, one of the Government’s strategic priorities. Together these two strategies constitute a ten-year funding commitment stretching from 2001/02 to 2010/11. The three key themes of the two strategies are:
- Backing Research (support programs and infrastructure for the generation of research results and innovation, e.g. 175% R&D tax concessions; grants programs; etc.). For related programs to this part of the strategy see http://backingaus.innovation.gov.au/back_res2004.htm
- Backing Commercialization (support programs and innovation funds for the commercial application of research results and innovation, e.g. Pre-Seed Fund; Innovation Investment Fund; Renewable Energy Equity Fund; Biotechnology Innovation Fund; etc.). For related programs to this part of the strategy see http://backingaus.innovation.gov.au/back_com2004.htm; and
- Backing Skills (human resource development programs and funds for developing and retaining skills, e.g., research training schemes in target areas/clusters for the country; skilled immigration program, etc.). For related programs to this part of the strategy see http://backingaus.innovation.gov.au/back_skills2004.htm
The major achievements regarding this strategy are summarized in the Australian Government’s Innovation Report. In its table of contents it is easy to appreciate how the whole strategy is structured (institutions involved, programs, etc.). For the report “ Backing Australia’s Ability 2003/04 - Real Results, Real Jobs” see http://backingaus.innovation.gov.au/docs/BAA03-04.pdf
In connection with the national strategy above mentioned, a number of IP policy papers have been issued Australia, to address the question of how the results of R&D could best be protected and exploited, for example, “ Management of Intellectual Property in the Public Sector”, a presentation by the Auditor-General for Australia underscoring the importance of IP management in the public sector and urging government agencies to heighten awareness of IP issues, including the need to “maximize the net national benefits from the development and ownership of IP” within the sector. See http://www.anao.gov.au/WebSite.nsf/Publications/4A256AE90015F69B4A256B6D00086450
IP Australia's 2005 - 2010 Strategic Plan identifies five key goals to enable Australians to benefit from the effective use of IP, particularly through increased innovation, investment and trade. The Goal 5 of this Plan seeks to influence the development on the international IP system for the benefit of the Australian economy through the following strategies
- Assisting development of IP systems in the region.
- Engaging in key international IP Rights fora.
- Assisting developing economies.
- Supporting international harmonization.
The following link leads to a summary of the development cooperation activities undertaken by the Australian Government relating to an international IP system http://www.ipaustralia.gov.au/resources/international_dca.shtml
The Australian Research Council (see http://www.arc.gov.au/publications/strategic_plan.htm) has prepared a Strategic Plan 2006-2008. This takes into account the Council's responsibilities in implementing initiatives under Backing Australia’s Ability, as well as implementing the Government’s national research priorities. The plan describes the Council's agenda in seven key areas:
- Discovery: supporting excellent research, generating new ideas and innovations;
- Linkage: encouraging the development of strong partnerships between researchers, and between researchers and end-users, regardless of location
- Research training and careers – recognizing the critical human element to the research endeavor;
- Research infrastructure – pursuing access for Australian researchers to world-class facilities
- Research priorities – recognizing the importance of building scale and focus in particular areas of strength;
- Public engagement – communicating the benefits of research to stakeholders and the community; and
- Effective organization – building an efficient and effective organization capable of providing high quality services to its clients.
The Australian Government has also developed a Creative Innovation Strategy, believing that “collaborative, cross-disciplinary practice and research—the hallmarks of much artistic practice today—is an important prerequisite for solving complex issues, and provides a foundation for new scientific discovery, and knowledge and wealth creation”. It identifies and clarifies the many initiatives that enhance Australian creativity and build pathways to successful innovation, spanning creative skills, enterprise and leadership. The government sees three mechanisms that will serve to the benefit of an Australian knowledge -and innovation- based economy:
- A Digital Content Strategy, which includes a Digital Content Industry Action Agenda (DCIAA), to accelerate the production, distribution and marketing of digital content and applications domestically and internationally;
- The Prime Minister’s Science, Engineering and Innovation Council (PMSEIC) Working Group to examine The Role of Creativity in the Innovation Economy;
- The National Broadband Strategy and Implementation Group.
The Creative Innovation Strategy can be found at http://www.ozco.gov.au/research_centre/creative_innovation_strategy/files/4132/CIS_public_FINAL.pdf
The Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology is determined to transform science, technology and innovation into tools for the development of the country. Following this principle, the Brazilian Government has established a National Science, Technology and Innovation Strategy based on four fundamentals:
- Consolidate, enhance and modernize the National Science, Technology and Innovation System, expanding the scientific and technological base of the country
- Create an environment that favors innovation within the country, stimulating the private sector to invest in research, development and innovation activities;
- Integrate all the country’s regions and industrial sectors to build up the national capabilities for science, technology and innovation
- Develop a comprehensive social base supporting the National Science, Technology and Innovation Strategy.
The strategy document, in Portuguese, can be found at http://www.mct.gov.br/index.php/content/view/15854.html
The report entitled Mechanisms of Innovation and Competitiveness is the result of a thorough study undertaken by the Center of Support to Technology Development from the University of Brasilia. The report collects data from five Brazilian institutions that were selected within the category of Scientific and Technological Parks. Focusing on Technology Based Enterprises in the Life Science area, it aims to analyze the experiences of those institutions and present an assessment of the methodology for the creation of an environment to foster innovation and competitiveness in the country. The document is of strategic importance as its goal is to pioneer similar flourishing initiatives in other parts of the Brazilian territory. To read the report, go to http://www.inovacao.unicamp.br/report/news-curtissimas060710_mecanismos-novacao-competitividade.pdf
Science and Technology for the New Century: A Federal Strategy (1996)
In February 2002, the Federal Government of Canada launched a 10-year innovation strategy which is aimed at improving Canada’s research and development performance in order to respond to economic challenges and opportunities, to ensure that a growing number of firms benefit from the commercial application of knowledge, to develop a location brand for Canada and to attract foreign direct investment (FDI). Based on various statistics, including a survey of IP protection and commercialization in the higher education sector, the first strategic document stresses the importance of a clear IP strategy at universities particularly with regard to publicly funded projects (see “ Achieving Excellence: Investing in People, Knowledge and Opportunity” at http://www.innovationstrategy.gc.ca/gol/innovation/interface.nsf/vSSGBasic/in04289e.ht
A complementary strategic document entitled “ Knowledge Matters: Skills and Learning for Canadians” is also useful in understanding the motivation behind the Canadian Government’s initiatives to increase the knowledge level of its citizens through higher education and good coordination among the relevant authorities involved in achieving that goal. See http://www11.sdc.gc.ca/sl-ca/home.shtml
Adding to the country’s previous strategic documents, the Government of Canada has developed, in 2005, a framework to conduct and develop the National Science and Technology efforts.In the Service of Canadians: A Framework for Federal Science and Technology has been prepared in response to the wide-ranging and rapidly evolving challenges and opportunities facing the federal government in carrying out, managing and communicating its Science and Technology activities. The four core public good Science and Technology roles that form the foundation of this framework are:
- Support for decision making, policy development and regulation
- Development and management of federal and international standards
- Support for health, safety and security, and environmental needs.
- Enabling economic and social development
For more information, see http://innovation.gc.ca/gol/innovation/site.nsf/en/in05270.html
The People’s Republic of China has a clear national IP strategy. In March 2003, in his annual report to the Congress, the Premier stressed the role of intellectual property in the context of harnessing national brands and increasing international competitiveness, as well as in the context of promoting scientific and research activities to obtain proprietary IPRs in key areas and facilitate a faster transition from research results to enhanced productivity. See Section 4 (“Deepen economic restructuring and open still wider to the outside world”) and Section 6 (“Conscientiously implement the strategy of national rejuvenation through science, technology and education and the strategy of sustainable development”) of the Premier’s annual report (in English) at http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200303/19/print20030319_113574.html
China’s intentions are to formulate a National IPR Strategy that will lead the nation to become an innovation-oriented country, enhancing the national innovative ability and realizing the target of building a well-to-do country. Bearing this objective in mind, the government of The People’s Republic of China, has developed, in 2006, a document of intentions called Formulating and Carrying out the National IPR Strategy. This document sets the guidelines of the IPR strategy formulation and its implementation, which will be followed for the achievement of the Nation’s aims. http://www.ipr.gov.cn/ipr/en/info/Article.jsp?a_no=12502&col_no=102&dir=200608
In a concrete approach to the task of IPR protection within the country, an Action Plan for 2006 has been developed in two phases. The Action Plan covers 4 major areas: trade marks, copyright, patent and import and export. It involves the IPR protection plans and arrangements of 11 departments of the Chinese government. The Action Plan covers 9 areas: legislation, law enforcement, mechanism building, propaganda, training and education, international communication and cooperation, promoting business self discipline, services to right holders, and subject research.
http://sbj.saic.gov.cn/english/show.asp?id=460&bm=sbyw (China’s Action Plan on IPR Protection 2006 – I)
http://sbj.saic.gov.cn/english/show.asp?id=461&bm=sbyw (China’s Action Plan on IPR Protection 2006 – II)
As part of the Chinese comprehensive strategic Action Plan, The People’s Republic of China – Outline of IPR Protection Actions (2006 – 2007) is a document that has the purpose of strengthening IPR protection within the country. It is formulated on the basis of relevant national and international laws, regulations and provisions. http://sbj.saic.gov.cn/english/show.asp?id=462&bm=sbyw
In Cuban Health Research National Plan: linking priorities and actions, the Head of the Department of Researches, Division of Science and Technology of the Ministry of Public Health of the Republic of Cuba, answers a series of questions that help clarify the trajectory Cuba has followed towards its outstanding achievements in the field of Biotechnology. http://www.globalforumhealth.org/Forum8/Forum8-CDROM/Posters/Alvarez-Blanco AS F8-633.doc
This report by the University of Toronto also assesses the Cuban National Strategy and its achievements in the field of Biotechnology. Stating that “Cuba’s outstanding achievements in health biotechnology are a source of inspiration for the developing world”, it outlines the Cuban government’s far-sighted commitment to health, education and science. http://www.utoronto.ca/jcb/home/documents/Cuba.pdf
The Czech Government has produced the country’s National Innovation Strategy in 2004, following the passing of the Resolution No. 172 of February 2005, proposing to improve the entrepreneurial and investment environment. The strategy aims at creating conditions and laying the foundation for the formulation of the Czech Republic’s innovation policy.
Part one of the strategy contains introduction, definitions of specialist terms, such as innovations, offset program, industrial cluster, seed capital, spin-offs, and technology transfer.
The European Commission definition of innovation is given as the reconstruction and the expansion of a range of products and services and the related markets, the changes in management, the organization of labor, working conditions and the skills of the new work force .The principal source of innovation is given as research, development, production and commercial entities concerned with final production and marketing.
The main parts of the infrastructure are the traditional industrial production and innovative workers, a growing number of SMEs, use of progressive technologies and introduction of innovated products into the production range. It highlights lack of financial resources and tepid support of innovation business by state institutions as the main defects. Though the level of R&D funding in Czech for 2004 was expected to be 0.58% of GDP, it was still lower than the average reported in EU member states of 0.76% of GDP.
Part two of the strategy outlines the objectives which its accession to the EU would mean, namely to pursue a knowledge based economy where education, research, development and innovation are political priorities. The country already has a National Research and Development Policies, a National Innovation Strategy and plans to have a National Innovation Policy for which legislation and human resources will remain crucial.
The National Innovation Policy of the Czech Republic for 2005-2010 has been developed aiming at a better position for the country in the present knowledge economy context. This vision is to be realized through four strategic objectives:
- Strengthen research and development as a source of innovation
- Establish well-functioning public private partnerships
- Provide human resources for innovation
- Make the performance of the state administration in research, development and innovation more effective.
Forty-eight concrete measures are proposed for achievement of the NIP objectives, including responsibilities, deadlines and indicators of the implementation success. To read the entire document, go to http://www.vyzkum.cz/storage/att/CFE8ED8042B44B76046EB19D9EC1EC4B/national_innovation_policy.pdf
Denmark’s strategy “ Industry Policy in Denmark. New Trends in Industrial Property Rights” emphasizes the need for faster and cheaper means for protecting inventions, trademarks and industrial designs and for the legal protection for intellectual property to be developed in step with technological development and growth of the knowledge-based economy. In Chapter 5 the Strategy states that Danish companies must be aware of and exploit the potential of the IP system. For that purpose it will be necessary for the government to encourage enterprises to assess the value of their IPRs and to promote the development of more reliable methods of valuation. See http://www.dkpto.dk/en/publications/reports/indu%5Fpolicy/index.htm
In May 2006, Denmark saw the creation of the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation. The purpose of this Agency is to promote research and innovation of high international standard for the benefit of the development of Danish society – financially, culturally and socially. The Agency is announced as “ an important key player in developments aimed at the overriding political goal of making Denmark a leading entrepreneurial and knowledge society with world-class educational programs”. More information on the Agency’s goals and activities can be found at http://forsk.dk/portal/page/pr04/FIST/FORSIDE/DIVERSE_SIDER/DANISH_RESEARCH_AGENCY
The Danish Council for Strategic Research (DCSR) has published “10 recommendations for Innovation Accelerating Research Platforms”. It highlights the research areas in which the Council has identified makes sense to invest, and which can accelerate innovation in society within a relatively short period of time. To find out what are the platforms recommended by the Danish Council check http://forsk.dk/portal/page/pr04/FIST/FORSIDE/DIVERSE_SIDER/DANISH_RESEARCH_AGENCY/THE_DANISH_RESEARCH_COUNSELLING_SYSTEM/STRATEGIC_RESEARCH/INNOVATION_ACC_RESEARCH_PLATFORMS
Ethiopia: Innovation and Growth in International Comparison, produced by IKED, the International Organization for Knowledge Economy and Enterprise Development, is an analysis of Ethiopia’s challenges and opportunities towards an innovation system that leads to growth and competitiveness. The document identifies three promises that can be considered under the light of innovation. These promises are income growth, better health and more food, and the adaptation of indigenous knowledge in the innovation system. The document can be found at http://www.iked.org/pdf/Ethiopia.pdf
The National Science, Technology and Innovation Policy of Ethiopia serves as a framework to identify national science and technology priorities, strategies, programs and projects to support the different economic and service sectors. It includes policy objectives, directives, strategies; and priority sectors and areas. It also shows the National Science Technology and Innovation organization and management structure. One of the Ethiopian strategic decisions is to ensure adequate fund to build up the nations science and technology capability and sustaining research activities by, for instance, investing at least 1.5% of the country's gross national product (GNP) in the research activities in the country. To read more about this and the other objectives of Ethiopia towards growth within the global knowledge economy, go to http://www.estc.gov.et/National STI Policy Draft.pdf
The First Action Plan for Innovation in Europe: Innovation for Growth and Employment. See http://www.cordis.lu/innovation/src/action.htm
European Innovation Policy (2000 and 2003). See http://europa.eu.int/comm/enterprise/innovation/
In the mid-1990s, the European Commission has created the Innovating Regions in Europe Network. The portal aim is to “facilitate exchange of experience and good practice among European regions that are enhancing their capacity to support innovation and competitiveness among regional firms through the development and implementation of regional innovation strategies and schemes”. Around 235 member regions are gathered in the IRE network. In the web site, the reader can find the European Countries Innovation Strategies and Policies, as well as other related information. http://www.innovating-regions.org/network/presentation/index.cfm
Finland’s Science, Technology and Innovation 2006 Strategy aims to “ensure sustainable and balanced societal and economic development”. The Finish motivation is that social and economic success is a result of “high level of education of the population as well as increasingly wide-ranging development and application of knowledge and expertise”. Research, development of technology, exploitation of results, and strengthening of social and technological innovation play a crucial role for realizing Finland’s objectives of increasing employment and ensuring high productivity and international competitiveness.
The strategy document advises that “realization of benefits to the economy, employment, and well-being from research and innovation presupposes a diverse business sector with the ability to renew itself”. Therefore, the key development area for the Finish government at this point is the creation and consolidation of high-quality innovation environments and infrastructures that bring together different stakeholders. According to the document, “the core elements in all development activities are prioritization of operations, national and international profile-building and selective decision-making based on foresight”. Finland’s intended development measures are
- Promote the overall functionality of t he innovation system and the system’s ability to renew itself
- Enhance the knowledge base,
- Improve the quality and targeting of research,
- Promote the adaptation and commercialization of research results, and
- Secure adequate economic prerequisites for the activities.
The Finish National Innovation System Report, produced by the EERIN - The European Regions Research and Innovation Network, takes a close look on how R&D and innovation are supported in Finland through the Finnish National Innovation System. The Finnish approach stresses that the flows of information and technology between, people, enterprises and research institutions are the main sources of innovations. The aim of this report is to benchmark the Finnish national innovation system and find out if any lessons can be derived from the Finnish experiences, and in so doing, to provide regions with positive examples of how regions can meet the considerable challenges and opportunities posed by the Lisbon Agenda. Go to http://www.helsinki.fi/euoffice/suomi/tiedotteet/system.pdf
The High Tech Strategy for Germany intends to gather all political sectors that affect research and development around a strategy that puts innovation policy in the center of the government activities. German aims to be a country that respects and rewards achievement in science and industry. Their outstanding statement is that Germany’s goal is to have the national research expenditure to 3% of gross domestic product by the year 2010. The approach of this strategy is to emphasize the freedom in research, stimulate the growth of networks and collaborations between research and industry, and to foster and support the citizens to be creative and interested in Science. For an overview of the German Strategy see http://www.bmbf.de/pub/bmbf_hts_en_kurz.pdf
Hungary has a clear national plan on IP and R&D promotion. Several relevant government agencies have coordinated policies, which aim to encourage R&D, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), information and communication technologies (ICTs), innovation and IP activities. The integration of different policies into this coherent national plan should contribute to the enhancement of competitiveness in certain prioritized industrial sectors or clusters (such as ICTs) through, for example, government support for R&D; loans for filing patents abroad; financial incentives; legitimate and strategic distribution of responsibilities among relevant government agencies; and a significant increase in R&D support. It is to be noted that this plan and policy integration seemed to be based on a statistical analysis of the SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threat) of the Hungarian economy in comparison with other OECD countries (particularly the countries of the European Union (EU), which Hungary joined on May 1, 2004). See “Building Innovation Policies and Programs” presented by the Ministry of Education at http://trendchart.cordis.lu/Reports/Documents/Balogh HU.ppt
The Science and Technology Policy 2000 outlines a long-term development program for Hungarian science, technology and innovation. It is based on the conceptions and plans for the future of wide circles in Hungarian intellectual, economic and political life. This is the first time that such a program has been worked out and published in Hungary. The document gives an overview of the present situation under five headings: human resources, institutional structure, financing, infrastructure, and international relations. Based on these, the document sets out the goals and the actions necessary to achieve them. http://www.nkth.gov.hu/letolt/kutat/ttpk_english1.pdf
Although just a presentation prepared by the National Office of Research and Technology, this document, from December 2006, outlines Hungary’s Science, Technology and Innovation Strategy for 2005 – 2013. This is how Hungary will make “knowledge create value”. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/58/51/35936941.ppt
The Science and Technology Policy of India (to be found at http://dst.gov.in/stsysindia/stp2003.htm) is a document concerning the different issues surrounding the innovation development in the country. India recognizes that its unique characteristics as a nation should be applied also in the science and technology field. The document concludes that “to build a new and resurgent India that continues to maintain its strong democratic and spiritual traditions, that remains secure not only militarily but also socially and economically, it is important to draw on the many unique civilization qualities that define the inner strength of India; this has been intrinsically based on an integrated and holistic view of nature and of life”. The Indian Policy takes into account the changes our time sees happening in the World considering the restrictions of intellectual property rights, global trade and technology control regimes; also understanding the ethical, legal and social implications of scientific and technological development.
Prepared for the Ministry of Education Youth and Culture and the Global Alliance Program of UNESCO, the National Strategy & Action Plan to Further Develop the Jamaican Music Industry, aims to identify strategies, actions and partnerships that would help to realize greater economic gains from one of Jamaica’s most recognized and promising exports. The study identifies strategies that should be implemented through partnerships with government, private and international organizations. It proposes an Action Plan, which details the specific actions required on the part of each partner to further develop the Jamaican music industry. The study can be found at http://portal.unesco.org/culture/admin/file_download.php/Music+Strategy+Final+Draft+December+2004.doc?URL_ID=25324&filename=11061492859Music_Strategy_Final_Draft_December_2004.doc&filetype=application/msword&filesize=209408&name=Music+Strategy+Final+Draft+December+2004.doc&location=user-S/
Japan’s “ IP Strategic Policy Outline” points out the need to enhance gross domestic product and exports by increasing enterprise revenues on IP-based exports; to enforce IPRs so as to comply with international obligations; to enhance regional and international trade opportunities by harmonizing laws so as to reduce trade impediments; to stimulate human capital development and retention in key industries; and to turn information/knowledge into a significant source of national wealth. See http://www.kantei.go.jp/foreign/policy/titeki/kettei/020703taikou_e.html
In July 2003, the Government of Japan established the “ Strategic Program for the Creation, Protection and Exploitation of Intellectual Property” a comprehensive compilation of measures involving the State, local government, universities, public R&D institutes and enterprises. See http://www.kantei.go.jp/foreign/policy/titeki/kettei/030708f_e.html
The “ 2002 White Paper on SMEs” of the Japan Small Business Research Institute provides a useful reference (in Chapters 2 and 7) concerning R&D and patenting by SMEs and patenting in relation to collaboration between universities and SMEs. See http://www.chusho.meti.go.jp/hakusyo/h14/download/2002english_WP.pdf
Japan has developed a National Intellectual Property Strategy for every year since 2003. The Intellectual Property Strategic Program 2006 is a very comprehensive document. It responds to the Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi’s policy speech, when he declared that the Japan’s government has “set as a national goal the translation of the results of research activities and creative endeavors into intellectual properties that are strategically protected and utilized so that we can enhance the international competitiveness of Japanese industries.”& #160; The government is aware of the importance of the connection University – Industry, and intends to enhance the possibilities for the Nation to benefit from the knowledge production of its citizens. The strategy for 2006 counts with more than 450 action items, their five focuses are
- IP Creation;
- IP Protection;
- IP Exploitation;
- Promotion of Media Contents Business; and
- Human Resources Development.
Japan’s Intellectual Property Strategy Program for 2006, as well as the earlier ones, can be found at http://www.ipr.go.jp/e_materials.html
The Government of New Zealand has developed a document named Growing an Innovative New Zealand. This work covers issues such as how best to develop the talent base for the economy; how best to attract appropriate foreign direct investment; how to develop an innovation system; how to build a more inclusive economy and how to ensure social development is appropriately incorporated and measured. It also contains a wider work on how to ensure all their policy development and implementation takes place within a sustainable framework. To be found at http://www.executive.govt.nz/minister/clark/innovate/innovative.pdf
The creative industries sector was identified as one of the keys to New Zealand’s economic transformation within their National Growth and Innovation Framework. Therefore, New Zealand Trade and Enterprise economic development agency has a long-term vision to help further the growth of a dynamic creative industry sector, and to enhance the use of creativity and innovation across the economy through three key strategies:
- Connecting - extending and deepening global networks and building targeted relationships with key influences and decision-makers.
- Commercializing - working with New Zealand creative industry companies on commercial arrangements and projects which enable them to capitalize on global opportunities and maximize profits.
- Enabling - Assisting New Zealand companies to grow their business and enter higher value niches through the introduction of design-led processes and innovative technologies.
To read more, go to http://www.nzte.govt.nz/section/11756.aspx
In “ The Philippines’ National Science and Technology Plan, 2002-2020”, twelve clusters or “ long-term thrusts” are discussed and identified “[b]ased on the forecasts discussed earlier and consultations with S&T experts and various stakeholders (…)”, including agriculture and forestry, microelectronics, materials science, environment, natural disaster mitigation, and energy. See http://www.dost.gov.ph/nstp.php or http://www.dost.gov.ph/downloads/NSTP0220.pdf
After a national review of the Philippine’s education and manpower development activities, the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) was created to mobilize the full participation of industry, technical and vocational institutions, local government and civil society formulating skilled manpower development programs to maximize the contribution to be made by the country’s human resources. A major thrust of TESDA is the formulation of a comprehensive development plan for middle-level manpower in accordance with national development goals and priorities in order to enhance international competitiveness. For the “National Technical Education and Skills Development Plan 2000-2004”, see http://www.tesda.gov.ph/programs1/ntesdp.asp
The Department of Science and Technology (DOST) and the associated Philippine Council for Advance Science and Technology Research and Development (PCASTRD) have published a list of “ Priority Science and Technology Areas”, including biotechnology, information technology, materials science, electronics and photonics. These areas form the basis for human resource development planning as well as R&D funding decisions. See http://www.pcastrd.dost.gov.ph/
In Romania, the State office developed the National Strategy in the field of Intellectual Property in 2003 for Invention and Trademarks as well as the Copyright Office. Eight relevant Ministries were involved, including the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, the Ministry of Education, Research and Youth, the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Economy and the Ministry of Commerce and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. There were also contributions from the National Agency for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises and Cooperatives, the National Authority for Customs Directorate, the National Authority for Consumers’ Protection, the Romanian National Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Romanian and Bucharest. The Strategy aims at harmonizing Romania IP with the mechanisms of the European Union, with the objectives of raising IP awareness, training the public and IP administration as well as enhancing cooperation in IP protection. To achieve this, the Plan outlines specific actions to enhance its implementation. The Strategic Objectives of the Romanian Intellectual Property Strategy are:
- Harmonization of the national legislation in the field of intellectual property with the Community law requirements, and the alignment of the national regulations to the international agreements to which Romania is party.
- Enhancement of the implementation in Romania of the legislation in the field of intellectual property.
- Establishing a proper administrative infrastructure within the national institutions involved in ensuring the protection of intellectual property.
- Development of specialized human resources in the field of intellectual property.
- Achievement of a transparent cooperation between the institutions and organizations involved in ensuring the protection of intellectual property.
- Raising awareness, and training the public in the intellectual property field and IP rights importance.
The document can be accessed at http://www.osim.ro/strate_en.htm
In September 1996, the Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology (DACST) of the National Council on Innovation published the “ White Paper on Science and Technology”. This document set the policy framework for the promotion of innovation, which is defined as the successful production, assimilation and exploitation of novelty in the economic and social spheres. The National Innovation Fund (NIF) is one of the initiatives emanating from the White Paper and is designed to encourage: collaborative research and technology development programs; a multidisciplinary approach to problem solving; and application-based research program. Calls for proposals in the rounds for funding have been made in the following key areas for South Africa: the promotion of an information society; biotechnology; and value addition in respect of exploitation of South African natural flora and fauna and advanced material in manufacturing. See http://www.dst.gov.za/legislation_policies/white_papers/Science_Technology_White_Paper.pdf
“Consolidating Health Research for the Future, Strategic Plan, 2003 – 2007” by the Medical Research Council (MRC) of South Africa. See http://www.mrc.ac.za/about/strategic.htm
South Africa’s National Research and Development Strategy, from August 2002, is intended to be a key enabler of economic growth and articulate with other strategies, such as the Human Resource Development Strategy, the Integrated Manufacturing Strategy and the Strategic Plan for South African Agriculture. The government foresees that this National Research and Development Strategy depends on doubling government investment in science and technology over the next three years, with more gradual increases thereafter.
To read the document, go to http://www.dst.gov.za/publications/reports/sa_nat_rd_strat.pdf
The Innovative Sweden Strategy aims to “set an offensive agenda that highlights some priority areas where we, in Sweden, can improve the conditions for innovation and guard our lead”. The strategy takes a broad approach, with emphasis on the policy areas of education, research, trade and industry. The Swedish understanding is that the success of an Innovation Strategy “ requires cooperation and interaction between people, enterprises, the education system and the public sector at national, regional and local levels”. To respond to the challenges of the knowledge based world economy and locate the country as the leading innovative country in Europe, Sweden has decided to focus on four strategic points:
1. Knowledge base for innovation;
2. Innovative trade and industry;
3. Innovative public investment; and
4. Innovative people.
To achieve the goal of promoting innovation, the Swedish government believes that it is of primary importance to encourage dialogue and interaction between different actors in society. The common knowledge resources of the country need to be developed and turned into new products and jobs, Sweden intends to intensify its interaction with the rest of the world and encourage people’s will and ability to try new things. See http://www.sweden.gov.se/content/1/c6/03/25/51/29e722a9.pdf
The United Kingdom Government Department of Trade and Industry’s (DTI) “ Science and Innovation Strategy 2001” may be seen at http://www.dti.gov.uk/scienceind/strategy.htm
In December 2005, the Chancellor of the Exchequer asked Andrew Gowers to conduct an independent review to examine the UK Intellectual Property Framework. The Government’s decision to commission this Review was an explicit recognition both of the growing importance of IP and of the challenges brought by the changing economic environment. The question to be answered was whether the UK intellectual property system was fit for purpose in an era of globalization, digitization and increasing economic specialization. Gowers says, “the answer is a qualified ‘yes’. I do not think the system is in need of radical overhaul”. However, believing that there is scope for reform to serve well the interests of consumers and industry alike, the Review concentrates its recommendations to improve the UK framework for innovation in three areas:
1. Strengthening enforcement of IP rights, whether through clamping down on piracy or trade in counterfeit goods;
2. Reducing costs of registering and litigating IP rights for businesses large and small; and
3. Improving the balance and flexibility of IP rights to allow individuals, businesses and institutions to use content in ways consistent with the digital age.
The Review was published on 6th December 2006 and can be accessed at the links below.
The submissions to the Review, along with two reports commissioned for the Gowers Review, are also published on the Review website.
The National Summit on Competitiveness, Statement of the National Summit on Competitiveness: Investing in U.S. Innovation, from December 2005, has one fundamental and urgent message: if trends in U.S. research and education continue, the nation will squander its economic leadership, and the result will be a lower standard of living for the American people. The actions recommended in the document are:
1. Revitalize fundamental research;
2. Expand the innovation talent pool in the United States;
3. Lead the world in the development and deployment of advanced technologies.
To read this report that is part of a set of documents that represent the blueprint for the future of the country, go to http://www.usinnovation.org/pdf/National_Summit_Statement.pdf
The National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) has published the document Waiting for Sputnik: Basic Research and Strategic Competition, in October 2005. It follows a principle stating that “increasing a nation’s capability to innovate is the best response to economic globalization and offers real benefits for security and economic growth”. It lays out the strategic rationale for increased funding; identifies the research areas where shortfalls pose the greatest risk to U.S. security, and recommends a course of action for moving ahead. See http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/051028_waiting_for_sputnik.pdf
The document, by the Task Force on the Future of American Innovation entitled Measuring the Moment: Innovation, National Security, and Economic Competitiveness, from November 2006, presents benchmarks of the US innovation future. The Task Force on the Future of American Innovation is a coalition of business, scientific and university organizations that came together in 2004 out of concern that insufficient investment by the federal government in research in the physical sciences and engineering was threatening the nation's global economic leadership and national security in an increasingly competitive world. These benchmarks demonstrate America’s historical strength in science and technology, but they also reveal the impact of earlier decisions about the federal investment in basic research. The benchmarks help to see how inadequate investment has helped to set in motion an erosion of American leadership in science, jeopardizing the foundation upon which the country’s future economic and national security will be built. See http://futureofinnovation.org/PDF/BII-FINAL-HighRes-11-14-06_nocover.pdf
In the document from the White House called American Competitiveness Initiative: Leading the World in Innovation, the President of the United States, responding to the call of a series of important strategic reports, some of which are listed above, commits $5.9 billion in FY 2007 to increase investments in research and development, strengthen education, and encourage entrepreneurship. Over 10 years, this initiative commits $50 billion to increase funding for research and $86 billion for research and development tax incentives. The President motivates the initiative by stating that “federal investment in research and development has proved critical to keeping America’s economy strong by generating knowledge and tools upon which new technologies are developed”.
To read this document that displays the USA policies and intentions on the science and technology field, see http://www.ostp.gov/html/ACIBooklet.pdf