Biotechnological Patents - The Tension between IP Protection and Other Goals (Bio-Diversity, Ethical Concerns, Fairness).
A. Warren-Jones, Patenting DNA: A Lot of Controversy over a little Intangibility, in 12 Medical L.R. 2004,
D. Schertenleib, The Patentability and Protection of Living Organisms in the EU, in EIPR 2004, 203 ff.
G. Stenton, Biopiracy within the Pharmaceutrical Industry: A Stark Illustration of how Abusive, Manipulative and Perverse the Patenting Prices can be towards Countries of the South, in EIPR 2004, 17-26
R. Wynberg, Bioprospecting Delivers Limited Benefits in South Africa, in EIPR 2004, 239-244
D. Thomas-G.A. Richards, The Importance of the Morality Exception under the EU Patent Convention: The Oncomouse Case Continues, in EIPR 2004, 97-104
G. Laurie, Patenting Stem Cells of Human Origin, in EIPR 2004, 59-66
C. DENNIS-R. GALLAGHER eds., The Human Genome, Palgrave, Mc Millan, 2002 (H 125)
P. Rey-J.S. Venit, Parallel trade and pharmaceuticals: a policy in search of itself, in 29 Eu. L. R.. 2004, 153-177
N. Siebrasse, The Innocent Bystander Problem in the Patenting of Higher Life Forms, in 49 Mc Gill Law Journal 2004, 349-392
S.J.R. Bostyn, The Prodigal Son: The Relationship Between Patent Law and Health Care, in 11 Medical L.R. 2003, 67-120
R. S. Crespi, Patents on Genes: Can the Issues be Clarified?, in Bio-Science Law Review, 21 february 2001 at http://atlas.pharmalicensing.com/ features/disp/982797689_3a944d79e9fc8
S. Halliday-D. Lynn Steinberg, The Regulated Gene: New Legal Dilemmas, in 12 Medical L.R. 2004, 2-13
R. Brownsword, Regulating Human Genetics: New Dilammas for a New Millennium, in 12 Medical L.R. 2004,
S. Halliday, A Comparative Approach to the Regulation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research in Europe, in 12 Medical L.R. 2004, 40-69
J.V. Mc Hale, Regulating Genetic Data Bases: Some Legal and Ethical Issues, in 12 Medical L.R. 2004, 70-96
D.J. Faye, Bioprospecting, Gene Patenting and Indigenous Populations Challenges under a Restructured Information Commons, in 7 JWIP 2004, 401-428
P. Kuruk, Bridging the Gap between Traditional Knowledge and Intellectual Property, in 7 JWIP 2004, 429 ff.
G.E. Isaac-W.A. Kerr, Bioprospecting or Biopiracy? Intellectual Property and Traditional Knowledge in Biotechnology Innovation, in 7 JWIP 2004, 35-52
R.S. Eisenberg, Patents, Product Exclusivity, and Information Dissemination: How Law Directs Biopharmaceutical Research and Development, in 72 Fordham L.R. 2003, 477-491
J. Boyle, The Second Enclosure Movement and the Construction of the Public Domain, in 66 Law & Contemp. Probs. 2003, 33 ff.
M. Rimmer, Beyond Blue Gene: Intellectual Property and Bioinformatics, in 34 IIC 2003, 31-49
H. Preston, Drift of Patented Genetically Engineered Crops: Rethinking Liability Theories, in 81 Texas Law Rev., 2003, 1153-1175
L.J. Demaine-A.X. Fellmeth, Reinventing the Double Helix: A Novel and Nonobvious Reconceptualization of the Biotechnology Patent, in 55 Stanford Law Rev. 2002, 303-462 ss.
D. SCHERTENLIEB, The Patentability and Protection of DNA-based Inventions in the EPO and the EU, in 25 EIPR 2003, 125-138
G. Dutfield, Should We Terminate Terminator Technology? in EIPR 2003, 491-495
M. RIMMER, Myriad Genetics: Patent Law and Genetic Testing, in 25 EIPR 2003, 20-33
B. Sherman, Regulating Access and Use of Genetic Resources: Intellectual Property Law and Biodiscovery, in 25 EIPR 2003, 301-308
G. STOCK, Redesigning Humans, Profile Books, London, 2002 (PRIV 2611)
T. KONGOLO, Biodiversity and African Countries, in EIPR 2002, 579 ff.
P. Drahos & M. Blakeney (eds.), IP in Biodiversity and Agriculture: Regulating the Biosphere, Sweet & Maxwell, 2001 (PRIV 2966)
J.H. BARTON, United States Law of Genomic and Post-Genomic Patents, in 33 IIC 2002, 779 ff.
T. SAMPSON, Rewriting the Genetic Code: the Impact of Novel Nucleotides on Biotechnology Patents, in 24 EIPR 2002, 409 ff.
D. BEYLEVELD-R. BROWNSWORD, Is Patent Law Part of the EC Legal Order? A Critical Commentary on the Interpretation of Art. 6(1) of Directive 98/44/EC in Case C-377/98, in IPQ, 2002, 97 ff.
S. Kadidal, Plants, Poverty, and Pharmaceutical Patents, in 103 Yale L. J. 1993, 223 ff.
F. FUKUYAMA, Our Posthumous Future. Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 2002 (PRIV 2463)
B. CAIN, Legal Aspect of Gene Technology, Sweet & Maxwell, London, 2002 (PRIV 2644)
H. MARKL, Who Owns the Human Genome? What Can Ownership Mean with Respect to Genes? in 33 IIC 2002, 1 ff.
F. PASQUALE, Two Concepts of Immortality: Reframing the Public Debate of Stem-Cell Research, in 14 Yale Journal of Law & the Humanities, 2002, 73 ff.
Y. Benkler, Siren Songs and Amish Children: Autonomy, Information, and Law, 76 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 2001, 23 ff.
T.J. MURRAY, M.J. MEHLMAN (eds.), Encyclopedia of Ethical, Legal, and Policy Issues in Biotechnology, 2 voll. John Wiley & Sons, Boston Ma. 2000 (ENC 361 and 2)
W. LESSER, Intellectual Property Rights under the Convention on Biological Diversity, in V. SANTANIELLO-R.E. EVENSON-D. ZILBERMAN-G.A. CARLSON (eds.), Agricolture and Intellectual Property Rights: Economic, Institutional and Implementation Issues in Biotechnology, CABI Publishing, Oxon and New York, N.Y., 2000 (PRIV 2612), 35 ff.
W. LESSER, An Economic Approach to Identifying an Effective Sui generis System for Plant variety protection under TRIPs, in V. SANTANIELLO-R.E. EVENSON-D. ZILBERMAN-G.A. CARLSON (eds.), Agricolture and Intellectual Property Rights: Economic, Institutional and Implementation Issues in Biotechnology, CABI Publishing, Oxon and New York, N.Y., 2000 (PRIV 2612), 53 ff.
A. ZOHRABYAN-R.E. EVENSON, Biotechnology Inventions: Patent Data Evidence, in V. SANTANIELLO-R.E. EVENSON-D. ZILBERMAN-G.A. CARLSON (eds.), Agricolture and Intellectual Property Rights: Economic, Institutional and Implementation Issues in Biotechnology, CABI Publishing, Oxon and New York, N.Y., 2000 (PRIV 2612), 197 ff.
L. WESTERLUND, Biotech Patents. Equivalency and Exclusions under European and U.S. Patent Law, Kluwer, The Hague, 2002 (PRIV 2469)
C. J. WALSER, Gewerblicher Rechtsschutz an Gentechnisch veraenderten Pflanzen unter Beruecksichtigung des US-amerikanischen Rechts, Dunke & Humblot, Berlin, 2002 (COLL STR 15.151)
I.D. MOGOLLON-ROJAS, The Preservation of Local Biodiversity Inheritance and Indigenous Peoples Knowledge Proprietorship in the Venezuelan and Andean Community Legislation, in 5 The Journal of World Intellectual Property, 2002, 535 ff.
M. HERDEGEN, Patents on Parts of the Human Body Salient Issues under EC and WTO Law, in 5 The Journal of World Intellectual Property 2002, 145 ff.
N.L. WEE LOON, Patenting of Genes A Closer Look at the Concepts of Utility and Industrial Applicability, in 33 IIC 2002, 393 ff.
P.L. CANTUARIA MARIN, Providing Protection for Plant Genetic Resources. Patents, Sui Generis Systems and Biopartnerships, Kluwer, The Hague, 2002 (PRIV 2440)
E.R. GOLD-A. GALLOCHAT, The European Biotech Directive: Past as a Prologue, in Eu L.J., 2001, 331 ff.
M.D. JANIS, Sustainable Agriculture, Patent Rights, and Plant Innovation, in 9 Ind.J. of Global Legal Studies 2001, 91 ff.
Symposium, Sustainable Development, Agriculture and the Challenge of Genetically Modified Organisms, in 9 Ind.J. of Global Legal Studies 2001, 1 ff.
D.M. GITTER, International Conflicts Over Patenting Human DNA Sequences in the US and the EU: An Argument for Compulsory Licensing and a Fair-Use Exemption, in 76 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 2001, 1623 ff.
J.M. GOLDEN, Biotechnology, Technology Policy, and Patentability: Natural Products and Invention in the American System, in 50 Emory L. J., 2001, 101 ff.
I. MGBEOJI, Patents and traditional Knowledge of the Uses of Plants: is a communal Patent Regime Part of the Solution to the Scourge of Biopiracy?, in 9 Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies 2001, 163-186
J. SULSTON-G. FERRY, The Common Thread. A Story of Science, Politics, Ethics and the Human Genome, Bantam Press, London, New York etc., 2002 (PRIV 2385)
S.J.R. BOSTYN, Enabling Biotechnological Inventions in Europe and the United States. A study of the patentability of proteins and DNA sequences with special emphasis on the disclosure requirement, European Patent Office, Muenchen, 2001(PRIV 2269)
G. VAN OVERWALLE, Traditional Medicinal Knowledge, Patents and the Convention on Biological Diversity, in 91 Revue de Droit Intellectuel LIngenieur Conseil, 2001, 161 ff.
P. JACOBS-G. VAN OVERWALLE, Gene Patents: A Different Approach, in EIPR 2001, 505 ff.
G. VAN OVERWALLE, Belgium Goes its Own Way on Biodiversity and Patents, in 24 EIPR 2002, 233 ff.
G. KAMSTRA-M. DOERING-N. SCOTT-RAM-A. SHEARD-H. WIXON, Patents on Biotechnological Inventions: The EC Directive Special Report, Sweet & Maxwell, London, 2001 (INT 1012)
B. FITZGERALD, Grain Pool of WA v. The Commonwealth: (Australian) Constitutional Limits of Intellectual Property Rights, in EIPR, 2001, 103 ff.
M. PERRY P. KRISHNA, Making Sense of Mouse Tales: Canada Lifeform Patents Topsy-Turvy, in EIPR, 2001, 196 ff.
S. D. MURPHY, Biotechnology and International Law, in 42 Harvard Int. L. Journal, 2001, 47 ff.
V. SHIVA, Stolen Harvest: The Hijacking of Global Food Supply, South End Press, 2001 (PRIV 2290)
C. BALDOCK-T. COOK-I. KARET-T. ROLLINGS-I. WOOD, Report Q150: Patentability Requirement and scope of Protection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and entire genomes, in EIPR 2000, 39 ff.
V. SANTANIELLO-R.E. EVENSON-D. ZILBERMAN-G.A. CARLSON (eds.), Agricolture and Intellectual Property Rights: Economic, Institutional and Implementation Issues in Biotechnology, CABI Publishing, Oxon and New York, N.Y., 2000 (PRIV 2612)
D.D. EVENSON, Patent and Other Private Legal Rights for Biotechnology Inventions, in V. SANTANIELLO-R.E. EVENSON-D. ZILBERMAN-G.A. CARLSON (eds.), Agricolture and Intellectual Property Rights: Economic, Institutional and Implementation Issues in Biotechnology, CABI Publishing, Oxon and New York, N.Y., 2000 (PRIV 2612), 11 ff.
S. Auerbach, Taking Another Look at the Definition of an Embryo: President Bushs Criteria and the Problematic Application of Federal Regulations to Human Embryonic Stem Cells, in 51 Emory Law J. 2002, 1557-1604
P. DUCOR, Patenting the Recombinant Products of Biotechnology, Kluwer, The Hague, 1997 (PRIV 471)
G. V. OVERWALLE, The Legal Protection of Biological Material in Belgium, in 31 IIC, 2000, 259 ff.
R.M.T. IWASAKA, From Chakrabarty to Chimeras: The Growing Need for Evolutionary Biology in Patent Law, in 109 Yale Law Journal, 2000, 1505 ff.
M. LLEWELYN, The Patentability of Biological Material: Continuing Contradiction and Confusion, in 22 E.I.P.R, 2000, 191 ff.
N.S. GOPALAKRISHNAN, An "Effective" Sui Generis Law to Protect Plant Varieties and Farmers Rights in India, in Journ. World Int. Property, 2001, 156 ff.
D. THUMS, Patent Protection for Medical Treatment A Distinction Between Patent and Medical Law, in 26 IIC 1996, 443 ff.
P.W.B. PHILLIPS-M. BUCKINGHAM, Agricultural Biotechnology, the Environment, and International Trade Regulation, in H.J. MICHELMANN et al. (eds.), Globalisation and Agricultural Trade Policy, Lynne Mienner Publishers, Boulder, Co., 2001 (INT 836)
A. K. RAI, Regulating Scientific Research: Intellectual Property Rights and the Norms of Science, in 94 Northwestern University Law Review, 1999, 77 ff.
T. Sampson, Achieving Ethically Acceptable Biotechnology Patents: A Lesson from the Clinical Trials Directive? in EIPR 2003, 419-425
D. SHANKER, India, the Pharmaceutical Industry and the Validity of TRIPs, in The Journal of World Intellectual Property, 2002, 315 ff.
D. Matthews, WTO Decision on Implementation of Paragraph 6 of the Doha Declaration on the Trips Agreement and Public Health: A Solution to the Access to Essential Medicines Problem?, 7 JIEL 2004, 73 ff.
F.M. Abbott, The Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health: Lighting a Dark Corner at the WTO, in 5 JIEL 2002, 469 ff.;
D. SHANKER, Brazil, the Pharmaceutical Industry and the WTO, in 5 The Journal of World Intellectual Property 2002, 53 ff.
P.R. SLOAN, Controlling Our Destinies. Historical, Philosophical, Ethical and Theological Perspectives on the Human Genome Project, University of Nostre Dame Press, Notre Dame, 2000 (PRIV 1967)
M. JONATAN REISS-R. STRAUGHAN, Improving Nature? The Science and Ethics of Genetic Engineering, Cambridge University Press, 2001 (PRIV 2073)
G.J. ANNAS, The Man on the Moon, Immortality and Other Millennal Myths: The Prospects and Perils of Human Genetic Engineering, in 49 Emory Law Journal, 2000, 753 ff.
N. KLEIN, Fences and Windows: Dispatches from the Front Lines of the Globalization Debate, Flamingo, Hammersmith, London, 2002 (INT 1162), 91 ff.
R.S. EISENBERG, Re-examining the Role of Patents in Appropriating the Value of DNA Sequences, in 49 Emory Law Journal, 2000, 783 ff.
L.J. ELSAS, Medical Genetics: Present and Future Benefits, in 49 Emory Law Journal, 2000, 801 ff.
J.A. BOVENBERG, Should Genomics Companies set up Database in Europe? The EU Database Protection Directive Revisited, in 23 EIPR 2001, 361 ff.
C. LONG, Proprietary Rights and Why Initial Allocation Matters¸ in 49 Emory Law Journal, 2000, 823 ff.
M.Z. PELIAS-N.J. MARKWARD, The Human Genome Project and Public Perception: Truth and Consequences, in 49 Emory Law Journal, 2000, 837 ff.
S.A. LAIRD, Biodiversity and Traditional Knowledge, Earthscan, 2001 (PRIV 2358)
C. RYAN, Human Rights and Intellectual Property, in EIPR 2001, 521 ff.
Nuffield Council on Bioethics, The ethics of patenting DNA. A discussion paper, London, July 2002,