Which entities are involved in the enforcement of IP rights?
Essentially, intellectual property rights are private rights. It is therefore the primary responsibility of the right holder to seek remedies in order to protect those rights. He must monitor the activities of his competitors as well as developments in the marketplace, and take action to stop any infringement of his rights or to obtain recovery of losses.
In serious cases, however, in particular when the infringement of IP rights is intentional and for commercial purposes, many countries will consider such infringements to be criminal, and therefore also provide for ex officio-action of the respective authorities.
Accordingly, effective enforcement may require the involvement of a number of persons or entities, such as attorneys, judges, customs, police, prosecutors, administrative authorities, and, in the area of copyright, collective management societies. In many countries, it may also be possible to obtain information and assistance through contacting national organizations or right holder associations concerned with fighting counterfeiting, piracy and other forms of intellectual property infringement.