World Intellectual Property Organization

WIPO Annual Technical Report Search: Help


Quick Tips and Examples

Quick Tips

For the country, year, and type boxes:

  • Scroll bars can be used to a locate value(s). Or type the first letter of a country to navigate more quickly to the country value of interest. Press the first letter repeatedly until the desired country appears, e.g., after pressing the cursor within the country box, pressing the letter U on the keyboard four times will show United Kingdom.
  • Limit your results by as many values as are required. Hold down the Ctrl key on the keyboard to select multiple items in the same box.

For the keywords box:

  • Enter words in lower-case in order to perform a non-case sensitive search, e.g., rospatent.
  • A single upper-case letter will cause the search to be case-sensitive, e.g., PatAdmin.
  • Place a term, name or phrase consisting of several words in quotes, e.g., "civil engineering".
  • Use the wild card * to represent 0, 1, or more characters, e.g., designat* will find designate, designation, designating, and others. Use the wildcard ? to represent exactly one character, e.g., dis? will find disc and disk, but not diskette. Wildcards can be placed in the middle of the word, e.g., encyclop*dia will find encyclopaedia and encyclopedia.
  • To specify that a specific (Boolean type logic) relationship must exist between any two or more terms provided, use:
    + to specify that both (or all) terms must be present in the Annual Technical Report (ATR) by using a + immediately before each term, with a space before the + of the second term, e.g., +india +ipc. This is like using AND on some other search sites.  
    , to specify that at least one term must be present, simply by having a comma or a space between the terms, e.g., india ipc (or, e.g., india, ipc). This is like using OR on some other search sites.
    - to specify that a term must not be present. Use the - directly before a term, with a space before the - of the second term, e.g., india -ipc, in which case India will be present and IPC will not be present in the ATR. This is like using NOT on some other search sites.
  • Try to use pertinent terms that are likely to be found only in the ATRs you seek. The more words given, the better the results obtained, e.g., sms text messaging.

Examples

Search by typing words and phrases

Sample query: non-patent literature citation references search report.
This type of search will find documents containing as many of these words and phrases as possible, not necessarily in this order, ranked with the most relevant documents in your query being presented first. Don't worry about missing a document because it doesn't have one of the words in your search; the results returned will contain relevant results even if they do not contain all query terms.

Identify phrases with quotation marks, separate with commas

A phrase is entered using double quotation marks, and only matches those words which appear adjacent to each other. Separate multiple phrases or proper names with a comma, e.g., OCR, "optical character recognition".

Use UPPER case to indicate exact match

Sample query: isa search reports or ISA Search Reports.
Search terms in lowercase will match words in any case, otherwise, an exact case match is used. For example, isa search reports will find matches for ISA search report, isa search reports, ISA Search Reports, etc., whereas a query for ISA Search Reports will only match the words ISA Search Reports.


Refining a Search

It's easy to refine a query to get precisely the results you want. Here are some effective techniques to try:

Identify a phrase

Before: internet service provider
After: "internet service provider"

The before query is ambiguous. The search will provide results with the words internet, service, and provider, which could appear in many documents. Identifying "internet service provider" as a phrase eliminates the ambiguity. This is the most powerful query refinement technique.

Add a descriptive word or a phrase

Before: "Information System"
After: "Information System" trademark trade mark publication

As in the previous example, the before query is ambiguous. Adding trademark trade mark publication makes the query less ambiguous. There will be more total matches (because the query is broadened with additional terms), but the relevance ranking will be better.

Capitalize when appropriate

Before: Raid digital, chemical abstracts
After: RAID, Digital, Chemical Abstracts

These examples, when all in lower case, have a variety of possible interpretations. For example, without capitalization, raid could refer to a sudden assault and not Redundant Array of Independent Disks, chemical abstracts could refer to the abstracts of chemical inventions rather than the publication "Chemical Abstracts". Capitalization reduces the ambiguity.


Use a require or reject operator (+,-)

Before: ipdl
After: +ipdl, +WIPO -japan -korea

IPDL (Intellectual Property Digital Library) alone is ambiguous. Is the search engine looking for the IPDL associated with WIPO or the IPDL associated with Japan or the Republic of Korea? You can use the reject operator (the "minus" sign) to try to eliminate the IPDL in the context of Japan or the Republic of Korea interpretation. Or, you can require that the word "WIPO" be in the document. The after version above does both.

Use a field specifier

If you are looking for a particular ATR that you know the country or year of, you can either use the selectable values from the select box on the main search interface or you can modify the field specifiers: atr.country: or atr.year: or atr.type: at the top of the search results page, e.g., atr.country:au atr.country:ua | +atr.year:2003 | +atr.type:tm will find all trademark ATRs from 2003 submitted by Australia or Ukraine.  Please note that the field specifiers (beginning with atr.) will only appear if one or more countries, years or types in the initial ATR search page is specified.

Grouping concepts by using parentheses

The search engine does not provide for grouping or nesting of concepts by the use of parentheses, e.g., (+optical +character +recognition), OCR will not find ATRs which have OCR OR optical character recognition in the way other search engines might do. Parentheses cannot be used to group keyword terms and get meaningful results.

 

Requiring or Excluding Terms 

The WIPO Search engine (Ultraseek) has a simple query syntax which gives you the pinpoint search power of Boolean logic, without having to remember complex queries. The table below shows the Ultraseek operators that correspond to Boolean operators:

Operator Boolean
equivalent
default operator: you need not use any special symbols OR
+ AND
- NOT
phrase operator: enclose the phrase with double quotation marks ADJ

Boolean queries use the logical operators AND, OR, NOT and ADJ (adjacent).
Suppose you wanted to find plain paper color laser printers made by companies other than HP. This query can be specified in Boolean logic as: (laser ADJ printer) AND (color OR (plain ADJ paper)) AND NOT (HP OR Hewlett-Packard). Using operators, the complex query above may be typed into the search box as: +"laser printer" color "plain paper" -HP, -Hewlett-Packard. This query specifies that:

  • All returned ATRs must contain the phrase "laser printer".
  • ATRs containing one or more of the terms "laser printer", color, or "plain paper" will be ranked at the top (the more terms matched, the higher the ranking).
  • None of the ATRs returned will contain either HP or Hewlett-Packard.
 

Advanced Search

The advanced search interface combines the selected search criteria using a logical AND operator. It means that all selected criteria must be met in order to match a document. This is a good way to reduce the list of results by searching for an extra term within the set of the previous results list.

The advanced search can also help you frame your text query, using logical values such as must contain rather than the + operator.

The search may be narrowed by indicating the time frame when the document has been published. Please note that this information may not always be accurate. The time indication, for example, may relate to the time the document was indexed rather than the year of the ATR.

The query input field treats the entered text as described above.

 

Results Page

The results page contains the following features:

Above the search box:

  • Search these results link - clicked allows a further filter to search for a new term(s) within only the documents listed already as results below.
  • Start new search link - clicked means the search string previously used will go back into the search box and can once more be manipulated.

In the search box:

  • Refine your search entry box - showing the last search performed. The search string text (which can be found in the box above the "search", "Help" and "Advanced" links on the Search Results page) can be changed. Press search to show the new results.

Immediately below the search box:

  • Results Summary information under the search box shows the terms that were searched for and how many ATRs contain each term.

In the Title bar with the grey background at the top of the page of the list of results:

  • Number of results indicate the total number of ATRs found matching the query. This is shown in the header with a grey background. An indication that the results are sorted by relevance, whether the results are scored by date, and whether the results are grouped by location is given.

In the Title bar with the grey background at the top and bottom of the page of results:

  • Score using date - clicking this changes the relevancy ranking by giving more recently indexed documents a slightly higher score. The results are not sorted by ATR date. Score without date revives the default relevancy ranking.
  • Hide summaries - compacts the information and shows only the title of the ATR. Show summaries, the default, shows the summaries again.
  • Group by location - groups ATRs by the location in the directory hierarchy, not by the country that submitted the ATR.
  • Search Result numbers, e.g., 11-20 indicates the screen is showing the 11th to 20th most relevant results onscreen. Blue left and right facing triangles allow movement to the previous and next pages of results.

Comments about items on the list:

  • Highlighting - a bolded term in the summary indicates the searched term was found in the linked ATR.
  • A relevancy percentage rating is given to each item, the most relevant items (according to the algorithm of the search engine) are at the beginning of the list.
  • The date the ATR was put into the ATRs database, and indexed by the search engine, is provided at the right hand side of each item.
 

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