This ccTLD database contains links to ccTLD registration agreements, WHOIS services, and alternative dispute resolution procedures.

Last updated: 24-Aug-2017

Country / Territory Code Country / Territory Name Registration Agreement Whois Dispute Policy Dispute Provider(s)
.AC Ascension Island Text of Agreement Whois Dispute Resolution Policy for domain names registered in .AC
Model: WIPO Expedited Arbitration Rules (adapted). See Note below

Note:
This dispute policy is a slightly adapted version of the WIPO Expedited Arbitration Rules. A description of key features of WIPO Expedited Arbitration is available at http://www.wipo.int/amc/en/arbitration/index.html.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.AD Andorra Text of Agreement Whois - -
.AE United Arab Emirates List of Registrars Whois UAE Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy
Model: Variation of UDRP (See Note below)

Note:
Relevant differences between the aeDRP and the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) include the following:

- It is sufficient to prove that either registration or subsequent use of the domain name by the registrant occurred in bad faith, whereas the UDRP requires the Complainant to prove both elements.

- Unless otherwise agreed by the parties or otherwise decided by the Panel, the language of the aeDRP procedure shall be English.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.AF Afghanistan http://www.nic.af/domainpolicy.htm

Note:
AFGNIC is in the process of reviewing .af ccTLD policies. The draft policies have been posted on the policy page - interested parties are invited to comment

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.AG Antigua and Barbuda Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy,adopted by the registration authority of .AG WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.AI Anguilla - Whois - -
.AL Albania Text of Agreement - - -
.AM Armenia Text of Agreement
Text of Agreement (non-residents)
Whois - -
.AN Netherlands Antilles Text of Agreement - - -
.AO Angola Text of Agreement (English)
Text of Agreement (Portuguese)
Whois .co.ao and .it.ao Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (English)
.co.ao and .it.ao Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (Portuguese)

Note:
The WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center only provides domain name dispute resolution services for the sub-domains .co.ao and .it.ao.

Relevant differences between the procedure for .co.ao and .it.ao and the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) include the following:

- Under the procedure for .co.ao and .it.ao, it is sufficient to prove that either registration or use of the domain name by the registrant occurred in bad faith, whereas the UDRP requires the Complainant to prove both elements.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.AQ Antarctica - - - -
.AR Argentina Text of Agreement Whois - -
.AS American Samoa Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy, adopted by the registration authority of .AS
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.AT Austria Text of Agreement Whois - -
.AU Australia Text of Agreement
Text of Agreement (gov.au)
Text of Agreement (edu.au)
Whois
Whois (edu.au)
Whois (gov.au)
.AU Dispute Resolution Policy (auDRP)
Model: Variation of UDRP (See Note below)

Note:
Relevant differences between the auDRP and the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) include the following:

- The auDRP applies to domain names that are identical or confusingly similar, not only to a trademark or service mark, but to any 'name' in which the Complainant has rights (auDRP paragraph 4(a)), including the Complainant's company, business or other legal or trading name, as registered with the relevant Australian government authority; or the Complainant's personal name.

- Under the auDRP, it is sufficient to prove that either registration or subsequent use of the domain name by the registrant occurred in bad faith, whereas the UDRP requires the Complainant to prove both elements.

- While under the second example of bad faith of the UDRP (UDRP 4(b)(ii)) a pattern of conduct is required in addition to prevention of the trademark or service mark owner from reflecting the mark in a corresponding domain name, under the auDRP no such additional pattern is required.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.AW Aruba Text of Agreement - http://setar.aw/internet/domain-registration.html -
.AX Aland Islands - - - -
.AZ Azerbaijan Text of Agreement Whois - -
.BA Bosnia and Herzegovina Text of Agreement Whois - -
.BB Barbados Text of Agreement Whois - -
.BD Bangladesh Text of Agreement Whois - -
.BE Belgium Text of Agreement Whois The Alternative Dispute Resolution Procedure -
.BF Burkina Faso Text of Agreement - - -
.BG Bulgaria Text of Agreement Whois - -
.BH Bahrain - - - -
.BI Burundi Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy, adopted by the registration authority of .BI
Model: UDRP
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.BJ Benin Text of Agreement Text of WHOIS - -
.BL Saint Barthelemy - - - -
.BM Bermuda Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (the Policy) WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.BN Brunei Darussalam - - - -
.BO Bolivia (Plurinational State of) Text of Agreement Whois Política de solución de controversias en materia de nombres de dominio registrados bajo el ccTLD .bo
Model: Variation of UDRP (See Note below)

Note:
Relevant differences between the procedure for .bo and the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) include the following:

- The procedure for .bo applies to domain names that are identical or confusingly similar to a trademark or service mark in which the Complainant has rights previously registered or applied for in Bolivia.

- Under the procedure for .bo, it is sufficient to prove that either registration or use of the domain name by the registrant occurred in bad faith, whereas the UDRP requires the Complainant to prove both elements.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.BR Brazil Text of Agreement Whois Regulamento do Sistema Administrativo de Conflitos de Internet Relativos a Nomes de Domínios Sob ".br" - Saci-Adm

Note:
The .BR Policy applies to all domain names registered as of October 1, 2010.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.BS Bahamas Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP)
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.BT Bhutan Text of Agreement Whois - -
.BV Bouvet Island - - - -
.BW Botswana Text of Agreement - - -
.BY Belarus Text of Agreement
List of Registrars
Whois - -
.BZ Belize Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (the Policy)
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.CA Canada Text of Agreement Whois CIRA Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy
Model: Variation of UDRP
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.CC Cocos Islands List of Registrars Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (the Policy)
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.CD Democratic Republic of the Congo List of Registrars Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (the Policy)
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.CF Central African Republic - - - -
.CG Congo Text of Agreement Whois - -
.CH Switzerland General Terms and Conditions (GTC)
Conditions générales (CG) de SWITCH
Allgemeine Geschäftsbedingungen (AGB) von SWITCH
Condizioni Generali (CG) di SWITCH
Whois Rules of Procedure for Dispute Resolution Proceedings for .ch and .li Domain Names
Dispositions relatives à la procédure de règlement des différends pour les noms de domaine .ch et .li
Verfahrensreglement für Streitbeilegungsverfahren für .ch und .li Domain-Namen
Regolamento sul procedimento di composizione delle controversie relative ai nomi a dominio per i domini .ch e .li
Model: Conciliation/Expert Procedure

Note:
Some particular features of the Rules of Procedure:

- By requesting an expert decision, the Claimant submits to the courts of Zurich with regard to any court proceedings initiated by the Respondent against the expert decision.

- The Rules of Procedure combine conciliation with an expert procedure. When receiving a complaint, the dispute resolution provider will appoint a conciliator, who conducts a telephone conference of up to one hour. If the conciliation fails, or if the Respondent fails to participate, the Claimant can request that an expert be appointed to decide the case.

- In order to be granted the remedy under the expert procedure, a Claimant must prove that the registration or use of the domain name constitutes a clear infringement of an intellectual property right under the laws of Switzerland or Liechtenstein.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.CI Côte d'Ivoire Text of Agreement Whois - -
.CK Cook Islands - - - -
.CL Chile Text of Agreement Whois http://www.nic.cl/reglamentacion.html -
.CM Cameroon - - - -
.CN China List of Registrars Whois CNNIC Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy -
.CO Colombia List of Registrars Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (the Policy)
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.CR Costa Rica Text of Agreement Whois Política de Solución de Controversias en Materia de Nombres de Dominio para .cr (la Política)
Model: Variation of UDRP

Note:
Relevant difference between the procedure for .CR and the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) include the following:

- Under the procedure for .CR, it is sufficient to prove that either registration or use of the domain name by the registrant occurred in bad faith, whereas the UDRP requires the Complainant to prove both elements.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.CU Cuba Text of Agreement Whois - -
.CV Cape Verde Text of Agreement - Dispute Policy -
.CX Christmas Island Text of Agreement Whois Complaint Resolution Service: Policy and Procedures -
.CY Cyprus Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (the Policy)
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.CZ Czech Republic Text of Agreement Whois http://www.nic.cz/en/domains/page.php?sid=17#p17
Model: Arbitration
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.DE Germany Text of Agreement Whois - -
.DJ Djibouti Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (the Policy)
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.DK Denmark Text of Agreement Whois http://www.dk-hostmaster.dk/index.php?id=241
Model: Administrative Procedure other than UDRP
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.DM Dominica Text of Agreement Text of WHOIS http://www.nic.dm/policies/pdf/DMDispute141004.pdf -
.DO Dominican Republic Text of Agreement Whois Política de solución de controversias en materia de nombres de dominio para .DO
Model: Variation of UDRP

Note:
Relevant differences between the procedure for .DO and the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) include the following:

Under the procedure for .DO, it is sufficient to prove that either registration or use of the domain name by the registrant occurred in bad faith, whereas the UDRP requires the Complainant to prove both elements.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.DZ Algeria Text of Agreement
Charte de nommage des noms de domaine sous .DZ
Whois - -
.EC Ecuador Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (the Policy)
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.EE Estonia Text of Agreement Whois - -
.EG Egypt - - - -
.EH Western Sahara - - - -
.ER Eritrea - - - -
.ES Spain Text of Agreement Whois Reglamento del procedimiento de resolución extrajudicial de conflictos para nombres de dominio bajo el código de país correspondiente a España (".ES")
Model: Variation of UDRP (See Note below)

Note:
Relevant differences between the procedure for .es and the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) include the following:

- Whereas the UDRP is limited to the protection of trademark rights against infringement through bad-faith registration and use of a domain name, under the procedure for .es a Claimant must establish that the registration or use of the domain name constitutes an infringement of rights protected in Spain, which may concern trademarks but may also concern different types of intellectual property or certain other rights (see Rules, article 2, definition of "Derechos Previos" and of "Registro de Nombres de Dominio de Carácter Especulativo o Abusivo").

- No three-member panels are possible.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.ET Ethiopia Text of Agreement - - -
.EU European Union Terms and Conditions Whois Regulation (EC) No 733/2002
Regulation (EC) No 874/2004
Regulation (EC) No 1654/2005
Regulation (EC) No 1255/2007
Regulation (EC) No 560/2009

Note:
Relevant differences between the procedure for .eu and the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) include the following:

- Whereas the UDRP is limited to the protection of trademark rights against infringement through bad faith registration and use of a domain name, the ADR Rules aim to protect not only trademark rights, but also certain other rights protected in Europe.

- Under the ADR Rules, it is sufficient to prove that either registration or subsequent use of the domain name by the registrant occurred in bad faith, whereas the UDRP requires the Complainant to prove both elements.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.FI Finland List of Registrars Whois Domain name dispute resolution FICORA
.FJ Fiji Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (the Policy)
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.FK Falkland Islands - - - -
.FM Micronesia (Federated States of) Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (the Policy) -
.FO Faroe Islands Text of Agreement Text of WHOIS - -
.FR France Text of Agreement Whois Procedures (Articles L. 45-2 and L. 45-6 of CPCE)
PARL EXPERT (available as of July 4, 2016)
SYRELI (procedure administered by AFNIC)

Note:
Notable features of the PARL EXPERT:

A complainant must first demonstrate that it has standing (intérêt à agir) to file the complaint based on its relevant IP rights (see below). A complainant must also demonstrate that it fulfils the eligibility requirements to register .fr domain names (https://www.afnic.fr/medias/documents/Cadre_legal/Charte_de_nommage_22032016_VF.pdf).

Pursuant to Article L. 45-2 of the CPCE, a complainant must demonstrate that the disputed domain name:

•is likely to disrupt public order or violate principles of morality, or infringe any rights protected by the French Constitution or by French law; or

•is likely to infringe IP rights or personality rights, unless the domain name holder has a legitimate interest in the domain name and is acting in good faith; or

•is identical or similar to the name of the French Republic, of a local authority or group of local authorities, of a local or national institution or public service, unless the domain name holder has a legitimate interest in the domain name and is acting in good faith.

Complaints under the PARL EXPERT must always be filed in French using the form available at www.parl-expert.fr.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.GA Gabon Text of Agreement Text of WHOIS - -
.GB United Kingdom - - - -
.GD Grenada Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (the Policy)

Note:
The new Terms & Conditions (Registration Agreement) are valid from August 15, 2013

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.GE Georgia Text of Agreement Whois - -
.GF French Guiana - - - -
.GG Guernsey Text of Agreement Text of WHOIS http://www.channelisles.net/drs.shtml
Model: Mediation
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.GH Ghana Text of Agreement Text of WHOIS - -
.GI Gibraltar Text of Agreement Whois http://www.nic.gi/disputepolicy.html
Model: Administrative Procedure other than UDRP
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.GL Greenland Text of Agreement Text of WHOIS - -
.GM Gambia Text of Agreement Whois - -
.GN Guinea - - - -
.GP Guadeloupe Text of Agreement Text of WHOIS - -
.GQ Equatorial Guinea Text of Agreement Whois Dominio GQ Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy -
.GR Greece Text of Agreement Whois Regulation on Management and Assignment of .gr Domain Names -
.GS South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Text of Agreement Whois http://www.nic.gs/ -
.GT Guatemala Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (the Policy)
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.GU Guam Text of Agreement Whois - -
.GW Guinea Buissau Text of Agreement - - -
.GY Guyana Text of Agreement Text of WHOIS - -
.HK Hong Kong, SAR of China Text of Agreement Whois https://www.hkdnr.hk/dispute_resolution/dispute_resolution_policy.jsp?path=dispute_resolution&item=0
Model: Variation of UDRP
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.HM Heard and McDonald Islands - Whois - -
.HN Honduras Text of Agreement Whois Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy for .HN
Model: Variation of UDRP

Note:
The relevant difference between the procedure for .HN and the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) is the following:

- Under the procedure for .HN, it is sufficient to prove that either registration or use of the domain name by the registrant occurred in bad faith, whereas the UDRP requires the Complainant to prove both elements.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.HR Croatia Text of Agreement - http://www.dns.hr/documents/pdf/HRTLD-regulations.pdf
Model: Arbitration
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.HT Haiti Text of Agreement Text of WHOIS - -
.HU Hungary Text of Agreement Whois http://www.domain.hu/domain/English/adr/
Model: Arbitration
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.ID Indonesia - Whois - -
.IE Ireland Text of Agreement Whois .IE Dispute Resolution Policy (ieDRP)
Model: Variation of UDRP (See note below)

Note:
Relevant differences between the ieDRP and the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) include the following:

- The ieDRP covers “Protected Identifiers” more generally. Protected Identifiers are defined as trade and service marks, reputable personal names and pseudonyms, geographical indications, which are protected in Ireland.

- Under the ieDRP, it is sufficient to prove that either registration or subsequent use of the domain name by the registrant occurred in bad faith, whereas the UDRP requires the Complainant to prove both elements.

- The ieDRP includes the following additional examples of evidence of registration or use in bad faith:

*the likelihood of diluting the reputation of a trade or service mark (paragraph 2.1.5 of the ieDRP).

*the intentional filing of misleading or false information when applying for the domain name registration ( paragraph 2.1.6 of the ieDRP).

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.IL Israel Text of Agreement Whois http://www.isoc.org.il/domains/ildrp.html
Model: Administrative Procedure other than UDRP
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.IM Isle of Man Text of Agreement Whois https://www.nic.im/pdfs/disputeresolution.pdf -
.IN India Text of Agreement Whois .IN Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy -
.IO British Indian Ocean Territory Text of Agreement Whois Dispute Resolution Policy
Model: WIPO Expedited Arbitration Rules (adapted)
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.IQ Iraq - - - -
.IR Islamic Republic of Iran Text of Agreement Whois .IR Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy
Model: Variation of UDRP (See Note below)

Note:
A relevant difference between the IRDRP and the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) is that it is sufficient to prove that either registration or subsequent use of the domain name by the registrant occurred in bad faith, whereas the UDRP requires the Complainant to prove both elements.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.IS Iceland Text of Agreement Whois https://www.isnic.is/domain/dispute.php -
.IT Italy Text of Agreement Whois http://www.nic.it/en/domini/regolamento.html
Model: Arbitration and Variation of UDRP
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.JE Jersey Text of Agreement Whois http://www.channelisles.net/drs.shtml
Model: Mediation
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.JM Jamaica - - - -
.JO Jordan Text of Agreement Whois http://www.dns.jo/Registration_policy.aspx -
.JP Japan - Whois JP Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy
Model: Variation of UDRP
Rules for JP Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy
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.KE Kenya Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (As Approved by Kenic Board on 15th January 2003) -
.KG Kyrgyzstan Text of Agreement Text of WHOIS - -
.KH Cambodia Text of Agreement - - -
.KI Kiribati Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy, adopted by the registration authority of .KI
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.KM Comoros Text of Agreement Whois http://www.domaine.km/documents.php -
.KN Saint Kitts and Nevis Text of Agreement - - -
.KP Democratic People's Republic of Korea - - - -
.KR Republic of Korea Text of Agreement Whois .KR Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy Internet address Dispute Resolution Committee (IDRC)
.KW Kuwait Text of Agreement Text of WHOIS - -
.KY Cayman Islands Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (the Policy) Information and Communications Technology Authority (ICTA)
.KZ Kazakhstan Text of Agreement Whois http://www.nic.kz/rules/policy.jsp
Model: Administrative Procedure other than UDRP
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.LA Lao People's Democratic Republic Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy, adopted by the registration authority of .LA
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.LB Lebanon Text of Agreement Whois - -
.LC Saint Lucia Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.LI Liechtenstein General Terms and Conditions (GTC)
Allgemeine Geschäftsbedingungen (AGB)
Whois (English)
Whois (German)
Rules of Procedure for Dispute Resolution Proceedings for .ch and .li Domain Names
Verfahrensreglement für Streitbeilegungsverfahren für .ch und .li Domain-Namen

Note:
Some particular features of the Rules of Procedure:

- By requesting an expert decision, a Claimant submits to the courts of Zurich with regard to any court proceedings initiated by the Respondent against the expert decision.

- The Rules of Procedure combine conciliation with an expert procedure. When receiving a complaint, the dispute resolution provider will appoint a conciliator, who conducts a telephone conference of up to one hour. If the conciliation fails, or if the Respondent fails to participate, the Claimant can request that an expert be appointed to decide the case.

- In order to be granted the remedy under the expert procedure, a Claimant must prove that the registration or use of the domain name constitutes a clear infringement of an intellectual property right under the laws of Switzerland or Liechtenstein.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.LK Sri Lanka Text of Agreement Whois - -
.LR Liberia Text of Agreement - - -
.LS Lesotho Text of Agreement - - -
.LT Lithuania Text of Agreement Whois http://www.domreg.lt/static/doc/public/procedural_regulation-en.pdf -
.LU Luxembourg Text of Agreement Whois http://www.dns.lu/en/EN-LUCondiGen.html -
.LV Latvia Text of Agreement Whois http://www.nic.lv/DNS/En/dispute.php -
.LY Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Text of Agreement Whois - -
.MA Morocco Text of Agreement Whois Règlement sur la Procédure alternative de résolution de litiges du .ma (Effective from June 10, 2015)
Model: Variation of UDRP

Note:
The relevant differences between the UDRP and the Rules for alternative dispute resolution proceeding on “.ma” include the following:

- The test of admissibility of a request under the Rules for alternative dispute resolution proceeding on “.ma” as to the trademark requirement has been limited to protection of trade marks or service marks in which the complainant has protected rights in Morocco.

- Under the Rules for alternative dispute resolution proceeding on “.ma”, it is sufficient to prove that either the registration or use of the domain name occurred in bad faith, whereas the UDRP requires the Complainant to prove both elements.

- Under the Rules for alternative dispute resolution proceeding on “.ma”, no three-member panels are possible.

- As of June 10, 2015, the procedure is paperless.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.MC Monaco - - - -
.MD Republic of Moldova Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (the Policy)
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.ME Montenegro List of Registrars Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy for .ME (the .ME UDRP Policy)

Note:
The Sunrise Challenge Period ended on July 7, 2008. (refer to http://www.wipo.int/amc/en/domains/filing/me/index.html)

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.MF Saint Martin (French part) - - - -
.MG Madagascar Text of Agreement - - -
.MH Marshall Islands - - - -
.MK The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia - - - -
.ML Mali Text of Agreement Whois .ML Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy -
.MM Myanmar - - - -
.MN Mongolia Text of Agreement Whois - -
.MO Macao, SAR of China Text of Agreement Text of WHOIS - -
.MP Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy, adopted by the registration authority of .MP

Note:
The Sunrise Challenge Period ended on November 7, 2008.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.MQ Martinique - - - -
.MR Mauritania Text of Agreement - - -
.MS Montserrat Text of Agreement Whois - -
.MT Malta Text of Agreement Text of WHOIS - -
.MU Mauritius Text of Agreement Whois - -
.MV Maldives - - - -
.MW Malawi Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy, adopted by the registration authority of .MW
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.MX Mexico Text of Agreement Whois Disputes Resolution Policy on . MX Domain Names (LDRP)
Model: Variation of UDRP (See Note below)

Note:
Relevant differences between the policy for .mx (LDRP) and the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) include the following:

- whereas trademark protection is more limited than under the UDRP, as the LDRP only protects registered trademarks and service marks, there is wider protection than under the UDRP with the inclusion of: "avisos comerciales registrados, denominaciones de origen o reservas de derechos", in which the complainant has rights

- whereas the UDRP requires the complainant to prove both that the domain name was registered and used in bad faith, under the LDRP it is sufficient to prove that either the registration or subsequent use of the domain name by the registrant occurred in bad faith.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.MY Malaysia Text of Agreement WHOIS MYNIC's .my Domain name Dispute Resolution Policy (MYDRP) -
.MZ Mozambique Text of Agreement - - -
.NA Namibia List of Registrars Whois Acceptable Use Policy -
.NC New Caledonia Text of Agreement Whois - -
.NE Niger - - - -
.NF Norfolk Island Text of Agreement - - -
.NG Nigeria Text of Agreement - http://nira.org.ng/media/pdf/NIRA%20DISPUTE%20RESOLUTION%20POLICY.pdf
.NI Nicaragua Text of Agreement Text of WHOIS http://www.nic.ni/index.php?s=2 -
.NL Netherlands General Terms and Conditions for .nl Registrants
Algemene voorwaarden voor .nl-domeinnaamhouders
Whois Dispute Resolution Regulations for .nl Domain Names
Geschillenregeling voor .nl domeinnamen

Note:
Relevant differences between the procedure for .nl and the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) include the following:

- Whereas the UDRP is limited to the protection of trademark rights against infringement through bad faith registration and use of a domain name, the Dispute Resolution Regulations for .nl Domain Names (the Regulations) aim to protect not only trademark rights, but also certain other rights protected in the Netherlands, and furthermore concern the registration or use of the disputed domain name in bad faith (see Regulations, article 2.1).

- No three-member panels are possible.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.NO Norway Text of Agreement Whois http://www.norid.no/regelverk/forslag/klagenemnd-2003/index.en.html -
.NP Nepal Text of Agreement Text of WHOIS - -
.NR Nauru Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.NU Niue Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy, adopted by the registration authority of .NU
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.NZ New Zealand Text of Agreement Whois Dispute Resolution Service Policy -
.OM Oman Text of Agreement Whois - -
.PA Panama Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy, adopted by the registration authority of .PA
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.PE Peru Text of Agreement Whois Política de solución de controversias en materia de nombres de dominio delegados bajo el ccTLD .PE (la Política) WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.PF French Polynesia Text of Agreement - http://www.gobin.info/domainname/formulaire-pf.pdf -
.PG Papua New Guinea Text of Agreement - - -
.PH Philippines Text of Agreement Whois .PH Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (phDRP)
Model: Variation of UDRP (See Note below)

Note:
Relevant differences between the phDRP policy and the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) include the following:

- Under the UDRP 4(c)(iii) a domain name registrant may not claim legitimate rights and interests if the registrant uses the domain "to tarnish the trademark or service mark at issue." Such clause does not appear in the phDRP.

- The time period to resort to court proceedings is 30 days under the phDRP as compared to ten (10) days under the UDRP.

- By filing a complaint under the phDRP, a Complainant must submit to the court jurisdiction in the Philippines, or the court jurisdiction at the location of the domain name holder, or submit to both.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.PK Pakistan Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy, adopted by the registration authority of .PK
Model: UDRP

Note:
Complainants are advised to contact PKNIC before the filing of a complaint with the WIPO Center. See http://pk6.pknic.net.pk/pk5/pgPolicy-udrp-amend100.PK.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.PL Poland Text of Agreement Whois Disputes where one or both parties are registered or resident in the Republic of Poland: Rules of Mediation and Arbitration in Matters Concerning Internet Domains of the Arbitration Court at the Polish Chamber of Information Technology and Telecommunication
Disputes where both parties are registered or resident outside the Republic of Poland: WIPO Expedited Arbitration Rules for Domain Name Dispute Resolution under .PL

Note:
The WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center does not administer disputes where one or both parties are registered or resident in Poland. Those disputes are administered by the Arbitration Court at the Polish Chamber of Information Technology and Telecommunication in Warsaw under its Rules or by the Arbitration Court at the Polish Chamber of Commerce under its Rules.

For disputes where both parties are registered or resident outside Poland, the applicable policy is a slightly adapted version of the WIPO Expedited Arbitration Rules. A description of key features of WIPO Expedited Arbitration is available at http://www.wipo.int/amc/en/arbitration/index.html.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.PM St. Pierre and Miquelon Text of Agreement Whois Procedures (Articles L. 45-2 and L. 45-6 of CPCE)
PARL EXPERT (available as of July 4, 2016)
SYRELI (procedure administered by AFNIC)

Note:
Notable features of the PARL EXPERT:

A complainant must first demonstrate that it has standing (intérêt à agir) to file the complaint based on its relevant IP rights (see below). A complainant must also demonstrate that it fulfils the eligibility requirements to register .fr domain names (https://www.afnic.fr/medias/documents/Cadre_legal/Charte_de_nommage_22032016_VF.pdf).

Pursuant to Article L. 45-2 of the CPCE, a complainant must demonstrate that the disputed domain name:

•is likely to disrupt public order or violate principles of morality, or infringe any rights protected by the French Constitution or by French law; or

•is likely to infringe IP rights or personality rights, unless the domain name holder has a legitimate interest in the domain name and is acting in good faith; or

•is identical or similar to the name of the French Republic, of a local authority or group of local authorities, of a local or national institution or public service, unless the domain name holder has a legitimate interest in the domain name and is acting in good faith.

Complaints under the PARL EXPERT must always be filed in French using the form available at www.parl-expert.fr.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.PN Pitcairn Islands Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy, adopted by the registration authority of .PN
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.PR Puerto Rico Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy, adopted by the registration authority of .PR
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.PS Palestine - - - -
.PT Portugal Text of Agreement Whois - -
.PW Palau List of Registrars Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (the Policy)
Model: UDRP

Note:
.pw domain names will be available for general registration as of March 25, 2013

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.PY Paraguay Text of Agreement Whois - -
.QA Qatar List of Registrars
Text of Agreement
Whois Qatar Domains Registry Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy

Note:
Relevant differences between the qaDRP and the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) include the following:

-It is sufficient to prove that either registration or subsequent use of the domain name by the registrant occurred in bad faith, whereas the UDRP requires the Complainant to prove both elements.

- Unless otherwise agreed by the parties or otherwise decided by the Panel, the language of the qaDRP procedure shall be English.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.RE Reunion Island Text of Agreement Whois Procedures (Articles L. 45-2 and L. 45-6 of CPCE)
PARL EXPERT (available on July 4, 2016)
SYRELI (procedure administered by AFNIC)

Note:
Notable features of the PARL EXPERT:

A complainant must first demonstrate that it has standing (intérêt à agir) to file the complaint based on its relevant IP rights (see below). A complainant must also demonstrate that it fulfils the eligibility requirements to register .fr domain names (https://www.afnic.fr/medias/documents/Cadre_legal/Charte_de_nommage_22032016_VF.pdf).

Pursuant to Article L. 45-2 of the CPCE, a complainant must demonstrate that the disputed domain name:

•is likely to disrupt public order or violate principles of morality, or infringe any rights protected by the French Constitution or by French law; or

•is likely to infringe IP rights or personality rights, unless the domain name holder has a legitimate interest in the domain name and is acting in good faith; or

•is identical or similar to the name of the French Republic, of a local authority or group of local authorities, of a local or national institution or public service, unless the domain name holder has a legitimate interest in the domain name and is acting in good faith.

Complaints under the PARL EXPERT must always be filed in French using the form available at www.parl-expert.fr.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.RO Romania Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy, adopted by the registration authority of .RO
Model: UDRP

Note:
Please note that as of March 17, 2010, .RO domain name disputes will be processed under the essentially paperless modifications to the Rules for Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy, as approved on October 30, 2009

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.RS Serbia Text of Agreement Whois - -
.RU Russian Federation Text of Agreement Whois - -
.RW Rwanda Text of Agreement Whois - -
.SA Saudi Arabia Text of Agreement Whois - -
.SB Solomon Islands - Text of WHOIS - -
.SC Seychelles Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy, adopted by the registration authority of .SC
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.SD Sudan Text of Agreement - - -
.SE Sweden Terms and Conditions of registration Whois Instructions governing Alternative Dispute Resolution proceedings for domain names in the top-level domain .se WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.SG Singapore Text of Agreement Whois http://www.nic.net.sg/page/domain-name-disputes
Model: Variation of UDRP
-
.SH St. Helena Text of Agreement Whois Dispute Resolution Policy, for domain names registered in .SH
Model: WIPO Expedited Arbitration Rules (adapted). See Note below

Note:
This dispute policy is a slightly adapted version of the WIPO Expedited Arbitration Rules. A description of key features of WIPO Expedited Arbitration is available at http://arbiter.wipo.int/arbitration/index.html.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.SI Slovenia Text of Agreement Text of WHOIS Dispute Policy -
.SJ Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands - - - -
.SK Slovakia - Text of WHOIS - -
.SL Sierra Leone Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy, adopted by the registration authority of .SL WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.SM San Marino Text of Agreement Whois - -
.SN Senegal Text of Agreement Text of WHOIS - -
.SO Somalia Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy, adopted by the registration authority of .SO
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.SR Suriname - - - -
.ST Sao Tome and Principe Text of Agreement Text of WHOIS http://www.nic.st/policy.rules.php -
.SU Soviet Union - - - -
.SV El Salvador Text of Agreement Whois - -
.SY Syrian Arab republic Text of Agreement - - -
.SZ Swaziland Text of Agreement - - -
.TC Turks and Caicos Islands Text of Agreement Whois - -
.TD Chad - - - -
.TF French Southern Territories Text of Agreement Whois Procedures (Articles L. 45-2 and L. 45-6 of CPCE)
PARL EXPERT (available as of July 4, 2016)
SYRELI (procedure administered by AFNIC)

Note:
Notable features of the PARL EXPERT:

A complainant must first demonstrate that it has standing (intérêt à agir) to file the complaint based on its relevant IP rights (see below). A complainant must also demonstrate that it fulfils the eligibility requirements to register .fr domain names (https://www.afnic.fr/medias/documents/Cadre_legal/Charte_de_nommage_22032016_VF.pdf).

Pursuant to Article L. 45-2 of the CPCE, a complainant must demonstrate that the disputed domain name:

•is likely to disrupt public order or violate principles of morality, or infringe any rights protected by the French Constitution or by French law; or

•is likely to infringe IP rights or personality rights, unless the domain name holder has a legitimate interest in the domain name and is acting in good faith; or

•is identical or similar to the name of the French Republic, of a local authority or group of local authorities, of a local or national institution or public service, unless the domain name holder has a legitimate interest in the domain name and is acting in good faith.

Complaints under the PARL EXPERT must always be filed in French using the form available at www.parl-expert.fr.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.TG Togo Text of Agreement Text of WHOIS - -
.TH Thailand Text of Agreement Whois - -
.TJ Tajikistan Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy, adopted by the registration authority of .TJ WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.TK Tokelau Text of Agreement Whois .TK Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.TL Timor-Leste Text of Agreement Whois - -
.TM Turkmenistan Text of Agreement Whois Dispute Resolution Policy for Domain Names registered in .TM
Model: Variation of UDRP (See Note below)

Note:
Relevant differences between this dispute policy and the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) include the following:

-Bad faith may be found on either registration or subsequent use of the domain name by the registrant, whereas the UDRP requires the Complainant to prove both elements.

-By filing a complaint under this policy, a Complainant must submit to the court jurisdiction of the registry, or the court jurisdiction at the location of the domain name holder, or submit to both.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.TN Tunisia Text of Agreement Text of WHOIS - -
.TO Tonga - - - -
.TP East Timor Text of Agreement - http://cocca.cx/uploads/smartsection/44_complaint_resolution_service.pdf -
.TR Turkey Text of Agreement Whois - -
.TT Trinidad and Tobago Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy, adopted by the registration authority of .TT
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.TV Tuvalu List of Registrars Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy, adopted by the registration authority of .TV
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.TW Taiwan, Province of China Text of Agreement Whois http://www.twnic.net.tw/english/dn/dn_04.htm
Model: Variation of UDRP
-
.TZ United Republic of Tanzania List of Registrars Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy for .TZ
Model: Variation of UDRP (See Note below)

Note:
Relevant difference between the tzDRP and the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) includes the following:

-It is sufficient to prove that either registration or subsequent use of the domain name by the registrant occurred in bad faith, whereas the UDRP requires the Complainant to prove both elements.

-
.UA Ukraine - Whois http://www.hostmaster.net.ua/policy/Policy_UA_en-w2.htm -
.UG Uganda Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy, adopted by the registration authority of .UG
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.UK United Kingdom Text of Agreement Whois http://www.nominet.org.uk/disputes/drs/policy/
Model: Variation of UDRP
-
.UM US Minor Outlying Islands - - - -
.US United States of America Text of Agreement Whois http://www.nic.us/policies/docs/usdrp.pdf
Model: Variation of UDRP
-
.UY Uruguay Text of Agreement - http://www.rau.edu.uy/rau/dom/arbitrajeregla.htm
Model: Arbitration
-
.UZ Uzbekistan Text of Agreement Whois - -
.VA Holy See - - - -
.VC Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Text of Agreement Text of WHOIS - -
.VE Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy, adopted by the registration authority of .VE
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.VG Virgin Islands (British) Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (the Policy) -
.VI Virgin Islands (USA) Text of Agreement Whois http://www.nic.vi/ -
.VN Viet Nam Text of Agreement Whois - -
.VU Vanuatu - Whois - -
.WF Wallis and Futuna Islands Text of Agreement Whois Procedures (Articles L. 45-2 and L. 45-6 of CPCE)
PARL EXPERT (available as of July 4, 2016)
SYRELI (procedure administered by AFNIC)

Note:
Notable features of the PARL EXPERT:

A complainant must first demonstrate that it has standing (intérêt à agir) to file the complaint based on its relevant IP rights (see below). A complainant must also demonstrate that it fulfils the eligibility requirements to register .fr domain names (https://www.afnic.fr/medias/documents/Cadre_legal/Charte_de_nommage_22032016_VF.pdf).

Pursuant to Article L. 45-2 of the CPCE, a complainant must demonstrate that the disputed domain name:

•is likely to disrupt public order or violate principles of morality, or infringe any rights protected by the French Constitution or by French law; or

•is likely to infringe IP rights or personality rights, unless the domain name holder has a legitimate interest in the domain name and is acting in good faith; or

•is identical or similar to the name of the French Republic, of a local authority or group of local authorities, of a local or national institution or public service, unless the domain name holder has a legitimate interest in the domain name and is acting in good faith.

Complaints under the PARL EXPERT must always be filed in French using the form available at www.parl-expert.fr.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.WS Samoa Text of Agreement Whois Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy, adopted by the registration authority of .WS
Model: UDRP
WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.YE Yemen - - - -
.YT Mayotte Text of Agreement Whois Procedures (Articles L. 45-2 and L. 45-6 of CPCE)
PARL EXPERT (available as of July 4, 2016)
SYRELI (procédure administrée par l’AFNIC)

Note:
Notable features of the PARL EXPERT:

A complainant must first demonstrate that it has standing (intérêt à agir) to file the complaint based on its relevant IP rights (see below). A complainant must also demonstrate that it fulfils the eligibility requirements to register .fr domain names (https://www.afnic.fr/medias/documents/Cadre_legal/Charte_de_nommage_22032016_VF.pdf).

Pursuant to Article L. 45-2 of the CPCE, a complainant must demonstrate that the disputed domain name:

•is likely to disrupt public order or violate principles of morality, or infringe any rights protected by the French Constitution or by French law; or

•is likely to infringe IP rights or personality rights, unless the domain name holder has a legitimate interest in the domain name and is acting in good faith; or

•is identical or similar to the name of the French Republic, of a local authority or group of local authorities, of a local or national institution or public service, unless the domain name holder has a legitimate interest in the domain name and is acting in good faith.

Complaints under the PARL EXPERT must always be filed in French using the form available at www.parl-expert.fr.

WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center
.YU Yugoslavia - - - -
.ZA South Africa - - http://www.zadna.org.za/policy.html -
.ZM Zambia Text of Agreement - - -
.ZW Zimbabwe Text of Agreement Text of WHOIS - -